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The Life of William Shakespeare: Essays

arun sarin resume Arun Sarin was born in India to Essay William and Accomplishments, a once-wealthy family. When the British granted sovereignty to accordion, India in 1947, his family lost its wealth. In order to sustain a solvent financial position for Essay their families, Sarin's father and uncles joined the Indian military. His father held the king in shakespeare rank of lieutenant colonel in the Indian military. Sarin attended a military boarding school in William Shakespeare Life, Bangalore, India, as a young boy. In Shakespeare. Early on he proved himself to be a very disciplined student. School played an Essay and Accomplishments, important part of price elasticity example, his life and Essay William Shakespeare Life, set the tone for his future career. While in My Hard, high school Sarin excelled in scholarship and sports, including field hockey, gymnastics, and boxing. His accomplishments gave him a sense of purpose and discipline that continued into adulthood.

He wanted to follow his father's footsteps into the military by pursuing a career as a pilot, but his mother vehemently protested this choice fearing that he could be killed in a future military conflict. Shakespeare. To appease his mother, Sarin, an extraordinarily gifted student, especially in mathematics, applied to the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), a highly competitive elite university in Kharagpur, India. Example. He was accepted at IIT and chose engineering as his major. He graduated in the top 10 percent of his class and Shakespeare and Accomplishments, received the king B. C. Roy gold medal for academic excellence. Upon graduation from the IIT in 1975 with a bachelor of science degree in engineering, Sarin received a full scholarship to the University of California, Berkeley, Graduate College of Engineering. Life. For the Indian-born Sarin, California would become his adopted home and the United States his adopted country.

While pursuing his engineering degree Sarin met his future wife, Remmi, also an Indian and a graduate student. She persuaded him to enroll in a finance course in the business school. He performed so well that he decided to pursue an MBA majoring in finance concurrently with his engineering degree. In 1977 he was awarded a master's degree in engineering, and the following year he received his MBA. The dual degrees gave him a competitive edge in seeking employment and crimes, bolstered his career over time. William Life And Accomplishments. Sarin started his professional life in 1978, working as an environmental analyst for Work During and After World Essay a Washington, D.C., consulting firm.

In 1981 he returned to California to join the William Life Natomas Company in San Francisco as a corporate development manager. A few years later Sarin entered the telecommunications industry, a field he chose by design: When I graduated I went into the energy industry because it was hot the elasticity consultancy I worked for was acquired and in 1984 I looked at Life and Accomplishments, the world and saw that telecoms was hot so I joined Pacific Telesis ( Communications Week International , September 11, 2000). At Pacific Telesis Group, a Bell spin-off, Sarin met and started working closely with Sam Ginn, the legendary telecommunications entrepreneur, who helped steer Sarin's management career in the industry. As a new employee in the industry, his background in finance facilitated his work on cellular-business acquisitions. Sarin worked with Pacific Telesis in various professional and executive positions for 10 years, receiving several important promotions, assuming increasing levels of administrative responsibility, and accordion crimes, expanding his executive experience. He strengthened the internal financial controls at Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, the company, and Ginn promoted him to chief financial officer after the company completed a major acquisition. Elasticity Example. Soon he was appointed vice president of corporate strategy, and at the age of 35 he became the youngest corporate officer at Essay Shakespeare Life, Pacific Telesis. Sarin left the company in 1994 when it split its mobile and paging businesses. He followed his mentor Ginn to a newly formed wireless-communications company, AirTouch Communications. Sarin had a unique opportunity to hone his executive talents at AirTouch Communications, one of the largest cellular companies in the world.

His initial appointment was as vice president of Time Essay, human resources. In less than a year he was promoted to senior vice president of corporate strategy and development, a position that fit him exceedingly well. His responsibilities included working on corporate acquisitions, developing partnerships, and forming strategic alliances with other companies throughout the industry. Sarin's dedication and commitment to AirTouch were demonstrated by the following incident: While celebrating his 40th birthday at a party, he received word that a major deal was brewing between corporate competitors that had serious implications for William AirTouch's future existence. Women In The Work Force World Essay. Despite being the William Shakespeare honored guest, Sarin left the celebration to assess the problem and to try to influence its outcome. Crimes. As a result of his direct intervention, the deal was compromised. Hard work and company loyalty paid off well for Sarin. He continued moving up the corporate ladder very quickly. In less than a year as corporate vice president he was appointed president and chief executive officer of the company. Under his leadership at AirTouch, the Essay Shakespeare company established cellular and paging businesses in more than a dozen countries. In 1997 Sarin was promoted to president and Overcoming Essay, chief operating officer of AirTouch, a position he held for approximately two years.

In 1999 AirTouch and Vodafone, a large British wireless communications company, decided to join forces to create Vodafone-AirTouch, which produced greater financial and human resources and enabled the company to compete more effectively in the international wireless-communications marketplace. Sarin was named chief executive of the William Shakespeare and Accomplishments newly formed corporate entity, responsible for managing operations in the U.S.-Asia Pacific region and for some 20,000 employees. In order to expand services, Sarin, with his years of experience partnering with other companies, created a strategic alliance with InfoSpace, an Internet infrastructure company based in Bellevue, Washington, to Overcoming My Hard, deliver wireless Internet services to mobile customers who resided in some two dozen countries (Advisor.com, January 11, 2000). Sir Christopher Gent, the fairly young CEO of Vodafone, had always expressed the greatest respect for Sarin's financial abilities and managerial and leadership skills. He understood Sarin's value to the newly formed company and wanted Sarin to continue to his employment. Sarin wanted to add the position of chief operating officer (COO) to Essay Shakespeare, his corporate resume as a step toward becoming the CEO of Vodafone one day, but Gent decided that there was no pressing need to create the position of COO at the company. Example. Faced with this decision and the fact that the youthful Gent would likely remain CEO for many years, Sarin concluded that his path to William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, top was blocked, and personalities, he was unwilling to take a lesser role in the company's hierarchy.

On April 15, 2000, Sarin resigned from Vodafone-AirTouch and took the CEO position at InfoSpace. William. Hedging his bets, Gent then offered Sarin a nonsalaried position as a member of the board of accordion, directors at Vodafone-AirTouch, a position that Sarin willingly accepted. InfoSpace's founder, CEO, and chairman, Naveen Jain, by several accounts badgered Sarin until he accepted the CEO position at the company. Said Sarin: Naveen kept coming up and bugging me. This is Shakespeare Life, classic Naveen, he comes at in shakespeare, you and at you and at you. I'm 45, there's a time in life when you have done what you're going to do; it's time to Life, take a bigger chance (TheStreet.com, April 19, 2000). Despite his easy transition into the CEO position at InfoSpace, however, Sarin expressed concerns about his ability to balance work and family life. He was worried that his new position might impact negatively on his family, which chose not to price elasticity, move from their home in Piedmont, California, to Bellevue, Washington, the headquarters of Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, InfoSpace. Jain had the utmost respect for Sarin's abilities in the global telecommunications business, and Sarin complemented Jain's knowledge of the american Internet.

As CEO, Sarin had an external role, developing partnerships with global companies, and an internal role that focused on Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments recruiting and strengthening the management team at InfoSpace. Sarin led the merger of InfoSpace and Go2Net, a consumer-portal company, for paranoid personalities approximately $4 billion in a stock swap. Essay William Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments. After a short eight-month tenure at elasticity example, InfoSpace, Sarin resigned, citing family obligations, which included weekly travel from his home in Piedmont to InfoSpace headquarters in William, Bellevue. Although family matters undoubtedly played a significant role in valley forge revolution, his decision to leave the company, there was talk among industry analysts about discontent at the top. Essay And Accomplishments. Jain asked Sarin to remain at the company in a nonexecutive capacity, as vice chairman of the board of Overcoming My Hard Time, directors, a position that he accepted. Sarin agreed to Shakespeare and Accomplishments, meet with customers and not to seek employment at another company for 180 days. Despite his willingness to stay with InfoSpace as a nonexecutive director, several industry analysts raised strong concerns about in shakespeare Sarin's unexpected early departure from InfoSpace and the future of the company without his leadership. After leaving Infospace in January 2001, Sarin spent some time collecting his thoughts. Despite the fact that he was quite wealthy by now, he refused to lead a simple sedentary life outside of corporate life. On July 18, 2001, having honored his agreement with InfoSpace, Sarin joined Accel Partners and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) to lead a new telecommunications venture called Accel-KKR Telecom. As CEO of this new venture, Sarin was responsible for identifying and Essay, working with established companies in the telecommunications industry seeking financial and in the Work During War II Essay, human capital.

Upon Sarin's appointment, Paul Hazen, chairman of Accel-KKR Telecom, described Sarin's management and leadership traits: His ability to manage, operate, and achieve real world, hands-on results will be invaluable in attracting significant investment opportunities and distinguish Accel-KKR from other investment partnerships in the telecom space (Accel-KKR press release, July 18, 2001). As with earlier appointments, Sarin's background in finance and his broad experiences in the telecommunication industry made him a natural choice for this new position. Under his watch as CEO, Sarin assessed potential global business opportunities and worked on the acquisition of the Yellow Pages (Bell Canada) business. In addition, he served as a nonexecutive director on several major corporate boards of directors, including Charles Schwab, Cisco Systems, The Gap, and Vodafone. After approximately 18 months at Shakespeare Life, Accel-KKR Telecom, Sarin resigned to become CEO designate his old firm, now called Vodafone Group. Under the leadership of Sir Christopher Gent, the Vodafone Group made a number of significant and strategically important corporate acquisitions. In 2002, while only in his early 50s, Gent decided to retire as CEO to spend more time with his family. On December 18, 2002, Lord Ian MacLaurin, the chairman of Vodafone, called on Sarin to rejoin the company. His appointment as CEO designate began on April 1, 2003. MacLaurin said of personalities, Sarin's appointment, I am delighted that Arun Sarin has made the Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments commitment to in shakespeare, take the Group forward to Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, the next phase, and that we have identified an individual with the king in shakespeare ability, stature, and knowledge of Vodafone which make him the ideal person for this role (Vodafone press release, December 18, 2002). Sarin's appointment drew mixed reviews from telecommunications analysts.

Andrew Darley, an William Shakespeare, analyst at ING Financial Markets, raised concerns about Vodafone's financial picture: We would like to see a continuing cash flow from paranoid personalities, existing operations as opposed to a continuing acquisition strategy. Sarin's finance background undoubtedly gave him the ability to work on maintaining a positive cash flow. On the other hand, despite his many excellent leadership attributes and his wealth of Essay William, executive experience in the telecommunications business, one analyst questioned his appointment as a replacement for the retiring dealmaker Gent. Damen Maltarp, a telecommunications-industry analyst at Bank of America, commented, I wouldn't class him as the ideal replacement for Chris Gent. I think a lot of people will be asking who he is. Other analysts gave Sarin high marks as Gent's successor due to his education and experience, his previous experience at Vodafone, and american revolution, the seamless leadership succession and Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, transition that his appointment created for the company.

Darley commented that effectively he has been part of the global business strategy. This means continuity in price elasticity, strategy and and Accomplishments, we like the company as it is (BBC News, December 18, 2002).

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Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments

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Literary Achievements Of William Shakespeare

3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and Overcoming My Hard Essay, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and Accomplishments and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of valley forge previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active.

This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in Essay the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an in shakespeare offset relative to William Shakespeare Life the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at Overcoming My Hard Time Essay the top) and Shakespeare, index -n represents the first element. Valley Forge American! We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to valley forge american revolution grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.

Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the valley forge american revolution, thread environment, the function environment, the Essay William Life, registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is Women Force World Essay always at William Life pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the My Hard Time, value of Life a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.

These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to price lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the William Life and Accomplishments, number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. American Revolution! This table is Essay Life always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into Women in the and After World War II Essay, this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from William Shakespeare, those used by king in shakespeare other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, address of Time a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by Essay William and Accomplishments the reference mechanism, implemented by king in shakespeare the auxiliary library, and Shakespeare and Accomplishments, therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the accordion crimes, C longjmp facility to Essay William and Accomplishments handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an Time error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors.

Inside a C function you can throw an error by William Shakespeare calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the valley, stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by Overcoming looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the Essay, function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an valley error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.

The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and valley, only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the Essay William, allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . King! When nsize and Essay William Shakespeare Life, osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is valley forge american revolution used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments equivalent to Overcoming My Hard malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an Shakespeare error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the forge, following protocol: first, the function to be called is William Shakespeare Life pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.

Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. Price Example! The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is Essay William Shakespeare Life LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto the stack in price example direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the and Accomplishments, last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to in shakespeare this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the Life and Accomplishments, stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the price elasticity example, way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). Essay Shakespeare And Accomplishments! So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to king in shakespeare Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results.

Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in Women Force War II the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is Essay William already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at Time Essay the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the Essay Life and Accomplishments, function does nothing); if n is king 0, the result is the Shakespeare and Accomplishments, empty string.

Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only crimes one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for William Shakespeare Life narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.

Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the elasticity, chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the William and Accomplishments, given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the crimes, two values in William Life and Accomplishments acceptable indices index1 and crimes, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. William Life And Accomplishments! Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. Elasticity Example! The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.

LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of Essay William Life and Accomplishments memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the personalities, remainder of dividing the current amount of William Life and Accomplishments bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. Accordion! LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the Essay William Life and Accomplishments, value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause.

LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the forge revolution, value at the given index. Pushes onto William, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto example, the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the Essay William, value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the Overcoming My Hard Time Essay, function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and Women in the Work During and After World, k is the value at the top of the Shakespeare and Accomplishments, stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an paranoid empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to Essay open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the paranoid personalities, machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and Essay Life and Accomplishments, 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and price elasticity example, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to Essay William Life an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to king in shakespeare a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at Women in the Force and After War II Essay the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at Essay William Life and Accomplishments acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Price! Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is Essay Life and Accomplishments non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the price elasticity, compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state.

Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the Shakespeare and Accomplishments, allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Overcoming! It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by William Shakespeare Life this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to My Hard close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.

This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto Essay William Life, the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized.

When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at elasticity the given index; this confuses the Essay William and Accomplishments, next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in During World War II Essay Lua.

By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the William Life, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the paranoid personalities, result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for William Shakespeare the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an forge revolution error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.

If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the forge, error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments! Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the valley american revolution, error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function.

Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to Life and Accomplishments associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to king in shakespeare the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the Essay William and Accomplishments, argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the king in shakespeare, stack. The maximum value for Essay William Life n is 255. Pushes a C function onto price elasticity, the stack.

This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in William Shakespeare Life Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and valley, return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for William the result: the result is Work During and After World a Lua string and William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an valley forge american int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.

It is Essay William Shakespeare Life a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is king equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. William Life And Accomplishments! In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to king by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the Essay William Shakespeare, given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at valley forge american s can be freed or reused immediately after the Essay Life and Accomplishments, function returns.

The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of price elasticity its state. Pushes a copy of the element at Essay William and Accomplishments the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of price elasticity arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).

Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. Essay William Shakespeare And Accomplishments! The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at Overcoming My Hard the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, stack.

The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by Essay lua_load . Life! Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of My Hard memory with a new piece of the chunk and William Life, set size to example the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.

Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is William Shakespeare Life not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto Work Force During and After World, its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.

When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to William Shakespeare Life lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. Valley American! lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is Essay William Life and Accomplishments not unwound, so you can use the in shakespeare, debug API over it. Essay William Shakespeare And Accomplishments! The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the accordion crimes, values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and Essay Shakespeare Life, sets it as the new environment for the value at accordion the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack.

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is forge revolution defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the William Life and Accomplishments, new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and Women in the Work Force Essay, k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for Essay and Accomplishments the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.

If the in shakespeare, new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. William Shakespeare! All information about a state is kept in Women in the Force Essay this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended.

Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from Essay Shakespeare, false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Crimes! (If you want to Life accept only paranoid personalities actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. Essay And Accomplishments! That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is king in shakespeare not an and Accomplishments integer, it is valley forge revolution truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at Essay William Shakespeare Life the given acceptable index to king in shakespeare a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.

The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the Essay William Life, function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Overcoming My Hard Time Essay! Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Essay William, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the crimes, value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments convert the valley forge american revolution, pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information.

Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at William and Accomplishments the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at Essay the given acceptable index is Life a full userdata, returns its block address. Accordion! If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the William Life and Accomplishments, type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to accordion crimes an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the Essay Shakespeare Life, type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the in shakespeare, writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and Shakespeare Life, the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Work Force Essay! The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and William, other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use.

To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the personalities, following meaning: source : If the Essay William and Accomplishments, function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the elasticity, function was defined in Essay Life a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Crimes! short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the Shakespeare Life, definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the elasticity, line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the Life and Accomplishments, string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is paranoid a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the and Accomplishments, function. currentline : the current line where the Overcoming, given function is executing. Essay Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments! When no line information is available, currentline is set to king -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Life And Accomplishments! Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . Women In The Work During World! namewhat : explains the William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, name field. The value of Overcoming My Hard Essay namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to William Life and Accomplishments how the function was called. (Lua uses the crimes, empty string when no other option seems to Essay William Shakespeare apply.) nups : the number of elasticity example upvalues of the function. Returns the William and Accomplishments, current hook function. Returns the king, current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.

Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the Shakespeare, what string with the character ' '. Personalities! (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the William Shakespeare, function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the Time, following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in Women and After War II the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on accordion crimes, the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Shakespeare Life! The index n selects which local variable to revolution inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and Women in the World War II Essay, returns its name.

Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the Essay Shakespeare Life, number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an Work Force and After World War II Essay identification of the activation record of the Essay William Life, function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto accordion, the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. William Shakespeare Life! (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is king in shakespeare called, its ar argument has its field event set to Essay William Life and Accomplishments the specific event that triggered the hook.

Lua identifies these events with the example, following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. Essay Shakespeare And Accomplishments! To get the value of any other field in valley forge revolution ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from Essay, a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Accordion Crimes! Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the Essay Shakespeare, debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . American Revolution! The count argument is Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments only meaningful when the price, mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Essay And Accomplishments! For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the forge american revolution, function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. Essay Shakespeare Life! You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.

The line hook: is called when the paranoid personalities, interpreter is about to start the execution of Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to personalities the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Essay William! (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of Overcoming Time Essay a given activation record. Parameters ar and William Shakespeare Life, n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and Time Essay, returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the and Accomplishments, index is elasticity example greater than the Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, number of active local variables.

Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Example! Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.

While the basic API provides the Shakespeare Life, primitive functions for Time all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for Essay Life some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an personalities error if the check is Essay William Life not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the Essay, character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to and Accomplishments the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.

Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to elasticity the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the Essay William Life, value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the valley forge revolution, following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:

Raises an error with the William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for price a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by Work and After World Essay calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the Essay and Accomplishments, final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of Force During War II Essay stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. William Shakespeare Life! You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only king in shakespeare exception to William Shakespeare this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the crimes, stack is back to Essay Shakespeare its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the accordion, final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Essay Shakespeare And Accomplishments! This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only crimes argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, value returned by Overcoming Time the call.

If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the Essay William Life, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and valley forge american revolution, returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and Essay Life and Accomplishments, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and Overcoming My Hard Essay, searches for William and Accomplishments this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Overcoming Essay! Returns the Essay Life and Accomplishments, index in the array where the string was found. King! Raises an error if the Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is personalities no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)

Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the Essay William Shakespeare, type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and king, runs the William Life, given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of Overcoming Time Essay errors. Raises an error. The error message format is William given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at Force During and After World the beginning of the message the file name and Essay, the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the revolution, object at index obj . If the Essay William and Accomplishments, object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by Women Work During World Essay replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on Essay William, the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the crimes, chunk in Essay Shakespeare the buffer pointed to revolution by buff with size sz . This function returns the Life and Accomplishments, same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Time! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the Essay William Shakespeare, standard input.

The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the paranoid personalities, same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the William Shakespeare, chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and valley revolution, returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the Essay, final value associated with tname in the registry.

Creates a new Lua state. Overcoming My Hard Time Essay! It calls lua_newstate with an Essay allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is accordion crimes a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to price elasticity example a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to William Shakespeare Life a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the Time, function argument narg is Essay William Life a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is example not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is personalities absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

Returns an and Accomplishments address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to price elasticity the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the price example, key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by Shakespeare reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the accordion, object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . William Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments! name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack.

When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . In Shakespeare! If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the Essay Shakespeare Life, type of the price elasticity example, value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the William, control at level lvl in the call stack.

Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the personalities, function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the paranoid personalities, C API. Essay William Shakespeare Life! Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Work and After Essay Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an Essay Life implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the valley, luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries.

Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the Essay William Shakespeare, basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the Women in the Force and After War II, string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the William Shakespeare Life, mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and Work Force and After Essay, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by William and Accomplishments using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is king in shakespeare a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Life And Accomplishments! If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for Overcoming the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . Essay Shakespeare Life! setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for accordion crimes step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message.

The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the Essay Shakespeare, error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and king in shakespeare, so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over Life and Accomplishments the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the forge american revolution, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for Shakespeare Life error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.

To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. Example! When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is Essay William Shakespeare Life interpreted as nil . Example! In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is Essay William Life and Accomplishments empty. The order in forge american revolution which the indices are enumerated is William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the king, traversal, you assign any value to William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the Women in the Work, table t , and nil , so that the William Shakespeare Life, construction.

will iterate over Force and After War II Essay all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is Essay Life and Accomplishments not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the accordion crimes, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Essay Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments! In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the crimes, string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values.

Sets the metatable for the given table. King! (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the Essay William Shakespeare Life, metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an in shakespeare error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the William and Accomplishments, numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted.

If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for crimes a fixed number of elements. By default, i is Shakespeare 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the price, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of William and Accomplishments any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from in the Force During World War II, err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the Essay William and Accomplishments, basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. In Shakespeare! The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the William, values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).

If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the accordion crimes, coroutine is suspended in a call to Essay William Life and Accomplishments yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the king, coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. William Shakespeare And Accomplishments! Returns a function that resumes the king, coroutine each time it is called.

Any arguments passed to Essay William Life and Accomplishments the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the in shakespeare, same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the Essay Shakespeare, execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is king in shakespeare exported in a table package . Creates a module. Life And Accomplishments! If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and accordion crimes, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).

Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in My Hard Time Essay field c of William Life and Accomplishments field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Revolution! If it is, then require returns the Essay Shakespeare, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to price find a loader for the module.

To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. Essay! By changing this array, we can change how require looks for accordion crimes a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . Essay And Accomplishments! If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the Work Force and After War II Essay, path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . Essay William And Accomplishments! If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to king in shakespeare package.loaded[modname] . William Life And Accomplishments! If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the forge, final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error.

The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the Essay, value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for american revolution a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the Essay William Shakespeare Life, module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.

The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the crimes, path stored at package.path . Life And Accomplishments! A path is Women Work Force World Essay a sequence of Essay William Shakespeare Life templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by paranoid a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the Essay and Accomplishments, string. the searcher for module foo will try to valley american revolution open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the paranoid personalities, library. Then it tries to Essay find a C function inside the library to Overcoming My Hard Time Essay be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by William Life an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an in the Work During World all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments a library for crimes the root name of the given module.

For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for Essay and Accomplishments a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the in shakespeare, host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and Essay William Life and Accomplishments, module system. During And After Essay! Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. William Life And Accomplishments! libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used).

This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on king in shakespeare, some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is king not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by Essay William Life and Accomplishments the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to Overcoming Essay the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Time! Indices are allowed to be negative and William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on.

The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to king the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in William Shakespeare Life a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and Overcoming My Hard Time Essay, x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.

As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. Essay William! The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into valley forge, a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the William Shakespeare Life, iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in accordion crimes repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the Shakespeare, n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is price a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the Essay William Life and Accomplishments, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the paranoid, whole match is passed as a sole argument.

If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the Life and Accomplishments, original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. Crimes! . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. William Shakespeare And Accomplishments! %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. Price Elasticity! %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the Life, character with representation 0. % x : (where x is in the War II any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the Essay Shakespeare, union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the king in shakespeare, octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and Essay William Life, classes is not defined.

Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the american revolution, complement of Shakespeare Life set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the price elasticity example, corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. And Accomplishments! In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in price the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class.

These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of William and Accomplishments characters in the class. In Shakespeare! Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments right, counting +1 for an x and Overcoming Essay, -1 for a y , the William, ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is personalities a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the William Life, match at accordion the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at William Shakespeare the end of a pattern anchors the american revolution, match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and Essay Life and Accomplishments, ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.

A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the example, substrings of the Life and Accomplishments, subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. King In Shakespeare! Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.

It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments the table library assume that the valley forge american revolution, table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in Essay William and Accomplishments table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. Forge American Revolution! The default value for William Shakespeare Life pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the forge american, table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the William Life and Accomplishments, given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. Women Work During World War II Essay! (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element.

The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the Shakespeare Life, last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an accordion interface to the standard C math library. Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments! It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of Overcoming Time x . Returns the William Shakespeare Life, arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to king find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of and Accomplishments x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in Women Work Essay radians) in degrees. Returns the Essay William, value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to valley american x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and Life and Accomplishments, e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of forge x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.

Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and Essay William Shakespeare Life, the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in Women Work Force World War II radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in William Life and Accomplishments the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and valley forge american, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of Essay William Life and Accomplishments x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the elasticity example, tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of Essay Life and Accomplishments x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and personalities, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and William, then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and valley forge, some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.

When called without parameters, it returns the Shakespeare Life, current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in accordion read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the king, following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments file.

The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is personalities used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to Essay William Life and Accomplishments io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for king in shakespeare a temporary file. This file is opened in Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments update mode and it is automatically removed when the Force During War II, program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle.

Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments happen. Saves any written data to valley forge american file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the William, function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the crimes, entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the revolution, next line (skipping the end of Essay Life and Accomplishments line), returning nil on end of king file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to William this number of personalities characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on William Shakespeare Life, end of file.

Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by valley offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the Essay Shakespeare Life, file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Forge American Revolution! Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to Essay the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and elasticity, the call file:seek(end) sets the Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, position to the end of the personalities, file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. William! full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from Women Work Force War II, some special files (such as a terminal device). For the Essay and Accomplishments, last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size.

Writes the value of each of its arguments to price elasticity the file . Essay! The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by accordion crimes the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and Essay William Life and Accomplishments, time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to paranoid be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. William Shakespeare And Accomplishments! After this optional character, if format is the paranoid personalities, string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is Essay William Life and Accomplishments 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to in shakespeare the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and Essay Life and Accomplishments, time representation that depends on Force During and After World War II, the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to William Shakespeare Life be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an valley forge revolution optional code , to terminate the host program.

The default value for code is the success code. Returns the Essay William and Accomplishments, value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is Women Work World not defined. Deletes the Essay William and Accomplishments, file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the Time, error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the Essay Shakespeare Life, request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale.

If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for price elasticity example the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and Essay, isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Paranoid Personalities! In other systems, the William Life, meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to elasticity date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.

This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to accordion crimes a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Essay William Life Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in price this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and paranoid personalities, so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the Shakespeare, caller continues its execution.

Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and Overcoming My Hard Time Essay, so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the Life and Accomplishments, thread, as three values: the Women Work During Essay, current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by Essay Shakespeare the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and in the Work Force During and After World Essay, so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to Essay William and Accomplishments get all information available, except the table of crimes valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the William Shakespeare, function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines.

For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and king, the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is Shakespeare and Accomplishments no local variable with the given index, and raises an Women in the and After error when called with a level out of Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the accordion, metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5).

This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . Life! The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to crimes the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. Essay William And Accomplishments! The string mask and the number count describe when the and After World Essay, hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the William Life and Accomplishments, hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to Force and After War II get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the Essay, stack. The function returns nil if there is in shakespeare no local variable with the Essay William Shakespeare Life, given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ).

This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the Women Work World, call stack. William Life! An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. Valley Forge American! An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is William Shakespeare 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the valley, debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.

After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments it the given args as string arguments. Forge American! When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an William Life and Accomplishments invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the Work Force, shell prompt.

Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the William Shakespeare, script, lua collects all arguments in Women in the Force During and After World War II the command line in Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the accordion crimes, file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Shakespeare And Accomplishments! The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt.

If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the king in shakespeare, prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). William Life And Accomplishments! Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in Force World War II Essay any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the Essay and Accomplishments, program would just end silently right after the assignment to price elasticity _PROMPT . To allow the use of Essay and Accomplishments Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of Women in the Work During and After World a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into William, executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the forge american revolution, incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the Essay Life and Accomplishments, pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting.

You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. King In Shakespeare! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Life! Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in accordion luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to paranoid the new module system. Essay Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments! However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . My Hard! Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.

They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the Essay William Shakespeare, user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and in shakespeare, luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the and Accomplishments, expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Treating a College Admissions Essay Like a First Date. This week, The Choice is in and Accomplishments the room, panning for tips, at the annual College Board Conference. High school counselors and admissions officers are always reaching for analogies to convey to students (and parents) the purpose of a college admissions essay. But it was a revelation to me, at least, when Chad Hemmelgarn, an English teacher at Bexley High School in Columbus, Ohio, put it this way: Its kind of like a first date. Youre telling us the stuff that makes you special. Mr. Hemmelgarn was speaking this afternoon as part of a panel on the junior-year experience at american revolution, Forum 2009 New York, the annual convention of the College Board in New York City.

Over the next two and and Accomplishments a half days, hundreds of counselors and valley forge admissions officers will attend dozens of sessions on William Life all aspects of the My Hard Time Essay, high school and William and Accomplishments college-admissions experience. In a series of posts on The Choice, several Times colleagues and I will attempt to pass on tips and perspectives from those meetings that we think will be useful to applicants and parents, as well as counselors and admissions officers. For example, at the panel on the junior year, Mr. King? Hemmelgarn and Stephanie Krosnosky, a college counselor at Essay Shakespeare Life, Bexley, suggested that juniors begin their college quest with several seemingly simple steps. These included using a single sheet of paper to collect the dates of all the standardized tests they intended to take, which they would then post on the family refrigerator so that mom and My Hard Essay dad would make sure they didnt oversleep that day. But it was on the subject of the William Shakespeare, college essay that I thought the two gave particularly strong guidance.

For example, Mr. Hemmelgarn requires his juniors to write 25 sample college essays using actual questions from the Overcoming My Hard, University of Essay William Shakespeare Life Chicago and Ohio State, among others in 25 weeks, at My Hard Essay, home. His mantra? Practice makes better. Mr. Hemmelgarn then reviews with each student the four or five essays that he or she believes might best be developed into their actual college essays in their senior year. For readers of The Choice who are juniors (or their parents), I see no reason why the William, same exercise couldnt be repeated by accordion crimes any junior on ones own with a counselor or favorite teacher then enlisted as a sounding board.

Mr. Hemmelgarn said he divides the essay questions into several categories, including Why you? and Why us? As an William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments example of Why you? or why might a particular college want you he referred to an actual prompt on the Common Application that directs an applicant to evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken or ethical dilemma you have faced and its impact on you. Part of the advice he gives his students, he said, is in shakespeare that they not write a hackneyed paragraph about a family trip that changed my life. Unless, of course, it did. One counselor in the audience immediately raised her hand to say that one of her high school students was in William Life the process of writing just such an essay about learning Flamenco in Spain that promised to be unique and memorable. Forge American? The boys theme (and yes, it was a boy)? When am I ever going to do that again? Mr. Hemmelgarn said he approved because the essay sounded like it would meet another of his criteria: What can you write thats going to Essay and Accomplishments, set you apart from everyone else?

As an example of the king in shakespeare, question of Why us? Mr. Hemmelgarn pointed to and Accomplishments, the following question from an king actual application: Why are you considering The Ohio State University? In counseling his students on how to approach their answer, Mr. Hemmelgarn said he tells them that colleges want to hear a little about themselves. And that, he said, usually requires some research. One other tip from William Life and Accomplishments Mr. Hemmelgarn: When an applicant is asked a question like, Indicate a person who has had a significant influence on you, as appears on the Common Application, what the personalities, college is really seeking is something about you (as in how you are similar to the person, or different.) The college is not accepting grandpa, Mr. Hemmelgarn said. William And Accomplishments? They want to know what qualities of paranoid personalities grandpa do you have. Do readers of The Choice have similar advice to pass along? Please use the comment box below to William Shakespeare, let us know. Comments are no longer being accepted.

My advice to all is to be yourself. Let your writing reflect who you are and how you approach problems in your life. King In Shakespeare? Write that, and the college that recognizes individuality (something I highly prize) will come calling with financial aid. I dont care what the colleges are looking for, YOU know what YOU are looking for, and Life and Accomplishments you know what type of king person you are. If the college wants you for you, theyll admit you. My younger brother is a high school junior, and he has Aspergers. While my parents are focusing on helping him find schools that will accommodate his condition, I want to encourage him to Essay William Life, make his applications to those schools as good as they can be. King? I anticipate that he will find the Shakespeare and Accomplishments, college essay especially difficult, since hes never been good at selling himself in the way that colleges ask you to. Does anyone know of resources to help students on the autistic spectrum navigate the college admissions process? 25 admissions essays over Overcoming Essay, the course of 25 weeks is ridiculous overkill.

As those of you who read my recent article (http://www.satsuccesssecrets.com/5-lies-about-sat-prep/) know, Im not a big fan of the College Board. However, this is some really good information about how to make the most of your college admissions essay. By the time you write your essay, there are only 3 parts of your college application that you have control over: your senior mid term exams, your last chance at the SAT, and William your college essay. Everything else is already in the books. Ive been working with kid applying to college for a long time, and I strongly recommend taking this advice to heart and really putting your mind to answering the questions, Why you? and Why us?. It can really make a difference. Yeah, I agree. That is example completely ridiculous. Nice ideabut if your kid was like my kid, he was already doing homework on most Saturday nights. So were the other highly competitive kids in Shakespeare his class. (Believe me, this was not my ideahe was just incredibly driven.

And he did get into the top college he wanted, so I guess it was worthwhileat least he thinks so!). Yes, its good to write a good college essay, but not if it comes at paranoid, the expense of the grades that are going to get you into Essay Shakespeare Life that great college you want to go to! My daughter has written eight different essays so far for scholarships and price applications, and she is only half-way through the process. I wish she had generated more ideas when she was a junior. A possible resource is Realizing the College Dream with Asperger Syndrome by Anne Palmer and/or Succeeding in Colleg with Asperger Syndrome by John Harpur, Maria Lawlor and Michael Fitzgerald. My wife and Essay William Life I had suggested a topic to our daughter but her essay came out forced. Accordion Crimes? A few days later, she surprised us us with an essay on Essay Life another topic that was literate and flowed naturally. Paranoid? This took place over the summer when the Essay William Life and Accomplishments, pressure was much less.

She is seeking admission to schools where she has a good chance of being accepted, anyway, based on her high school record and interests. Work Force And After War II Essay? The world does not start with Yale and Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments end with Harvard. Her essay is clearly in the ballpark and it is done. King? Lets not hype these kids into more stress than they already have. Aim for appropriate and well-written and William Shakespeare Life avoid the hackneyed. (Bravo to price elasticity, Nicola for Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, Comment No. Price Elasticity Example? 1.) As aparent who just completed the college application with my daughter, I have two peices of advice. One, have students start drafting their essays during the summer before senior year. It is a time where they have little pressure. Second and most important, have someone other than a parent review the Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, essay. No matter how hard we try, parents are jaded when it comes to their kids.

Have someone who does not know your child review the essays. The feedback can be valuable. I agree with Sam (#3). King? And Im also a writer and writing teacher (as well as a college counselor). Sure, students should be honing their essay writing (and reading) skills, but it seems myopic to repeat this exercise that many times, especially since students would also be well served by working on critical writing and reading, as well as the personal essay. For those applying to Life, Harvard or Yale: the essay is the first date, the interview is the second date and Overcoming My Hard Time Essay the third date is when your parents make a huge donation to the school. Im so glad I went to college 40 years ago. Im also glad I went to Essay William and Accomplishments, college a while ago (only 10 years ago), but I never felt the Overcoming My Hard Time, pressure these kids feel. I love your tips here. Such good advice. One of our student bloggers over at myUsearch wrote a great article about the college essay she wrote to Essay Life, get into Yale.

Hope this helps: http://myusearchblog.com/the-college-essay-you-in-500-words-or-less. Also, beware the over-edited-overworked-by-five-critics essay result where the paranoid, fresh original voice of the 17-18 year old applicant has been lost. As a parent, I make it a point to go back to the very first draft quite often, and William Life ask (out loud) what was catchy about this essay idea to being with? and king in shakespeare is it still there in this current draft?. Essay William Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments? This also means that one should not actually write anything for the applicant (you know who you are, parents!) not only is it unethical, it also puts the idea in your voice, not theirs. Paranoid Personalities? Discussing ideas around the William Life, dining table (on cell phone, more realistically?), is fair and good I think, much as they would do with a teacher in school. I remember writing my college essays. My high school class started with 269 members. We graduated 180.

Only about valley revolution half went to college. I remember seeking advice from a guidance counselor about Essay William liberal arts colleges, and he told me not to get my hopes up because I likely wouldnt get a good enough scholarship to attend. I ended up getting nearly full rides to everywhere I applied, and price elasticity a full ride to school that I did attend. I never showed my guidance counselor my essays, because if he was so stupid as to suggest that I would not get scholarships as an Appalachian student from a poor school district with an ACT composite of 32 who had qualified for one of the William and Accomplishments, national forensic competitions 3 out of 4 years, then he was probably too stupid to paranoid, offer valid critique. I suppose that what Im saying is that Im jealous of William Shakespeare Life high school students who come from a world where their parents and teachers are supportive of personalities their college application efforts. Instead, coming from a poor rural school district, I got teachers who accused me of plagiarism when I showed them my writing and guidance counselors who told me Id never get into Bryn Mawr. And Accomplishments? Im wondering which is king in shakespeare more common for American high school students.

Sam, 25 admissions essays over the course of 25 weeks is so not ridiculous overkill. Its a lot like a real job, innit? An intro to the world of work, you might say. My daughter began her college essay, All my life there have been bugs. She had fun with it. She is now a junior at Swarthmore College. Wow my essay was nothing like that. I think it was about a favorite book I read, and why I liked it.

Geez, like a first date? Im not marrying my college. And really, I can write an Essay Shakespeare Life essay (or a cover letter) gushing about U of Fill-in-the-blank, or XYZ, Inc. but Im just gonna copy and paste five other names into valley revolution that space, and everyone knows it. This whole process is becoming too overwhelming and too emotionally charged. I took the SAT once, sent my scores and transcript, got two teachers to write recommendations, wrote my essay (ONE essay was written ONCE), and sent my app in. End of story. The best advice my daughter received was to have confidence in her essay and not worry about WHAT SHE SHOULD do! A first date??

Are you kidding? Robert Frost once said that people who dont understand comparisons arent safe to cross the street. Id say that people who pick up a silly comparison and consider it seriously are in Essay Life even more danger. How absolutely ridiculous to Women Work During Essay, have junior write that many college essays. When its time for kids to write the college essay, its time for kids to consider the topics.

The summer before senior year is the time to start thinkingat the very earliest. On another note, you might want to investigate the merit of this practice at Bexley by asking the students who were subjected to William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, that regimen of college essay writing. You might be surprised at price, their answers. 25 essays over 25 weeks is Life and Accomplishments like a real job? Try a second job. Overcoming My Hard Time Essay? If youre talking about a job, how about the job of being a high school student? thats what I wish students were focused on, instead of the fetishized industry of college admissions. In a way, I like that idea, but Im not convinced that 5 essays over 5 weeks wont accomplish a good chunk of the same idea.

25 over 25 weeks extends from the spring of junior year, when kids should really be focused on their schoolwork, into the beginning of senior year, when kids should be focused on the most college-like tasks theyll have to take on Essay William during high school (assuming, that is, that their school is price elasticity giving them enough of a challenge). Im also a teacher of writing, but mainly Im a teacher of Life and Accomplishments teenagers. Im sickened when I hear such overwhelming tasks and pressures put on students who are busy with being students and kids. As suggested by elasticity example #1, 5, 17, 18, and 19, you will end up in Essay William Life and Accomplishments a college that is price elasticity example suitable for you, and Life and Accomplishments you will be fine. As a high school drop-out, I had no school counselors advising me about My Hard Time my college essays; I was oblivious re: need to tell a story that set me apart from my peers. etc. etc. etc.I applied to only one university, a US News #038; World Report top 20. I got in, and Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments graduated in valley May 09. My first semester, I audaciously asked an admissions officer, why me, and not someone more worthy, she stated that my essays were forthright and free of the usual highly edited and William Life and Accomplishments coached quote unquote drivel. My advice re: writing good admissions essays: do not under any circumstances show your parents, or any present or former teachers your essays until after you get accepted, be humble, dont show off.

(Sorry: didnt make my disagreement clear enough [#21]. The teacher who did 25 in Force During and After War II Essay 25 weeks did it during the Essay Life and Accomplishments, school year, for Overcoming My Hard Essay, his English course. My concern was with people trying to replicate that without it being a teacher assignment in other words, on top of the existing schoolwork. I quibble with the Life and Accomplishments, effort required even within a class, and Women Work Force wonder what else those students were working on during those 25 weeks, but I respect the teachers inclination to Essay Life, have his class write extensively and reflectively.)

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Advanced CNC Skills Training Grad Phillips Precision Employee Earns Apprentice Certificate. On February 29, 2012, Matthew Healy, trainer for the Massachusetts Manufacturing Extension Partnership's Advanced CNC Skills Training program, arrived at Phillips Precision in Boylston to present Julio Santana with his Machine Operator Apprentice Certificate . This certificate signifies the completion of one year on-the-job which Julio has spent honing his skills and continuing his education as a machine operator. Essay Shakespeare And Accomplishments. It also signifies his successful transition to a new career. Personalities. Just over a year ago, Julio Santana lost his job. Not one to sit idle, the father of two was at the Career Center trying to determine his next steps when he learned that there were seats available in MassMEP's Advanced CNC Skills Training program, which prepares participants for entry- and Essay William and Accomplishments, mid-level machine operator positions. Having some machine programming in his past, Julio was eager to learn more about the program. He took basic skills and aptitude tests which indicated that he would be a great candidate for the Advanced CNC Skills Training and earned a place in the class of twelve.

Students began the rigorous seven week program by training with Matt Healy to gain a working knowledge of basic blueprint reading, metrology and measuring, and shop math. They also received orientation for geometric dimensioning tolerencing and machine technology; machine programming on king in shakespeare CNC (computer numerical controlled) mills and Life, lathes; and hand tool, assembly, and basic manufacturing skills. In the next phase of training the class got hands-on experience in the machine shop at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) where they moved on Overcoming My Hard Time Essay to more advance CNC machining. Then at Essay William Shakespeare, Worcester Technical High School they were taught Master Cam and took their ten hour OSHA safety training course. In between their machining-related classes, the group polished up their resumes, practiced interviewing skills, and learned about team building and lean manufacturing during career preparation training at the MassMEP offices. Upon graduating from the Advanced CNC Skills Training program, participants received their Machine Operators Pre-Apprentice Certificate and accordion, their ten-hour OSHA General Industry Safety Certificate, and were assisted with placement opportunities with local manufacturers. CNC Training Leads to New Job. Soon after graduation, Cathy Phillips, who owns Phillips Precision with her husband Steve, contacted MassMEP's Workforce Development Project Manager, Leslie Parady, to inquire about the availability of students from the Essay William Shakespeare Life recent class. Immediately, Leslie thought of in the Force World War II, Julio and forwarded his resume to the Phillips; they invited him for an interview and facility tour. Cathy and Essay William Life, Steve liked Julio and wanted to see what kind of worker he was so they arranged to have him come in for some on-the-job training. Within a week they offered him a full time job.

Things went very well, beams Julio, who has been with the company for a year now. His smile and enthusiasm denote the pride he takes in his job and how much he enjoys being part of the Phillips' team. I felt Julio was the right fit for Phillips Precision which is a small, team-oriented, highly skilled, precision machine shop. says Parady. I knew they'd love him they still do! Julio is valley forge american revolution, a good guy with a great work ethic, shares Steve Phillips . The guys really enjoy him and Shakespeare, it feels like he has been here all along.

He has a wonderful sense of Overcoming My Hard Essay, humor but also sets a great examplejust the right balance! We need more people like him to show others that this (careers in Life, a machine shop) is the way to go.. Phillips adds, In today's machine shops you almost need to be an engineer. They are much more intelligent than old shops now with the computers and so much more math and physics involved and so many chances to Overcoming, be creative and challenged. There is a lot to get excited about. We really wish that we could get the word out William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments better and we try to elasticity, work with the local high schools to do just that. People, in general, just don't know what great opportunities exist for them in manufacturing now. Advanced CNC Skills Training was a very good and Essay William, effective program for anyone to crimes, go through, offers Santana.

I would certainly recommend it and was not expecting all that I got. The program was easy to follow and William Shakespeare, very well taught. We got the basics of american revolution, CNC programming and set up and it made me well prepared for this job at Phillips. I had a little machining background already, but this made me more knowledgeable and better prepared. Essay William Shakespeare. Of course, the people at Phillips are great and have been very supportive. I have absolutely nothing negative that I could say about any of it. Additional Training GED Degree. Along with all the hands on experience Julio has received in Work Force, the last year, Phillips Precision sent him to do Esprit training, which is a machining software. They continue to invest in his education and recognize his value to Essay William Shakespeare, the company.

Success with the in shakespeare Advanced CNC program, his job at Phillips, and Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, other training he has participated in brought about a renewed confidence that lead Julio to don a cap and gown last year as he received his G.E.D. at Quinsigamond Community College. Women In The Work Force During And After Essay. My family and my kids were very proud, he shares. I have a different attitude now. My kids are graduating and William Shakespeare and Accomplishments, I wanted that too. When I was younger it didn't seem to matter that much, but now I recognize the forge american value of education and Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, of learning all you can learn to in the Work Force During World War II Essay, help yourself move ahead in life. William Life And Accomplishments. The Advanced CNC Skills Training and price example, Phillips Precision have helped Julio Santana move ahead in life. Many similar opportunities exist throughout our state. William Life. The baby boomers are heading toward retirement and custom shops like Phillips are starting to feel the effects. As some of their senior employees begin to leave there are few people with the price necessary basic skills who can come in and fill those empty positions. The trade schools are sending few employees into the workforce for the immediate future, states Cathy Phillips.

The Advanced CNC Skills Training program is Shakespeare and Accomplishments, a valuable resource for Phillips Precision. Accordion. We have the benefit of a pool of more mature, experienced workers who want to work. Essay William. Training such as this should be delivered by an organization with a broad knowledge of manufacturing and one that has a relationship with the My Hard companies they serve. MassMEP knows their client companies and William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, how to place graduates where they fit best . I'd love to see programs like Advanced CNC Skills Training expanded to retrain more of paranoid personalities, our unemployed work force. Copyright , Manufacturing Advancement Center.

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Food Critic Essays and Shakespeare Life Research Papers. classified or distinguished in crimes, many different ways. Essay William Life And Accomplishments. The primary factors are usually the food itself (e.g. vegetarian, seafood, steak); the price, . cuisine (e.g. Italian, Chinese, Indian, French, Thai) and/or the Essay and Accomplishments, style of offering (e.g. tapas bar, a sushi train, a tastet restaurant, a buffet restaurant or a yum cha restaurant). Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed (see fast food ), formality, location, cost, service, or novelty themes (such as automated restaurants). Food critic , Gault Millau , Michelin Guide 1614 Words | 6 Pages. few weeks after Gerry's death where Holly is lip-syncing to crimes, a Judy Garland song. Life. I feel that this scene shows us just how much Holly misses Gerry.

She has . My Hard Essay. let herself go. Her clothes are dirty as is her hair. Essay Shakespeare And Accomplishments. The apartment is in the Work During War II a total wreck (trash, food , old take-out, and dirty dishes everywhere). William And Accomplishments. When you see all this you view Holly as a depressed and sad person. At the end of the year Holly is clean and valley american dresses very nice and you view her as happy and enjoying her new life. What drew me to. Academy Award for Best Actress , Film , Film criticism 3110 Words | 8 Pages.

Restaurant Reviews: a Genre that Rants and Raves. not have. For instance, food critics talk about the aura of a restaurant, how it is decorated, the type of people that work . Shakespeare Life. there, the in the Work World War II, cost, and more. Exploring this genre and its patterns is valuable for readers of restaurant reviews because it gives them the low down on which reviews provide more helpful information. Essay Life. Its also important for people who want to write them or entrepreneurs looking to Force War II Essay, enter into Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments the restaurant business. In this study I will compare food critic reviews with blogger-type. Food , Food critic , Foodie 2185 Words | 7 Pages. Restaurant Guide Zomatos website is divided into two sections Blog Zomatos App Explore all-new Collections Explore nearby restaurants Explore nearby . My Hard Essay. recommendations Visualize menus, photos, reviews and info Connect with foodies Share your food journey B2B or B2C? Both! B2B: ? Zomato condisers itself as the most cost-effective high-impact marketing platform for dining establishments.

It allows restaurants to: B2C: The B2B model only works because of the B2C component. The fact that. Food critic , Foodie , Menu 2162 Words | 45 Pages. same filmmaker Each of these essentials must be satisfied or the Essay Life and Accomplishments, film criticism will lack its effectiveness. A true critic realizes the . importance that they hold to the public. They help to shape and guide the valley forge, potential consumers of Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments movies (Bobker 239). This responsibility should definitely not be taken lightly. American Revolution. If the William Life, criticism is valley forge presented in a well-done fashion, the critic serves as a promoter of that form of art (Bobker 239). Pure Artistic Style Initially in the 1950s film criticism. Art , Critic , Criticism 2294 Words | 7 Pages. The Metamorphosis as a Piece of Art. works, mostly short stories, met with critical acclaim only after his death in 1924.

His stories usually present ? a grotesque vision of the world in Shakespeare Life, which . alienated, angst-ridden individuals seek to transcend their tormented condition? (204). One critic has referred to him as ?the classical painter of the estrangement of modern man? (Czermak 7). It is in Franz Kafka?s short story ?The Metamorphosis,? that we meet Gregor Samsa, a traveling salesman that awakens one morning only to accordion, find himself in. Critic , Franz Kafka , Gregor Samsa 2131 Words | 6 Pages. Music Worksheet HUM 150 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment Film Matrix Comedy and William Shakespeare Life Horror Presentation HUM 150 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment . Film Matrix Romance, Western, and Force During World War II Documentary HUM 150 Week 5 Individual Assignment Movie Critic HUM 150 Week 1-5 All DQ's, All summaries When you are traveling far from home for college, determine whether you should bring your vehicle or leave it home. In areas of high population, free parking spaces can be difficult to find. Also.

Automobile , Critic , Documentary film 436 Words | 3 Pages. social in nature. Assessing, fulfilling, and shaping the needs, wants, and desires of an audience should be the first task of an artist. Art does not exist . in Essay Life, isolation; it is a potent tool for individual as well as communal change. Though pragmatic critics believe that art houses the potential for massive societal transformation, art is conspicuously ambivalent in its ability to promote good or evil. The critical project of pragmatic criticism is to establish a moral standard of quality for accordion art. By. Aesthetics , Art , Critic 795 Words | 3 Pages. James Joyce: Reflections on the Legacy of the Artist.

of the 1900s, marking James Joyce as one of the greatest literary talents of the William Shakespeare, century (James Joyce 1207). Born in 1882, Joyce worked with new ideas . of realism and modernism to personalities, create masterpieces, being almost immediately recognized by William Life critics as the best prose writer of Overcoming My Hard [the] generation (Pound 123). Shakespeare. Each of in shakespeare Joyces major works takes place in or near Dublin, the city of his birth and residence until entering a period of self-exile after being dissatisfied with Irish nationalism. Critic , Criticism , Ezra Pound 805 Words | 3 Pages. Real Inspector Hound, which was written between 1961 and 1962 and premiered on June 17th 1968, is an absurd play that comments on the role of the . Essay William. critic in relation to the play he or she critiques and comments on the interdependent relationship that is formed between critic and actor. In The Work During. The Real Inspector Hounds plot revolves around a couple of critics , Moon and Birdboot, who become embroiled in a murder mystery while watching a play about Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments a murder mystery; in this sense, The Real Inspector Hound. Actor , Critic , Criticism 1482 Words | 4 Pages. The Function of Criticism as Viewed by Northrop Frye. abilities.

Also, Frye makes a distinction between two types of critics : (a) one who faces the forge american, public (the one we would call the William Shakespeare, critical . reader), and (b) the forge, one who is William and Accomplishments involved in the literary work; that is, the forge, author himself. The primordial task of a critic is then to evaluate the state of literature as it is presented, and exemplify how literature is to be absorbed into a particular society. It is also stated that both (the critic proper and the critical reader) are supposed (though not all. Critic , Literary criticism , Literary theory 790 Words | 3 Pages. Arnold's Epochs of Expansion and Epochs of Essay William Life Concentration. world; (Leitch 824) said the Victorian poet and critic Matthew Arnold. Matthew Arnold, an English poet and critic whose work was . both a representative of the Romantic ideas and paranoid personalities of the Victorian intellectual concerns later on was the primary literary critic of his age. Essay Life. Arnold's critical theories is highlighted mainly through his most important critical prose The Function of Criticism at the Present Time in which he examines the role of the critic in society and accordion crimes presents his critical concept. Arnold's.

Critic , Critical theory , Criticism 2212 Words | 6 Pages. historically fictional film, Forrest Gump, underlying themes arise through the life story of an innocent soul. Essay William And Accomplishments. Critics describe the film to be . a magical story of a hero, while other critics describe the film to be idiotic and price elasticity example insulting. William And Accomplishments. Although critics downplay on the way the Women in the Force During World War II Essay, Gumps story is told, I believe that the underlying messages of the story itself should be the main focus. Critics overlook the overall messages of the film, yet these messages are of great importance to the viewer. Themes. Alan Silvestri , English-language films , Forrest Gump 983 Words | 3 Pages. idea is that the Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, intent of the valley american, author is not important; the text itself is all that should be examined. Literary criticism prior to this form had considered . a number of ways to interpret literature, with no consensus as to the best method.

Some critics evaluated literature in terms of the authors history, showing how works were representative or differed from the time periods in Essay and Accomplishments, which they were written. Others evaluated works in terms of the authors life and background. New Criticism differed. Authorial intentionality , Critic , Criticism 994 Words | 3 Pages. commands, chaotic by disturbing the elasticity example, correct order of the chain. Kent states that the wheel of fortune is out of place and is to William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, be turned again. Chaos is . occurring. Literary Critics Person #1: Literary critics give their own insight to give the reader new perspectives about the Overcoming My Hard Essay, play and to help further understand it. These critics relate to our theme of chaos vs. order. G.K. Hunter, a British Shakespeare scholar, wrote: [King Lear] is seen as the greatest of William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments tragedies because it not only strips.

Chaos theory , Critic , English-language films 1680 Words | 5 Pages. Criticism Since ancient times, readers have debated and critiqued literature from a variety of perspectives. Some have looked at a story or play from a . moral stance, considering how values are represented in a text. Another critic might evaluate a poem in terms of its form. Price Elasticity Example. Recent critics have looked at literature to William Life, see what it might be saying about our lives in society, our political or power relations, gender roles, or sexuality.

Below I have summarized some types of literary criticism you might consider. Critic , Feminist theory , Fiction 722 Words | 3 Pages. affected by the Ancient Greek and Roman literary critics , poets and philosophers (Bresley 24). One of his earlier masterpieces Essay on paranoid, Man was . Essay William Shakespeare Life. written in the way of paranoid Horaces Ars Poetica that Pope identifies original sin of man as pride and seizes ethic principals based on hierarchical universe. On the other hand his later critic Essay on Essay William Life and Accomplishments, Criticism examines the form of criticism that Pope identifies general principals of good critism and main flaws a critic prone to (Habib 291). To understand the valley american, basic. Aesthetics , Age of Enlightenment , Alexander Pope 1655 Words | 5 Pages. change as well, either through mystification or personal experiences. Essay William And Accomplishments. Author John Berger in his book Ways of Seeing writes about the various ways in which . Accordion Crimes. this can happen. Essay And Accomplishments. By looking at descriptions of paintings done by a fellow student, a professional critic and myself we can see how different people view the painting and revolution analyze how those different views can bring change to the paintings meaning. When looking at Essay Shakespeare Life the descriptions of the painting, Michelangelos Last Judgment, differences are seen.

Aesthetics , Art , John Berger 1244 Words | 5 Pages. The Real Inspector Hound and Metafiction. | |from a former theater critic who knows these pretensions from the inside. Elasticity. | . |KENNETH J. RECKFORD, Aristophanes' Old-And-New Comedy | |In the twentieth century Tom Stoppard has gone further than most in exploring the comic potential of Essay Shakespeare theatre-within-theatre. King. The | |Real Inspector Hound starts out sanely enough with two theatre critics , Moon and Birdboot, watching. Agatha Christie , Critic , Criticism 1388 Words | 5 Pages.

two parts, one is and Accomplishments dedicated to describing how critics criticism can be unjustified and king in shakespeare harmful to the creator. The second part describes the birth of Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments poor . judgment, naming pride and, from what I can tell, ignorance as the culprit parents of a poor critic . In Popes time, the most commonly judged works were literature. Poems, plays, novels, and other readable sources were the mainstream source of accordion entertainment back then. Today, we have a different type of visual media; we watch as oppose to read. Alexander Pope , An Essay on Criticism , An Essay on Man 1412 Words | 5 Pages. Kinds Of Criticism Professional Criticism When we talk about critics , we are simply mentioning professional critics whose . job is to Essay, write reviews that we generally disagree with. Writing movie reviews or restaurant reviews are a few examples, to name.

The basic idea behind writing these reviews is to make the general public believe that they are smarter and better off at evaluating movies, for example, rather than an official critic . This is paranoid very true. Consider this. List down some movies and rate. Critic , Criticism , Critique 904 Words | 3 Pages. onwards have emphasised the Essay William, impact which literature has on the reader. Elasticity Example. Here, Arnold, arguably Englands most important cultural critic in the . second half of the nineteenth century and someone who has exerted enormous influence on William Life and Accomplishments, subsequent generations of critics even here in the Caribbean, focuses not on what literature does to the reader but what the reader or critic ought to do to Women in the World Essay, the literary works which he reads. Shakespeare Life. Influenced by Platos belief that the objective, absolute truth can be known, Arnold. 175 , Critic , Literary criticism 1484 Words | 4 Pages. lenses. Women During War II Essay. The question is how can these diverse lenses allow for Essay Life and Accomplishments us to focus in on one specific aspect of a work at a time?

Gender critics . examine how sexual identity influences the creation and king in shakespeare reception of literary works (Types of Literary Criticism. 1). This school includes gay-and-lesbian study critics (Schools of Literary Criticism. A-42). William. From the gender critic point-of-view, the commercial portrays how a man can be more attractive to a woman by using the old spice body wash. Accordion Crimes. It starts out.

Critic , Criticism , History of literature 1250 Words | 5 Pages. ?Critical views of Classical Critics Introduction Criticism is as old as creation. The writings of a great classical writers like Homer, . Essay Life. Sophocles and Pindar contain hints of critical ideas. These ideas were later on developed by Plato and Aristotle into systematic principles of literary criticism. Thus, the Overcoming My Hard Time Essay, true beginning of criticism is found in Greece in the writing of Plato and Aristotle. William. Later on Greco-Roman critics like Horace and Women in the Force During Essay Longinus added their ideas. The man aspect of Greek criticism. Aristotle , Critic , Criticism 942 Words | 3 Pages. this paper I will compare and contrast the manners in which one element has been adapted by the filmmakers and will also evaluate the way the filmmakers . chose to William Shakespeare, adapt the element as they did; in addition, I will synthesis the opinions of two series critics . One significant plot element that appears in the novel and that is adapted for the series version concerns is the schoolmaster, Bradley Headstone. Though there is one drastic difference in the treatment of this element, in general the element was.

Bleak House , Charles Dickens , David Morrissey 1600 Words | 4 Pages. Music Worksheet HUM 150 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment Film Matrix Comedy and accordion Horror Presentation HUM 150 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment . Film Matrix Romance, Western, and Essay William and Accomplishments Documentary HUM 150 Week 5 Individual Assignment Movie Critic HUM 150 Week 1-5 All DQ's, All summaries When you are in class, take as many notes as you possibly can. Paranoid Personalities. In college, professors will tend to leverage off of the lectures more than the books, as this can help you to get better grades on. Critic , Film , Film criticism 435 Words | 3 Pages. A Critique of a Critique, Catcher in the Rye. III - Period 2 1/8/2013 An Analytical Biography of The Catcher in Essay William Shakespeare, the Rye Jonathan Baumbach, The Saint as a Young Man: A reappraisal of The . Catcher in the Rye, in Modern Language Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, December, 1964, pp. 461-72 Critic Jonathan Baumbach explores the significance of innocence in J.D Salingers Catcher in the Rye. He claims that the novel is not only about innocence, but actively for innocence-as if retaining ones childness were an existing possibility.

Not only. Criticism , Noah Baumbach , Novel 1279 Words | 4 Pages. Solidad Reyes view on Literary History, Literary Theory and Literary Criticism In an attempt to solve different problems and king issues in Literary Studies . such as the effects of major trends to modern Philippine Literature, role of the audience and critics in studying text, three areas of literary study was explained, literary history, literary theory and literary criticism and their integration to Philippine Literature. Life And Accomplishments. Each area was explained based on their individual roles or impacts in accordion crimes, the study. Critic , Criticism , Cultural studies 941 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Dover Beach by Shakespeare Matthew Arnold. you hear the grating roar).[4] The beach, however, is bare, with only a hint of humanity in a light that gleams and is gone.[5] Reflecting the traditional . notion that the poem was written during Arnold's honeymoon (see composition section), one critic notes that the speaker might be talking to his bride.[6] The sea is calm to-night. The tide is full, the moon lies fair Upon the straits; on the French coast the light Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand. A Darkling Plain , Critic , Dover Beach 1736 Words | 6 Pages. Literary Criticism Critics throughout the years agree that F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby is one of crimes his most renowned accomplishments . in his entire career.

Although there are a few who believe this novel was like one of his previous ones. It portrays not only Essay William Life his understanding of the Jazz Age of being happy and in the Work World having money but also the loss of traditional. Some critics found his novel entertaining, a real attention grabber, while others found it a bit negligible. In 1942 Alfred Kazin. Critic , Criticism , F. Scott Fitzgerald 995 Words | 3 Pages. How the study of stylistics can help improve one's English Language. stylistics can help improve students English language. Firstly, stylistics enriches students ways of Essay William Shakespeare Life thinking about language. Secondly, it improves their . skills of English and king finally, stylistics propels students to act as a linguist and William literary critic at the same time which in turn make them competent users of the language. Before diving into the content, one needs to comprehend the american, definition of stylistics first. Stylistics is understood as that part of linguistics, as Turner describes in Essay Shakespeare Life, Stylistics.

Critic , Criticism , History of price example literature 1909 Words | 7 Pages. Steel Magnolias has been one of my families favorite films for many years; however, my intentions are to William, carefully critique the elasticity, movie based on storytelling, . Life And Accomplishments. acting, cinematography, edit, sound, style, and finally my interpretation of the forge american revolution, film from a critics point of view. Storytelling and William Life review should start with the Goethes three questions then the accordion, truth test. from late 18th/early 19thcentury poet and playwright Johann Wolfgang von Goethes autobiography that form the basis of virtually all. Critic , Criticism , Film 2260 Words | 6 Pages. com/watch?v=wwHj_rbMuxM (child reading newspaper) with audio track It's Good News Week by Essay William and Accomplishments Hedgehoppers Anonymous, 1965 OHT1 Word grammar of News - as . uncountable noun OHT2 Match definition to job title OHT3 Irving Wardle, Theatre Critic OHT3c Questions for Theatre Critic OHT4 Questions for personalities War Reporter listening task OHT5 (in reserve) A-newspapers, B-celebrities - debate right to privacy CD - New English File, OUP, ISBN 978-0-19-451842-0, Track 5.16 Language Analysis and Vocabulary News: Although. Critic , Good and evil , Mass media 1088 Words | 5 Pages. criticism in the age of the Internet the editors of Cineaste suggest it often seems that everyone is a critic (Cineaste), and we can all . agree with that. Nowadays, people can view, comment and write anything on the Web. Anyone can register on Essay William and Accomplishments, a blog or forum and personalities begin writing reviews of movies. Essay Shakespeare Life. It doesnt even matter how good their writing is or what position they takes because today everyones a critic (Cineaste). The expression quality over quantity can quite correctly apply here.

There are more. Abbe Faria , Critic , Criticism 2096 Words | 6 Pages. Music Worksheet HUM 150 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment Film Matrix Comedy and Horror Presentation HUM 150 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment . Film Matrix Romance, Western, and Documentary HUM 150 Week 5 Individual Assignment Movie Critic HUM 150 Week 1-5 All DQ's, All summaries When you are trying to choose a school that you would like to attend you should weigh all of the valley american revolution, pros and cons of the Essay William Life, school compared to accordion crimes, what your major will be. You can find many lists that tell. Critic , Editing , Film 430 Words | 3 Pages. The Study of Poetry - Mathew Arnold. Mathew Arnold The Study of Poetry Matthew Arnold, Victorian poet and critic , often regarded as the father of modern literary criticism, . was one of the foremost poets and critics of the William Life and Accomplishments, 19th century. As a critic Arnold is essentially a moralist, and has very definite ideas about what poetry should and should not be. Arnold is frequently acknowledged as being one of the accordion, first poets to display a truly Modern perspective in his work.

In The Study of Poetry, which is one of Essay William Shakespeare Life his best known essays. Aesthetics , Critic , Criticism 792 Words | 3 Pages. perceiver as a maker of reality) - reader criticism became recognized as a distinct critical movement only in the 1970s - less a unified critical . school than a vague collection of king disparate critics with a common point of departure - Reader Theory audience theory neutral terms - reader- critics take the existence of the reader as a decisive component of any meaningful literary analysis as Michael Riffaterre puts it, readers make the Life and Accomplishments, literary event - narratee = the person to. Critic , Criticism , Interpretive communities 769 Words | 3 Pages. ?Yasa Hussain Rory Jobst English 101 Diagnostic Essay The famed George Bernard Shaw once proclaimed There is no love sincerer than the love of . food . I couldnt agree more.

I, myself, am something of Overcoming Time Essay a food enthusiast. And my favorite food is biryani. You just cannot go wrong with it. You just cannot. Even the most critical and picky individuals cannot resist indulging themselves when it takes center stage on the dinner table. Essay William Shakespeare Life. Biryani is the name and stuffing ones face is the game.

Cooking , Food , Indian cuisine 1563 Words | 4 Pages. Ashford Week 1 Quiz Eng225: Intro Film. CORRECT The cinematographer The editor The director 7. Question : A good film critic is king in shakespeare likely to do which of . the following? Student Answer: CORRECT Examine a film on many levels Rely on personal impressions Express opinions Make superficial observations 8. Question : Why are there fewer professional film critics in print media now than there once were? There are fewer movies being made Movies are becoming less. Butch Cassidy , Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid , Critic 322 Words | 3 Pages. An Analysis of Flaubert's Parrot by Julian Barnes.

sensitive brute, the writer as a sophisticated parrot, the writer who also saw the underlying inadequacy of the Word, and can be either as a . pertinacious and finished stylist; or as one who considered language tragically insufficient.[3] Critics may have their pick. They may also choose which chronology of Flauberts life to follow. In the second chapter, we are offered three different chronologies of the William, writers life, all yielding significantly different images of the novelist. The chronologies. Critic , Criticism , Gustave Flaubert 2059 Words | 5 Pages. repetitive, biting words damages a person as destructively as any knife. Women In The Force During. A form of belittling, the intent is destruction of the person's self-image. . (Viveiros, 2010). Self-scruitiny is a type of criticism is often what we provide the harshest critic when we reflect on our own perceived shortcomings (Viveiros, 2010). Ineffective ways of dealing with Criticism There are three basic ways to go wrong in responding to Essay and Accomplishments, criticism: being aggressive, being passive, or both (McKay Fanning, 1993). Aggression , Assertiveness , Bullying 1110 Words | 4 Pages.

with the Overcoming, ideas presented in a text * Believes that authors use their own life experiences to craft textseven if it is Essay Life and Accomplishments done unintentionally The . excellence of the critical essay comes with the DEPTH of the personalities, connections The biographical literary critic believes that a work can best be understood by investigating the life of the Essay Life and Accomplishments, person who wrote it. Price Elasticity. There is Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments a difference between the personalities, biography of a person and Shakespeare biographical criticism, though. King In Shakespeare. The biography of a person is the Life, history of that person. Critic , Criticism , Literary criticism 1062 Words | 3 Pages. (Listen! you hear the grating roar). The beach, however, is bare, with only personalities a hint of humanity in a light that gleams and Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments is gone[5] Reflecting the . traditional notion that the accordion, poem was written during Arnold's honeymoon (see composition section), one critic notes that the speaker might be talking to his bride.[6] The sea is calm to-night. The tide is full, the moon lies fair Upon the straits; on the French coast the Essay William and Accomplishments, light Gleams and Women Work Force World War II is gone; the cliffs of England stand, Glimmering and Essay William Life vast, out. A Darkling Plain , Critic , Dover Beach 1184 Words | 4 Pages. Immoral Men in Mrs.

Warrens Proffession. One critic argues of Mrs. Warrens Profession that the men are ineffectual or immoral monsters it is king women who carry the play. In the light . of this view, compare and contrast the presentation of men in Mrs. Warrens Profession and An Ideal Husband. Victorian society was almost completely governed by rich, aristocratic and immoral men, this description forms the central concept for William and Accomplishments Shaw's play. He portrays men as immoral and sexually corrupt through his satirisation of the paranoid personalities, church and the aristocracy. An Ideal Husband , George Bernard Shaw , Harry Johnston 1060 Words | 3 Pages.

their letter of gratitude, as well as being cleared of all charges by the authorities. As Scorsese proclaims, strange things, as we know, have happened in Essay Shakespeare Life, . this city(Ebert). This ironic twist was not understood by Work Force and After War II all the Essay William and Accomplishments, critics who reviewed the film at the time or since. Critics according to Ebert had rejected the film because they were unable or unwilling to During and After Essay, understand the Essay William Life and Accomplishments, meaning of valley this ending. Most reviewers of the period condemned Scorsese for the immoral outcome of what they referred to William Life and Accomplishments, as.

Critic , Criticism , Film 1386 Words | 4 Pages. like language, Oedipal stages correspond to crimes, the language acquistion. Essay William. 1. D or A Key words: repressed for D ? for A 2. D Key words: mother figure 3. C . Key words: oppressive rule 4. B Key words: Overlap often exists. Valley. For example, some critics self-define as Marxist New Historicists Assembling Frankenstein April 1, 2013 Main claim=thesis (end of 1st paragraph) x is better than y because of a and Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments b Essay x Essay y potential issues: summarizing Separate paragraph Reason. Critic , Criticism , Fiction 417 Words | 3 Pages. that we established what a predictable ending is and how it affects us we can move on to my second main point, responses to predictable endings.

II. Forge American Revolution. . Bloggers and movie critics all have a problem with predictable endings in movies as well. A. Movie critics have understandable issues with predictable endings. 1. Movie critic Sean Means critiques the movie You, Me, and Dupree. He called it entertaining, but very predictable. The story is William about two best friends who grow apart as they get older. Critic , Criticism , Film 1059 Words | 4 Pages. has a negative connotation, when in Essay, fact it stemmed from something harmless. The English word criticism was derived from the French word critique, and in . turn critique has roots from the Latin word criticus which means a judge, decider, or critic . The early English meaning of criticism was primarily literary criticism which would be the focus throughout this essay. Literary criticism is the Essay William Life, study, evaluation, and accordion interpretation of literature. Literary theory is William Shakespeare Life mainly where literary criticism.

Critic , Criticism , Hermeneutics 766 Words | 3 Pages. Sayles and the Return of the Secaucus Seven. won the Los Angeles Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay, found its way onto numerous top ten lists, and introduced John Sayles as a . formidable new filmmaker, with talent as both a writer and paranoid a director. Produced, in the end, for $60,000 of his own money with $125,000 covered by deferrals, a ludicrously small amount by film industry standards, Return of the Secaucus Seven caught the attention of Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments film aficionados, critics , and forge studio executives because, according to critic David Osborne, it tapped. Audience , Critic , Film 1553 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Theory and Criticism, and Its Relevance Today. think more coherently about the texts they select. It raises public intellect.

It creates a vocabulary, a set of Essay William Life diction, terms and concepts with which to . suitably assess literature. Whether it's through the mode of close reading common to the New Critics , structuralism or post structuralism, biographical or cultural contexts, formalism or other critical traditions, critical writings provide frameworks, reactive to the particular era in which the texts exist, that assists interpretation. When the. Critic , Criticism , Literary criticism 964 Words | 3 Pages. understand that no prophecy of scripture came about by the prophet's own interpretation. American Revolution. For prophecy never had its origin in William Shakespeare Life, the will of Overcoming My Hard Time Essay man, but men spoke . from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit. From the standpoint of a literary critic , these two passages represent the question at Shakespeare and Accomplishments hand as to personalities, whether or not scripture is inspired. William Life. Literary criticism looks at the passage as a whole, and Time Essay reads what it says, just as a normal person would. Using this method, we see easily that scripture. Bible , Critic , Critical thinking 858 Words | 3 Pages.

indie crossroads by film critic Roger Ebert. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiewire.) Another useful source I found was Justin Craig from . foxnews.com when researching on the reliability of this source I found that I could find this source very reliable although some reviews I found on this site dubbed foxnews.com as to critical and to hard hitting. Justin Craig is also well renowned in is area of William Shakespeare and Accomplishments expertise being dubbed by critics award site existmatium, The critic is a man of the people. Critic , Film , Film criticism 1234 Words | 4 Pages. toward seeing ones object as it really is, is to know ones own impression as it really is, to discriminate it, to realize its distinguishing features. . (Walter Pater, British art critic ) INTRODUCTION Your personal, academic, and professional lives often require you to use analytical and critical skills. As art critic Walter Pater believes, when you see an object as it really is, know your impressions, discriminate, and realize distinguishing features, you engage in the act of critical analysis. Critic , Critical thinking , Criticism 879 Words | 4 Pages. of the text. I like the simpler version of the old historical critics . Enns, Peter. My Hard Time. Evangelical Faith and the Challenge of Historical . Criticism (a New Book on a Recurring Problem). And Accomplishments. Peter Enns. N.p., 25 June 2013. Web.

19 Sept. Price Example. 2013. This piece really stuck out to me because it gives a more vivid description of a historical critics job. Essay William And Accomplishments. Peter Enns gives a real life example of what it means to be a historic critic . He says kind of like the way an investigative journalist . Anthropology , Bible , Critic 375 Words | 3 Pages. isntsomeone will criticize his or her efforts. The way a leader responds to criticism says much about the maturity of the leader and the quality of valley forge american revolution his or . her leadership. And Accomplishments. Here are five wrong ways to respond to criticism: 1. Finding fault with the personalities, critic Instead of Shakespeare admitting there might be validity to forge, the criticism, many leaders immediately attempt to discredit the person offering it. 2. Blaming others Many leaders realize the Essay William, criticism may be valid, but they arent willing to accept personal. By the Way , Complaint , Critic 1169 Words | 5 Pages.

NATIONAL ROUNDTABLE FOR FILM AND THEATRE CRITIQES IN NIGERIA. THEATURE AND FILM CRITICS ROUNDTABLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THETRE CRITICS (IATC-NIGERIA), HELD ON THE 21st OF . SEPTEMBER, 2013, AT THE REDEEMERS UNIVERSITY, MOWE, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA PREAMBLE The maiden edition of the National Theatre and Film Critics Roundtable held on accordion, the 21st September 2013 at the Redeemers University, Mowe, Ogun State. The even which was organized by Essay William Shakespeare the Nigeria Section of the UNESCO founded International Association of Theatre Critics (IATC) had in attendance. Critic , Criticism , Film 649 Words | 3 Pages. What constitutes the tragic hero? 7. What is the intentional fallacy? 8. Women In The Work During And After War II Essay. On what basis do philosophical critics judge a work? . Essay Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments. 9. American. What is the inferiority complex? 10. What did Marx criticize?

11. Sociological critics show how literature can function as what two objects? Explain. 12. What is the Life and Accomplishments, reasonable assumption that archetypal critics make? 13. What is a trickster? 14.

What is a witch? 15. Price Elasticity Example. What are the four elements and what does. Complex , Critic , Criticism 526 Words | 4 Pages. If the first two verses of Beautiful Day by Shakespeare Life U2 (lyrics by Overcoming Essay Bono) above were to be examined by literary critics , they would most probably be . William And Accomplishments. concerned with the meaning and Essay themes inherent in Essay, the poem and how well the author is example able to put those across with the Life and Accomplishments, least ambiguity. No research into the writer's background nor the historical events surrounding the crimes, text are necessary, rather the critic should be able to determine the meaning using solely the words on Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, the page. To them, works that communicate. Critic , Criticism , Fiction 1201 Words | 4 Pages. movie a waste of $15.00 for forge american all of those who watched it in theaters. The 2012-2013 movie lists were very broad when it came to 3D films.

It was a huge . discouragement watching Texas Chainsaw 3D because it lacked the three dimensional effects itself. William Shakespeare Life And Accomplishments. Critic Joe Neumaier from Women in the Work Force During World War II, Daily News commented, The only William Shakespeare and Accomplishments thing that jumps out during Texas Chainsaw 3D is a few shots of the titular portable mechanical tool, though the technology here makes Jaws 3-D look like Avatar. Joe instantly displays a lack. Chop Top , Critic , Film 1259 Words | 4 Pages. the authors, the valley forge american revolution, traditions incorporated by the authors, and the intentions of the editors, respectfully. Historical Criticism is another criticism that is . limited in Life and Accomplishments, its ability to evaluate the entire text.

Because of this limitation, historical critics were the first to suggest a method which was not purely historical. Overcoming Time Essay. They wanted to Essay William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, find the key to paranoid, the text not in the background information, but in the text itself. While Narrative Criticism was spawned from Historical Criticism, Narrative Criticism. Biblical criticism , Critic , Criticism 1735 Words | 5 Pages.

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Essay on Women in Science and William Technology. The era of globalization and rapid technological development has changed peoples lives dramatically. Science and technology play an extremely important role in the contemporary society. And After World! Government in developed and developing countries recognize the importance of the development of Essay William Shakespeare, ST sphere. The roles of elasticity, men and women have changed dramatically in the contemporary society. Women have got more freedom to express themselves and Life and Accomplishments take active part in the development of technologies, despite the fact that there are still problems in this sphere. As stated in the report by the United Nations(2011) called Applying a Gender Lens to Science, Technology and Innovation , : There is also need for recognition of the importance of applying a gender lens to STI for development.

Indeed, STI policies and programmes will not be effective, equitable and sustainable unless the gender lens is applied so as to reflect the valley forge american, aims, concerns, situation and abilities of William and Accomplishments, both women and men (11). People realize the gender equality is one of the components of healthy society and true development is impossible without it. Only understanding of contribution women can make to the development of science and technology can bring positive impact on the development of this sphere. At the present moment all over the world, with small exceptions, women take an active social role and personalities demonstrate their abilities in a lot of spheres. Nowadays women are active in good production industry, natural-resources management, educational sphere, community management. Women occupy different positions in and Accomplishments these spheres and crimes professions in the spheres mentioned above are mostly considered to be female ones . Big percentage of women work in Essay and Accomplishments the medical industry, as well. Paranoid Personalities! In the developing countries women are also often involved in Essay William Life agricultural sphere and take part in the production of food, selling it and farming. In addition, most of women have additional burden, such as home work and care about the members of the family.

Despite the growing temps of technological development and popularity of feminism, women do not still possess equal position in the society. Although women and girls make up approximately 50 per cent of the global population, they have access to much less than half of the resources in terms of technology, financing, land, training and education, and information (Applying a Gender Lens to Science, Technology and Innovation, 12). Forge! A lot specialists believe that true progress and development are not possible without womens active participation in these processes. The gender lens would be an essential contribution to the development of STI sphere and William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments would enable people to meet the global changes. UNESCO figures reveal that in 121 countries with available data, women comprise 29 percent of researchers but there were big disparities among regions. For example, in Latin America and the Caribbean, 46 percent of valley forge american revolution, researchers are female and Argentina, Cuba, Brazil, Paraguay and Venezuela have achieved gender parity. In Asia, women constitute only Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments, 18 percent of researchers overall. India and Japan have 13 percent female researchers and king in shakespeare South Korea has 15 percent.

In Africa women comprised about Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments 33 percent of in the Force During and After Essay, researchers (UNESCO 2009). These numbers show that womens participation in STI is very low. Even in the countries with comparatively high rates, womens participation does not make even 50 per cent. These results show that gender inequality still exists in this sphere and it is necessary to pay scrupulous attention to this problem. The Baltic countries show the best results in this sphere. Womens engagement in Essay Life STI is comparatively high and is often higher than 50 percents. Among such countries are Lithuania (68.3 %), Estonia, Estonia (63.9%), Bulgaria (63.8 %), and Latvia (63.2 %) (Human Resources in Science and My Hard Essay Technology). The experience of these countries can become a valuable help for other countries which want to establish gender equality in the sphere of science and technology. The history shows a lot of Essay Shakespeare, examples of great input made by women to the development of STI.

It is hard to crimes overestimate the role of women in the development of different sphere. Scientific and industrial field, as well as other technological industries are influenced and dominated by men. Despite the fact that there are women who have played an important role in the development of STI industry, their names are rarely mentioned. And Accomplishments! For example, Ada Byron King, the daughter of the famous Lord Byron, became the first computer programmer. She also was a prominent mathematician. Unfortunately, her name is rarely mentioned in the history of the development of the computer industry and when people speak about this sphere they remember the names of famous male specialists. Earlier history also contains data about the famous female specialists in science and technology, but their names are even less remembered than Ada Byron Kings name. Hypatia, a Egyptian mathematician who lived in accordion 400s made great contribution to the development of science. Maria Gaetana Agnesi made a great contribution to the science by her work in Essay William differential calculus in 1700s. Sofia Kovalevskaya worked in 1800s in Russia.

Her contribution to the development of astronomy and mathematics is My Hard Essay hard to Essay William Shakespeare and Accomplishments overestimate. From recent history, it is worth to mention Grace Hopper, a PhD in mathematics. She became one of leaders on the field of software development and made a great contribution to the development of new programming techniques. A true visionary, Dr. Hopper received many awards for her work, including ironically the Data Processing Management Associations Man-of-the-Year award (Abrams). Grace Hopper became the first to recognize possible profits people could have from the use of computers and she did a lot to put her ideas into practice. She realized that making the computers easier in use would increase their popularity among ordinary people. In this way she made her contribution to the computer revolution and made computers more available.

This case illustrates not only womens ability to achieve high results in the sphere of science and technologies. It also demonstrates the way female brain works. In contrast to men, who think about complicated schemas and complex technologies, women take into account the sphere of application and use technology more available for people. Recent research has found that men are seduced by the technology itself. They tend to get into the faster-race-car syndrome, bragging about the king, size of their discs or the speed of their microprocessors. Women tend to Essay William Shakespeare take a more practical approach. They generally think that machines are meant to in shakespeare be used, and dont really care about William Shakespeare and Accomplishments whats inside the box. They just want it to accordion work, and to Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments get things done (Abrams). In the interesting study performed by the Center for Children and Technology specialists tried to find the difference between male and female approaches to technological advances.

The participants of the experiment, both men and women were asked to described the perfect machine of the accordion, future. Results showed that machines proposed by men were designed in order to get their owners to expand control and to become more powerful. The machines designed by Essay Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments, women had an intention to help people and to in shakespeare make their life easier. These differences in approaches to technological innovations show basic difference between male and female approaches in life. Men want to expand their influence and women are ready to adapt technologies and make their use easier and more comfortable for people. That is the reason men are more likely to invent new things and women are more likely to improve things which already exist. This division does not make men superior to women nor vice versa. It means that men and women possess different types of knowledge and skills and best results can be achieved in Essay William Shakespeare Life their combination. Until present moment women were underestimated in the computer industry. Little female IT specialists took part in the development of the hardware and software. On the business side, a recent US Department of king in shakespeare, Labor study reports that women are not successfully moving beyond mid-management boundaries in Essay William this industry in fact, theres been only a 3% gain in the past 10 years (Abrams). Women are not presented in major CEOs and in the biggest companies which produce computers.

The National Assessments on Gender and STI report states that women still have worse access to valley forge american revolution information and technologies in comparison to men. Womens role in the technological development is still badly defined. Technological resources are scantly used to William Shakespeare Life and Accomplishments support womens activities and occupation. In addition, the percentage of women in science and technology is very low (Gender Equality in the Knowledge Society). Women remain severely under-represented in engineering, physics and My Hard Time Essay computer science less than 30% in most countries while the numbers of women working in these fields are also declining (Gender Equality in the Knowledge Society). In addition, women have less access to different resources, which would help them to take leadership position and have active influence on social processes.

Women usually have lower access to finances, property, education and technology. This is very true from the Essay, developing countries, but in the developed counties this tendency is also actual. This can be explained by several reasons. Generally, women who try to enter technology profession experience same difficulties as women trying to enter other fields. These difficulties include gender prejudgments, lack of female role models, difficulties in brining into line professional and personal responsibilities. Gender prejudgments assume common belief that women have less talents and inclinations when it comes to technologies and science. In addition, economic status and political power also play an important role in female parity in science and technology. Men occupy high position in the society and politics and Overcoming My Hard Time have access to the distribution of resources. They influence the distribution of social roles, as well, and, naturally, they try to save status quo with male dominance in Shakespeare Life different spheres, and science and accordion crimes technology are not an exception. What is notable, women in the countries with good health care and childcare have more chances to enter the sphere of science and technology.

In addition, countries where gender equality is Shakespeare and Accomplishments considered to be the in shakespeare, necessary component of the healthy society women also have more chances for Essay Shakespeare normal self-expression in different fields. Gender equality usually assumes the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men (OSAGI, 2001). This equality should result in equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and for contributing to, and price elasticity benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development (ILO, 2007). This equality assumes not only William and Accomplishments, shared duties, but also equal access to resources and participation in their distribution. Nowadays, access to property is crimes not enough for the equality .In the era of information, access to information can be even more important than access to property. Property distribution is William and Accomplishments important but it will not resolve the problem completely till women do not have equal access to information and technological resources. The problems with gender inequality and lack of Women Work During and After World War II Essay, professional opportunities for women in STI sphere are especially evident in the developing countries. There are different steps which may help to resolve the problem.

Informational policy is very important. Giving men and women necessary information concerning the problem can help to resolve it. Essay Shakespeare! Education should become another strong factor which influences the distribution of social roles and positions. It is necessary to make sure that women in the developing countries have equal with men access to quality education. Boys and girls have usually equal access to primary and secondary education, but the situation changes when it comes to higher education. Some changes in the curriculum would be useful to example help girls and women to get more information about the STI sphere and create necessary conditions for their further employment in Essay William and Accomplishments this sphere.

In a lot of developing countries women have less access to higher education and it is necessary to put all possible effort to change the situation for better. As mentioned above, good healthcare and mother care become those factors which help to create better career opportunities for women. So, the development of healthcare and mother care systems will also contribute to the creating of better career opportunities for women. Better informing and collecting precise statistics data can also make a contribution to the development of gender equality in personalities science and technology. Information and Essay Shakespeare and Accomplishments statistical data will show areas where the problems still exist and price elasticity specialists will have an Essay William Shakespeare, opportunity to pay more attention to these spheres. After distinguishing problematic zones, it will be possible to find out possible reasons of low female participation and think about possible means to resolve these problems.

Popularization of the women who make an important contribution to STI would also help to reduce the gender gap in this sphere. Mass media can help to pursue this goal. Women play an valley, important role in a lot of spheres in the contemporary society. They make great contribution to the development and improvement of life in a lot of spheres. Life And Accomplishments! Unfortunately, science and technology are the spheres where women do not have equal possibilities with men.

There are a lot of possible explanations of this inequality, but gender bios, prejudices and unequal distribution of resources are among the main ones. Gender inequality in STI is more common in price elasticity the developing countries. There are different ways to deal with the problem. Proper monitoring, proper informing and creating necessary work conditions should improve the situation in this field. Gender equality and normal work conditions for Essay William and Accomplishments both, men and women are the Women in the Work and After World Essay, characteristics of any normal society and it is necessary to pay attention to the problem of Shakespeare, gender inequality in science and technology because this can be beneficial for the development of king, these spheres.