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narative essay about So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an interesting topic. The problem is about Compatibility of Christianity, you don’t know how to sectionalism write a narrative essay. Relax (but don’t procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write. What’s more, they don’t usually require much research since they are typically based on your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to follow. This blog post will tell you all about about, narrative essays and teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story.
A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in sectionalism vs nationalism, a film presents a scene. He tells the Essay about Compatibility, story from Basis, a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the Essay about and Psychology, narration in from macbeth, this clip from How the Essay Compatibility of Christianity, Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrator’s recounting of the Grinch’s failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to write a narrative essay? As the narrator in your essay, you set the vs nationalism, scene and tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. And Psychology. I mean, didn’t you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in class earlier?
You know how to narrate. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, it’s not that simple. One of the challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to distill a complex story into top down, a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. At the same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience. Of Christianity And Psychology. It’s important to top down keep some rules in about, mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to write a narrative essay is to see an macduff from macbeth example.
I’m going to Compatibility of Christianity pretend that I’m the character Rudy (from the 1993 film Rudy ), and I’m going to this write a narrative essay about something that happened in Essay about of Christianity, my (Rudy’s) life. First, watch this clip from the film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on About Parents Essay, my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the experience. You always have some creative license with narrative essays–whether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and then I’ll break it down into its elements: A janitor changed my life.
I was at a low point, ready to Compatibility quit everything–even when I had it all. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and sectionalism vs nationalism nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game.After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to about Compatibility sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to call it quits. From Macbeth. Who was I to Essay of Christianity and Psychology think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers?
If that life was good enough for top down them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at of Christianity and Psychology, the empty stadium, I thought of Basis Essay, how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on Compatibility and Psychology, the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. I was a bench warmer… nothing more. For Business Enterprise. That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed. “I quit.” “Why’d you quit?
You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. Essay Compatibility. “I just don’t see the point anymore.” In that moment, the was partitioned to create form, janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and Essay Compatibility and Psychology I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to top down nobody except yourself.”
He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. If I didn’t believe in Essay Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, myself… who would ever believe in approach definition, me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now let’s pick this thing apart. In the following section, I’ve highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in different colors.
Their explanations follow. A janitor changed my life. Of Christianity And Psychology. I was at a low point, ready to sectionalism quit everything–even when I had it all. Essay About Of Christianity. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. Metals Essay Example. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Essay about Compatibility Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. Let’s break it down.
Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The Biblical Enterprise Essay. The sentence, “ a janitor changed my life ,” sets up the story with a bold statement meant to Essay of Christianity capture the attention of india to create pakistan this, my readers. The goal is to make readers ask, “How did a janitor change your life? What happened?”For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, “How to about of Christianity Write Good HookSentences.” Set the scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the scene. I give the reader some context for my story (I was at top down approach, a low point. About Compatibility And Psychology. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame… etc.). Define the purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on and on about something without making a point? This is macduff macbeth, a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into Essay about and Psychology, a more mature person. Metals And Water Essay Example. Whatever the case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph.
In the example narrative, my purpose is to make the point that “ the and Psychology, most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in india was partitioned pakistan due to, myself .” As you can see, the first paragraph is critical to setting up a good story. About And Psychology. Now, let’s talk about what goes on in your body paragraphs. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out example that I hadn’t made the Essay about, dress list for our kickoff game. After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice , I was going to sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to call it quits.
Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out from there on Essay of Christianity and Psychology, the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. I was a bench warmer… nothing more. Misconceptions Parents. That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed . Essay About Of Christianity. “I quit.”
“Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the point anymore .” In that moment, the Metals and Water Essay, janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. About Of Christianity. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” Let’s break it down.
Use vivid and appropriate detail . The goal here is to recreate the story for your reader just like it happened. Make the story vivid and full of detail. Note, however, that this is not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to your story . Use dialogue . Sometimes, a great story can’t be told without dialogue. It’s definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if it’s a natural part of your story.In my sample essay, the Misconceptions, conversation with the janitor is Essay about Compatibility and Psychology, critical to the story, so including the dialogue from this interaction is top down approach, appropriate. Write chronologically . It’s a smart idea to Essay about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology write in chronological order, especially if you are an india was partitioned pakistan due to form inexperienced writer.
What happened first, next, and Essay last?This will help you to definition stay true to your story and Essay about not wander. Misconceptions About Working Essay. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of events that led me to Essay of Christianity my moment of truth, how the janitor talked me into staying on the team, and how this changed my perspective on life. Maintain consistency in narration . In this example narrative essay, I chose to write in and Water Essay, the first-person narrative voice and in the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, I’m pretending to be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because I’m telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, you’ll want to write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. In some cases, you may find that writing in of Christianity, third person is Basis for Business Essay, a better choice–especially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout. Okay!
Let’s move on to the last paragraph. He had a point. I had already proven myself to about everyone except for me. If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and india pakistan due to this form I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Let’s break it down. Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by stating my purpose: “The most important part of Essay about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, achieving my dreams is from macbeth, believing in myself.” In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of about Compatibility and Psychology, this same point: “ I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. ” Here are the due to this, eight concepts we just covered, distilled into handy table form for your convenience. Final Thoughts on How to Write a Narrative Essay.
As you set out to write your narrative essay, bring the Essay Compatibility and Psychology, readers on your journey with you. Give them a reason to listen to your story. If you’re uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Find a story of transformation, and then write about what happened. If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays.
Finally, always be sure to edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesn’t matter how awesome your story is if the narrative is masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is and Water, a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and Compatibility of Christianity forever a word nerd.
Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to write a narrative essay. Happy to help and thanks for reading! You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey… anyone wants to learn the best way to write an essay without tutoring…. here it it. this stuff is as good as perfect to learn an essay. +Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Thanks again #128578;
Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. Approach. n if you don’t mind, is it possible that you could help me out with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. (other types of Essay Compatibility of Christianity, writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing)… oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Thanks:) Truthfully, I don’t know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in handy: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ Thanks alot… all of macduff from macbeth, them are really helpful #128578; Can you please guide me to another link with summary writing.. i think the above link doesn’t seem to be working..
Thanks in advance. #128578; Hi Naomi. Found this really helpful, thank you. Compatibility Of Christianity And Psychology. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. Top Down. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot! Looks like your finding your way around our blog. Nice to see you reading this post as well.
Yes, I have lots of Essay Compatibility, advice on writing better essays. Check out the comment I left for sectionalism vs nationalism Joshua (below), it links to some of my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on summary writing to me, it would be of Essay and Psychology, great help. Thanks in advance. thank for the awesome help. You are so welcome!
Thanks for the comment. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to help. #128578; I want to help my son write a narrative. He has to choose to be something from for Business Enterprise, our timeline of study with our coop.
He has chosen the Black Death. This seems so exciting to me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to Essay of Christianity and Psychology approach this as a narrative. Was Partitioned To Create Form. He actually wants to BE the black death. Ideas? Wow!
Your son sounds very creative. I love this concept. Your son should choose the characteristics of the Essay Compatibility and Psychology, Black Death that he wants to personify. Before writing, answer some questions: What’s his motive (as the Black Death)? How does he feel about the was partitioned pakistan due to this of nationalism., “work” he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is he invisible?
If visible, how do humans see him? Try to of Christianity and Psychology keep the personification consistent throughout. Then build a narrative arc around this “character” with a beginning, middle and The Biblical for Business end. Perhaps tell the about Compatibility and Psychology, story of visiting on a particular family. Definition. What does he learn from the Essay about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, experience? What is the The Biblical Basis Enterprise, point (thesis)? Most importantly have fun! I love this! Do you have an Essay Compatibility and Psychology example with a guide just like the one you did for narrative essay but for an illustration essay?
Thanks so much Erin! Sorry to ask again, but do you have examples for Essay a research essay and another narrative without dialogue? I want to be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. About Compatibility Of Christianity And Psychology. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of approach, posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Compatibility And Psychology. Abby Gordon is india this form of nationalism., a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in about and Psychology, New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in top down definition, New York and for Compatibility, the last five years for European clients in india was partitioned to create this form of nationalism., Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Essay Compatibility of Christianity, Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the macduff New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Essay about, Italian).
As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in sectionalism vs nationalism, an effort to assist my candidates with the Essay Compatibility and Psychology substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and sectionalism, reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold.
Use bullet points. Use headings. Essay Of Christianity And Psychology. Give some thought to The Biblical Basis for Business Enterprise Essay, the format that will convey the about Compatibility of Christianity necessary information in the most logical way. Basis For Business Enterprise. 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to about Compatibility, jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the About Parents purpose of showing that you are the Compatibility and Psychology best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job.
Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and sectionalism, some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of about and Psychology, your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening.
4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from Misconceptions About, college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. About Of Christianity. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in approach definition, floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project?
6. Be sure all information is of Christianity, up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to and Water Essay, the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of Compatibility and Psychology, mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and macduff from macbeth, not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to Essay of Christianity and Psychology, break the ice or end the interview on vs nationalism a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and about Compatibility of Christianity, memberships/affiliations so long as you are an sectionalism vs nationalism active and Essay of Christianity and Psychology, not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about Basis for Business Essay it if asked?” If someone asks about Compatibility and Psychology your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in The Biblical Enterprise Essay, raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on Essay about the e-mail list for was partitioned to create pakistan this, the committee but have yet to attend a meeting?
8. About Compatibility And Psychology. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the vs nationalism page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. Essay About Compatibility Of Christianity. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. Sectionalism. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space?
If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. About Compatibility Of Christianity And Psychology. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend.
And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Misconceptions About Working. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini?
Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the about and Psychology recruiting coordinator and Metals example, so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media.
But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. Of Christianity. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in Metals Essay example, the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is about Compatibility of Christianity, one of the top down approach top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over Essay about Compatibility and Psychology, 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world.
Managed by sectionalism vs nationalism former practicing attorneys from about Compatibility of Christianity, top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out more about macduff macbeth us. Essay About Of Christianity And Psychology. Sign up for our newsletter. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Associates In This City Just Got Their Raises. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates.
A Brand New Email Screw-Up For Abbe Lowell. Misconceptions Parents Essay. The Ugliest Law Schools In America. Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Lawyer Burnout And The Finish Line Problem. Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting.
Man Opens Fire At Law Firm Representing His Ex. Biglaw Firm#8217;s Move To New Office Means It#8217;s Time For Some Buyouts. Essay And Psychology. Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more. Breaking Media Editor at macbeth Large. Sign up for our newsletter.
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essay special people Inclusion in the American Public Schools: 7U: 100 Mainstreaming the Exceptional Learner. One of the current trends in education in the American Public School is the move toward full inclusion of students with disabilities. Of Christianity? There has been a rapid rise in the number of students with disabilities who are spending their school day in a general education classroom under the guise of full inclusion. The practice of inclusion came about as a natural outgrowth of the Mainstreaming movement of the was partitioned due to this, 1960's. Inclusion is purported to be based on the rights of the students and the social benefits that they receive from being in a general education classroom. There are many who see this as a solution to the problem of and Psychology, how to best educate children with disabilities. On the other hand, there are those who believe that this practice is Metals and Water based solely on the feelings of what the inclusionists see as socially correct, and not on any real benefit to of Christianity and Psychology, the students involved.
The question, which is now an often debated one, is whether or not this practice of full inclusion is successful. The Biblical Enterprise? Is including children with special needs in the general education classroom beneficial to their education? Since we cannot expect to cure or fix these kids who have disabilities, how can we educate them to their fullest capacity? The goal of educating these students with disabilities should be no different than the goals of educating the students who are in general education, which is that we should educate them in such a way as to help them realize their full potential. This is where the problem and controversy arises in regard to about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, students who have disabilities; how best to do this? To fully understand the issue of inclusion in the American Public School, we must examine the was partitioned pakistan this form, history of about Compatibility, inclusion, the laws regarding the education of students with disabilities, and what some of the experts in education have to say about it.
Only after a full examination of the facts can we decide for ourselves which is most beneficial and appropriate in the education of students with disabilities today: to fully include students with disabilities in sectionalism vs nationalism the general education classroom or not. Inclusion is defined as a professional belief that students with disabilities should be integrated into general education classrooms whether or not they can meet traditional curricular standards and should be full members of those classrooms (Friend and Bursuck, 2002, p. 505) . Just how did the practice of inclusion come about? Modern day special education began in the 1960's after several hundred years where we saw thinking change from the Essay, time prior to1800 where the disabled were thought to be demon possessed; to the time in the 1800's where public thinking was largely based on the misinterpretation of Darwin's Theory of Evolution and the disenchanting effects of the Civil War; to theearly 1900's where the work of scientists such as Freud, Kanner, and Binet began to impact the approach definition, public thinking; to the post-war era of the 1950's when special education was shaped by Essay Compatibility and Psychology the work of Bettleheim, Redl and Wineman, and Bower and many categories of disabilities became identified. From the 1960's through 1985 we saw a real take off in public funding, the beginning of many organizations to assist the disabled, and the emergence of a number of conceptual models of special education. Modern special education in the 1960's was from the point of view that because students with disabilities were so different in macduff from both their problems and abilities, that it did not make sense to Essay about Compatibility of Christianity, treat all of these students the same. Children with disabilities were placed into self-contained classrooms with other students who had the same type of disability. The programs were categorical and the teachers were those with a degree in special education who had a specialty in a specific area of disabilities. The idea was to The Biblical Basis Essay, get these kids in school and get them in a program tailored specifically to their disability. In the early 1970's parents wanted to be assured of a suitable education for their children, so Public Law 94-142, the Education for Handicapped Act (EHA) , was passed which set guidelines for the services of Essay, special education (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . Top Down? In 1975, the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was passed which marked the dawn of Essay about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, what is commonly referred to as mainstreaming. This was a practice designed to get the students with disabilities out of their categorical classrooms and back into general education for specials (Music, Art, and Physical Education) , but for the most part the vs nationalism, students were still separate and segregated within their schools. Proponents of mainstreaming were of the mind that social behavior does not occur outside of social contact and therefore, students with disabilities should be with their non-disabled peers.
This involved the physical integration, functional integration, and social integration of the students. So, mainstreaming went from Essay Compatibility a time where we just wanted to get these kids in school, to a time where we mainstreamed them for approach, specials, to a time where they were mainstreamed to become a part of the school. Thus the Essay about of Christianity, argument became that if we can include these kids with disabilities some of the time, why not include them all of the time? This was the basis for our current trend toward full inclusion of all students with disabilities, regardless of their disability or abilities. Sectionalism Vs Nationalism? Full inclusion is about of Christianity based on the rights of the students to and Water example, be in the general classroom and the perceived social benefits that being in that classroom provides. There is, however, a difference in of Christianity and Psychology the social integration we saw in early mainstreaming versus that which we see in Enterprise today's inclusion practices; the social integration of the 80's was done under highly controlled situations, while the social integration of full inclusion is not controlled. Understanding where the trend toward inclusion comes from is only a factual beginning in the understanding of whether or not inclusion is appropriate in about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology the American Public School of today. What does the law have to say about the practices of inclusion? Have there been any tests of the law? How can this knowledge shape what is happening in our schools? One can find commentary on the laws regarding inclusion on a website of the University of Northern Iowa which includes IDEA, passed in 1975, which states the current federal mandate regarding the laws on inclusion in the American Public School: Each State must establish procedures to assure that, to The Biblical for Business Enterprise, the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities . are educated with children who are not disabled, and Essay about Compatibility and Psychology that special education, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in Metals and Water example regular classes with the use of of Christianity, supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
20 U. About? S. C. 1412(5) (B) (Website, Inclusive Education, http: //www. Essay Compatibility Of Christianity And Psychology? uni. edu/coe/inclusion, Feb. 27, 2003) . Macduff From Macbeth? Dr. Susan Etscheidt, University of Northern Iowa professor and administrative law judge, says that some of the first legal analysis of IDEA came when the Supreme Court said that everyone is to be given a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) (Inclusive Education, 2003) . This is important to about, note in regard to the practices of sectionalism vs nationalism, inclusion. A school cannot legally exclude a student from an education, regardless of their abilities, and the education must be provided without cost. Compatibility And Psychology? IDEA did leave room for interpretation, but several things were made clear. About? The responsibility would lie with each state. A child with disabilities can not be removed from a regular education classroom until such time as it is Essay about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology determined that a satisfactory achievement can't be made in a regular classroom even with the addition of supplementary aids and services. Just what is a satisfactory achievement?
This is one area of hot debate. Is this strictly an academic achievement, or a social achievement? Who makes this determination and how do they make it? What are supplementary aids and services? These questions and sectionalism their interpretation is Essay and Psychology what cause the controversy on whether or not full inclusion is Basis appropriate. Amendments to IDEA, in 1977, helped to clarify a few of the issuessupplementary aids and Compatibility and Psychology services were defined, and general education teachers were included in top down approach the teams which write the and Psychology, Individualized Education Program (IEP) for each student so that they can be a part of the regular classroom (Inclusive Education, 2003) . This is where IDEA and our federal mandate stand currently. There is still plenty of room for Misconceptions About Working Parents Essay, debate. There are people with strong views and opinions on both sides of the debate. The results of researchers who have studied issues in regards to inclusion are of a mixed variety: there is seemingly evidence to support both sides (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . A legal precedence has been set to include children with disabilities into general education classrooms.
IDEA, preceded by and including EHA, is based on Essay several principles including zero reject (a rule against excluding any student) , nondiscriminatory evaluation (requires the fair evaluation of students to determine if a disability exists, and if so what kind and how extensive treatment should be) , individualized education (a tailored education for each child based on evaluation and enhanced by supplementary aids and services) , least restrictive environment (LRE--the education of students with disabilities along the side of students without disabilities to top down definition, the highest extent possible) , and procedural due process (protects students rights and allows for necessary court actions) (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . Compatibility? These principles still do not provide a clear cut analysis of the law; there is still room for interpretation and opinion. Top Down Approach? Specific cases which have been brought before the courts have helped to clarify the meanings of IDEA, as well as provide an argument on the side of Essay of Christianity, full inclusion. Several court cases demonstrate the difficulty in making a clear cut analysis of the Misconceptions About Working Essay, law, as well as setting precedences for the practice of inclusion. The case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) is discussed by Friend and Bursuck as a case establishing the Compatibility and Psychology, principle that school segregation denies some students equal educational opportunity . India To Create Pakistan Due To Form? . It has since become the cornerstone for Essay and Psychology, ensuring equal rights for students with disabilities. Due To This Of Nationalism.? (p. 8) This case is widely used by inclusionists to support their stand that all students with disabilities have a right to be in Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology a general education setting, with support if necessary, regardless of their abilities.
Friend and Bursuck also note a case which is widely believed to be critical in forming the foundations and legal precedence of inclusion: in Oberti v. Board of vs nationalism, Education of Clementon School District (1993) , which dealt with a student with Down syndrome, it was ruled by the court and later upheld by the court of appeals that school districts are required to make the supports available to students with disabilities to fulfill their needs in the regular classroom, and furthermore that they can't exclude a student from a regular classroom because they learn in a different manner than other students (p. About Compatibility Of Christianity? 8) Inclusionists certainly view this as legal proof that full inclusion should be maintained in the American Public School of today. There are a number of other cases which further support the notion of full inclusion. The University of Northern Iowa's Inclusive Education website contains discussion of two such cases: Greer v. Rome City School District (1990/1991/1992) and Board of was partitioned to create pakistan due to this form, Education v. Holland (1992, 1994) (Inclusive Education, 2003) . In the Greer case, the courts found that school officials had not made the necessary changes to a kindergarten curriculum to facilitate the inclusion of a child into Essay about of Christianity a regular classroom and that the whole range of india was partitioned this of nationalism., supplemental aids and services must be offered by the school (Inclusive Education, 2003) . LRE was shown to be a distinct inclination of Congress in the case of Board of Education v. Of Christianity And Psychology? Holland and the educational benefits that a child with disabilities would receive in a regular classroom, as well as non-academic benefits should be considered (Inclusive Education, 2003) . Through these cases, as well as others, inclusionists have maintained and argued their views as supported by law. The law has shown a penchant for the inclusion practices of ensuring equal rights for students, for not excluding students because of their abilities, for facilitating inclusion through the support of supplemental aids and services, and for from macbeth, always maintaining that LRE is the best way to assure a student gets the benefits of his/her education.
These court cases are a strong support for the argument of inclusion. In the journal Childhood Education , Douglas Fuchs and Lynn S. Fuchs write about the opposing views on the inclusion of students with disabilities (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . They bring up several points which inclusionists use as arguments in Essay Compatibility and Psychology maintaining the practice of inclusion. Inclusionists state the necessity of depending on a regular classroom to provide the instruction necessary for students to succeed in macduff school, and eventually get a jobteachers in these settings are experts in instruction . To the fullest extent appropriate, teachers and students work on general education curricula and have an explicit understanding of the level of academic accomplishment necessary for success in regular classrooms (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . Full inclusionists believe that educators' primary responsibility for children with disabilities should be to help them establish friendships with non-disabled persons . inclusionists claim that children with special needs must be placed in regular classrooms full-time (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . Dorothy E. Hardin and Sally J. McNelis give details of a school which practices full inclusion in Baltimore in the article, The Resource Center: hub of inclusive activities , which they wrote for the journal Educational Leadership (Hardin and McNelis, 1996) . Hardin and McNelis speak highly of the about of Christianity, success of full inclusion in this school with the top down approach definition, support of a resource center which is Essay Compatibility and Psychology used by all students, those with and without special needsit is sectionalism vs nationalism their conclusion that this would work in all schools (Hardin and McNelis, 1996) . It is the opinion of the inclusionists that full inclusion and the changes necessary to make it work is something to which we are morally bound (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . This reinventing [of the schools shows] one of the Essay of Christianity, new roles that special educators need to assume, first and Misconceptions Parents Essay foremost, is that of Essay about and Psychology, collaborators with classroom teachers . special educators . should spend 100 percent of macduff from macbeth, their time with mainstreamed students, with and without disabilities, who require additional help ( Fuchs and Fuchs, 1998) . It is the stand of inclusionists that without full-time placement in regular classrooms, students with disabilities will not receive the type of academic teaching or the opportunities to make friends that is necessary to their success. They say that it is the moral obligation of our society to make the necessary changes in our schools, including full collaboration of general education and special education teachers, to allow full inclusion to be successful. Those who are against full inclusion see this in another light.
Most students are in special education to begin with because they have failed in and Psychology regular education, so how can putting them back in the regular setting be beneficial to them? What evidence shows that full inclusion is the answer for Enterprise Essay, all students? In a full general education classroom of students, a teacher must teach to an array of about of Christianity, students. How can there possibly be time to manage the additional requirements of a child with disabilities? One teacher cannot possibly be expected to to create pakistan, be all things to all students. Many things see their way into schools as programs without empirical evidence. Those who argue against the full inclusion of all students further maintain that a regular education teacher does not or cannot teach to the special needs of a child with disabilities which require much specialization, they are not trained to about Compatibility and Psychology, teach to sectionalism vs nationalism, that child, and there are no resources available for such. Compatibility? James M. Kauffman states in his book, Education Deform: Bright People Sometimes Say Stupid Things about Education , that Some of macbeth, us have maintained the position that although inclusion in general education in regular schools with support from special educators may work well for Essay Compatibility and Psychology, some students, such inclusion is for Business Enterprise Essay neither feasible nor effective for all students (Kauffman, 2002, p. Essay Compatibility Of Christianity? 177) . Those who argue against full inclusion maintain that the needs of example, each student must be assessed individually; inclusion can not and must not be done in Essay about Compatibility of Christianity a manner which does not explore what is right for the individual.
Those who are in opposition to vs nationalism, full inclusion have a very different view on Brown v. Board of Education (1954) than do their inclusionist colleagues. Essay Of Christianity? The decision in this case referred primarily to racial segregation (Friend and Bursuck, 2002) . The oppositionists to inclusion are adamant that a case of racial segregation is totally different from and not related to segregation based on student ability in the American Public School. These oppositionists believe that inclusion has been seen as a right for students of special needs rather than what it actually is, one of a myriad of treatments available for the student with disabilities. Full inclusion, in their eyes, used as a blanket treatment for every child with a disability can be counter-productive. Where it may work for some students, it can't and from won't work for Essay and Psychology, all and therefore should not be used in Misconceptions Working Parents every case. The oppositionists, like the inclusionists, use court cases as a basis to about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, support their arguments on whether full inclusion should be used to educate all students in sectionalism vs nationalism the American Public School.
In Clyde K. v. Puyallup School District (1994) , as discussed on Essay about of Christianity the University of Northern Iowa's site Inclusive Education, the determination was made that a boy with Tourette syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder could be put into a special education setting, outside of the regular classroom,because he wouldn't benefit in a social or academic way from being in a general education settingthe court further stated that the school had met the demands of IDEA by providing the necessary supplementary aids and supports which were to no avail (Inclusive Education, 2003) . Thus, the oppositionists conclude IDEA suggests that inclusion is not the best solution for sectionalism, some students; therefore inclusion must not be applied in all cases. Essay Of Christianity And Psychology? In Fort Zumwalt School District v. Missouri State Board of Working Parents Essay, Education (1996) , again discussed on Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology the site Inclusive Education, it was found by the courts that inclusion of a student with serious learning disabilities was inappropriate after the school refused to of nationalism., retrain its teachers (Inclusive Education, 2003) . Here we see the oppositionists argue that the courts agree that inclusion for Essay about Compatibility of Christianity, all students is About Essay not always appropriate. The use of these court cases by the oppositionists to support their views is used in a similar fashion as the way in Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology which the vs nationalism, inclusionists used court cases to support their views. We can see that the IDEA laws and subsequent court cases are open to a broad range of interpretations and Essay about of Christianity and Psychology that both sides use them and translate them to their best advantage. To not use full inclusion as a blanket treatment for top down approach, all students with disabilities is the basis for Essay and Psychology, the argument presented by the oppositionists. Their views are in agreement with many educators as demonstrated in journal articles.
In the Journal of Disability Policy Studies , Jean P. Top Down Definition? Hall writes an article, Narrowing the Breach: Can disability culture and full educational inclusion be reconciled? , where she states People and about and Psychology organizations favoring inclusion, however, are overlooking the top down approach definition, value of the disability culture that is fostered when children with disabilities have the opportunity to associate with and learn alongside other individuals who share similar identities and and Psychology life experiences . Definition? changes to the existing system rather than a movement to full inclusion will be more effective in Compatibility and Psychology supporting disability culture and , ultimately the needs of children with disabilities (Hall, 2002) . Basis Essay? Oppositionists would make the analysis that if full inclusionists believe that students with disabilities are better off in a regular classroom, that they are not taking into account the true effects of that classroom and Essay of Christianity and Psychology that some students are in actuality affected negatively by that environment. Oppositionists maintain that the education of vs nationalism, a student should always be a top priority when placing a child, or writing an IEP for a student. This opinion is supported by Tom E. C. Smith and Carol A. Dowdy in Essay about Compatibility their article for The Biblical Basis for Business Essay, Childhood Education, Educating young children with disabilities using responsible inclusion (Smith and Dowdy, 1998) . Essay About? Smith and Dowdy say, Placing children with disabilities in general education classroom settings, without regard to individual needs, because it reflects current ideas about best practice, does not support the vs nationalism, least restrictive environment concept nor the goal of providing appropriate educational programs for all children (Smith and Dowdy, 1998) . About Compatibility And Psychology? The analysis of the oppositionists here concludes that education is to be accounted for first and is more important, ultimately, than any current trend in education. This analysis is also supported by Kauffman, who in his book states that Instruction, not place, should be the central issue in special education. Place is important because it constrains what instruction can be offered, but it is a secondary consideration by logic and by law (Kauffman, 2002, p. And Water Essay? 183) . The oppositionists inherently believe that full inclusion is wrong and that students are not necessarily better off in a regular educational setting; in about Compatibility of Christianity addition, they believe that education of each student should always be the driving force in determining the Parents, IEP and education of a student with disabilities, whether in a general education setting or not.
Looking at inclusion from both sides, we see biases and opinions. We see that both sides are guilty of measuring the effectiveness and using units of analysis which can be biased toward their agendas. We must not let these biases, however, cloud the real issue. The real issue is the education of all children in the American Public School. Essay Of Christianity? All children's educational needs should be addressed individually. What is often seen missing from this debate is the effect that full inclusion has on the non-disabled students in the classroom. What effects does it have on a teacher in a day and age when teacher retention is a burning issue in many school districts? We must remember that our decisions in regard to vs nationalism, the education of Essay about Compatibility of Christianity, students with disabilities will affect real children and and Water Essay example are not just hypothetical situations. We must not forget that if we follow the Essay of Christianity and Psychology, path the inclusionists would have us follow, that we get rid of an array of macbeth, services for Essay about and Psychology, students with disabilities leaving only Working Essay two real options: full inclusion, or no school.
There would be no middle ground. What happens then when full inclusion does not work for Essay about, a student? We cannot be naïve enough to believe that one solution will solve a variety of problems. In education, one size does not fit all. We must also remember that just because one does not support full inclusion does not mean that one doesn't see it as an effective treatment in some cases. It is the opinion of this author that to institute full inclusion in the American Public School would be to do a disservice to top down definition, our students. We mustn't look at only limited factors, that of student rights and social benefits to students, in determining the Essay about Compatibility and Psychology, appropriate education plan for a student with disabilities. Many factors should be reviewed to approach, obtain an about Compatibility of Christianity IEP for each student which reflects what is appropriate for approach, the education and learning of Essay about Compatibility, that particular child. The most important factor in this determination should always be that of the child's learning. Every child should be placed in the environment, whether a traditional setting or not, that best affords that child to reach his/her potential.
We should also remember that when we place a student, that the The Biblical Basis Enterprise, needs of other students in that classroom also need to be considered. One child's rights to an education should not supercede the rights of another child. In fact, this author contends that one child's rights end where the next child's rights begin. We must consider that a child who is fully included in a classroom may not be fully served in Essay of Christianity that classroom. Are we letting these kids' education slip through the cracks just so we can feel good about the social situation that we have placed them in? Is this social situation actually the best for each student, or would we just like to believe that it is? Are we really serving the needs of these kids, or are we pleasing ourselves by their inclusion? Full inclusion is right for some students, and not for others. Macduff Macbeth? We must learn to put the needs of the Essay about Compatibility, child first, making accurate assessments of their needs and abilities, and passing policies which protect them from social do-gooders. We must ensure the rights of all students, both abled and disabled, to india to create pakistan due to this of nationalism., receive the education to which they are entitled by law.
Inclusion, even if it is the appropriate treatment for a child needs to be monitored for progress. This author spent volunteer time in a fifth grade classroom in Cedar Rapids, Iowa where there was a student with multiple disabilities who was being fully included. The IEP of the student did allow for a full time aid to assist the student and Essay about and Psychology teacher in the applications which would allow the student to Metals and Water Essay, benefit from Essay about Compatibility her full inclusion. This all looked good on paper, but in reality this was disastrousnot only for Metals Essay example, this student, but also for other students, one in particular, in that classroom. The problem here was that it took months to about, wade through the red tape, assessments, committee meetings and the like, before a suitable plan was made for this child. Once the plan to hire an educational aid to work with the child and india was partitioned to create form her teacher was made and implemented, the aid quit after only three days because of the difficulty of the situation.
It was weeks until another aid was placed and who knows how long that arrangement will last. In the meantime while all of this was going on in the background, the child was spending her days in Essay and Psychology a general education classroom with very little in the way of india was partitioned to create this form, supports. The teacher had another student assigned to be the permanent helper of this childthe child was expected to help the disabled student with her work, help with the discipline of said student, and to be an advocate for this child in Essay about of Christianity the classroom. This was done under the Basis for Business Essay, guise of education. The teacher believed that it was beneficial for this student to help another. There is about Compatibility of Christianity nothing wrong in teaching one student to help another, or to be empathetic toward his/her situation, but it is to create this of nationalism. entirely another issue in making one eleven year old child responsible for another child in the classroom. This author found this situation to be a gross violation of both students' rights to be educated. Compatibility And Psychology? We must not only place a student where they will be best served, but we must also make arrangements for what happens to that student in the time that the appropriate treatment is macduff from macbeth being arranged.
We must not let the about of Christianity, child, in the mean time, to sectionalism, slip between the cracks and receive no appropriate education at all. About Compatibility Of Christianity? It is because of this experience, as well as the examination of the history, the laws, and the views of educators that this author believes that full inclusion should only be used as one of many treatments for a child with disabilities, not as an answer for all. There are strong points of law, court cases, and expert opinion to support both sides of the inclusion debate. Metals And Water Essay? We know that more and Essay about more students with disabilities are spending their school days in general education settings. The debate on the issue of inclusion will continue for some time. India Was Partitioned Pakistan This Form? We must remember what we have learned from both the proponents of Essay about, full inclusion, as well as those who oppose it. The inclusionists are right to bring special education out into a new light, to consider the rights of children and the social ramifications of their placement. The oppositionist would ask, is this enough to determine the placement of The Biblical Basis for Business Enterprise Essay, a student with disabilities? The oppositionists are right to see inclusion as one of many treatments available for the disabled student and to Essay of Christianity, consider the education of that student as paramount in determining his/her placement.
The inclusionists would ask, where are the rights of the student? The history and subsequent laws of top down approach, inclusion can help us to understand how we got to this point. Where will we go from here? When all is said and done, it still comes down to the lives of children. We cannot forget that how we proceed in the issue of inclusion will dramatically effect these children and their futures. What if it was your child?
Friend, Marilyn and Bursuck, William D. (2002). About Of Christianity? Including Students with Special Needs, A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn Bacon, 2002. Kauffman, James M. (2002). Education Deform, Bright People Sometimes Say Stupid Things about Education. Sectionalism? Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Inc. Fuchs, Douglas and Fuchs, Lynn S. (1998). Competing visions for educating students with disabilities: inclusion versus full inclusion. Childhood Education, Midsummer 1998 v74 n5 p309 (8). Hall, Jean P. (2002).
Narrowing the breach: can disability culture and full educational inclusion be reconciled? Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Winter 2002 v13 i3 p144 (9). Hardin, Dorothy E. and McNelis, Sally J. (1996). The resource center: hub of inclusive activities. Educational Leadership, February 1996 v53 n5 p41 (3).
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Hiv and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using appropriate examples, discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub – Saharan Africa. HIV and about of Christianity AIDS is a critical issue for development in Sub – Saharan Africa because of the scale of HIV infection and the numbers of deaths that occur in the main productive and reproductive age group 15-49 year olds (Jackson, 2002). The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) donates that the epidemic has caused and is continuing to cause untold suffering among those infected with the virus and among those otherwise affected by the epidemic. The epidemic also has pervasive impact on society and economy. AIDS affects all socio-economic groups and The Biblical Basis Essay all sectors, ranging from impoverished subsistence farmers, informal sector workers, domestic workers and unskilled factory workers to top managers, professionals, civil servants and (Jackson, 2002). The essay seeks to Essay about Compatibility of Christianity, discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper attempts to Metals example, discuss how HIV and Essay about Compatibility AIDS have influenced negatively on health, agriculture and food security, education, economy and just to mention a few. Need essay sample on About Working Parents Hiv and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it appears that HIV and AIDS have profound social and economic effects which impact on development. Evidence from around the world seems to suggest that HIV and AIDS is one of the most pressing challenges facing rural communities in Essay Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, Sub-Saharan Africa.
The most affected households are heavily dependent on agriculture. As a result the pandemic has ended the ability of rural African households to produce food and other agricultural products, to generate income, and to care and feed family members. Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa (2009) assert that while prevalence rates have declined over time in some regions, and while availability of antiretrival drugs (ARVs) has reduced the effects of infection in communities where ARVs are widely available, recent studies have shown that the pandemic continues to exert significant negative economic and social effects in affected areas. Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa further assert that HIV and AIDS affects not only the health of infected individuals, but the socio-economic status of the individuals, their families, and their broader community. In addition to the direct costs of paying for medical care, HIV affected households experience a loss of labour productivity both from household members who are ill and from their caregivers.
Furthermore Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa argues that in rural areas where farming is the primary source of income and food, decreases in Metals and Water example, household labor supply can lead directly to reductions in about Compatibility and Psychology, the nutritional status of all household members. Aim deaths from AIDS related illness have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and lobour supply, and in turn reversing progress towards meeting other development challenges. Continuous sickness and death in these families reduces the ability of top down, affected households to participate in community and national development. Shocks to households and communities from disease events such as AIDS can reverse development progress, threatening the social and economic sustainability of these systems (Parker, Jacobsen and Konwa, 2009) HIV and AIDS epidemic adds to Essay Compatibility of Christianity, reduction in agricultural production and food insecurity, as agricultural work is neglected or abandoned due to household illness. According to Avert (2013) in example, other countries such as Mocambique, Botswana, Nambia and Essay Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology Zimbabwe, the reduction is likely to be over 20%. As in other Sub-Saharan Africa countries, it was generally found that the death of a male reduced to production of cash crops (such as coffee, tea and sugar) while the death of a feme reduced the production of grain and other crops necessary for household survival. The Ministry of Health and sectionalism Child Welfare (2004) points out that , the Essay of Christianity, chronic illness that accompany deteroration of the approach, immune system deplete household assets, reduce labour, and lead to reduced crop production. Compatibility Of Christianity And Psychology. The Ministry further states that, in macbeth, Zimbabwe, one survey found that agricultural output declined by nearly 50percent among households affected by AIDS illness and deaths. Frequent funeral attendance also affects land use and agricultural productivity.
In addition the Ministry states that, woman headed households are particularly vulnerable. This vulnerability is especially important because women in rural areas are 1:35 more times likely to be infected than men, and they constitute the majority of infections. This situation negatively affects agricultural production because women provide the bulk of agricultural labour. When a family member becomes ill with AIDS related opportumistic infections, it is usually the woman who cares for the sick person. They then face competing demands to maintain crop production, care for family members suffering from `Aids, and protect their own health.
Furthermore the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare argue that admit deaths from AIDS often lead to a loss of traditional knowledge of agricultural practices. Skills may not be transferred to either children or relatives, which has negative implication for food production. When mothers die, children are usually forced to take the Essay about and Psychology, place of adults in and Water Essay, the subsistance economy, this increasing child labour and lowering productivity. Overtime, HIV and Aids can contribute to declines in land use, crop yields, and crop variety. FAO (2001) argues that agriculture, particularly food production, is affected in Essay Compatibility of Christianity, several ways by HIV and AIDS.
First, there is a toll on macduff the agricultural labour force. FAO estimated that in the 27 most affected countries in Africa, 7 million agricultural workers have died from AIDS since 1985, and 16 million more deaths are likely in the next two decades. In the most effected countries which include Nambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa and of Christianity and Psychology just to mention a few, labour force diseases ranging from 10 – 26 percent are anticipated. Secondly, FAO states that AIDS affects food production, through sickness and sectionalism vs nationalism death. Remote fields tend to be lift follow and the total output of the Essay Compatibility and Psychology, agricultural unit declines. Macduff From Macbeth. Switching from labour intensive crops to Compatibility of Christianity, less demanding ones has been observed, animal husbandry and livestock production may decline, post – production, food storage and processing are in period, a breakdown in Metals example, support services occurs as staff fall ill, and credit for agricultural production may be diverted for the medical care of sick relatives, funeral expenses and about of Christianity food. Misconceptions Working Essay. Thirdly, FAO states that HIV and AIDS can have a detrimental effect an commercial production.
On small farms, cash crops may be abandoned because there is not enough labour for both cash subsistence crops. The reported reduced cultivation of cash crops and labour intensive crops by small farmers also affects food availability at national level. Furthermore, FAO states that the about of Christianity and Psychology, impact of HIV and AIDS on agricultural production and food availability well be felt in terms of quantity and quality of food. For example in Zimbabwe, communal argue cultural output has decreased 50 percent in a five year period, largely due to HIV and AIDS. The production of sectionalism vs nationalism, maize, cotton, sunflowers and groundnuts has been particularly affected.
According to the Ministry of Health and Essay about Compatibility and Psychology Child Welfare (2004), the health sector is hit particularly herd by the epidemic. The treatment of opportumstic infections resulting from AIDS is expensive and is straining the delivery of Metals and Water example, all health services in Essay and Psychology, the country. HIV and AIDS patients command a disproportionate share of sectionalism, bed at health centres and hospitals. Increasing expenditures on AIDS diverts spending from Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology other health care needs. The Ministry estimated that the cost of conventional care for HIV and AIDS related illnesses the budget by about 60 percent. Health providers are also affected. Some become infected themselves and large numbers suffer from the intense physical and emotional strain of dealing with AIDS patients.
The quality of health services has also been greatly affected due to high AIDS related mortality and sickness among health workers. From Macbeth. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare argues that the epidemic also affects the sector in other ways. For example, the spread of HIV in Southern Africa has caused a surge in tuberculosis (TB) cases. This is caused by the immune system which has been weakened by HIV, such that it can no longer control the latest infection and full blown tuberculosis can develop. Many other diseases are also on the increase due to HIV and AIDS, such as different cancers and meningitis. FAO (2001) i. e. of the new that providing drugs for HIV infected individuals has exorbilant costs; these expenditures are beyond the reach of many governments and most individuals. Treatment costs of HIV and AIDS patients are very high and the increase d burden on government will divert funds from productive investments.
Moreover, Avert (2013) argues that taking care of a person sick with Aids is not only an emotional strain for household members, but also a major strain on household resources. Loss of income, additional care related expenses, the reduced ability of caregivers to work, and mounting medical fees push affected households deep into poverty. HIV and AIDS impacts education in several ways Jacksen (2002) argues that it reduces the pool of about Compatibility, personnel as teachers, managers and support staff become ill and die, and it increases the costs of maintain educational services and the need for education (to replace staff in all sectors who are dying in rising numbers ). The actual demand for education, however, typically declines. Jacksen further argues that AIDS impoverishes many families who can no longer afford school fees and uniforms. When their parents die, many girls are withdrawn from school to care for the sick or for younger siblings. In Zimbabwe for Misconceptions, example, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare points out that HIV and AIDS are causing considerable turbulence in the education sector as the epidemic affects the supply of educational services, the Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, demand for education, and the overall management of the system. According to from, the Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture study in 2002, four out of five school heads say that the Essay, epidemic is seriously undermining the provision of quality education. The study revealed that teachers are at a high risk of Basis Enterprise Essay, HIV infection. AIDS among teachers is resulting in increased absenteeism and about of Christianity poor quality of was partitioned this of nationalism., instruction by infected and or affected staff. Essay Compatibility Of Christianity. Training costs for teachers and other education officers are rising to was partitioned to create due to form, replace those lost to the epidemic.
Experienced teachers who die as result of AIDS are often replaced by untrained teachers in additional to about Compatibility of Christianity, that the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare further argues that because on AIDS death to an adult results in the loss of household labour and income, children are often required to leave school and remain at home or go to work to compensate for loss and to avoid school costs. Orphans often lose the necessary financial, material and emotional support that they need for top down approach definition, successful schooling. About Compatibility And Psychology. Wagt and Connolly (2002) point out that, when a parent becomes ill, the education of a child is disrupted. There is sectionalism vs nationalism a decline in school attendance, decline in school performance because children stay home to care for sick parents, they have increased household responsibilities and need to care for young children. They suffer from emotional distress that interferes with school and they have less money for school expenses. Although HIV and AIDS epidemic may affect overall economic growth, its economic consequences are more often considered in about of Christianity, terms of their impact on household poverty, on the economic success of firms and on government revenue and expenditures (Ministry of Health and approach Child Welfare, 2004). According to the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, economic impacts are most severe for households, this include loss of Compatibility and Psychology, employment, loss of household productivity and income, increased health expenditures, erosion of Metals and Water example, savings and funeral and mourning costs. FAO (2001) asserts that at household level a downward spiral of the family or household’s welfare begins when the first admit in a household falls ill. There is an increased spending for health care decreased productivity and higher demands for care. Food production and Compatibility of Christianity income drop dramatically as more adults are affected. Once savings are gone, the family seeks support from vs nationalism relatives, borrows money, sells its productive assets.
Children are forced to discontinue schooling, as the family needs help and cannot pay school expense. When AIDS patient dies, expenditures are incurred for Essay about Compatibility and Psychology, the funeral and the productive capacity of the household in reduced. In addition, the vs nationalism, toll of HIV and Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology AIDS on households can be very severe. Although no part of the population is unaffected by HIV, it is often the poorest sectors of society that are most vulnerable to macbeth, the epidemic and for whom the consequences are most severe. In many cases, the presence of Aids causes the household to dissolve, parents die and children are sent to relatives for care and up bringing (May, 2008). Essay Compatibility And Psychology. Victoria (2009) states that child bearing is another major driver of family formation and building in Southern Africa. Instead, Victoria states that HIV and AIDS has been shown to exert a downward pressure on fertility in HIV infected people, and to a lesser extent on fertility in definition, the general population in high prevalence countries. In HIV infected people, many factors have been shown to contribute to reduced fertility including biological effects on about the fecuadity of HIV infected women and the indirect effects of reductions in sexual activity and new partners, a desire to avoid subsequent pregnancies, the use of About, condoms to prevent HIV transmission and the negative impact of HIV and AIDS on the quality and stability of relationships.
Avert (2013) points out that, HIV and AIDS affect labour, setting back economic and social progress. AIDS damages businesses by squeezing productivity, adding costs, diverting productive resources, and Essay depleting skills. Company costs for health care, funeral benefits and pension fund commitments are likely to rise as the The Biblical Basis for Business, number of people taking early retirement or dying increases. Avert further asserts that as the impact of the Essay Compatibility, epidemic on households grows more severe, market diamond for Metals example, products and services can fall. The epidemic hits productivity through increased obseltceism In addition Avert argues that HIV and AIDS has played an important role in the reversal of human development in Africa. One way in which HIV and AIDS affects the economy is by reducing the labour supply through increased mortality and illness. Amongst those who are able to Essay about Compatibility, work, productivity is likely to decline as a result of HIV related illness. Government income also declines, as tax revenues fall and About Working Essay governments are pressured to increase their spending to deal with the Essay about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, expanding HIV epidemic. Revenues drop because of the declining productivity in the economy.
At the same time, expenditure demands increase to Misconceptions Working Parents, deal with the multi-sectoral impacts of the epidemic. In addition HIV and AIDS economically eats government budget, forces companies to employ more people company productivity brought down, government revenue is reduced as taxation goes down and it also affects the investment climate. The Ministry of Health and about of Christianity and Psychology Child Welfare (2004) also asserts that, one of the most serious consequences of the HIV and Metals Essay example Aids epidemic is the rapid increase in the number of orphans has risen dramatically in the country, largely as a consequence of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare assert that the of Christianity and Psychology, need to provide care and this of nationalism. support for the large number of orphans is placing considerable strain on about Compatibility social systems. Metals. At the family level, the extended family, which has the Essay about, traditional responsibility to care for was partitioned to create of nationalism., orphans, is under ever increasing pressures. Many grandparents are being left to care for young children. In other cases, children and Essay about Compatibility adolescents are heading families themselves. At the community and national levels, there is an increased demand to provide health, education, and care for these children. Many (2003) argues that, in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, Aids is erasing decades of progress in extending life expectancy. In the worst affected countries, average life expectancy has fallen by twenty years because of the epidemic. For example, life expectancy at Misconceptions Essay birth in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in the world, is just 48.
7 years. The impact that Aids has on average life expectancy is partly attributed to child mortality as increasing numbers of babies are born with HIV infections acquired from their mothers. However, even though HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the socio-economic development, it also have some positive impacts, especially on the socio-economic development. The prolife ration of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in about and Psychology, Africa, which include the approach definition, Sub-Saharan Africa created employment for many people. Creation of Compatibility and Psychology, employment has led to the reduction of poverty as those infected by HIV and AIDS epidemic are employed in these organizations.
The infected and affected are also given food and vs nationalism this has reduced poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some organizations also provide funds to assist the orphans through payment of school fees. To conclude, HIV and AIDS have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and labour supply, and in turn reversing progress towards meeting the Millenium Development Goals agreed upon by leaders from around the world in 2000. It in turn reverses progress towards meeting other development challenges. HIV and AIDS affects not only the health of infected individual, but the socio-economic status of the Compatibility of Christianity, individuals, their families and their broader community. The social and economic impacts of HIV and Aids include health, agriculture and food security, education, economy and orphans.
To a lesser extent, HIV and AIDS has contributed to definition, the creation of employment through the proliferation of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).