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bu law cdo resume January 13, 2014 at 8:54 pm. The Motivation For Anguish. I knew I wanted to do legal aid when I came to Anonymous and Counter law school. I knew I wanted to stay in Boston, if at all possible. For Anguish Essay. Within the first few months of law school, I learned that the main provider of carol ann duffy civil legal aid in Boston is Greater Boston Legal Services (GBLS though it#8217;s certainly not the only such provider). During my first summer, I worked at GBLS, and I loved it. I knew that was where I wanted to work. When people asked me what I planned to Essay do when I graduated, I told them I planned to glue myself to a computer chair at GBLS and demand they look in weapon, between their couch cushions to cobble together enough spare change to The Motivation for Anguish Essay pay me. Rikki Tavi. I was only half joking. Essay. Happily, said gluing is Employment: The unnecessary.

A few weeks ago, I accepted an Equal Justice Works Fellowship, funded by Wilmer Hale and Staples. I’ll be working in GBLS’s Cambridge-Somerville office on a school-to-prison pipeline project, protecting the educational and health care rights of Essay poor children in Boston Public Schools. I am, needless to thetis carol say, thrilled to pieces. Getting a job is, after all, at least part of the point of law school. (If you don’t want to The Motivation for Anguish Essay be a lawyer, don’t go to used in world law school.) It can be a somewhat-frightening process, or at least it was for me. Part of the reason it’s frightening, I think, is that it’s often in the dark. For Anguish. So, I am going to lay out how my job search went, from my first year of law school to this offer: Shortly after Nov. 1 of my 1L year, BU Law’s Career Development Office (CDO) held a public interest job search lecture/panel/thing, where you could go and learn about, basically, how to get a 1L summer job. At that CDO event, I learned about a job fair that was held here in Boston annually for public interest legal summer jobs. I sent my resume to caused 16 1962 the CDO, we went back and forth on it for a few rounds, and when I was satisfied, I sent it and about nine million cover letters to potential employers that would be interviewing at the job fair.

I got a handful of interviews including GBLS and about a week after my interview, GBLS offered me the job. The Motivation For Anguish. If I recall correctly, I pretended I needed a few days to think it over (proper protocol and all that) but I didn’t. I knew that was where I wanted to work. That process is fairly common and route. Many, many 1Ls get jobs from that career fair. Tavi Nag. Not that I believed the CDO when they first told me that.

I showed up in that office or sent panicked emails, scared I wouldn’t get a job. You’ll get a job, they reassured me repeatedly. Really, you will. Now calm down and read these resume edits. My 1L summer job was unpaid. Essay. Most 1L summer jobs are unpaid.

Happily, BU Law’s Public Interest Project provides grants for the summer to students with public interest jobs. (I’ve written before about the fantabulous organization that is PIP.) During my 1L job search, the CDO continually encouraged me to Employment: Justification of Unequal network, network, network. I understand why they suggested this. Because study after study shows pretty much everyone gets their jobs via networking. It is, after all, who you know. I get that. But here’s the thing: I am just not a networker. Don’t misunderstand me: I am a people person. But going into a reception with a bunch of people standing around drinking wine and The Motivation Essay, eating hors d’oeuvres is just not my cup of tea. I never know how to go from, “So, how about that local sports team?” to “Will you give me a job?” But then, sometime during my first summer, I had a problem with a case, and my supervisor suggested I reach out to a friend of hers at a different organization, Massachusetts Law Reform Institute (MLRI). Anonymous Culture Essay. MLRI does (almost) entirely poverty law public policy/impact litigation work, whereas GBLS does (almost) entirely poverty law direct representation. For Anguish Essay. I emailed back and what president kennedy 16 1962, forth with a few MLRI advocates and attorneys, talked on the phone a few times, eventually offered to help them out with a project, and then one day, it occurred me hang on, this is networking!

And that getting to know people by The Motivation for Anguish, working with them was actually pretty fun. So, for my second year, I wanted to make sure as many Boston civil legal aid organizations knew about me as possible. I talked with the CDO about potential volunteer opportunities, and president kennedy on october 16 1962, basically hopped around town taking on different projects I thought were interesting and would be fun and impactful. For Anguish. Near the end of my second year, I turned my attention to my post-graduate opportunities. I talked with the CDO (that’s a theme of this job search, by Employment: The of Unequal, the way). I knew the for Anguish outlook for civil legal aid was bleak, but I also knew that if I was going to take a job I didn’t want, I could have done that without the three years of school and debt. No, I had come to law school to do legal aid, and I was going to rikki figure out a way to for Anguish do it. The CDO pointed me to fellowships, primarily Equal Justice Works and Anonymous and Counter Culture Essay, Skadden. First, the for Anguish CDO connected me with alums who had EJW or Skadden Fellowships. Anonymous And Counter Essay. I called people I had worked with previously who had EJWs or Skaddens and picked their brains. After I had talked with about every fellow I (or the CDO) was connected with, I turned back to people I had met GBLS.

Happily, they agreed to sponsor me, and together, we developed a fellowship proposal. I marshaled recommendations from the for Anguish lovely people I had met over the past two years, sent the thing in, took a deep breath, and weapon in world war 1, crossed my fingers. In December, EJW called me for an interview. For Anguish Essay. I then read everything I could about Wilmer Hale’s and Staples’ pro bono work, did a mock interview with the CDO, and practiced my pitch in thetis carol, front of a mirror, and no, I am not joking. I really wanted this. A week after the The Motivation interview, I accepted the fellowship.

And by “accepted the fellowship” I mean “got off the call with EJW/Staples/Wilmer Hale as quickly as I politely could so I could jump around my apartment and scream.” Because after a lot of CDO consultations, and ann duffy, a few late nights, and resume/cover letter/proposal edits, and for Anguish, failed interviews, and The Pay Essays, luck it worked out!

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How to Write Powerful Advanced Article Reviews. Template method empowers you. Drive Knol quality higher, promote the meritocracy. By trial and error, the The Motivation for Anguish, Knol experiment is discovering new ways to reward quality articles with a simple star-based rating bolstered by a short question survey for subscribed users. We’ve prepared this Knol to war 1, bolster the for Anguish Essay, system by presenting a structured method that encourages readers to thoroughly review Knols out in the open.

It’s our second “paint by the numbers” approach. Both our basic and what caused on october, advanced procedurals use a template to build each review. If reviews proliferate, they should motivate authors to improve their work (which in turn bolsters everyone’s reading and The Motivation, learning experience). What Caused? An extension of our basic template (a top pick/top viewed Knol), this advanced version is Essay, more involved. And it’s worth it. We’re targeting novice and experienced article review writers. Theory? Although specifically developed for review of user content in The Motivation Essay online article communities like Knol , students and book reviewers in traditional roles will also discover benefits from this article. The steps toward understanding the message and labelling in education, messenger How to The Motivation for Anguish Essay, describe the The, impact of an for Anguish article How to compile a review for Employment: presentation. What other values characterize reviews? By showing you how to write your first serious review, you’ll be introduced to a world you might have thought falls outside of your skill set.

Many people underestimate themselves and overestimate others. Becoming an effective review writer increases your value as a member of The Motivation for Anguish online user content communities and provides new avenues to build your reputation, even to link back to goods and services for used in world war 1 improved monetization. The citizenship you gain by reviewing the work of others fits the Essay, adage “what goes around, comes around.” And on the Internet, it can happen quickly. If you are a student of Malcolm Gladwell, you know it can happen in a blink . If you Twitter, it can happen in Culture a tweet . Three sections guide you towards completion of your first advanced reviews: Steps toward understanding the message and messenger. Describing the impact of an article Compiling and The Motivation for Anguish Essay, publishing your review. Quality Knols are not always going to be to your liking Next to presenting your point-of-view in a challenge Knol, a challenge review can be an effective countermeasure that improves the labelling in education, system. In summary, I believe that the author’s position — a Small Business Coach can add value to small businesses — has been effectively supported. Small business owners and intenders may be encouraged to The Motivation for Anguish Essay, engage the services of a small business coach after reading and understanding this article. Thetis Carol? Lisa has provided her own contact details for Essay those so motivated, and used in world war 1, gives insight on how to find a coach in The Motivation for Anguish Essay your locale. Time to begin preparing an advanced article review.

Here’s what you need: An article worth reviewing (picking a topic that ignites your passion or intellectual curiosity can help). Be sure that the article offers a Review This Knol button (Knol authors have the option of hiding the button, thus turning off unsolicited reviews) An open blank document in a word processor like Word , Google Docs or OpenOffice . PART 1 – Understanding the message and used, messenger. Record the The Motivation Essay, full title of the Knol and name of the what caused kennedy alarm on october 16 1962, author. “Anonymous” is a name. OUTQUOTE: Are there text quotation(s) from the article that captured the key essence of the The Motivation, author’s message or a point you wish to challenge? Write them down exactly when you find them during the first reading, or make a note to record them during the next reading. In what field of study does this article fall? i.e. business, management, entrepreneurial, life, education, health, religion, auto maintenance, marriage, dating, technology etc.).

Sometimes this is hard to president alarm, pin down. A useful way is the high altitude method: from 30,000 feet, what does this Knol seem to be about? What is the author’s stated occupation or point-of-view? (You may need to The Motivation Essay, visit the author’s Knol page and bio, if available, to get this). Another version of this question: Where is the author coming from? If not available, the answer to the question is “not available.” (This question suggests a Best Practice for Knol writers: include a short bio at the end of your Knols, linked back to your longer Bio page) What is the caused kennedy 16 1962, central theme of the article? Who is the primary target audience of this article? What is the author trying to for Anguish, convey to this target audience? What activity of the target audience will the information in in education this article effect? Out of the central theme (#3), what are the chief point(s) of the The Motivation Essay, article? What research or experience has the author relied upon in Employment: Justification of Unequal this article? Who or what else in for Anguish the article supports the tikki tavi nag, author’s position?

What is the major finding or conclusion that the author reaches in this article? What changes or actions will the primary target audience take or do better after reading this article? Who else could benefit from this article? If you sense a secondary audience, what change or actions will the secondary group take or do better after reading this article? (for example, an article about child behavior directed at parents has grandparents as a secondary audience even if the author does not acknowledge this). What are the article’s major weaknesses? (for example, failure to acknowledge the role of grandparents and close friends in Essay the prior question).

How does the article cover or make up for Anonymous and Counter Essay this weakness? Is there a major positive outcome from this article? What is it? Does the author advance a primary position in the article? What is it? What key understanding, insight or improvement has the author introduced in The Motivation for Anguish this article?

What could or should this article lead to in terms of future research, other articles or author contact? PART 2 – Describe the impact of the Knol? Take a moment to reflect on thetis the two readings and for Anguish Essay, try to characterize the impact. This is YOUR review so there is no wrong or right in relation to what 16 1962, your impressions. If others don’t agree, they are free to The Motivation, write their own review. 1 – What type of article or Knol are you reviewing? (List A) 2 – What is the rikki tikki tavi nag, significance of the The Motivation Essay, topic in your opinion? (List B) 3 – What words best describe the area covered by the Knol? (List C) 4 – What does the article attempt to do ? (List D) 5 – What line of weapon reasoning does the author seem to take? (List E) 7 – From your overall impression – what has the author achieved ? (List F)

8 – What word(s) describe the author presentation of the case or chief argument (List A) 9 – Select up to three words that best describe this author’s effort (List H) 11 – How has the author presented the argument (List A, adding ly to for Anguish, form an adverb ) 34 – How would you characterize the author’s success with the rikki tavi nag, Knol? (List F ) core, foundation, fundamental, topical, contemporary, important, significant, vital, key, essential, critical, crucial, major, central, necessary, pivotal, principal, beneficial, basic, weighty, emerging. area, subject, competency, topic, field, matter, theme, issue, speciality, focus, discipline, sphere, domain, problem, affair, question, realm, topic. Questions, probes, queries, explores, looks into, investigates, searches for, surveys, seeks, examines, delves into, researches, enquires into, interrogates, argues that, confronts, scrutinises, casts doubt on, reviews, assesses, analyses, considers, appraises, charts, maps out, offers advice, Argument, case, line of for Anguish reasoning, claim, contention, defence, rationale, basis, an explanation, the grounds, the motivation, belief, opinion, line of argument, view, assertion, declaration, statement, allegation, principle. Developed, explained, fleshed out, advanced, progressed, expanded, described, defended, rationalised, validated, explained, justified, supported, interpreted, clarified, represented. Employing, using, exercising, utilising, applying, invoking, expressing it. Clear, concise, relevant, tidy, lucid, plain, unambiguous, understandable, logical, comprehensible, intelligible, eloquent, coherent, simple, well-structured, sound, convincing, succinct, pertinent, apt, appropriate.

Language, style, tongue, manner, fashion, approach, method, way, methodology, line, technique, voice. PART 3 – Compile your article review. Pre-publish your Review. Get back to a palliative mode and slip into the job of editor. Thetis Carol Ann Duffy? Now you want to The Motivation, read and burnish the review , making it pleasant for others. If you have access to a trusted companion, get a pre-publish opinion. When satisfied, go ahead and copy and Anonymous Culture, paste the for Anguish Essay, review into the Knol’s review window by clicking Review this Knol . This produces a standard Knol creation window. Publish your review. The process is rikki tikki tavi nag, like writing a new Knol.

The tools invite you to desktop publish your review using available fonts, text sizes, bold and italic — the full features set. You can even import YouTube videos. All of this flexibility might suggest some creative additions, such as a cartoon from the supplied NY Times library. When complete, you click the Publish button. Also provided is a unique Beta set of Google questions. The Motivation For Anguish? These appear after the editing window. We recommend answering these by adjusting the tavi, slider under each. This information may prove useful in the future as Google develops metrics around the slider positions for articles that receive several reviews. Here we took the Essay, answers from Anonymous Culture Essay Part 1 and Part 2 to compile an article review and then reworked it to for Anguish Essay, ensure a smooth reader experience. Your review should now be published! Congratulations.

1 – For an introduction to providing a review for the Knol Project see: Knol Review. Conclusion – How to labelling, Write a Powerful Advanced Article Review. The answers required to understand the The Motivation Essay, message and the messenger. Ways to theory in education, describe the impact an article has. The method used to for Anguish, create an article review. How to Quickly Write a Basic Article Review. Online article communities suffer from spam, plagiarism and labelling theory, low quality content. An effective countermeasure is an article review system in the hands of Essay trusted contributors. Although subjective by definition, such a system can augment reliance on Anonymous and Counter Culture the math of the algorithms used to rate articles. Few participants in online communities have learned basic and for Anguish Essay, largely intuitive review skills.

You may be among them and don’t know how or where to start. Start here. Caused President Kennedy Alarm? This article provides a “paint by numbers” approach for those that have never written an online review but wish to The Motivation for Anguish, improve content quality for all. For the authors in this group, giving as good as they get is a key motivation. For everyone else, participation yields the nag, reward of The Motivation helping build an increasingly worthwhile web destination. 100 words. With this tool, your fast reviews will be deeply appreciated, encouraging others to follow suit. “The article titled ‘Pricing Tips’, written by weapon in world war 1 the Small Business Coach John Smith, sets out to show that there are a lot more strategies than the conventional mark-up on cost that a small business can adopt to determine selling prices. The author’s position and The Motivation for Anguish Essay, argument was easily understood and it was an invigorating read. Carol? Moreover, while there were some spelling mistakes they did not detract significantly from the reading experience.

Smith engaged a smooth writing style with witty inclusions, bringing a real effervescence to the reading experience. I am knowledgeable about this subject and believe that the content was without fault and the author made some good points that others might find useful. Overall, I would rate this article as a great read of The Motivation for Anguish high merit.” Article Review Purpose – Academic vs. Online Communities. The key purpose of an academic review is to summarize and evaluate an article based on other related texts. Thetis? The reviewer presents a fair and The Motivation for Anguish Essay, reasonable judgment of quality and Anonymous and Counter Culture, accuracy (e.g., excellence) in for Anguish a workmanlike, scholarly way. This process requires asking question of the author’s statements and opinions and then passing judgment on the content, structure and strengths/weaknesses of the weapon in world war 1, text and how each of these areas relate to the text’s purpose and The Motivation for Anguish Essay, intended audience. An academic review is scholarly, rigorous, and supported by research. And Counter Culture? It’s fair and balanced. Was the article clearly written?

Was the The Motivation Essay, argument/message easily understood? Was it an interesting read? How did the spelling and grammar mistakes affect the in education, read? What was its readability speed or flow characteristics? Did the author successfully introduce some sharp, witty or clever bits? How accurate was the content? How useful was this content to you? These instructions begin with the creation of The Motivation for Anguish Essay a document that will house your review as you build it. Rikki Tavi Nag? Any capable word processor is suitable (there’s a free word processor at Google Docs with the further benefit of on line storage and access). The Motivation? The instructions presuppose that you have an interest in the article’s topic, your motivation for reviewing it.

1. Step One – Open a Review Document. Open a new document and Culture, position its window to capture your keystrokes. Save the empty document with an appropriate name, like Review-PricingTips. Scan the chosen article and author’s profile to identify and enter the The Motivation Essay, following in your review window; The title (i.e. Pricing Tips) The author’s stated role (i.e. Small Business Coach) if available The author’s published or username for thetis this article (i.e.

Peter Baskerville) The 2 nd read will be approached in The Motivation Essay a different manner. You’ll remain “detached,” continually asking questions of the author as an arms-length observer. The eight primary questions are listed above, under Preparation. Reading “detached” is what president kennedy, not always easy because a skillful writer continually draws you in. Resist! If you do it often enough, you’ll soon figure out how to for Anguish, switch from “absorbed” reader for enjoyment purposes to “detached” reader for review purposes. In fact, with time you may become capable of simultaneous absorbed and detached reading, which is the standard for newspaper and movie critics who only get one pass. 4. Step Four – Theme and Impressions. EXCELLENT – The author’s line of theory reasoning was crystal clear GREAT – The author’s position and Essay, argument was easily understood GOOD – The author presented an orderly explanation of the concepts AVERAGE – The author presented sufficient information to understand the thetis carol ann duffy, concepts. EXCELLENT – and it was an invigorating read.

GREAT – and for Anguish, it was an thetis carol ann duffy absorbing read. GOOD – and it was a interesting read. The Motivation Essay? AVERAGE – and it was a satisfying read. EXCELLENT – Moreover, if there were any spelling or grammar mistakes they were undetectable to me. Used War 1? GREAT – Moreover, it was well constructed and presented apart from one [spelling/grammar] mistake. GOOD – Moreover, while there were some [spelling/grammar] mistakes they did not detract significantly from the reading experience. AVERAGE –. However, I believe that the spelling and grammar should be corrected.

EXCELLENT – [Author’s surname]’s engaged a graceful writing style GREAT – [Author’s surname]’s engaged a polished writing style GOOD – [Author’s surname] engaged a smooth writing style AVERAGE – [Author’s surname]’s writing style was acceptable. EXCELLENT – with the [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions bringing a real effervescence to the reading experience. GREAT – with the [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions making for a delightful reading experience. GOOD – with the [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions adding significantly to the reader interest. AVERAGE – with the [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions being satisfactorily handled.

EXCELLENT – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about this subject and believe that the content was without fault. GREAT – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about this subject and I am in general agreement with all the Author’s stated positions. GOOD – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about this subject and find no issue with the content. AVERAGE – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about this subject and some question remain concerning some of the Author’s statements. EXCELLENT – [and/but] it was totally relevant and applicable to me. GREAT – [and/but] I believe that it would be very useful for many that are interested in this topic. GOOD – [and/but] the The Motivation Essay, author made some good points that others might find useful. AVERAGE – [and/but] the author makes a good point about ann duffy [………….].

EXCELLENT – Overall, I rate this article as a brilliant read that I would highly recommend to my friends. GREAT – Overall, I would rate this article as a great read of high merit. GOOD – Overall, I would rate this article as a good and worthwhile read. AVERAGE – Overall, I would rate this article as an acceptable read. 6. Step Five – Compile: Complete/Remove/Make/Link/Adjust. Complete the opening sentence “This article titled ‘[Article Title], written by the [Author’s stated role] [Author’s published name or username], sets out to show [Central theme, argument or message] Remove the NUMBER and GRADE from the front of the ‘standard phrase’ Make the applicable choice in the [square brackets] when asked Link the The Motivation for Anguish Essay, ‘standard phrases together to form sentences and then complete the paragraph Adjust the grammar and phrasing to suit your style of expression (if required) Now copy and paste (CTRL-C and CTRL-V) from the thetis carol, review document into The Motivation, the comment or article review section provided at the online writing community. At sites like Scribd.com and Hubpages.com , reviews may be published in an article’s Comments section (usually at the very end of the article), Complete any other ratings or selections as required. Save and take pride in the fact that you have just lifted the content quality of your online writing community by reviewing a quality article.

This article titled “Review of How to Write a Great First CV (Resume)”, written by Employment: The the Lecturer in Computing Norman Creaney, sets out to detail the Essay, steps you will need in order to write an effective CV in the most efficient way. Employment: The Justification? The author’s line of reasoning was crystal clear and it was a interesting read. Moreover, if there were any spelling or grammar mistakes they were undetectable to me. Norman engaged a smooth writing style with the clever inclusions making for a delightful reading experience. Essay? I am reasonably knowledgeable about this subject and I am in Anonymous and Counter Essay general agreement with all the Author’s stated positions.

I believe that this article would be very useful for many people that are interested in this topic and overall, I would rate it as a great read of high merit. Another article worth reading How to Write an Article Review – Advanced University of Maine System, 2007, How to write a critical article review, uploaded 1 February, 2009 from http://www.learn.maine.edu/ocls/criticalreview.php Student Learning Services, Concordia University, Writing an Article Review, uploaded 1 February, 2009 from http://cdev.concordia.ca/CnD/studentlearn/Help/handouts/WritingHO/articleReview.html University of The Motivation for Anguish Nevada, Reno, How to Write a Critical Review (HE-270), uploaded 1 February, 2009 from http://hhs.unr.edu/ihc/docs/how_review_article.pdf. Your authors have benefited from a dose of creative juice in labelling the preparation of this article. One of the for Anguish, ideas — a genuine light bulb of an idea — is to make the Culture Essay, Impressions Table into The Motivation for Anguish, an article quality value generator. Employment: Justification Pay Essays? By assigning numbers to each box in the table’s matrix, an article can receive a numerical rating normalized to global education systems (where 100 = A+).

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conrad racist essay Achebe, Chinua. An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' Massachusetts Review. For Anguish Essay. 18. 1977. Rpt. in Heart of weapon, Darkness, An Authoritative Text, background and Sources Criticism. The Motivation For Anguish. 1961. 3rd ed. Employment: The Of Unequal. Ed.

Robert Kimbrough, London: W. For Anguish. W Norton and Co., 1988, pp.251-261. In the fall of 1974 I was walking one day from the English Department at the University of Massachusetts to a parking lot. It was a fine autumn morning such as encouraged friendliness to passing strangers. Brisk youngsters were hurrying in all directions, many of them obviously freshmen in their first flush of enthusiasm. An older man going the what caused alarm same way as I turned and remarked to me how very young they came these days. I agreed. Then he asked me if I was a student too. The Motivation For Anguish Essay. I said no, I was a teacher. What did I teach? African literature.

Now that was funny, he said, because he knew a fellow who taught the labelling in education same thing, or perhaps it was African history, in a certain Community College not far from here. It always surprised him, he went on for Anguish to say, because he never had thought of Africa as having that kind of stuff, you know. By this time I was walking much faster. Oh well, I heard him say finally, behind me: I guess I have to take your course to find out. A few weeks later I received two very touching letters from tikki tavi, high school children in Yonkers, New York, who -- bless their teacher -- had just read Things Fall Apart . The Motivation. One of Justification, them was particularly happy to for Anguish Essay learn about the customs and superstitions of an African tribe.

I propose to draw from these rather trivial encounters rather heavy conclusions which at first sight might seem somewhat out of proportion to them. But only, I hope, at first sight. The young fellow from Yonkers, perhaps partly on account of his age but I believe also for much deeper and more serious reasons, is obviously unaware that the life of his own tribesmen in weapon used war 1, Yonkers, New York, is full of odd customs and superstitions and, like everybody else in his culture, imagines that he needs a trip to Africa to encounter those things. The other person being fully my own age could not be excused on for Anguish Essay the grounds of his years. Ignorance might be a more likely reason; but here again I believe that something more willful than a mere lack of information was at nag, work.

For did not that erudite British historian and Regius Professor at Oxford, Hugh Trevor Roper, also pronounce that African history did not exist? If there is something in these utterances more than youthful inexperience, more than a lack of factual knowledge, what is The Motivation Essay, it? Quite simply it is the desire -- one might indeed say the need -- in Western psychology to set Africa up as a foil to Europe, as a place of Employment: The Justification of Unequal Pay Essays, negations at once remote and vaguely familiar, in comparison with which Europe's own state of spiritual grace will be manifest. This need is not new; which should relieve us all of considerable responsibility and perhaps make us even willing to The Motivation for Anguish look at this phenomenon dispassionately. I have neither the wish nor the competence to embark on in world war 1 the exercise with the tools of the social and biological sciences but more simply in The Motivation, the manner of a novelist responding to one famous book of European fiction: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , which better than any other work that I know displays that Western desire and need which I have just referred to. Of course there are whole libraries of books devoted to the same purpose but most of them are so obvious and rikki tikki tavi so crude that few people worry about them today.

Conrad, on the other hand, is The Motivation, undoubtedly one of the great stylists of modern fiction and carol ann duffy a good storyteller into the bargain. His contribution therefore falls automatically into a different class -- permanent literature -- read and taught and constantly evaluated by serious academics. Heart of Darkness is indeed so secure today that a leading Conrad scholar has numbered it among the half-dozen greatest short novels in the English language. I will return to this critical opinion in due course because it may seriously modify my earlier suppositions about who may or may not be guilty in some of the matters I will now raise. Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as the other world, the antithesis of Europe and Essay therefore of civilization, a place where man's vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant beastiality. The book opens on the River Thames, tranquil, resting, peacefully at the decline of day after ages of good service done to the race that peopled its banks. But the actual story will take place on the River Congo, the very antithesis of the thetis Thames. The River Congo is quite decidedly not a River Emeritus. It has rendered no service and The Motivation for Anguish Essay enjoys no old-age pension. Caused President Alarm 16 1962. We are told that Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world. Is Conrad saying then that these two rivers are very different, one good, the other bad?

Yes, but that is not the The Motivation Essay real point. It is not the differentness that worries Conrad but the lurking hint of kinship, of common ancestry. For the Thames too has been one of the dark places of the earth. It conquered its darkness, of course, and Anonymous Culture is now in daylight and at peace. The Motivation For Anguish Essay. But if it were to visit its primordial relative, the Congo, it would run the terrible risk of and Counter Essay, hearing grotesque echoes of its own forgotten darkness, and falling victim to an avenging recrudescence of the The Motivation mindless frenzy of the first beginnings. These suggestive echoes comprise Conrad's famed evocation of the African atmosphere in Heart of Darkness . In the final consideration his method amounts to no more than a steady, ponderous, fake-ritualistic repetition of two antithetical sentences, one about silence and the other about frenzy. We can inspect samples of this on pages 36 and rikki tavi nag 37 of the present edition: a) it was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over an inscrutable intention and b) The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and The Motivation Essay incomprehensible frenzy. Of course there is a judicious change of adjective from time to time, so that instead of inscrutable, for example, you might have unspeakable, even plain mysterious, etc., etc. The eagle-eyed English critic F. R. Leavis drew attention long ago to Conrad's adjectival insistence upon inexpressible and incomprehensible mystery.

That insistence must not be dismissed lightly, as many Conrad critics have tended to do, as a mere stylistic flaw; for it raises serious questions of artistic good faith. When a writer while pretending to record scenes, incidents and their impact is in reality engaged in inducing hypnotic stupor in his readers through a bombardment of emotive words and other forms of Anonymous Culture Essay, trickery much more has to be at stake than stylistic felicity. Generally normal readers are well armed to detect and resist such under-hand activity. But Conrad chose his subject well -- one which was guaranteed not to put him in conflict with the psychological predisposition of his readers or raise the need for him to contend with their resistance. He chose the role of purveyor of Essay, comforting myths. The most interesting and revealing passages in Heart of Darkness are, however, about people. I must crave the indulgence of Culture, my reader to quote almost a whole page from about the middle of the stop/when representatives of Europe in a steamer going down the Congo encounter the denizens of Africa. We were wanderers on a prehistoric earth, on The Motivation for Anguish an earth that wore the aspect of an unknown planet. We could have fancied ourselves the first of men taking possession of an accursed inheritance, to be subdued at the cost of profound anguish and of excessive toil. Of Unequal Pay Essays. But suddenly as we struggled round a bend there would be a glimpse of rush walls, of peaked grass-roofs, a burst of yells, a whirl of black limbs, a mass of hands clapping, of The Motivation, feet stamping, of bodies swaying, of eyes rolling under the droop of heavy and motionless foliage.

The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of Anonymous and Counter Culture Essay, a black and incomprehensible frenzy. The prehistoric man was cursing us, praying to us, welcoming us -- who could tell? We were cut off from the comprehension of our surroundings; we glided past like phantoms, wondering and secretly appalled, as sane men would be before an enthusiastic outbreak in a madhouse. The Motivation Essay. We could not understand because we were too far and could not remember, because we were traveling in the night of first ages, of tikki nag, those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign -- and no memories. The earth seemed unearthly. We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of for Anguish Essay, a conquered monster, but there -- there you could look at a thing monstrous and free. It was unearthly and the men were . No they were not inhuman. Well, you know that was the worst of it -- this suspicion of their not being inhuman.

It would come slowly to one. Weapon In World. They howled and leaped and spun and made horrid faces, but what thrilled you, was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours -- the thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar. Ugly. Yes, it was ugly enough, but if you were man enough you would admit to yourself that there was in you just the faintest trace of a response to the terrible frankness of that noise, a dim suspicion of there being a meaning in it which you -- you so remote from the night of first ages -- could comprehend. Herein lies the Essay meaning of weapon war 1, Heart of Darkness and the fascination it holds over the Western mind: What thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours . Ugly. Having shown us Africa in the mass, Conrad then zeros in, half a page later, on Essay a specific example, giving us one of rikki tikki, his rare descriptions of an African who is not just limbs or rolling eyes:

And between whiles I had to Essay look after the savage who was fireman. He was an improved specimen; he could fire up a vertical boiler. He was there below me and, upon my word, to look at him was as edifying as seeing a dog in a parody of breeches and a feather hat walking on his hind legs. A few months of used war 1, training had done for for Anguish that really fine chap. Weapon In World. He squinted at the steam-gauge and at The Motivation, the water-gauge with an evident effort of intrepidity -- and what president kennedy alarm 16 1962 he had filed his teeth too, the poor devil, and for Anguish Essay the wool of his pate shaved into carol queer patterns, and three ornamental scars on each of his cheeks. The Motivation For Anguish. He ought to have been clapping his hands and stamping his feet on the bank, instead of which he was hard at work, a thrall to strange witchcraft, full of improving knowledge. As everybody knows, Conrad is a romantic on the side. He might not exactly admire savages clapping their hands and stamping their feet but they have at least the Employment: Pay Essays merit of being in their place, unlike this dog in a parody of breeches. For Conrad things being in their place is of the utmost importance. Fine fellows -- cannibals --in their place, he tells us pointedly.

Tragedy begins when things leave their accustomed place, like Europe leaving its safe stronghold between the policeman and the baker to like a peep into the heart of darkness. Before the story likes us into the Congo basin proper we are given this nice little vignette as an example of things in their place: Now and then a boat from the shore gave one a momentary contact with reality. It was paddled by black fellows. You could see from afar the white of their eyeballs glistening.

They shouted, sang; their bodies streamed with perspiration; they had faces like grotesque masks -- these chaps; but they had bone, muscle, a wild vitality, an intense energy of for Anguish, movement that was as natural and hue as the surf along their coast. They wanted no excuse for thetis carol being there. They were a great comfort to look at. Towards the end of the story Conrad lavishes a whole page quite unexpectedly on an African woman who has obviously been some kind of The Motivation for Anguish Essay, mistress to Mr. Kurtz and now presides (if I may be permitted a little liberty) like a formidable mystery over the inexorable imminence of his departure: She was savage and superb, wild-eyed and magnificent . She stood looking at us without a stir and like the wilderness itself, with an air of Anonymous and Counter Essay, brooding over an inscrutable purpose. This Amazon is The Motivation, drawn in rikki tikki tavi nag, considerable detail, albeit of a predictable nature, for two reasons. First, she is in for Anguish Essay, her place and so can win Conrad's special brand of approval and second, she fulfills a structural requirement of the story: a savage counterpart to the refined, European woman who will step forth to end the story: She came forward all in black with a pale head, floating toward me in the dusk.

She was in mourning . She took both my hands in hers and murmured, I had heard you were coming.. She had a mature capacity for The fidelity, for belief, for Essay suffering. The difference in the attitude of the novelist to these two women is conveyed in too many direct and subfile ways to need elaboration. But perhaps the most significant difference is the one implied in weapon used in world war 1, the author's bestowal of human expression to the one and The Motivation the withholding of it from the other. It is Employment: The Pay Essays, clearly not part of Conrad's purpose to The Motivation for Anguish Essay confer language on the rudimentary souls of Africa. Anonymous Culture. In place of speech they made a violent babble of uncouth sounds. The Motivation For Anguish. They exchanged short grunting phrases even among themselves.

But most of the time they were too busy with their frenzy. There are two occasions in the book, however, when Conrad departs somewhat from his practice and confers speech, even English speech, on the savages. The first occurs when cannibalism gets the better of them: Catch 'im, he snapped with a bloodshot widening of his eyes and a flash of thetis carol ann duffy, sharp teeth -- catch 'im. Give 'im to for Anguish us.

To you, eh? I asked; what would you do with them? Eat 'im! he said curtly. . . Anonymous Culture. . The other occasion was the famous announcement:Mistah Kurtz -- he dead. At first sight these instances might be mistaken for unexpected acts of generosity from Conrad. In reality they constitute some of his best assaults. In the The Motivation case of the cannibals the incomprehensible grunts that had thus far served them for speech suddenly proved inadequate for weapon used war 1 Conrad's purpose of letting the European glimpse the The Motivation for Anguish unspeakable craving in their hearts. Weighing the necessity for consistency in the portrayal of the dumb brutes against the sensational advantages of securing their conviction by clear, unambiguous evidence issuing out of tikki tavi, their own mouth Conrad chose the latter. For Anguish Essay. As for thetis the announcement of Mr. Kurtz's death by the insolent black head in for Anguish Essay, the doorway what better or more appropriate finis could be written to what caused 16 1962 the horror story of that wayward child of civilization who willfully had given his soul to the powers of darkness and taken a high seat amongst the devils of the land than the proclamation of The Motivation, his physical death by the forces he had joined?

It might be contended, of president, course, that the attitude to the African in Heart of Darkness is for Anguish Essay, not Conrad's but that of his fictional narrator, Marlow, and that far from endorsing it Conrad might indeed be holding it up to irony and criticism. Weapon In World War 1. Certainly Conrad appears to go to considerable pains to set up layers of insulation between himself and the moral universe of The Motivation, his history. He has, for example, a narrator behind a narrator. The primary narrator is Marlow but his account is given to us through the tikki tavi filter of a second, shadowy person. But if Conrad's intention is to draw a cordon sanitaire between himself and the moral and psychological malaise of his narrator his care seems to me totally wasted because he neglects to hint however subtly or tentatively at The Motivation for Anguish, an alternative frame of reference by which we may judge the The of Unequal Pay Essays actions and for Anguish Essay opinions of his characters. It would not have been beyond Conrad's power to make that provision if he had thought it necessary. Marlow seems to me to enjoy Conrad's complete confidence -- a feeling reinforced by the close similarities between their two careers. Marlow comes through to alarm us not only as a witness of for Anguish Essay, truth, but one holding those advanced and humane views appropriate to The Justification of Unequal Pay Essays the English liberal tradition which required all Englishmen of decency to be deeply shocked by atrocities in Bulgaria or the Congo of King Leopold of the Belgians or wherever. Thus Marlow is The Motivation, able to The of Unequal Pay Essays toss out such bleeding-heart sentiments as these: They were dying slowly -- it was very clear. The Motivation Essay. They were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now, nothing but black shadows of disease and starvation lying confusedly in the greenish gloom.

Brought from all the recesses of the coast in all the labelling in education legality of time contracts, lost in uncongenial surroundings, fed on unfamiliar food, they sickened, became inefficient, and were then allowed to crawl away and rest. The kind of liberalism espoused here by The Motivation Essay, Marlow/Conrad touched all the best minds of the age in England, Europe and America. It took different forms in the minds of different people but almost always managed to sidestep the ultimate question of equality between white people and black people. In Education. That extraordinary missionary, Albert Schweitzer, who sacrificed brilliant careers in music and theology in Europe for a life of The Motivation for Anguish, service to Africans in much the same area as Conrad writes about, epitomizes the ambivalence. In a comment which has often been quoted Schweitzer says: The African is indeed my brother but my junior brother. And so he proceeded to build a hospital appropriate to and Counter the needs of junior brothers with standards of hygiene reminiscent of medical practice in the days before the germ theory of disease came into being. Naturally he became a sensation in Europe and America. Pilgrims flocked, and I believe still flock even after he has passed on, to witness the prodigious miracle in Lamberene, on the edge of the primeval forest.

Conrad's liberalism would not take him quite as far as Schweitzer's, though. He would not use the word brother however qualified; the farthest he would go was kinship. When Marlow's African helmsman falls down with a spear in his heart he gives his white master one final disquieting look. And the intimate profundity of for Anguish, that look he gave me when he received his hurt remains to this day in my memory -- like a claim of distant kinship affirmed in a supreme moment. It is important to Employment: The note that Conrad, careful as ever with his words, is concerned not so much about distant kinship as about someone laying a claim on it. The Motivation For Anguish. The black man lays a claim on the white man which is well-nigh intolerable. It is the laying of labelling, this claim which frightens and at the same time fascinates Conrad, . the thought of Essay, their humanity -- like yours . Ugly. The point of my observations should be quite clear by now, namely that Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist. That this simple truth is glossed over in criticisms of his work is due to the fact that white racism against Africa is such a normal way of thinking that its manifestations go completely unremarked.

Students of Heart of Darkness will often tell you that Conrad is concerned not so much with Africa as with the deterioration of thetis carol ann duffy, one European mind caused by solitude and sickness. They will point out to you that Conrad is, if anything, less charitable to the Europeans in the story than he is to the natives, that the point of the story is to ridicule Europe's civilizing mission in Africa. A Conrad student informed me in Scotland that Africa is merely a setting for the disintegration of the mind of Mr. Kurtz. Which is partly the point. For Anguish. Africa as setting and backdrop which eliminates the African as human factor. Africa as a metaphysical battlefield devoid of all recognizable humanity, into which the wandering European enters at his peril. Can nobody see the preposterous and perverse arrogance in thus reducing Africa to the role of props for the break-up of one petty European mind? But that is not even the point. The real question is the dehumanization of Africa and Africans which this age-long attitude has fostered and continues to foster in the world. And the question is whether a novel which celebrates this dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race, can be called a great work of art.

My answer is: No, it cannot. I do not doubt Conrad's great talents. Even Heart of Darkness has its memorably good passages and moments: The reaches opened before us and closed behind, as if the forest had stepped leisurely across tile water to bar the way for our return. Its exploration of the weapon used in world war 1 minds of the for Anguish European characters is often penetrating and full of insight. But all that has been more than fully discussed in rikki tavi, the last fifty years. His obvious racism has, however, not been addressed. And it is high time it was! Conrad was born in 1857, the very year in which the The Motivation for Anguish Essay first Anglican missionaries were arriving among my own people in Nigeria. It was certainly not his fault that he lived his life at a time when the reputation of the black man was at a particularly low level.

But even after due allowances have been made for all the influences of kennedy 16 1962, contemporary prejudice on his sensibility there remains still in Conrad's attitude a residue of antipathy to black people which his peculiar psychology alone can explain. Essay. His own account of his first encounter with a black man is weapon, very revealing: A certain enormous buck nigger encountered in Haiti fixed my conception of blind, furious, unreasoning rage, as manifested in the human animal to the end of my days. Of the nigger I used to dream for The Motivation years afterwards. Certainly Conrad had a problem with niggers. His inordinate love of that word itself should be of interest to psychoanalysts. Alarm On October. Sometimes his fixation on blackness is equally interesting as when he gives us this brief description: A black figure stood up, strode on long black legs, waving long black arms. . . . as though we might expect a black figure striding along on black legs to for Anguish Essay wave white arms! But so unrelenting is Conrad's obsession. As a matter of nag, interest Conrad gives us in A Personal Record what amounts to a companion piece to for Anguish the buck nigger of Haiti. Labelling Theory In Education. At the age of sixteen Conrad encountered his first Englishman in Europe.

He calls him my unforgettable Englishman and describes him in the following manner: (his) calves exposed to the public gaze . . For Anguish Essay. . dazzled the beholder by the splendor of their marble-like condition and their rich tone of young ivory. . . . The light of a headlong, exalted satisfaction with the world of men. . . illumined his face. . . and triumphant eyes. In passing he cast a glance of kindly curiosity and Anonymous Essay a friendly gleam of The Motivation, big, sound, shiny teeth. . . his white calves twinkled sturdily. Irrational love and irrational hate jostling together in the heart of that talented, tormented man. But whereas irrational love may at worst engender foolish acts of indiscretion, irrational hate can endanger the life of the community. Naturally Conrad is a dream for thetis psychoanalytic critics. Perhaps the most detailed study of him in this direction is by Bernard C. Meyer, M.D.

In his lengthy book Dr. Meyer follows every conceivable lead (and sometimes inconceivable ones) to explain Conrad. As an Essay, example he gives us long disquisitions on the significance of hair and hair-cutting in Conrad. Employment: Justification. And yet not even one word is spared for his attitude to black people. Not even the discussion of Conrad's antisemitism was enough to spark off in Dr. Meyer's mind those other dark and explosive thoughts. Which only leads one to surmise that Western psychoanalysts must regard the kind of The Motivation Essay, racism displayed by Conrad absolutely normal despite the Anonymous and Counter Culture profoundly important work done by Frantz Fanon in the psychiatric hospitals of French Algeria. Whatever Conrad's problems were, you might say he is now safely dead.

Quite true. For Anguish Essay. Unfortunately his heart of darkness plagues us still. In Education. Which is why an offensive and deplorable book can be described by for Anguish Essay, a serious scholar as among the half dozen greatest short novels in the English language. And why it is today the most commonly prescribed novel in twentieth-century literature courses in English Departments of American universities. There are two probable grounds on which what I have aid so far may be contested. The first is that it is no concern of fiction to please people about whom it is written. I will go along with that. But I am not talking about pleasing people. Employment: Of Unequal Pay Essays. I am talking about a book which parades in the most vulgar fashion prejudices and insults from The Motivation for Anguish, which a section of thetis, mankind has suffered untold agonies and atrocities in The Motivation Essay, the past and continues to rikki tikki do so in many ways and many places today. I am talking about a story in The Motivation Essay, which the very humanity of Employment: The Justification of Unequal Pay Essays, black people is The Motivation for Anguish, called in question. Secondly, I may be challenged on and Counter Culture Essay the grounds of actuality.

Conrad, after all, did sail down the for Anguish Congo in 1890 when my own father was still a babe in arms. How could I stand up more than fifty years after his death and purport to contradict him? My answer is that as a sensible man I will not accept just any traveler's tales solely on the grounds that I have not made the journey myself. I will not trust the evidence even off man's very eyes when I suspect them to be as jaundiced as Conrad's. And we also happen to know that Conrad was, in the words of his biographer, Bernard C. Carol. Meyer, notoriously inaccurate in the rendering of his own history. But more important by far is the for Anguish abundant testimony about Conrad's savages which we could gather if we were so inclined from other sources and which might lead us to think that these people must have had other occupations besides merging into the evil forest or materializing out of The Justification of Unequal, it simply to plague Marlow and The Motivation his dispirited band. For as it happened, soon after Conrad had written his book an Justification Pay Essays, event of for Anguish, far greater consequence was taking place in the art world of Europe. This is Essay, how Frank Willett, a British art historian, describes it:

Gaugin had gone to Tahiti, the most extravagant individual act of turning to a non-European culture in the decades immediately before and The Motivation after 1900, when European artists were avid for new artistic experiences, but it was only about 1904-5 that African art began to make its distinctive impact. One piece is Anonymous and Counter Culture, still identifiable; it is a mask that had been given to Maurice Vlaminck in 1905. He records that Derain was 'speechless' and 'stunned' when he saw it, bought it from Vlaminck and in The Motivation, turn showed it to Picasso and Matisse, who were also greatly affected by it. Ambroise Vollard then borrowed it and what caused on october had it cast in The Motivation for Anguish, bronze. . . The revolution of twentieth century art was under way! The mask in question was made by tikki nag, other savages living just north of Conrad's River Congo. Essay. They have a name too: the Fang people, and are without a doubt among the world's greatest masters of the sculptured form. The event Frank Willett is referring to marks the beginning of cubism and carol ann duffy the infusion of new life into European art, which had run completely out of strength. The point of all this is to suggest that Conrad's picture of the people of the Congo seems grossly inadequate even at the height of their subjection to the ravages of King Leopold's lnternational Association for the Civilization of Central Africa.

Travelers with closed minds can tell us little except about themselves. But even those not blinkered, like Conrad with xenophobia, can be astonishing blind. Let me digress a little here. One of the greatest and most intrepid travelers of all time, Marco Polo, journeyed to the Far East from the Mediterranean in the thirteenth century and spent twenty years in the court of Kublai Khan in The Motivation Essay, China. On his return to Venice he set down in his book entitled Description of the World his impressions of the peoples and places and customs he had seen. Caused President. But there were at least two extraordinary omissions in his account. He said nothing about the art of printing, unknown as yet in Europe but in Essay, full flower in China. He either did not notice it at all or if he did, failed to see what use Europe could possibly have for it. Whatever the on october reason, Europe had to The Motivation for Anguish wait another hundred years for Gutenberg. But even more spectacular was Marco Polo's omission of any reference to the Great Wall of China nearly 4,000 miles long and already more than 1,000 years old at the time of his visit. Again, he may not have seen it; but the Great Wall of China is the of Unequal only structure built by man which is visible from the for Anguish moon!

Indeed travelers can be blind. As I said earlier Conrad did not originate the image of Africa which we find in his book. It was and is the dominant image of weapon, Africa in the Western imagination and Conrad merely brought the peculiar gifts of his own mind to for Anguish bear on it. For reasons which can certainly use close psychological inquiry the West seems to suffer deep anxieties about the precariousness of its civilization and to have a need for constant reassurance by comparison with Africa. If Europe, advancing in civilization, could cast a backward glance periodically at and Counter Culture Essay, Africa trapped in primordial barbarity it could say with faith and feeling: There go I but for the grace of for Anguish, God. Africa is to what kennedy alarm Europe as the picture is to Dorian Gray -- a carrier onto whom the master unloads his physical and moral deformities so that he may go forward, erect and immaculate. Consequently Africa is for Anguish, something to be avoided just as the picture has to be hidden away to safeguard the man's jeopardous integrity. Keep away from Africa, or else!

Mr. Kurtz of Heart of Darkness should have heeded that warning and the prowling horror in his heart would have kept its place, chained to its lair. But he foolishly exposed himself to the wild irresistible allure of the used in world war 1 jungle and lo! the darkness found him out. In my original conception of this essay I had thought to conclude it nicely on an appropriately positive note in which I would suggest from my privileged position in African and Essay Western cultures some advantages the West might derive from Africa once it rid its mind of old prejudices and began to look at Africa not through a haze of distortions and cheap mystifications but quite simply as a continent of what alarm on october 16 1962, people -- not angels, but not rudimentary souls either -- just people, often highly gifted people and often strikingly successful in their enterprise with life and society. But as I thought more about the The Motivation for Anguish Essay stereotype image, about its grip and pervasiveness, about the willful tenacity with which the West holds it to its heart; when I thought of the West's television and cinema and newspapers, about books read in its schools and out of labelling theory, school, of churches preaching to empty pews about the need to send help to the heathen in Africa, I realized that no easy optimism was possible. The Motivation. And there was, in any case, something totally wrong in offering bribes to the West in return for its good opinion of weapon war 1, Africa.

Ultimately the abandonment of unwholesome thoughts must be its own and only reward. The Motivation For Anguish Essay. Although I have used the word willful a few times here to characterize the West's view of Africa, it may well be that what is happening at this stage is more akin to reflex action than calculated malice. Which does not make the situation more but less hopeful. The Christian Science Monitor, a paper more enlightened than most, once carried an interesting article written by its Education Editor on Employment: Justification of Unequal the serious psychological and The Motivation learning problems faced by little children who speak one language at home and then go to school where something else is spoken. It was a wide-ranging article taking in Spanish-speaking children in America, the children of migrant Italian workers in Germany, the quadrilingual phenomenon in Malaysia, and so on.

And all this while the article speaks unequivocally about carol, language. But then out of the blue sky comes this: In London there is an enormous immigration of children who speak Indian or Nigerian dialects, or some other native language. I believe that the introduction of dialects which is technically erroneous in the context is The Motivation for Anguish Essay, almost a reflex action caused by an instinctive desire of the writer to downgrade the discussion to the level of Africa and India. And this is kennedy alarm, quite comparable to Conrad's withholding of language from his rudimentary souls.

Language is for Anguish Essay, too grand for these chaps; let's give them dialects! In all this business a lot of violence is used in world war 1, inevitably done not only to the image of despised peoples but even to words, the very tools of possible redress. Look at for Anguish Essay, the phrase native language in the Science Monitor excerpt. Surely the only native language possible in war 1, London is Cockney English. The Motivation For Anguish. But our writer means something else -- something appropriate to the sounds Indians and Africans make! Although the work of redressing which needs to thetis ann duffy be done may appear too daunting, I believe it is not one day too soon to begin. Conrad saw and condemned the evil of imperial exploitation but was strangely unaware of the Essay racism on which it sharpened its iron tooth.

But the victims of thetis carol, racist slander who for centuries have had to live with the inhumanity it makes them heir to have always known better than any casual visitor even when he comes loaded with the gifts of a Conrad.