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biology exam essay Award 1 for each pair of statements in a table, and 1 for any statement below the table. Analysis Globalization! U =Unique sequences; H = Highly repetitive sequences. U: occur once in genome; H: occur many times; U: long base sequences; H: short sequences/5300 bases; U: (may be) genes; H: not genes; U: (may be) translated/coding sequences; H: never translated; U: small differences between individuals; H: can vary greatly; U: exons (are unique sequences); H: introns (may be repetitive); U: smaller proportion of genome; H: higher proportion of apa cite creator, genome; satellite DNA is globalization, repetitive; repetitive sequences are used for profiling; prokaryotes do not (usually) contain repetitive sequences; 2. Draw a labelled diagram to show four DNA nucleotides, each with a different base, linked together in two strands. About Story: Love! 5 marks. Award 1 for each of these structures clearly drawn and labelled. four nucleotides shown in cartoon globalization diagram with one nucleotide clearly labelled; base, phosphate and deoxyribose (shown as pentagon) connected between the correct carbons and labelled at Essay about and Psychology, least once; backbone labelled as covalent bond between nucleotides correctly shown as 3 to 5 bond; two base pairs linked by hydrogen bonds drawn as dotted lines and labelled; two H bonds between A and T and cartoon analysis globalization three H bonds between C and G; adenine to about of Christianity and Psychology thymine and cytosine to cartoon guanine; do not accept initials of bases antiparallel orientation shown; 3. Explain the structure of the DNA double helix, including its subunits and the way in which they are bonded together. 8 marks. Creator! subunits are nucleotides one base, one deoxyribose and one phosphate in each nucleotide description/ diagram showing base linked to deoxyribose C1 and phosphate to C5 four different bases - adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine nucleotides linked up with sugar-phosphate bonds covalent/ phosphodiester bonds two strands (of nucleotides) linked together base to base A to T and cartoon globalization G to C hydrogen bonds between bases antiparallel strands double helix drawn or described.

4. Outline the structure of the nucleosomes in eukaryotic chromosomes. 4 marks. contain histones eight histone molecules form a cluster in a nucleosome DNA strand is rubin book, wound around the histones wound around twice in each nucleosome (another) histone molecule holds the cartoon analysis globalization, nucleosome(s) together. 5. State a role for each of four different named enzymes in DNA replication. 6 marks. Award 1 mark for apa cite, any two of the following up to 2 marks maximum. Cartoon Analysis! helicase DNA polymerase / DNA polymerase III RNA primase DNA polymerase I (DNA) ligase Award 1 mark for one function for each of the pharmaceutical industry analysis, named enzymes. splits/ breaks hydrogen bonds/ uncoils DNA/ unwinds DNA (DNA) polymerase III adds nucleotides (in 5' to 3' direction) extending existing strand (RNA) primase synthesizes a short RNA primer (which is later removed) on DNA (DNA) polymerase I replaces RNA primer with DNA (DNA) ligase joins Okazaki fragments/ fragments on cartoon analysis globalization lagging strand/ makes sugar-phosphate bonds between fragments. 6. Catharsis Definition! Explain the process of DNA replication. Globalization! 8 marks.

Accept any of the points above shown on an annotated diagram. occurs during (S phase of analysis, ) interphase/in preparation for mitosis/cell division; DNA replication is semi-conservative; unwinding of double helix / separation of strands by helicase (at replication origin); hydrogen bonds between two strands are broken; each strand of cartoon analysis globalization, parent DNA used as template for synthesis; synthesis continuous on leading strand but not continuous on lagging strand; leading to formation of pharmaceutical, Okazaki fragments (on lagging strand); synthesis occurs in cartoon analysis 5 3direction; RNA primer synthesized on parent DNA using RNA primase; DNA polymerase III adds the book, nucleotides (to the 3 end) added according to complementary base pairing; adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine; (Both pairings required. Do not accept letters alone.) DNA polymerase I removes the cartoon, RNA primers and replaces them with DNA; DNA ligase joins Okazaki fragments; as deoxynucleoside triphosphate joins with growing DNA chain, two phosphates broken off releasing energy to form bond; 7. Explain how the rubin book, process of DNA replication depends on the structure of DNA. 9 marks. DNA molecule is double (stranded) hydrogen bonds linking the two strands are weak/ can be broken DNA can split into two strands split by helicase helicase moves progressively down the molecules backbones are linked by covalent/ strong bonds strands do not therefore break/ base sequence conserved reference to cartoon globalization semi-conservative replication base pairing/ sequences are complementary A=T and apa cite C=G the cartoon globalization, two original strands therefore carry the same information the two new strands have the same base sequence as the two original ones the strands have polarity base/ nucleotides added in 5` to analysis essay 3` direction the two strands have opposite polarity discontinuous segments/ Okazaki fragments added to cartoon analysis one strand DNA ligase needed to connect the segments. 8. Describe the genetic code. 6 marks. Essay About Short Story: Father's Love! composed of mRNA base triplets called codons 64 different codons each codes for the addition of an amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain the genetic code is degenerate meaning more than one codon can code for a partiuclar amino acid the genetic code is analysis, universal meaning it is the same in almost all organisms (AUG is the) start codon some (nonsense) codons code for carter book, the end of translation.

9. Discuss the globalization, relationship between genes and polypeptides. 5 marks. originally assumed one gene codes for one polypeptide (one) gene is catharsis definition psychology, transcribed into (one) mRNA mRNA is translated by analysis a ribosome to Essay about Compatibility synthesize a polypeptide many exceptions to one gene -- one polypeptide found many more proteins made than there are genes some genes do not code for polypeptides some genes code for tRNA/rRNA some genes regulate gene expression genetic information transcribed by eukaryotes is analysis globalization, edited before it is translated polypeptides may be altered before they become fully functional proteins. 10. Explain briefly the advantages and apa cite creator disadvantages of the universality of the genetic code to humans. 4 marks. genetic material can be transferred between species/ between humans one species could use a useful gene from another species transgenic crop plants/ livestock can be produced bacteria/ yeasts can be genetically engineered to make a useful product viruses can invade cells and cartoon globalization take over their genetic apparatus viruses cause disease.

11. Compare the Essay about of Christianity and Psychology, processes of DNA replication and transcription. Cartoon Globalization! 9 marks. both involve unwinding the helix both involve spearating the two strands both involve breaking hydrogen bonds between bases both involve complementary base pairing both involve C pairing with G both work in a 5` -- 3` direction both involve linking/ polymerization of nucleotides replication with DNA nucleotides and transcritpion with RNA nucleotides details of catharsis, ribose/ deoxyribose difference adenine pairing with uracil instead of thymine only cartoon, one strand copied not both no ligase/ no Okazaki fragments with transcription DNA or RNA polymerase both require a start signal but this signal is different for each transcripiton has only one starting point but replication has multiple starting points replication gives two DNA molecules whilst transcription gives mRNA. 12. Distinguish between RNA and DNA. 3 marks. DNA is Short Father's, double-stranded while RNA is single-stranded; DNA contains deoxyribose while RNA contains ribose; the base thymine found in DNA is replaced by cartoon analysis uracil in RNA; one form of DNA (double helix) but several forms of critical essay, RNA (tRNA, mRNA and rRNA); 13. Analysis! Describe the roles of mRNA, tRNA and catharsis ribosomes in translation. 6 marks. mRNA with genetic code/ codons tRNA with anticodon tRNA with amino acid attached ribosome with two sub-units mRNA held by ribosome start codon two tRNA molecules attached with mRNA on ribosome peptide bond between amino acids on cartoon globalization tRNA polypeptide forms continues until a stop codon is reached polypeptide is released.

14. Outline the structure of tRNA. 5 marks. Accept any of the points above if clearly explained using a suitably labelled diagram. tRNA is composed of one chain of (RNA) nucleotides tRNA has a position/end/site attaching an amino acid ( reject tRNA contains an Essay Story: Father's amino acid ) at cartoon globalization, the 3' terminal / consisting of CCA/ACC tRNA has an anticodon anticodon of three bases which are not base paired / single stranded / forming part of a loop tRNA has double stranded sections formed by base pairing double stranded sections can be helical tRNA has (three) loops (somethimes with an Essay about Short Father's Love extra small loop) tRNA has a distinctive three dimensional / clover leaf shape. Globalization! 15. Outline the structure of a ribosome. Of Christianity And Psychology! 4 marks. small subunit and large subunit; mRNA binding site on small subunit; three tRNA binding sites / A, P and E tRNA binding sites; protein and RNA composition (in both subunits); 16. Explain the process of analysis globalization, translation. 9 marks. translation involves initiation, elongation/translocation and termination; mRNA binds to industry the small sub-unit of the ribosome; ribosome slides along mRNA to the start codon; anticodon of tRNA pairs with codon on mRNA: complementary base pairing (between codon and anticodon); (anticodon of) tRNA with methionine pairs with start codon / AUG is the start codon; second tRNA pairs with next codon; peptide bond forms between amino acids; ribosome moves along the mRNA by one codon; movement in 5 to globalization 3 direction; tRNA that has lost its amino acid detaches; another tRNA pairs with the next codon/moves into A site; tRNA activating enzymes; link amino acids to specific tRNA; stop codon (eventually) reached; 17.

Compare DNA transcription with translation. 4 marks. both in apa cite 5` to 3` direction both require ATP DNA is globalization, transcribed and mRNA is translated transcription produces RNA and translation produces polypeptides/ protein RNA polymerase for transcription and ribosomes for translation/ ribosomes in translation only transcription in the nucleus (of eukaryotes) and translation in the cytoplasm/ at ER tRNA needed for translation but not transcription.

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nyu why essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in globalization, the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the pharmaceutical industry analysis, philosophers we discuss. Globalization? You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to Essay Short Father's, believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. Cartoon? or: I find that the catharsis definition, following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Cartoon Analysis? Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to psychology, accomplish.

It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for cartoon globalization, consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for critical analysis, the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in globalization, the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to pharmaceutical industry analysis, explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it.

You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an cartoon analysis attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of catharsis definition persuading people, you have to cartoon analysis globalization, start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is industry analysis modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of cartoon globalization it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and catharsis definition which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. Cartoon Globalization? So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace.

The aim of these papers is for critical, you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to globalization, think critically about creator, it. To do this, your paper does have to cartoon, show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. About? There will be plenty of analysis time for that later on. Critical Essay? An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to analysis, come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to apa cite creator, talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper.

When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an cartoon analysis globalization outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is about of Christianity important to think about cartoon analysis, these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an Essay about Love outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to cartoon analysis globalization, say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. Critical Analysis? When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.)

I find that making an cartoon analysis outline is at pharmaceutical industry analysis, least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and cartoon analysis globalization write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for pharmaceutical industry analysis, a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it.

Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of cartoon analysis globalization this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out carter a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another.

I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the globalization, right sort of industry analysis clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles.

Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly!

If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Cartoon Analysis Globalization? Don't throw in Essay of Christianity and Psychology, a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of globalization your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by.

Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. Definition? I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. Cartoon Globalization? I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is.

X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.

So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to apa cite, believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says.

However, this objection does not succeed, for cartoon analysis, the following reason. Analysis? Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and cartoon when you're reporting the views of about of Christianity some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the cartoon, structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the about Compatibility, structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important.

Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the cartoon analysis, first said Don't talk too much, and creator the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to globalization, be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and globalization you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Critical Essay? Prune out everything else. It is always better to globalization, concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an about Story: impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of globalization your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Industry? Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem.

In addition, be sure to say in analysis globalization, the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by rubin carter book explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to analysis, be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to pharmaceutical analysis, protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in cartoon analysis globalization, the first place.

Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and book has not given the globalization, topic much thought in analysis essay, advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning.

For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to cartoon analysis globalization, assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to catharsis psychology, how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person.

Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is globalization a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to rubin book, kill persons, in that sense of analysis globalization person. Catharsis Psychology? On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the author means by analysis person. The author should be explicit about about Father's Love, how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in analysis, ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used.

You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the Story: Father's Love, word person to mean any being which is capable of cartoon analysis rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and apa cite creator chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in cartoon globalization, this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. Catharsis Definition Psychology? And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for analysis globalization, the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of definition your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and analysis then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and pharmaceutical industry then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind.

If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by cartoon analysis globalization the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Industry? Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and analysis globalization Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them.

You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and Essay Short Story: Love necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the analysis, special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in Essay of Christianity, different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the analysis, same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others.

Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to book, be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument.

You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to globalization, it.

Try harder to analysis, figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about analysis globalization, whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Catharsis? Try to figure out what reasonable position the globalization, philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to Essay Compatibility, explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is globalization simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying.

Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about carter, X's views, though. You have to analysis globalization, go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. Apa Cite? It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Analysis? Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of pharmaceutical industry some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to cartoon, quote the passage directly. Essay Short Story: Love? (Be sure to specify where the cartoon analysis, passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is definition seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences.

Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. Cartoon Globalization? When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. Creator? (And here too, cite the cartoon, pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for catharsis definition, your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in globalization, your own words. About Of Christianity And Psychology? If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the analysis, argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to creator, give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused.

Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the analysis, philosopher's own words. Compatibility Of Christianity And Psychology? They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the globalization, perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into rubin carter our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in analysis, the soul. Pharmaceutical? By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and cartoon ideas. Creator? The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the cartoon, most force and catharsis definition psychology violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning.

There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to analysis globalization, express it in creator, his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the analysis globalization, same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the critical essay, following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the analysis, sensory impression one has when looking at about and Psychology, a red apple.

An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the analysis globalization, idea one has of an creator apple while just thinking about analysis, it, rather than looking at it. Essay About Short? It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to cartoon analysis, your own thesis. It is better to carter, bring up an globalization objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of apa cite it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing.

So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the cartoon analysis, paper. Book? But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the cartoon analysis, question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to Essay Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology, the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view.

Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. Cartoon Analysis? It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to about Short Father's, be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to cartoon, provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Rubin Carter Book? Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of cartoon analysis globalization view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. Definition Psychology? This is a plausible view, for globalization, the following reasons.

However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Critical Analysis Essay? Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for cartoon analysis globalization, the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because.

I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in rubin book, establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to cartoon, the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for Essay about Compatibility of Christianity, all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious.

What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Globalization? Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to apa cite, your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the cartoon analysis, room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. Industry? It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it.

Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the cartoon, same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is analysis essay a form of murder.

In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is cartoon globalization able to figure out Essay what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. Globalization? It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and creator mean reader.

If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in analysis, the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to analysis, understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at cartoon analysis, all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Pharmaceutical? Reading the analysis, paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of about Compatibility and Psychology your paper.

At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Cartoon Analysis Globalization? Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. About Father's? They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in cartoon analysis, philosophy.

It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to definition, split an analysis globalization infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the about Story: Father's Love, easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to globalization, better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to about Short Father's, avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on cartoon analysis globalization Mary 's leg before she could get out critical of the way), and cartoon analysis the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to essay, tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is globalization or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to.

You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to analysis, deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the cartoon globalization, papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper.

And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized?

We do not judge your paper by pharmaceutical analysis whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to cartoon analysis globalization, accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to apa cite, the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for cartoon, the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is pharmaceutical analysis it clear what parts of cartoon globalization your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to psychology, understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples?

Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to cartoon, believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the analysis essay, need for globalization, them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in Essay and Psychology, his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all.

Or he could have presented reasons for cartoon globalization, thinking that A is pharmaceutical industry false. Analysis? Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only Essay about Compatibility of Christianity and Psychology correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in analysis globalization, unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the about Short Love, first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is analysis another reason you should try to Essay about of Christianity and Psychology, improve the cartoon analysis, whole paper , not just the passages we comment on.

It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to about and Psychology, raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the cartoon analysis globalization, opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to about Compatibility and Psychology, teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the analysis globalization, draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to carter book, the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of analysis it.

If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in cartoon analysis a while, it can be hard to critical know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for cartoon analysis globalization, the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on Essay Father's, for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of analysis globalization, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.

For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of apa cite, your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since youll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on analysis, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Catharsis Definition? Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the cartoon analysis Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. Critical Analysis? In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on cartoon analysis globalization, the top third of critical analysis essay, your resume.

This top section is what the cartoon analysis globalization hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. Essay About Compatibility Of Christianity? So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to cartoon get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is analysis essay when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the analysis get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and catharsis psychology focus on cartoon analysis globalization, making the rest of of Christianity, your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the analysis good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the rubin book bottom line is thisyou want the information here to globalization be concise, and industry making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. Globalization? If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on rubin carter, more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space?

Do. If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Cant figure out cartoon analysis, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to about Compatibility include some visual examples of cartoon globalization, your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on industry analysis, that document, and then include a link to cartoon analysis your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Well talk about Essay about Story:, getting creative in analysis globalization order to stand out in pharmaceutical industry a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by globalization, using a font size between 10 and Essay about and Psychology 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on cartoon analysis globalization, the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and definition psychology the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and cartoon keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for analysis essay, the hiring manager. Cartoon? That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out analysis, from the cartoon analysis sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an psychology, ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. Cartoon Analysis Globalization? No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.

Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to Compatibility of Christianity make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to cartoon analysis globalization look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the rubin book most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of cartoon, your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying.

And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). Essay Compatibility? 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to cartoon pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of about Compatibility of Christianity, why youre ideal for the job. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in globalization a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of analysis, industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to cartoon analysis globalization be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to analysis essay all of them.

Use as many facts, figures, and cartoon globalization numbers as you can in your bullet points. Psychology? How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to globalization adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the pharmaceutical industry analysis benefit was to globalization your boss or your company. Industry Analysis? By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by cartoon analysis, hiring you. Rubin Book? If youre not sure how to analysis globalization explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Apa Cite Creator? Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for!

20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to cartoon analysis the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Catharsis? Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Cartoon Globalization? We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of critical analysis, jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25.

Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. Analysis? But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewers attention. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from pharmaceutical, college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Analysis Globalization? Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to apa cite creator get the skills you need for your career.

Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Cartoon? Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Carter? Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Analysis? If you have lots of catharsis definition, skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out one of cartoon, those sections and listing it on its own. Essay Compatibility And Psychology? Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on cartoon, a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for apa cite creator, a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for analysis, your church on industry, the reg. Cartoon Analysis Globalization? Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by critical, someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to cartoon analysis globalization include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker?

Zhang shares the critical analysis essay proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at cartoon globalization, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from industry analysis, your resume. According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in cartoon your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at rubin, your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to analysis each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for about Short Love, your sporadic job movement and cartoon make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for catharsis definition, a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.

Then, get into cartoon, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in industry analysis gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is cartoon as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Apa Cite? Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in globalization you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of Essay about Story: Father's, typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to analysis always send a PDF rather than a .doc.

That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Apa Cite Creator? To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in globalization both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and rubin book open it as a preview. Ready to cartoon save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Pharmaceutical Analysis? Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates.

Have you taken on analysis, new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. Apa Cite? And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of analysis globalization, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and pharmaceutical content strategist who is passionate about analysis, elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and catharsis led the companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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Complications of Locked Volar Plates. First posted February 4, 2008 Last updated June 21, 2012. Rationale and globalization Introduction. Volar plating with locked plates has dramatically reshaped the treatment of rubin, distal radius fractures (DRF), as should be evident from the pages of any journal of orthopedics or hand surgery and from the globalization, cases posted on about Compatibility and Psychology, this site in the last few years. Indeed, locked volar plating has created the largest shift in DRF treatment paradigms in this author’s clinical lifetime, specifically related to offering patients the analysis globalization, option of surgical treatment, as an alternative to casting, for early return to Essay, work, lifestyle, and convenience issues. The advances in treatment make it both exciting and challenging to be treating DRF’s at this time. Along with any new technique come new complications, and locked volar plating is no exception. This article will examine complications that are specific to locked volar plating and seek to cartoon globalization, explain them on Essay about of Christianity and Psychology, an anatomic basis. The locked volar approach still remains a mainstay of current treatment, as complications should be able to cartoon globalization, be avoided with careful attention to the details outlined in this article. Complications of locked volar plating reported in pharmaceutical analysis, the literature, at analysis, national and international presentations, in online discussion forums, in the author’s personal cases, and in cases submitted for review to the author, have included: (1) irritation/rupture of dorsal tendons due to pastpointing of distal screws. (2) placement of the distal screws into the radiocarpal joint.

(3) irritation/rupture of Essay Father's, volar tendons due to prominent plates, incomplete reduction, or backing out of distal screws. (4) subsidence of fragments and/or dorsal subluxation of the carpus due to failure to engage the dorsal ulnar fragment. (5) subsidence of fragments and volar subluxation of the carpus due to failure to cartoon, stabilize the volar rim of the lunate facet. (6) failure to support the subchondral bone by placement of the distal screws too proximally. (7) prominent hardware that is clinically palpable volarly due to implant placement too far radially. Other complications which are much less common include: (8) inability to remove a plate/screws due to bony adherence to titanium implants.

Complications that have been reported but are controversial include: (9) tendonitis due to titanium; remains a controversial area due to contradictory basic science studies. The author, in conjunction with Drs. Jorge Orbay and Randi Bindra, has performed 14 cadaveric dissections and examined 39 prepared distal radii. This work served as the of Christianity, basis for the anatomical explanations for these complications. The clinical observations were based on cartoon, estimated collective case lists of 600 personal clinical cases, as well as other cases submitted to the author for review. Analysis of Complications. (1) Tendon Irritation or Rupture or Nerve Injury Due to Pastpointing of Distal Screws.

The dorsal cortex of the distal radius can be thought of as a dihedral surface, being composed of two planes, one radial and one ulnar to Lister’s tubercle. In the MRI view shown, the two surfaces form a dihedral of approximately 140 (Figure 2a; see also Figure 5), neither of which are parallel to the plane of a lateral xray. About And Psychology! Therefore, the lateral xray will not profile either of the dorsal distal radial surfaces. Even if the profile of Lister’s tubercle is ignored, a lateral of the distal radius will not be able to determine if the screw is extending beyond the dorsal cortex (Figure 2b and 2c). In some cases, even intraoperative fluoroscopy may not show the pastpointing, due to cartoon, the height of Lister's tubercle, the depth of the groove for the EPL, or other ridges of bone (Figure 2c). All screws are past the dorsal cortex and into the tendons, but none will be seen as too long on a lateral xray. Note that three screws are past the dorsal cortex and into the tendons. One screw might show up on the lateral, but the definition, treating surgeon thought, even with fluoroscopic views, that none were too long. Note how the cartoon analysis, screw tips are hidden, even on fluoroscopic views. These facts illustrate several concepts.

First, the classical AO teaching has included the concept of “bicortical purchase”, that is, surgeons attempted to obtain fixation into Essay and Psychology the proximal and distal cortices of the bone being plated. A new approach is needed, however, with locked volar plates for the distal radius. Globalization! The “proximal cortex” that needs to be engaged by the screw with a locked plate is the plate , not the volar cortex. The “distal cortex” in the distal radius is NOT the dorsal cortex, which is book, actually very thin. This can be appreciated in the MRI in Figure 1 and on a lateral xray (see Figure 3 and Figure 43). Indeed, the thinness of the analysis globalization, dorsal cortex is easily appreciated during surgery when using the dorsal approach. In addition, together with the common finding of a high degree of comminution in DFR’s makes the dorsal cortex an unsuitable point of fixation for the screws. The true source of stability in locked volar plating of the distal radius is support of the subchondral bone . As originally pointed out by analysis, McQueen, the subchondral bone is cartoon, always thick and strong, even in severely osteoporotic patients. If the distal screws are in carter, contact with the subchondral bone, the articular surface will be supported. Cartoon Globalization! If the distal screws are placed even a few millimeters proximal to the subchondral bone, subsidence is rubin, possible. Therefore, in the context of cartoon analysis globalization, locked volar plating, the catharsis, proximal cortex is the plate and analysis the “distal cortex” is the subchondral bone.

Surgeons need to think of the distal screws in terms of subchondral support, not in terms of bicortical fixation. (Surgeons do not have a learning disability, they have an un -learning disablility. Once they learn a concept or technique that has served them well in creator, the past, they have a hard time unlearning it when it no longer applies.) The second point is globalization, that extensor tendons and definition the posterior interosseous nerve are less than one millimeter away from the dorsal cortex, separated from it by only a thin layer of periosteum (see Figure 1). Pastpointing by only 1 mm will bring the screw into contact with the tendons. The earliest locked volar plates used standard orthopedic screws. Their cutting flutes are on the order of 2-3 mm long (measured along the axis of the screw) and are particularly dangerous. Many of the cartoon analysis, current generation of locked volar plates use custom distal locking screws, with a taper on the leading end on the order of 1 mm and much smaller cutting flutes. Traditional orthopedic practice has been to have the screw pastpoint beyond the pharmaceutical analysis, cutting flutes and/or screw tip taper to obtain optimal purchase on the far cortex.

This practice, if used in locked volar plating, will bring the screw tip into cartoon contact with the extensor tendons or possibly the posterior interosseous nerve (see this case for essay an illustrious example of nerve impingement). Even screws designed without a formal cutting flute will have a tapering thread, in order to start the thread into the bone. This leading edge of the thread can be problematic if it comes in contact with the tendons, which are forced against cartoon, the dorsal cortex whenever the patient performs simultaneous wrist flexion and finger extension, or the nerve, which is also in close proximity to the dorsal cortex, lying on the floor of the fourth compartment. The third point, returning to catharsis definition, an analysis of the distal radial anatomy and the lateral xray, is analysis, that even oblique views of the distal radius, such as obtained with intraoperative minifluoroscopy, cannot easily define the location of the dorsal cortex, due to about Story:, the fact that some tendons, particularly the extensor pollicis longus (ELP), lie in a slight indentation in the dorsal cortex (see Figures 4 and analysis globalization 5). Therefore, even fluoroscopic views may not precisely determine the about Compatibility and Psychology, location of the cartoon analysis globalization, tip of the screw with respect to the dorsal cortex and the adjacent tendon.

Screw tips should stop short of the dorsal cortex by catharsis, approximately 2 to 4 mm to be sure that they do not pastpoint and come in contact with the extensor tendons or the posterior interosseous nerve. A fourth point is that there is no need to attempt to cartoon analysis, place the screws beyond or even close to the dorsal cortex. As observed above, the “distal cortex” is the subchondral bone. Pharmaceutical Analysis! An examination of the lateral xray (Figure 3; see also Figures 42 and 43) shows that the subchondral bone stops several millimeters shy of the dorsal cortex. A screw can fully support the cartoon analysis, subchondral bone and yet stop 2 to 4 mm short of the dorsal cortex. We need an intraoperative guide to screw length. This led to the development of the concept of the dorsal subchondral support line. The purpose of the radius is to position the hand in carter, space.

The functional part of the radius in this context is the subchondral plate, supporting the scaphoid and the lunate. The purpose of a subchondral fixed-angle plate is to support the cartoon globalization, subchondral plate. It does not have to support the entire end of the pharmaceutical industry analysis, distal radius: there is a portion of the radius dorsal to the subchondrondral plate that does not support the lunate or scaphoid (dorsal to the red line in photograph below and compare to Fig 5). Cartoon Globalization! In fact, the cortex here is paper-thin. The subchondral support pins need to support all of the subchondral plate, but not the thin dorsal cortex. If one were to draw a line (see illustration above) parallel to the long axis of the radius and through the dorsal limit of the subchondral bone, this would define the psychology, dorsal subchondral support line. Cartoon! The screw tips need to come to this line but not further dorsally. The dorsal subchondral support line can be determined in the OR by xray. One should not only examine screw length relative to the dorsal subchondral support line on about Compatibility and Psychology, the straight lateral, but also on the semisupinated view (which shows the radial portion of the dorsal cortex and should be aligned with the green line) and the semipronated view (which shows the ulnar portion of the dorsal cortex and should be aligned by the blue line).

Note that the subchondral bone on both of these views does not extend to the dorsal cortex. A 65 YO woman fell and sustained a DRF. A locked volar plate was placed and globalization intraoperative fluoroscopy (Figure 6) was interpreted as showing proper distal screw placement: just below the subchondral bone, out of the joint, and analysis screw tips just below the dorsal cortex. Plain films (facet PA and facet lateral) were taken (Figure 7a and b) and cartoon analysis interpreted as slight ulnar placement of the Story: Father's, plate, but good purchase on the dorsal ulnar corner and adequate purchase of the radial styloid, on analysis globalization, the PA; and good placement of the distal screws: just below the subchondral bone, out of the joint, and screw tips just below the dorsal cortex, on the facet lateral. Figure 7a (left) and Figure 7b (right, a lateral facet view) Followup plain films in the office, probably with a slightly different rotation, indicated that the screw tips were just penetrating the dorsal cortex, but seemed appropriate at the time unpon review by catharsis psychology, several orthopedic surgeons (see Figure 8).

However, the patient complained about cartoon analysis globalization wrist stiffness and pain, more than most patients. Analysis! There was absolutely no localizing tenderness along the dorsal radius to suggest screw prominence, and there was no irritation with finger range of motion. After several visits without improvment in cartoon analysis, symptoms or change in the physical exam to suggest screw prominence, a CT scan was obtained (Figure 9). The CT scan clearly shows that the screws are extending beyond the dorsal cortex. The screws are 2.7 mm in diameter, so they are extending about about of Christianity and Psychology 3 mm dorsal to analysis, the radius. Note the dihedral angle of the two dorsal surfaces, as well as the fact that the screws seem to be lying in a depression such that fluoroscopic views might not reveal their prominence.

The patient was taken to the operating room, where the screws were found to be just a few mm beyond the dorsal cortex. Unfortunately, no photographs were taken by the surgeon. These three views are of analysis essay, a different but very similar case. Note how much tendon damage was done (Figure 10). The sobering finding, however, is that the damage was done by a screw with only 1 mm of pastpointing (Figure 12) in precisely the wrong place: directly below the EPL tendon (Figure 11).

Even minimal pastpointing can be disastrous if positioned in cartoon analysis globalization, exactly the wrong place. Each screw in the distal row of the and Psychology, locked volar plate requires unique consideration. The radial styloid screw is at the greated angle, with its axis oriented radially. Cartoon Analysis Globalization! The length of this screw requires a fluoroscopic view of the dorso-radial surface of the radius, not the dorsal surface, and is always the shortest screw. The screw in the most ulnar position has the greatest requirement for accuracy of placement, due to the nature of the dorsal-ulnar corner fragment. The central screw holes require the most accurate determination of length compared to the dorsal cortex (unless one is rubin carter, attempting rigid internal fixation of the extensor pollicis longus tendon!).

Bear in mind these unique characteristics as the fluoroscopic evaluation of the distal row is performed, pronating and analysis globalization supinating the forearm. Nerve Injury Is Also A Possibility. There is also the possibility of a past-pointing screw hitting the posterior interosseous nerve, causing severe pain. The nerve lies on the ulnar side of the floor of the fourth dorsal compartment, right against analysis, the radius. See Figure 1: the posterior interosseous nerve and an artery can be seen just ulnar to the extensor tendons. See also this case. 1 mm) can lead to analysis, tendon or nerve injury. It is recommended to have the screw tips 2 to 4 mm short of the dorsal cortex on the lateral xray. (2) Placement of the Distal Screws into the Radiocarpal Joint. The distal screws should support the subchondral bone, requiring the placement of the plate as distally as possible, and yet not so far as to place the screws into the joint.

Is the plate distal enough, with the catharsis definition psychology, subchondral bone optimally supported? Is the plate too distal, with a screw into cartoon analysis the joint? This is the intraoperative quandry we face each time we place a locked volar plate. Intraoperative fluoroscopy is book, routinely used to assess the location of the screws. Cartoon Globalization! In conventional fracture management, true PA and definition lateral xrays have normally been obtained. These views have been adequate prior to the advent of locked volar plating. However, the need for screw placement immediately under the globalization, subchondral bone, yet not into catharsis definition the joint, has led to a need for a level of precision not previously required (on the analysis globalization, order of pharmaceutical analysis, a mm or two), and true lateral radiography has been found to frequently be misleading. How can we obtain the accuracy the new technique demands? The anatomy of the distal radius provides the analysis, answer. Figure 13 is the PA view of definition, a normal distal radius (although there is an analysis globalization ulnar plus variant).

The articular surface is curved, but if it is approximated as a straight line, it is rubin, tilted approximately 21. The true lateral of the radius, therefore, does not profile the cartoon, scaphoid and lunate facets, but views them on creator, at a 21 angle. Cartoon! If the forearm is tilted by approximately 21, the facets can be seen in true lateral profile, and the view is apa cite, called the lateral facet view. True lateral view. Facet lateral view. Figure 14 is a true lateral, appearing to cartoon analysis globalization, show penetration of the joint space by several screws, and flagrant violation of the joint space by the radial styloid screw. However, the screw position resolves with a facet lateral view (Figure 15), with the majority of the screws nicely supporting the subchondral bone. The distal articular surface of the radius has an catharsis definition 11 degree volar tilt. Cartoon! A true PA view of the critical analysis, radius, therefore, will give a tangential view of the scaphoid and lunate facets.

A true PA of the cartoon, facets can only be seen with an 11 degree tilt of the radius. This is called the definition, PA facet view . Many true PA views will seem to show the screw tips extending into the joint. A facet PA (Figure 16) will show that their true location. Analysis Globalization! In practice, both the catharsis, facet PA and the facet lateral are used. (3) Irritation or Rupture of Volar Tendons due to Prominent Plates or Backing Out of Distal Screws. Some of the early locked volar plates and some of the cartoon globalization, first versions of current plates were more prominent than some of the other current generation plates. The Synthes volar 2.4/2.7 distal radius plate, colloquially called the “volar Π plate” , was a great innovation, but had the disadvantages of both raised margins around the screw holes and sharp edges because the width needed to be trimmed to size. When selecting a locked volar plate, be sure that it is properly pre-contoured, low profile, and smooth on Essay Story:, its distal margin. Plate placement can also effect the tendons.

If the plate is placed too distally, the flare of the volar rim of the joint will cause the plate to be prominent along its distal margin. The plate should not extend beyond the watershed line (yellow line in Figure 17a), a term coined by cartoon, Jorge Orbay that refers to the line at the highest (most volar) margin of the radius. This will be the part of the radius (or plate) that is closest to the flexor tendons and therefore at greatest risk of injuring them. If the plate is placed too radially, a tuberosity called the about Compatibility of Christianity, volar radial tuberosity (see footnote 1), will raise up the analysis, radial margin. The tuberosity is easily palpated approximately 2 cm proximal to the volar tuberosity of the scaphoid (which is known to most surgeons in conjunction with the Watson test) and on apa cite, the most radial aspect of the globalization, wrist. A plate placed too radially can become both clinically palpable (“Doc, is this bump supposed to be here?

It wasn’t there before the surgery!”) and possibly a problem for the tendons, usually the flexor pollicis longus. If the plate is rubin, placed too ulnarly and has a flat profile across its distal margin, a bony feature called the lunate facet buttress (indicated by the red x in Figure 17b; see footnote 1) will raise up the ulnar margin. The lunate facet buttress is a bony area just proximal to the lunate facet. Globalization! The lunate facet projects several millimeters volarly more than the scaphoid facet (Figure 5), and rubin carter is supported by the lunate facet buttress, which varies in size from a millimeter to several millimeters. Some plates (Hand Innovations, Orthofix, and Acumed; see disclosure at the end of this article) are contoured to fit over the lunate facet buttress and still have the plate flat on the volar surface of the radius.

The more distally a plate is placed and the larger the buttress is, the more relevant a contour in analysis globalization, the plate becomes. 31 YO male fell off a boat onto a dock and catharsis definition sustained a DRF. He had had a prior DRF at age 15, with some residual deformity. A locked volar plate that is well-contoured to fit a normal distal radius was placed in cartoon analysis globalization, February of 2006. The volar surface of the radius was flatter than normal due to his prior fall, and since the plate was contoured to fit a normal radius, it did not fit well distally. The pronator quadratus was securely closed over the plate. Postoperatively, at about 3-4 months, he complained of volar wrist pain with wrist extension and when he was carrying something very heavy. The patient developed paresthesias at 5 months.

Surgical exploration was carried out at 7 months due to continuing symptoms. Damage was found to two tendons (Figure 20) but no rupture. There was a hole in the pronator quadratus and psychology the plate was visible and cartoon analysis felt to definition, be prominent. Cartoon Analysis Globalization! The intraoperative assessment by the surgeon was that the properly pre-contoured plate did not fit the abnormal radius and that the screw holes felt “sharp” to his evaluation. The plate was removed and the symptoms resolved. (In addition, I have spoken to the manufacturer and about confirmed that this was an early generation design. Globalization! The design has undergone a number of improvements, such that there is less chance for screw hole “sharpness”. The author is essay, not associated with this company or plate.) 61 YO female bus driver fell in the schoolyard and sustained a volar Barton’s fracture in April of 2001 (Figures 21 and 22). A volar Π plate (Pi plate; interestingly, this name was never used by Synthes, but was given to the plate by cartoon, the community of carter book, users, due to the shape of the dorsal plate that was released at cartoon, the same time and in the same set) was placed to buttress the industry analysis, fracture (Figure 23 and 24).

The fracture was incompletely reduced and the plate’s distal edge was therefore prominent. The patient developed a wrist ache with forceful use beyond 2 hours, which was attributed to her radioscaphoid arthritis. She developed subsidence of the scaphoid into the radius with cystic degeneration within a year (Figure 25), had an ache in her wrist, and retired as a bus driver. In January of 2007, six years after surgery, she presented with the sudden onset of an inability to flex her thumb IP joint, wrist swelling and wrist tenderness. Xrays showed no progression of the subsidence of the scaphoid into the radius, resolution of the cystic degeneration, and that the plate continued to be prominent volarly.

The diagnosis was made of globalization, a flexor pollicis longus rupture due to rubbing on the distal edge of the prominent plate. Pharmaceutical! At surgery, the plate was found to be covered by a dense layer of scar tissue, except at one point. Cartoon Analysis Globalization! The most radial distal screw (there was one empty hole to the radial side of this screw) was easily seen through a rent in the scar tissue. The cruciate head of the apa cite creator, screw was felt to be contributory. The tendon was grafted with a strip of flexor carpi radialis, as there was no palmaris longus. The bone had overgrowth the plate, but the titanium screws and plate were not firmly bonded to the bone and were removed without problem. She regained excellent range of motion of the thumb. This is the cartoon globalization, plate removed from analysis, this case (Figure 30). It is a second-generation volar Π plate. The screw holes are surrounded by a raised lip that is high-profile and cartoon globalization the distal margin of the plate has a sharply squared-off end.

The screws had cruciate heads (see Figure 29). Rubin Carter! Cruciate heads can form razor-sharp edges if the screw driver slips out of the head while seating the cartoon, screw. The current generation Synthes locked volar plates are much improved, and Essay Love all have rounded edges, are lower profile, and use hex or torx screw heads. There seems to be an advantage to covering the plate with the pronator quadratus (PQ) in cartoon, order to critical analysis, interpose the muscle between the plate and the flexor tendons. During the initial dissection, most surgeons incise the analysis, PQ distally at the edge of the muscle fibers. This line is referred to as the PQ line (see footnote 1).

After plate placement, most surgeons repair the PQ muscle. However, the thinness of the fascia of the critical analysis essay, muscle makes this an exercise in futility, as the sutures typically rip out before the next layer is closed. Cartoon Analysis Globalization! One technique that has proven to be quite secure is to Essay about Short Love, release the PQ during the cartoon globalization, original dissection not along the margin of the muscular fibers (the PQ line), but 1-2 mm beyond the PQ line, into the fibrous tissue proximal to the volar capsule. This fibrous tissue, termed the Essay Father's Love, fibrous transition zone (see footnote 1), has been determined in cadaveric dissections not to be part of the mobile volar wrist capsule (comprised of the radioscaphoid, radiocapitate, long radiolunate, and short radiolunate ligaments), but to cartoon analysis globalization, be immobile and attached to the distal margin of the radius. It is felt that incising the fibrous transition zone should not add unnecessarily to book, wrist capsular scarring or wrist joint stiffness.

Continue the dissection radially 1-2 mm into the fibrous tissue at the base of the first dorsal compartment. If this is done, there will be a 1-2 mm thick, strong margin along the edge of the PQ muscle. This margin will securely hold the sutures and the PQ will remain in place, serving as an interpositional layer between the plate and the flexor tendons. (4) Subsidence of Fragments and/or Dorsal Subluxation of the Carpus due to Failure to Engage the Dorsal Ulnar Fragment. The dorsal ulnar corner of the cartoon globalization, radius cannot be neglected, due to the fact that it serves as the pharmaceutical industry analysis, attachment point for the dorsal portion of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) ligament. Forearm rotation exerts a very strong force on the dorsal ulnar fragment and can easily displace it. The dorsal ulnar fragment is usually not well visualized on either the PA or the lateral view, and oblique views are needed to assess it. Cartoon! Good screw purchase may be a challenge for catharsis psychology such fragments with the volar approach. One should be prepared mentally for this challenge: either get good fixation with the cartoon analysis globalization, most ulnar screw in the distal row or place a small dorsal, fragment-specific plate.

A 20 YO male fell from a mountain bike and sustained bilateral wrist injuries. Xrays demonstrated bilateral DRF’s and a right scaphoid fracture. The left wrist is shown in Figures 30 and 31. The xrays indicated a fracture of the dorsal ulnar corner, so oblique views were obtained to assess its displacment (Figure 33). The oblique view much better demonstrated the size and displacement of the dorsal ulnar corner.

The opposite pharmaceutical industry, wrist had a very similar DRF in addition to the scaphoid waist fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed for cartoon analysis all three fractures. A locked volar plate was supplemented with a dorsal .062 K-wire to hold the left radius. Once the radius was fixed, DRUJ stability was assessed and apa cite creator found to be unstable. This was attributed to the ulnar styloid fracture. This was fixed with a .045 K-wire and figure-of-eight wire in a tension band configuration (Figures 34-36).

The patient was seen at one week and xrays obtained (Figures 37-39). The follow-up views demonstrated displacement of the cartoon analysis globalization, dorsal ulnar corner, in a manner identical to pharmaceutical analysis, the original injury (Figures 36-38). Cartoon Globalization! A critical review of the immediate post-op films shows that the dorsal ulnar corner was not fixed with the volar plate and that the K-wire fixation was not stiff enough alone to resist the deforming forces. One could also speculate that the instability of the industry analysis, DRUJ was entirely or in part due to the dorsal ulnar corner rather than the ulnar styloid fracture. It was felt that the instability had a chance of progressive subsidence, and cartoon analysis globalization further fixation was required. Catharsis Definition! (The opposite wrist had an identical subsidence and was also re-operated.) The patient was returned to analysis globalization, the operating room where a dorsal plate was placed through a dorsal incision (Figures 40-42). This reduction was maintained and at one year the patient had good motion with little to no pain. (5) Subsidence of Fragments and Volar Subluxation of the Carpus due to Failure to Stabilize the Volar Rim of the Lunate Facet. Small volar rim fragments are difficult to stabilize and experience has shown that they are easily underestimated.

Common mistakes are to place the plate too radially, too proximally, or to choose a technique or plate that cannot stabilize the volar rim of the lunate. Figure 42 is the lateral view of a dried radius from the ulnar side, and Figure 43 is an xray of that specimen in approximately the same projection (the scaphoid and lunate facets are overlapping in rubin book, the dried radius but offset in globalization, the xray). Figure 44 identifies several anatomic features. The key point is Father's, that the lunate facet projects quite a bit volarly (see also Figure 2), and that the center of the facet is directly over the volar aspect of the radius. It is not over cartoon globalization the center of the medullary canal. The load from the Essay of Christianity, carpus places a force on the lunate facet that has a component that is distinctly volarly-directed. Cartoon! This, combined with the extent of volar projection of the lunate facet, makes lunate rim fractures very unstable. No locked volar plate extends to the volar lip of the pharmaceutical analysis, lunate facet.

The one that comes the closest is the Synthes 2.4 LCP Volar Juxta-Articular Distal Radius Plate. Most designs do not want to extend that far past the watershed line and risk injuring the cartoon, flexor tendons, and how far a plate should extend distally is carter book, controversial. However, in the case of a fracture of the cartoon, volar lip of the lunate facet, some kind of stabilization is required, and some violation of the watershed line is needed. Various techniques have been used or proposed, including using the apa cite creator, Synthes Juxta-Articular plate, placing a standard plate more distally, using a fragment-specific approach, or K-wires. The effectiveness of analysis globalization, each approach depends on the fragment size, the technique used, and the actual shape of the implant. The Synthes Juxta-Articular plate or the fragment specific approaches are probably the most common, but each have their limitations. The Synthes plate unnecessarily extends beyond the watershed line for the scaphoid facet, which does not need support. The fragment specific approach is less stable and more complex to apply. A19 YO male fell sustaining a DRF. Xrays showed a very distal volar lip fracture of the radius and slightly rotated radial styloid fracture, with just enough volar subluxation of the lunate to suggest volar instability (Figures 46 and 47). A CT scan (Figure 48) and CT reconstruction with the carpus removed (Figure 49) confirmed the size, shape, and location of the fragments, as well as the analysis, volar subluxation of the lunate.

It was felt that a standard locked plate would not stabilize this fracture, and a fragment-specific technique was used (Figures 50 and 51). Another clinical case, with a more complex fracture, was stabilized with a similar technique. (6) Placement of the Distal Screws too Proximally and cartoon Failing to Support the Subchondral Bone. Older patients with severe osteoporosis are a challenge to treat. Locked volar plates take advantage of the Short Father's, two strongest areas of bone, which are the volar cortex just proximal to cartoon analysis globalization, the metaphyseal bone and the subchondral bone. Figure 43 is an critical analysis essay xray of an osteoporotic bone in the author’s collection.

The bone is quite fragile. Cartoon! However, the xray clearly demonstrates that these two areas are the most dense, with little bone showing in the dorsal cortex of the creator, metaphyseal bone or a few mm proximal to cartoon globalization, the subchondral bone. Apa Cite Creator! While distal screws can support the joint several mm away from the subhcondral bone in younger patients, they need to be placed distally in the osteoporotic patient. If the screws are several millimeters away from the subchondral bone, they may settle thorough the cancellous metaphyseal bone until they reach the subchondral bone. Cartoon Globalization! The author is not aware of any case in which the distal screws have settled through the subchondral bone. (7) Prominent Hardware that is Clinically Palpable Volarly due to psychology, Implant Placement too far Radially. Palpate the volar radial tuberosity (Figure 44) in your own wrist.

It is 2 cm proximal to the volar tuberosity of the scaphoid (the part of the scaphoid where you push for the Watson test), at the most radial border of the wrist. It is quite subcutaneous, with little overlying fat. Plates that are placed too radially can be easily palpated by the patient. Care must be taken, prior to the drilling for the first screw, to assess the plate placement. Most plate systems have methods to globalization, hold the plate in place while the catharsis, placement is assessed radiographically, either K-wire holes or drill guides that accept K-wires.

Once the position of the plate is tentatively determined, remove the retractors, replace the skin edges, and cartoon analysis palpate the skin over the volar radial tuberosity. Move the plate if required. (8) Inability to Remove a Plate/Screws due to Bony Adherence to Titanium Implants. There have been reports of titanium screws being so firmly bonded to the bone that the heads shear off, the driver tip shears off, or the pharmaceutical, head strips out. The surgeons have had to resort to cartoon analysis, breaking the definition, implants and burring off any projecting screw remnants.

This point remains controversial. Some authors recommend the use of stainless steel implants to cartoon globalization, avoid bonding and book screw breakage, and others claim that there is analysis, no chemical bonding between bone and titanium. It is interesting to observe the competing claims of two groups with very different agendas: the trauma companies deny that bonding to critical essay, their titanium implants exists, while at the same time the total joint companies tout the cartoon analysis globalization, strength of the bonding to their titanium implants. About Father's! Many surface treatments, from polishing to chemical treatment or hydroxyapetite coating, have been tried to avoid or enchance bonding. The controversy does not seem to have a resolution at this time, and there does not seem to be a clear reason to avoid titanium locked volar plates. In the one case of late titanium plate removal in the author’s experience, at six years after implantation (case cited above, involving a second-generation Synthes titanium plate, Figures 28-30), all screws were easily removed, once the bony overgrowth covering the screw heads was removed. (9) Tendonitis due to cartoon, Titanium.

Tendonitis due to catharsis, titanium is even more controversial than the inability to remove titanium screws due to bonding. Some authors of animal studies report finding titantium synovitis that is more than found with stainless steel, while others report the opposite. The influence of synovial fluid on the formation of tendonitis is also controversial. My personal experience, with volar titanium plates in for from one to six years, is that I have not seen synovitis. At this time, there does not seem to be a clear reason to avoid titanium locked volar plates. Here are some suggestions to analysis globalization, avoid complication and to improve your results: (1) Nothing is about Short Father's, so humbling as reviewing your own cases two or so years later. Be brutal in your criticisms. (2) Perform a cadaveric dissection.

When you know you don’t have to analysis globalization, repair anything and the exposure can be exceedingly wide, a lot of Essay about Story:, new lessons will be learned. Our normal exposure windows hide as much as they reveal. (3) Obtain and study a distal radius. You can’t reconstruct a bone if all you look at cartoon, are shadows (xrays) and microviews (surgical exposures). I have kept one on my desk for 14 years (seen in Figures 4, 5, and 42), and creator this one bone has taught me a treasure-trove of lessons. Footnote 1 These terms have been proposed by David Nelson, Jorge Orbay, and Randi Bindra, in an article in submission to the Journal of Hand Surgery, American.

See this article on analysis, eRadius. Disclosure: the author has designed a locked volar plate and receives royalties related to that plate. The author would like to acknowledge the contribution of Drs. Jorge Orbay and Randi Bindra for the development of the new anatomic terms, and Drs. Carter! Kendrick Lee, Stefan Zachary, Michael Grafe, and Rob Medoff for the contribution of clinical material.

The author is actively solicting the submission of complications, so that they can be collated, analyzed, and disseminated to cartoon globalization, the surgical community. Contact the author at.

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Social Studies Matters: Another cartoon on

christine essay Was Christine de Pizan a feminist? Considering the word feminist evolved more than four hundred years after her lifetime, it is somewhat difficult to measure. However, her outlook on womens issues is very similar to a mode of feminism that existed at the outset of the movement in the 1890s. Relational feminists believed that there were physiological and cultural distinctions between the sexes, and adhered to the concepts of womanly or manly nature, and to a sharply defined sexual division of globalization, labor in the family and throughout society (Offen 338). Similarly, Christine did not seek political, economic nor social equality for women, as is demanded by modern feminists, but instead respect for womens designated roles in her society.

She believed that womens roles were distinct from mens. Christine herself, however, lived a life idealized by many modern feminists that was totally contradictory to that of the typical female of her time, as the sole earner and head of the household. Essay Father's. She was the first known French (and possibly European) woman to make her living by cartoon analysis globalization her pen, which she did to support her family and to create a more positive view of women in late fourteenth and early fifteenth century France. In the definition psychology following paragraphs, I will explore Christines life and works in an attempt to globalization, ascertain the creator extent of her feminist leanings. Unlike many women of her time, Christine was very well educated. Being an analysis globalization only child no doubt helped. Educated by rubin carter her father in spite of her mother's objections, Christine was happily married at age 15 to cartoon globalization, tienne du Castel, a royal secretary, who encouraged her to Compatibility, continue her studies (Sunshine for Women). Globalization. Widowed when she was only twenty-five years old, she was forced to analysis essay, support herself, her three children, her mother and globalization, her niece a daunting task indeed for anyone, particularly a woman during that time. Her husband died in an epidemic in 1390, preceded by her fathers death three years earlier, leaving her the head of a household with few assets and no income. Her main priority was to provide for the household and to secure her childrens futures.

At this point her role as provider and mother came before all else, even though she had begun to write and circulate her poetry, and may even have been, like her husband, a scribe to apa cite creator, the French court. It was through her poetry that she became acquainted with the analysis globalization earl of Salisbury, who was a patron of literature and who offered to take her son Jean into his household in England as a companion for his own son (Willard, Life 42). This was a typical form of aristocratic education in this period. Book. By doing this, it is likely that she believed that she had thus secured her sons future because Salisbury enjoyed an especially favored place with the analysis globalization then ruler of England, Richard II (Willard, Life 42). She wrote the Moral Teachings and the Moral Proverbs for rubin, Jean in an attempt to analysis globalization, morally guide him while he lived away from her under the catharsis supervision of others: Son, I have no great treasure. To make you rich, but a measure.

Of good advice which you may need; I give it hoping youll take heed. Later in cartoon analysis the same work, she advises him not to believe all the bad things that are said about women and hopes that he will meet one that is about Father's, good and sweet (Willard, Writings 59). Next, it was time for Christine to secure her daughters future. She did not have the cartoon money for a dowry, which all girls were required to have, and so was delighted when Marie was accepted into the royal Dominican convent at Poissy (Willard, Life 43). This was a particularly prestigious convent where only well-born children were admitted and then only with the authorization of the King, who provided dowries for a certain number of these young women (Willard, Life 43).

Christine wrote The Tale of Poissy to describe a visit she paid to her daughter at the convent. Christines third child, who was a boy, died in unknown circumstances. Like most mothers, whether feminists or non-feminists, Christines priority was her childrens welfare. Psychology. She secured their welfare before attempting to secure the welfare of the women of France, which during that time was in need of some attention: women were severely ridiculed in the fabliaux (popular anti-feminist stories of the time); wife beating was allowed under canon law; and women were described by the clergy as the gate of hell (Power 3). She began to do this by writing the cartoon LEpistre au Dieu dAmours in 1399, which was a defense of women to Essay and Psychology, counter the courtly love attitudes of the time, which were in many respects, defamatory toward women in cartoon Christines view. Essay About Short Story:. In this work, ladies from cartoon analysis, all social classes complain to Cupid about pharmaceutical analysis, their detractors (Richards xxii). Christine presents herself as Cupids secretary, who is relating a letter from him, which states that all men who speak falsely about globalization, women are banished from his court (Willard, Life 62).

Her specific argument focused on the popular works of misogynist writers such as, Ovid, a classical author, whose works remained popular in rubin the Middle Ages, and Jean de Meun, a contemporary of Christines. According to Lula McDowell Richardson in The Forerunner of Feminism in French Literature of the Renaissance , Christines argument is surprising: Her method of attack is rather unexpected, for far from arguing that women are equal in intelligence, culture and education to men, or demanding for them equal privileges educationally or politically, she begins by stating that those who are combining to slander and malign her sex are guilty of base ingratitude. She goes on to say that women look after men from the cradle to the grave and that men should be grateful for this lifelong care, instead of rudely speaking ill of globalization, women (Richardson 16). Christine is clearly propagating what later became an catharsis definition psychology important part of relational feminism by emphasizing the complimentary roles of women and men; far from seeking equality between the cartoon sexes, she merely sought acknowledgement and respect for womens roles as they were constructed at that time.

Womens Roles in critical essay the 15 th Century. The clergy and the aristocracy were primarily responsible for constructing these roles for cartoon analysis globalization, women. According to Eileen Powers Medieval Women , the expressed opinion of any age depends on pharmaceutical industry, the persons and cartoon analysis, the classes who happen to Essay Story: Father's Love, articulate it; in the Middle Ages what passed for contemporary opinion at that time came from two sources the Church and the aristocracy (1). Whilst women were responsible predominantly for child rearing and household duties, they also held roles outside the home. Wives of tradesmen were often trained in their husbands trade and continued the business on his death, and in fact, many women were active in separate trades while their husbands were still alive. Globalization. The term femmes soles was established for such women, so that they could be held personally responsible; i.e., her husband could not be held responsible for rubin, her debts as he otherwise would be (Power 51). Analysis Globalization. Similarly, noble ladies held responsible positions involving the running of vast homes with large staffs, and also large family estates in their husbands absence. While most of these roles confined women to being helpers of men (apart from femmes soles), Christine tried to apa cite creator, ensure that women earned respect for these roles instead of analysis globalization, being painted with the same brush as the minority of females who may have been manipulative and frivolous.

Here, however, Christine seems to differ from the relational feminists of the 1890s, who viewed the female-male relationship as non-hierarchical (McMillan). Christine wrote in essay LEpistre au Dieu dAmours that, woman is the ever present aid of man (qtd. in Richardson 16). Click on analysis globalization, the image to go to analysis, Excerpt from The Romance of the Rose. Christines next journey on her crusade to cartoon globalization, end the ridicule and belittlement of women was her involvement in a controversial debate with proponents of the misogynist work Le Roman de la Rose , which developed out of LEpistre au Dieu dAmours . Written in rubin book part by Jean de Meun, and supported by Jean de Montreuil, a royal secretary and humanist, the poem described women as passive objects who are frivolous, weak and manipulative. Christine writes in Epistres du dbat sur le Roman de la Rose that if women are so weak and frivolous, then why was it necessary for writers to have written such lengthy treatises on how to capture a womans love (for why should skill and globalization, force be necessary to definition psychology, capture something weak and easy to take? (qtd. in Richardson 19). Globalization. This debate initiated the three-century long debate on the status of women known as the Querelle des femmes (Sunshine for definition, Women). It was the first time a woman defended her sex at this intellectual level. Cartoon Analysis Globalization. Christine stood alone in her ability to communicate with the male intellectuals of her time, sometimes using a pretended modesty and humility, which enabled her to get through to the previously closed minds of patriarchal fifteenth century French society (Richardson 20). Clearly she had a large task on her hands.

Unlike the relational feminists who followed her, who were able to attempt such feats as the dismantling of rubin, patriarchal institutions, Christine had to cartoon, use her wiles merely to Essay about Story: Father's, achieve respect for women (Offen 332). Click on the image to go to cartoon analysis globalization, Excerpt from The Book of the City of analysis, Ladies. She continued her battle for recognition of womens positive attributes in 1405 with two of her most famous works: The Book of the City of cartoon globalization, Ladies , and essay, its sequel, The Book of Three Virtues . The Book of the City of Ladies is an impassioned defense of women against misogynistic attacks by men, which uses reason and logic, and analysis globalization, includes accounts of famous, important, and historic women (Sunshine for Women). She begins by lamenting that she is a woman, because women are seen to be such vile creatures, but then reason prevails, and Christine sees that it is society and Essay Story:, the philosophers, who debate about the analysis rights and wrongs of society, who say women are vile. Such philosophical discussions are of course not foolproof and to illustrate this, Christines voice of reason says, Notice how these same philosophers contradict and criticize one another (7). The Book of the City of Ladies addresses many questions concerning the differences between the sexes which are still controversial today, for example, the lack of, or minority status of, women in the sciences, and creator, the relative differences in body strength between the sexes. Christine ascertains that womens ignorance of science has nothing to do with natural ability, but instead with the fact that society does not promote womens education in this field, which results in analysis scientific studies being withheld from them. She says that their natural ability is, in rubin carter book fact, equal to mens (Willard, Life 139).

She refers to the differences in cartoon analysis globalization body strength between the sexes as being compensatory in nature, i.e., that women may be physically weaker than men, but they have other attributes that compensate for this. She deduces this by starting out saying that women have weak bodies, tender and feeble in deeds of strength, and are cowards by nature (36). Critical. But then reason prevails, again in the form of the fictitious Lady Reason, who says that nature compensates for such weaknesses, using Aristotle as an example of a brilliant mind, with a physical deformity of one eye lower than the other and with a strange face (36). Analysis. Again, it comes across how ahead of her time Christine was, considering these very topics remain contentious to the present day, seven centuries later. The current controversy has the benefit of scientific and sociological research behind it, which show on the one hand that, men have more fibers in the reasoning areas which may make them more naturally suited to disciplines such as mathematics and engineering, but on the other hand that, biological differences explain general tendencies, not specific social behaviors (Parillo, Stimson, Stimson 227).

Christine spoke about other issues that resonate today: lack of access to education for women, the disappointment women sometimes feel at the birth of Essay about Short Story: Love, a daughter, the accusation that women invite rape, the idea that women can be pretty and cartoon globalization, enjoy fine clothes without forfeiting their title to chastity, violence in marriage, drunken beatings, and spendthrift husbands (Sunshine for Women). She defended women when no one else dared or even thought of rubin carter book, doing so. Such insight and bravery exhibit her strong feminist leanings. However, similarly to the relational feminists, she did not want equality for the sexes and did not advocate the eligibility of woman for every position commonly held by men (Richardson 29). She believed women should stick to the roles dictated to them and do them well, unlike todays feminists who believe women can do anything. But todays expectations of women can also be daunting now that a woman can be a CEO and a mother, some women feel almost obliged to do both, which surely drives them beyond exhaustion. Christines views are not in line with modern feminist thought, but are very similar to cartoon analysis, the relational feminism of the industry 1890s.

To conclude, whilst not being a feminist in the modern sense of the word, Christine de Pizan was certainly one of the forerunners of the movement. Offen, Karen. Liberty Equality, and cartoon, Justice for Women: The Theory and Practice of Feminism in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Becoming Visible: Women in European History . Ed. Renate Bridenthal, Clausia Koonz. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. 335 62. Parrillo, Vincent N, John Stimson, and Ardyth Stimson. Contemporary Social Problems . Allyn and Bacon, 1999.

Pizan, Christine de. The Book of the City of Ladies . Book. Trans. Earl Jeffrey Richards. New York: Persea, 1982. Power, Eileen. Medieval Women . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Richardson, Lula McDowell. The Forerunner of Feminism in French Literature of the globalization Renaissance Part I From Christine de Pisan to analysis essay, Marie de Gournay . Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Sunshine for Women . Cartoon. Feminist Foremothers 1400 to rubin carter book, 1800. 5 March 2001. Globalization. http://www.pinn.net/

Willard, Charity Cannon. Essay Compatibility And Psychology. Christine de Pizan Her Life and Works . New York: Persea. Cartoon Analysis Globalization. 1984. Willard, Charity Cannon. The Writings of Christine de Pizan . Apa Cite Creator. New York: Persea. 1994.