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How to be a fan of problematic things. I like things, and some of schism those things are problematic. Mcdonald. I like Lord of the Rings even though its pretty fucked up with regard to women and race (any narrative that says this whole race is great schism, evil is fucked up, okay). I like A Song of Letter Essay Ice and Fire even though its portrayal of people of colour is problematic, and often I find that its in-text condemnation of patriarchy isnt obvious enough to schism, justify the sexism displayed. I like the movie Scott Pilgrim vs The World even though it is Letter to Benito Essay, racist in its portrayal of Matthew Patel, panders to stereotypes in its portrayal of Wallace, and trivialises queer female sexuality in its portrayal of Ramona and Roxys relationship. For fucks sake, Ramona even says It was a phase! How much more cliche and offensive could this movie be? Oh wait, remember how Scott defeats Roxy, his only female adversary, by making her orgasm?

Excuse me while I vomitand then keep watching because I still like the definition, rest of the movie. Liking problematic things doesnt make you an asshole. In fact, you can like really problematic things and still be not only a good person, but a good social justice activist (TM)! After all, most texts have some problematic elements in them, because theyre produced by humans, who are well-known to be imperfect. But it can be surprisingly difficult to own up to the problematic things in the media you like, particularly when you feel strongly about anglo, it, as many fans do. We need to find a way to enjoy the media we like without hurting other people and marginalised groups. So with that in mind, here are my suggestions for things we should try our darnedest to do as self-confessed fans of problematic stuff. Firstly, acknowledge that the thing you like is problematic and do not attempt to make excuses for it.

It is schism, a unique irritation to encounter a person who point blank refuses to mcdonald, admit that something they like is problematic. Infuriatingly, people will often actually articulate some version of the argument It cant be problematic because I like it, and Im nice. Alternatively, some fans may find it tempting to argue Well this media is a realistic portrayal of great schism societies like X, Y, Z. But when you say that sexism and mcdonald target, racism and heterosexism and cissexism have to be in schism, the narrative or the mcdonald market, story wont be realistic, what you are saying is that we humans literally cannot recognise ourselves without systemic prejudice, nor can we connect to characters who are not unrepentant bigots. Um, yikes. Definition Schism. YIKES, you guys. And even if you think thats true (which scares the hell out of conformity me), I dont see you arguing for an accurate portrayal of everything in your fiction all the time. For example, most people seem fine without accurate portrayal of what personal hygiene was really like in 1300 CE in their medieval fantasy media. (Newsflash: realistically, Robb Stark and Jon Snow rarely bathed or brushed their teeth or hair). In real life, people have to go to the bathroom. In movies and books, they dont show that very much, because its boring and gross.

Well, guess what: bigotry is also boring and gross. Definition Great. But everyone is just dying to keep that in great chapter, the script. Especially do not ever suggest that people not take media so seriously, or argue that its just a tv show. The narratives that we surround ourselves with can subtly, subconsciously influence how we think about definition schism, ourselves and others. Thats why creating imaginary fantasy and sci fi worlds that have more equal societies can be a powerful thing for marginalised people, who mainstream media rarely acknowledges as heroes. But even if you dont think that media matters, there is still no reason to focus exclusively on unequal or problematic fictional worlds and narratives. If it doesnt matter, why dont YOU stop taking your media so seriously and stop fighting us on this?

You with your constant demands for your narrow idea of realism (which by the way often sounds a lot like show me naked skinny ciswomen, and gore). If in your framework tv shows arent serious business, why does realism matter? Why cant you accept that it would be totally cool to expectations chapter 33, have AT LEAST ONE BIG MEDIEVAL FANTASY EPIC WHERE WOMEN AND POC WERE LIKE, EQUAL TO WHITE MEN AND STUFF. STOP TAKING IT SO SERIOUSLY. Secondly, do not gloss over the issues or derail conversations about the problematic elements. Okay, so you can admit that Dune is definition great, problematic. But wait, youre not done! You need to be willing to engage with people about it! Its not enough to target market, be like Ok, I admit that its problematic that the major villain is a fat homosexual rapist, but come on, lets focus on the giant sandworms!.

Shutting people down, ignoring or giving minimal treatment to schism, their concerns, and refusing to fully engage with their issues is a form of oppression. Implicitly, youre giving the message that this persons feelings are less important than your own. In fact, in this case youre saying that their pain is less important than your enjoyment of a book, movie or tv show. So when people raise these concerns, listen respectfully and try to understand the views. Do not change the topic.

Thirdly you must acknowledge other, even less favourable, interpretations of the expectations 33, media you like. Definition Great Schism. Sometimes you still enjoy a movie or book because you read a certain, potentially problematic scene in a certain way but others read it entirely differently, and found it more problematic. For example, consider the Letter to Benito Mussolini Essay, scene in definition great schism, Game of Thrones where Drogo rapes Dany (which he does not do in the books). One of my friends feels that it was portrayed like rape fetish porn, sexualising the act and Danys pain. But I feel that the anglo conformity, scene focuses on Danys pain and tears in a manner that is not fetishising them (though even so the narrative is still totally fucked up because Dany and definition, her rapist then go on to have a good, sexyfuntimes relationshipuh, no, HBO). I dont agree with my friends interpretation but I recognise it as a totally valid reading of the scene. Also, as a fan of anglo conformity problematic media, you need to great schism, respect the fact that others may be so upset or angered by media you love that they dont want to engage with it at all. In fact, one of my best friends wont watch HBOs Game of conformity Thrones because of the racism and misogyny. Thats a completely legitimate and valid response to that tv show, and me trying to convince her to great schism, give it another shot would be disrespectful and hurtful. If you badger others to see what you see in something when they are telling you its not enjoyable for great chapter 33, them, youre being an definition schism, entitled jerk. Youre showing yourself to be willing to Hitler´s Letter Mussolini, hurt a real person over a television show.

That really is definition great, a sign youre taking things too seriously. As fans, sometimes we need to remember that the things we like dont define our worth as people. So theres no need to defend them from every single criticism or pretend they are perfect. Really loving something means seeing it as it really is, not as you wish it were. You can still be a good fan while acknowledging the mcdonald target, problematic elements of the things you love. In fact, thats the only way to be a good fan of problematic things. Rachael is a queer, nerdy, aneurotypical, white cisfemale with a bachelor's degree in definition great schism, economics and a give 'em hell attitude. She has a culturally unacceptable amount of body fat but sometimes passes, and she accesses some forms of thin privilege but not others. She believes in leveraging the anglo conformity, privilege one has in order to smash the kyriarchy.

She is schism, a big geek, an atheist, a skeptic, and a fan of science. In her spare time she enjoys meditation, going to therapy, and 33, shouting. View all posts by Rachael. 248 thoughts on schism, “How to be a fan of problematic things” Reading this blog makes me a better person. Its also entertaining and Letter to Benito, funny #128578; Aw, yay. Best comment ever. Schism. #128578;

I agree with Olek. When it was pointed out to anglo conformity, me that Firefly has very few (if any) asian actors and characters, despite the world supposedly being an amalgam of great China and Hitler´s Essay, America, it made me feel funny. On the one hand I loved the great schism, show, but on pillar symbolism, the other felt sort of bad for liking it when it had this striking omission. But youre right, acknowledging and engaging with these problematic things is best I think if it were pointed out to Joss (and if the show had continued), he might have rectified this, because he is great, not a bad person, just maybe seeing through one type of privileged/blinkered lense. Thanks!

I have heard that about Firefly, although Im not a fan of the Laws Should Essay, show myself. As an outsider, the definition schism, experience of interacting with fans who are willing to engage with that issue is really different to interacting with those who try to make excuses or change the subject. Conformity. Interacting with that second group is definition, hard for an outsider because when you ask questions you are often made to feel like youre attacking them or being really rude, when in fact youre just seeking information. I think these attitudes make fandom more tense, and less enjoyable. Regarding Joss Whedon and Firefly, it pains me to say (as someone who dearly loves his work) but I dont have a lot of confidence that he Would rectify it. He has written truly remarkable narratives problematising heteronormativity, misogyny, and the silencing or sexual abuse victims, but his racialisations are consistently problematic. Over the course of four television series and blue competition, a feature film all with large ensemble casts he has had six major roles of colour: three of those were black men with short tempers and great schism, propensities towards violence (two heroes and one villain), a pliant and servile east Asian woman, a wise old magical negro man, and a masculine (by television standards) black woman with a strong sex drive. Conformity. And all of these, All of them, are characters I love I dont think they are one-dimensional stereotypes, but the fact that they fit so nicely _inside_ their stereotypes and the general lack of critical awareness surrounding race-narratives in definition, concert with the Gun Control Laws be Tightened, really overtly problematic episodes (Anyone remember the Thanks Giving episode of Buffy?) makes it difficult for great schism, me to believe that hes even slightly done the work to be ethical around racialisations. With Fireflys racial balance, Joss wouldnt have been able to fix the issue, as FOX execs had pretty much ingrained it. The Tams were supposed to be Chinese, but the studio were all like two asian heroes? and neither of them does kung fu? (until the movie) naah, and expectations chapter, history has shown that they were looking for ways to get out of great funding the show before it even began as it was.

So, weak on the issue, but not actively racist in this instance. This does not excuse the competition, final product, but it shouldnt be on Joss alone that it happened. So, weak on great, the issue, but not actively racist in pillar of salt symbolism, this instance. Yes actively racist, but perhaps not intentionally so. This is the perfect example of definition institutionalised and systematic racism. Be Tightened Essay. Whedon probably cant be blamed for the whole issue, but thats exactly the point. Systematic oppression is when prejudiced actions go through a number of gatekeepers and pass every single one without someone raising the issue. Systematic oppression is when prejudiced actions go through a number of gatekeepers and definition schism, pass every single one without someone raising the issue. This is an excellent definition.

I shall be making reference to it elsewhere, I have little doubt. This would probably have been that same fitting-inside-the-stereotype issue, though. Two Asian major characters who are also the two smart, nerdy, highly educated characters? Um. Well, in the case of Firefly, the show was already pushing its luck by having two prominent minority cast members (who actually had something to do other than being a minority) anyway. Conformity. They also didnt play the card of having a minority that was atypical of what mainstream audiences think of when they picture that minority ; i.e. Keanu is part- Asian, so he can be a Meiji era samurai.

It also had strong female characters, and definition great schism, more than one. Yeah, lack of any strong Asian presence, especially given the premise is noticeable, but one show cant solve all ills, which we tend to want movies, books and Gun Control, art to do. Great. Its a problem all creative people deal with in a society like ours where there is Letter to Benito, such a startling omission in the representation of certain cultures in media. If the definition, show were bad, basically no one would care, but if its halfway decent it will get slammed for Letter Mussolini, not being progressive enough. I almost didnt approve your comment but considering the amount of definition Firefly apologism Ive been hearing lately, Id like to point out that your argument is essentially This show is not as bad as it couldve been and that makes it okay which is a terrible line of argument. Nile. I find it perplexing that people seem to great, think there is a line at which a show is racist enough to criticise, but anything before it reaches that line is somehow protected by creative license or something. And FYI I actually mostly like Firefly.

Actually that was a rather poor attempt at sarcasm, but probably didnt come across that way because its actually rooted in fact. Mcdonald Target Market. A bad show can be host to a ton of problems and no one really cares, but a good show can always be better. For instance, BSG can be said to be a Sci Fi blessing for schism, giving a Latino actor a role as good and iconic as Captain Adama; however BSG gets lambasted for its depiction of Blacks. Firefly has not one, but two well written Black characters, but skimps on prominent Asian characters. Thing is the lack of Blacks in BSG and the lack of Asians in Firefly are both problematic, but in Gun Control Laws, Hollywood it would have been very easy for either of those series to definition great schism, have gone the route of least resistance and given the target, viewing public what they expected which was no Blacks, and no Latinos in definition great, prominent roles.

Many shows are really only problematic because of the of salt symbolism, dearth of shows that balance them out. People for instance dont get bent out of great shape about films without a LBGT character in them (even when chances are such a character would be there), because now you can find shows with such characters if you look. Said show is problematic, because it doesnt reflect real life, but could still be a well written show regardless. Thing is, you can take it or leave it because you have options of other things to watch. Its only when the chapter 33, options arent there that the spotlight falls on the few gems, and schism, we notice the Gun Control Essay, flaws. I understand what youre saying, but people are singling out definition great schism Firefly in particular because its been explicitly stated that the fictional world is Gun Control Laws be Tightened, one where China and the USA have merged into one government. Definition. Not only blue nile competition are there a great many visual elements from Chinese culture, but the characters frequently speak (very mangled) Mandarin. Given all this background, the great schism, fact that there almost NO Asian characters in the show is pretty fucking dismal.

Its funny that Firefly gets nailed with this because I had the same question about Bladerunner back in 1982. Ridley Scotts, Bladerunner seems to take place on mcdonald target market, an Earth where some Asia has clearly become the dominant culture, yet there are no Asian replicants, no Asian scientists that we see. I cant even recall seeing an Asian law enforcement officer, yet I do remember seeing Asian street vendors. None of this is in definition great schism, the book, it was added because I guess the production designers thought it would look cool and exotic, yet they didnt follow through with the idea to its logical conclusion. I still like Bladerunner, as its a superior example of SF filmmaking, but Scott loses points for the Asian omission. Still I have to say looking back over all the media Ive watched over the decades while I find obvious omission problematic, Ill take being blatantly omitted from a story where youd expect to see more of my culture than being included with a stereotypical and great chapter, dismal portrayal. Right now for at least two seasons this has been a big problem with the great schism, series The Walking Dead.

Set in Atlanta, youd expect thered be a lot more people of color as survivors (or even zombies for Letter Essay, that matter). but I could take that if they didnt treat the Black characters they did include so retchedly. Thing is there are few shows that are not problematic in some ways, but the point of this article is really about how you/me as a person who likes the definition, show deals with it when someone brings up the issue. If the issue is valid, you really cant debate it, and 99% of the time the issue is completely valid. I find that fans of Sf/fantasy seem to Mussolini Essay, be pretty lacking in this ability to admit that a show/movie they like has issues to the point of being belligerent, and hostile. Just look at all the crap Anita Sarkeesian went through just because she made a statement that a lot of video games were sexist. This is fanboyism taken to an obnoxious level, yet since the definition schism, time this article was written, Ive noticed that its increased and expectations 33, not decreased. Id really like to know if any of the people reading this might have any idea as to definition schism, why that is? @goldenboy62 Blade Runner featured beloved character actor James Hong as the cybernetic eyeball scientist for the Tyrell Corporation: Youre absolutely right!

Guess its been a while since I saw one of the blue nile, versions of Bladerunner. Good reason to go back and revisit it : ) @goldenboy62 James Hong is pretty prominently featured in Blade Runner as a cybernetic eye creator/scientist. Sadly, it has been pointed out to Josh more than once at least once in definition, public at a convention by an Asian person. His response: Well, those were the actors we hired. Id love to Hitler´s Mussolini Essay, see him rectify it. Definition Schism. Id love to see a second season full of Asian people because then I could watch the first season, which I havent out of respect for of salt symbolism, how much it hurts my husband to definition great schism, see a show that is all about everything in his culture except him. Theres also the problem that the Chinese-language consultant was apparently his wife, who studied it but isnt fluent and taught in China for a while (but not years). Gun Control Laws Be Tightened Essay. When I watched it at first, the Chinese in it made me wince, and when I eventually found out their source for the Chinese, it all made since. I think that was something controllable. I do think it reflects a lack of investment in the Asian aspects as anything other than window-dressing or flavor in schism, the show, and discussing this with other fans has brought me nothing but kneejerk reactions and excuses that reflect no willingness at all to symbolism, really think about it. Its frustrating. I like something thats flawed, and definition schism, that doesnt mean that Im a bad person is hard for people to accept, and I think that A f/sf work is flawed, but that doesnt mean it has less merit than a similar mainstream work. We genre fans are often very defensive.

Combining a whiff of conformity does this mean Im racist/sexist?! with does this mean it might be bad?! is too much for a lot of definition great people to handle. We need to expectations 33, work on it! Thanks for this article! You bring up some very good points. Thanks for great, this! I always feel guilty about anglo, being a fan of great schism something problematic, and after having read this article, I will now think about great 33, why I feel guilty and hopefully transform that guilt into a productive dialogue about the medias portrayal of oppression. Thank you, thank you. So much. The worst is definition schism, when people act like the WORST thing that can happen to their shows is for them to be called racist/sexist/etc. They dont understand that real people get hurt. Could you explain to me, please, how Scott Pilgrim panders to stereotypes in Laws be Tightened Essay, its portrayal of Wallace?

Im a gay man, and Wallace resembles many people in my community. Great Schism. To me, he was a character, not a stereotype. I mean, the anglo, reason I ask is that many times, portrayal of particular types of gay men will be tarred as stereotypical when particular other types often more privileged ones on oppression axes are not so tarred despite how well or how poorly the characters are fleshed out. Thanks for great, bringing this up! Wallace is my favourite character too and blue nile competition, I dont think he was just a stereotype, but it was pointed out to me that Wallaces having casual sex with multiple partners buys into one of the big stereotypes about gay men. So portraying the only named gay character (Jimmy is maybe bi?) as someone who sleeps around a lot will reinforce this as the dominant cultural narrative around gay people. Not that its problematic to sleep around of course, but its harmful when only schism one narrative is Letter Mussolini Essay, woven around a group. I felt that I should acknowledge that fact, even though I love Wallace and dont find his character offensive. I think you make a good point though (although I have to admit Im very ready to jump on definition great, board with that because, like I said, big fan of Wallace). This is really the problem I have. Speaking as a gay man who is promiscuous (and also effeminate, something else that gets gay male characters tarred as stereotypical), I think its not enough to go Hes a gay male character!

And hes promiscuous! That means hes a stereotype! By that logic, the only gay characters who are permitted to exist are non-promiscuous ones, though we might grant a dispensation to promiscuous ones as long as theyre accompanied by great expectations, a non-promiscuous one to definition schism, take the curse off. (If anything, I would find that kind of anglo Will-and-Gracey shit more stereotypical than the alternative.) To me the determining factor when looking into stereotypes that are morally neutral in their character (e.g. promiscuity and effeminacy) is: is this character like this out of lazy, caricatured characterization based wholly on their minority status? Or is this character like this because theyre like this, because theyre an accurate and great, well-brushed depiction of real people who are like this? Its not very cut and dried because having it be cut and dried is hurtful to real people. Heres some discussion of this w.r.t. Conformity. effeminacy, another characteristic that gay characters are frequently attacked as stereotypical for great schism, having: Im not saying no homosexual men should ever be portrayed as effeminate and promiscuous I dont think thats the endgame of the logic.

The logic is that there is an overabundance of these portrayals and that we are dangerously close to blue nile competition, building a single representation of gay men in mainstream culture and thats not acceptable: we need more representations that are diverse. Great Schism. Wallace isnt contributing to the diversity we wish to achieve. (I agree that neither are Will and Jack from Will and Grace, who are both somewhat promiscuous and 33, have feminine traits played for laughs.) The fact that it is definition, reinforcing the dominant narrative, and that there should not be one single dominant narrative, is really the only criticism theres nothing wrong with who Wallace is or with portraying gay men that way. I dont feel like its wrong to portray gay men this way, but I feel like there are issues here that should be acknowledged. I hope that Im communicating this correctly because I really dont want it to seem like I oppose representations of gay men as promiscuous and effeminate. I think we need to acknowledge that other narratives about gay men are given less attention and that is something that, as a culture, we should try to remedy.

Thats the full extent of the problem theres nothing wrong with the portrayal itself. If the dominant representation of gay men was of Gun Control Laws Should be Tightened Essay a monogamous youth pastor, or it would be the same level of schism problematic. Thanks for bringing this up Llyr and Letter, also for the link you provided! I definitely see your point, which I think is that we require more positive representations of effeminate (and possibly promiscuous) gay men in the media to counter the real world marginalisation that effeminate men experience. And I agree especially with respect to definition schism, how many people seem to take the notion of a sassy gay friend seriously (SATIRE PEOPLE, ITS SATIRE). But I dont think thats necessarily inconsistent with an examination of the trends of how gay men are portrayed in the media over all. I can wish for both better portrayals of effeminate gay men specifically, and also a better variety of portrayal of gay men generally. Im gay as well and I totally agree with you! I didnt find Wallace stereotypical at mcdonald target market all.

Hes like the only character from the comics that Edgar Wright didnt fuck up in schism, the movie adaptation. Just commenting to pillar, say that there are some excellent points being made here, and we want to thank everyone for their contributions. Its often difficult to voice nuanced dissent even within SJ circles. Were definitely re-evaluating our thoughts about great schism, this; just give us some more time to mull it over. #128578; @Rachel: As a femme-slut-fag myself,I really really dont think theres an overabundance of Wallaces in the media. On the contrary, seeing an f-s-f who is intelligent, self aware, ethical, and Letter to Benito Essay, confident is schism, definitely in the Unicorn range of frequent-sightings. The cautionary tale provided by mainstream media is that f-s-fs are pathetic imbeciles (jack) or lifeless accessories (queereye *shudder*), and the only way to save ourselves from being that is to butch up and go monog. Were supposed to whine interminably about not having a boyfriend, but then cheat on nile, him when we get one because we cant keep our legs closed, but then have pathetic (and hillaaaaaarious) girly melt-downs over the inevitable break up, diet like crazy, possibly get plastic surgery, and go out slutting again in search of a man lather rinse repeat until we get Herpes! *Laugh track!* Also, the definition great schism, butch-monog-fag is not a non-existent image, its the stereotype of the _Acceptable_ gay man.

We prove were allowed to exist by saying its possible for us to straighten up and pillar of salt symbolism, fly right. And yes, some of us _Do_ have normative-masculinity privilege, some of definition schism us do have relationship patterns that are more acceptable to dominant cultural mores, but promiscuity and variation in gender performance have been crucial rallying points in Hitler´s Letter Mussolini Essay, the formation of our culture, these arent wholly externalities being imposed on us. It was the drag queens and definition great, sex trade workers who fought for all of Gun Control Should be Tightened Essay us at Stonewall. It is our sex that dominant Western culture has tried to definition schism, erase and eliminate, so its the sex we have that became such an important site of resistance. We are othered because the sex we have is not gender-normative, so the ways we fail to be gender-normal have become our sites of identity and resistance. I would much rather see us shown as competent and real human beings while still possessed of that cultural identifiability, rather than simply white-washed and made into the fag thats sympathetic to mainstream audiences because hes been invested with the normative privileges (gender-normativity, monogamy) which are enforced throughout Western society, but with particular emphasis on queers. Thanks for this awesome comment. Im really glad people feel this way about Wallace because I love him, and I am glad to see that others do not find him problematic but indeed empowering. I am not sure that the dominant representation of Laws Should a gay man really is butch and monogamous though its hard to think of many except maybe that dude from Six Feet Under, and I guess Will from definition Will and Grace was usually monogamous but he wasnt really butch.

Jack was femmeish and promiscuous (and also an idiot, yes), so was the character played by great, Zach Quinto in So NoToriousactually, youre definitely right that femme and schism, promiscuous is not close to Laws Should, being the single narrative. Definition Schism. I dont think butch and monogamous is either, but yes, I agree with you that femme and promiscuous is not as dominant as I thought it was. The other thing about Wallace is that hes the only character who has his shit together (well, his boyfriend/s also seem to have their shit together) so thats pretty great. Um, so, first of pillar symbolism all, THIS IS GREAT. Like, this discussion, the blog, everything. I just discovered the blog today (I already forgot how, thats the schism, power of the of salt, internet) and its bookmarked. Great. I especially liked this post and will be linking everyone to it. So, THANKS FOR BEING AWESOME.

Basically. Then I wanted to add my two cents! Rachael, you say: I am not sure that the pillar of salt, dominant representation of great schism a gay man really is butch and monogamous though. I think the tension in this discussion is competition, that there is a growing gap in representations of gay men on definition, TV. On one side, youve got the great expectations 33, promiscious effeminate fag, we shall call him Comic Relief because thats basically his #1 purpose in the movie/show/comics. Great Schism. Hes been around for anglo conformity, fucking ever and were tired of great him because were tired of mcdonald target market being told fags are hilarious when in great schism, real life, being a fag gets you beat up after school. In response to anglo, this caricature, theres been an increase in media representations of Real Gay Man (TM). I think youre right, Rachael, that theyre still fewer of them (Comic Relief has a long history of being popular so hes not going to schism, go down without a fight after all, we do still love to laugh at gender nonnormativity). But the strength of Real Gay Man isnt in to Benito Essay, numbers its in how much every liberal LOVES him. Definition. Its in great expectations chapter, how much many people (on the more liberal end of the spectrum, granted) WISH he was the more popular representation. Hes the portrayal of gay people that hetero people, the masculine guy who Just Happens To Be Gay and definition great schism, reassures us that gay people really dont have to rock the expectations chapter 33, heteronormative boat.

Ever. I think the Real Gay Man is especially common in gay rights discourses amongst people who (most likely) self-identify as liberal and have a basic understanding of stereotypes are bad so they love patting themselves on definition, the back for loving non-stereotypical representations of conformity gay men. For some reason Im having trouble generating examples this morning, but hes definitely out there. Like think of how Brokeback Mountain was acclaimed I think the movie is excellent, but I also think that normative masculinity was a huge part of why a lot of people liked the movie. Ironically, instead of helping us explain why Comic Relief is a problematic representation, Real Gay Man often continues the work started by Comic Relief of demeaning effeminacy and promiscuity, except it judges it instead of mocking it.

Like you said, the problem with Comic Relief isnt that hes promiscious and/or effeminate; I dont think its even that we mostly see gay men as effeminate and/or promiscuous, although diversity of portrayals never hurts. The real problem with Comic Relief is definition schism, that hes a joke; if his character himself isnt a joke, his effeminacy and promiscuity definitely are. To respond to pillar symbolism, Comic Relief by wanting more of Real Gay Man has done little to definition schism, challenge heteronormative standards; Id argue its probably reinforced them, by confirming that they are what were striving for. That these heteronormative standards are real representation. Wow, maybe I should check out the rest of nile competition this site. I am really impressed by this comments discussion. Now re-evaluating my thoughts about stereotypical portrayals. Sorry to definition, jump in Gun Control Laws Essay, here, but nobody else has pointed this out: Wallace is not the only named gay character. (Aside from Roxy, and schism, I may never forgive Edgar Wright for what he did to Roxie.) His boyfriend, Other Scott, is also gay and named. They sleep with other guys and then have threesomes with said other guys, are in the back of group shots checking out Laws Should Essay guys and definition schism, clearly discussing who theyd have a threesome with. Im not saying that Wallace isnt promiscuous, he is; Im not saying hes not somewhat of a gay stereotype, because he is, somewhat; I just didnt want Other Scott to be ignored in this discussion. Especially since their relationship is the great 33, only one Ive ever seen in a movie that reflects my own. Definition Schism. (Well, Im in a triad and there isnt cruising for casual sex, but two of pillar of salt symbolism us do talk about guys wed love to have threesomes with, so its close enough.

And we date outside the triad, so. Hooray for positive depictions of poly relationships, is great schism, my feeling on nile competition, Wallace and great, Other Scott.) (Also in the comics [SPOILERS!] Stephen Stills is gay, and theres nothing in blue, Mark Webbers performance to negate that, since Im pretty sure Bryan Lee OMalley told him. [/SPOILERS!]) Cool! I did not know this thanks for contributing! Other Scott wasnt his boyfriend.

Hes his best friend. Definition Great Schism. They werent having sex when they were together in pillar, the bed since Scott was there and definition great schism, is averse to seeing other peoples penises. The issue for market, me (moreso in definition great schism, the comics than the film) is that Wallaces sexuality is highly tokenised. I think hes a great character though, and its possible that hes tokenised because Scott Pilgrim is a bit of a douchey narrator. I would agree, Scott is a douchey narrator.

I would also suggest its part of the whole point. Scott is not a perfect person, and in many ways commits micro aggressions against Wallace. Anglo. I believe Wallace is definition great, tokenized, but I also wonder if its because of the blue, writer, or the way he is schism, understood by nile, Scott. (I also wonder how much I am not defined by being Queer dynamic impacts this discussion. I find myself very troubled by I am gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer but I dont let that define me kinds of definition great dialogue, in that I dont feel it speaks to the experience of myself, and actually devalues that experience as a whole. To explain a bit more clearly, many times this dialogue arises out of treat me the same as someone not gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer and that if we were to be highly impacted or defined by Gun Control Laws be Tightened Essay, our queer experience, we would be somehow less good. Im concerned that there is a suggestion that people would be the same if they werent queer, and I dont think thats the case.

If I wasnt queer, I wouldnt have the politics I have, the job Im interested and definition great schism, the kinds of mcdonald relationships Im interested in having. While obviously extremely against the idea that being highly impacted by our queer experience some how devalues us, Ive never actually read I am gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer but I dont let that define me in that way. I think people like to categorise other people. To put them in boxes, fix labels and think theyre done with all the great schism, necessary understanding. I think I am gay/lesbian/bi/trans/queer but I dont let that define me is an attempt to market, stop that, to demand that you see the whole person.

To quote Whitman I contain multitudes and I refuse to be defined by only one. I am not just bisexual, a feminist, blonde or a bookworm, I am all of them and more and schism, Id like to symbolism, be seen as that. On the other hand, I recognise your point and I too think theres something very wrong with the fact that queer people even need to ask to definition, be treated the same as straight people. There shouldnt be a difference. I feel that Ive become a little more aware of my entitlements and advantages in the last few years. Ive had a number of doh moments and Im glad for this. Blue Competition. I hope to continue expanding my understanding, but I doubt Ill ever be anywhere close to just-society acceptable. Regardless, this comment has highlighted a difficult-to-articulate thing that makes me uncomfortable when it comes to social activism. Not even activism, just generally trying to definition schism, be more aware, and having conversations online about it. I cant help but see, underlying much of the dialog, the expectations, idea that the advantaged group cant add much to the conversation.

They cant say what the marginalized experience is like, or understand it, or solve it, because they ARE advantaged, always have been, and always will be. Its cultural appropriation, heavy on the negative connotation, for a representative of the advantaged group to speak with any authority in matters of marginalization and bias. So how is it acceptable for me to be offended on someone elses behalf. It seems to me that being offended on someone elses behalf can be as offensive as being completely blind to definition schism, the potentially offensive. By finding something offensive that has nothing to do with me, I think I might be implicitly acting as if I can authoritatively state what a marginalized group ought to pillar, be concerned with or offended by. Which seems, well, smugly advantaged. Catch-22 or just being advantaged and missing the point?

People who are privileged but want to help marginalised people are generally called allies in social justice circles. I would suggest Googling How to schism, be an to Benito Mussolini, ally and reading the resources that pop up there, and hopefully theyll provide an answer to some of your thoughts. But to address your concern specifically, the definition great, issue is not really one of Gun Control Laws Should be Tightened Essay offence. We use the word problematic here a lot because offence suggests a kind of deep emotional reaction, whereas, to be completely honest, some of the most problematic representations of marginalised people make me feel kind of empty because Ive just seen it so many times. Great Schism. Problematic on the other hand gets to the heart of the matter that a representation in some way creates problems for conformity, marginalised groups and thats why its bad, not because people have a strong emotional reaction to schism, it (ie. people often use the defence of being offended by be Tightened Essay, swearing as a reason to not consider these issues, but swearing on the whole is great, not something problematic). That way you can discuss the blue competition, ways in which a representation can be detrimental to definition schism, a marginalised group (which is a lot more objective) and hopefully you wont feel or seem as if you are appropriating marginalised experiences. I think it is Gun Control Laws be Tightened Essay, possible (to some degree at least) to be offended on someones behalf, or in your words have a deep emotional reaction to something problematic, the important part being that one recognizes that their taking offence is not nearly as important as a marginalized person taking offense and is an /entirely/ different experience. For instance, I as a white person may have a strong emotional reaction to something racist that affects my friend who is a POC, but its important for me to recognize that it is their feelings, not mine, that are at issue, and that because it does not affect me directly, there is more of an escape, so to speak, for definition schism, me than there is for pillar, them..So, yes, perhaps offense isnt the correct word to definition great schism, describe negative emotional reactions of allies, but there certainly isnt anything wrong with being emotionally affected by things that dont apply to you as long as you keep in mind a reasonable amount of symbolism perspective about where your feelings sit in great schism, the grand scheme of things. Great post!

I liked the Scot Pilgrim movie, but it still really bugs me that, as well as the expectations, other problems you pointed out, Ramonas ex-boyfriends dictated who she dated, instead of definition great schism her getting to Laws Essay, choose. I disagree. Her exes tried to dictate who she dated, but at definition great no point did she actually care what their opinion of Scott was. She dated him cause she liked him, and dumped him cause he was a douche. The exes objections were soundly ignored by Ramona the entire time. Good point! I did not think about this! Um, wow.

I wish to take your hand in conformity, marriage. This post is amazingly beautiful. You have no idea how much that makes my day! Thanks for such a nice comment. I love this article! As someone who grew up in definition, the 70s and 80s, I admit I still have this fondness for chapter 33, the Brady Bunch and Little House on the Prairie and CHiPs.

I also watch a lot of old movies. On the one hand I really enjoy these things, and on great schism, the other, well, do I really need to point out the sexism, the racism, the heterosexism and the speciesism involved? (fur coats and old movies go together like Beavis and mcdonald, Butthead which I also watch.) Im really glad you wrote this, in fact, because I sometimes get actually stressed out by definition, the fact that I do enjoy some of these things, and I am very aware of many problems in them. Re: Game of Thrones. Drogo does, in fact, rape Dany in mcdonald market, the books its not the great, wedding-night scene, but theres a couple lines (the only target market time this is mentioned) that states that he basically raped her every single night until she sort of got used to definition, it and started feeling it was pleasurable.

And thats half the problem I had with their relationship right there. But I totally agree with everything else that you said. Hm, I read those lines differently but now that you point it out I agree it seems like he rapes her. Anglo Conformity. Though he doesnt rape her the first time (although of course shes under a huge amount of pressure, its consent under duress) in the books. But yes, I think youre right about this on the whole. Through the filter of our (theoretically) sexually enlightened culture- yup, shes raped.

Through the filter of great arranged marriage? Not so much. Doesnt make it any less non-consentual, but a woman in that situation is likely to be thinking cultural expectation of wifehood rather than Im being raped- and blue nile competition, their actions reflect that. So when we look at it though our filter of it was rape- we cant understand how Dany could develop love and respect and a comfortable sexuality with her rapist, it just doesnt happen in our conceptualization. Even Dany learning how to be an active sexual participant confuses us, because we cant imagine her wanting to have sex with her rapist. But, it really is possible that a marriage that started out as an definition, arrangement with an unwilling, confused wife and a dominant male could develop into chapter 33, a consenting sexual relationship- it has happened, it still does happen in cultures where arranged marriages are still the norm. Im reminded of the definition great, scene in Fiddler on the Roof, where Tevye asks his wife if she loves him; you learn they first met on their wedding day- obviously she was a scared, probably unwilling virginal girl.

25 years later, they have a settled domestic life. Did she cave in to her rapist, or did she adapt to what life expected of her? Should we be outraged that she didnt hate him forever? Even Dany learning how to be an active sexual participant confuses us, because we cant imagine her wanting to have sex with her rapist. I havent read any of the Gun Control, books. I assumed that Dany was trying to take some control of her life. It also looked like she fell in love with the people and her husband because even after the raping they still treated her better than her brother did, in great schism, the arranged marriage kind of context. She did what she had to do to survive. Also, baby dragons, squeeee!

Im sorry, because I like most of this, but parts bugged me. Mostly because I feel that insensitivity to particular social topics can be used well in characterizationof the villains. It doesnt have to Hitler´s Letter Essay, be overdone, obviously, and even subtle pokes can be enough. But sometimes it is necessary. What I always use as an example is Captain Hammer from Dr. Horribles Sing-A-Long Blog. Despite being the hero, hes the great schism, antagonist, and has to be characterized as such. So Mr. Mcdonald Target. Whedon writes him as an insensitive, egocentric oaf. Great. Lines like I might just sleep with the same girl twice (after entering a relationship with the woman) and If youre not a friggin tard you will prevail cement this.

Was it necessary? Id argue it was necessary for insensitivity of mcdonald market some kind. Definition. How else can you make a hero the bad guy? As for the realism thingmost of the time I agree that realism can be loose. Blue Nile. It just has to be visually realistic in what we see, as long as there isnt to much important action offscreen. But in Medieval stories, Id argue that it IS necessary for the women and schism, POC to Laws Should Essay, be unequal to great schism, white men. Because thats what happened, thats reality.

However, thats not to say there cant be strong women present. Though now that I think about it, I cant honestly say I remember seeing a Medeival-era movie even featuring POC. But, a fantasy story, as you said? There I agree, theres no reason not to have women in power. Though any POC typically have to be travellers, since most fantasy is knights/castles/dragons in Europe inspired backdrops; and its my hope that thats the only reason there arent important POC in Gun Control Should be Tightened Essay, most fantasy. But, to make a long post shortI think all of the bad things can serve a good purpose, sometimes being necessary. Definition Schism. And that to me is progress, even. When its the bad guys who are rapists, the Laws Should Essay, bad guys who are sexist, racist, cissexist, mysoginistic, the list goes on, when these things are constantly present in definition great schism, movies but they are the bad guys, I think thats a step forward.

Before we can move on Letter to Benito Essay, from something, be in a place where it can be so ingrained in us that hating a particular person for being a different colour, a different orientation, is bad, we have to be in a place where were being shown that its bad. Having this all constantly present in movies but utilized primarily by the bad guys is necessary. I agree that when the great schism, narrative shows bigotry as being the trait of to Benito Mussolini Essay a bad person, it is effectively condemning the bigotry. I think this can mean that such a portrayal is in schism, fact beneficial! However sometimes I feel like people are trying to mcdonald target market, do this, but because their audience actually is racist/sexist/heterosexist/ableist etc, the narrative condemnation is not strong enough to be able to stop the audience from liking the bad character and definition schism, thinking they are great. So that can be a problem, although its not the authors fault. Sometimes though I think subtley tends to me more powerful than an aesop.

Game of Thrones to me always seemed to portray the way some of its characters viewed women as reprehensible. This gets shown even more so in subsequent novels especially in the Arrya chapters. Usually Id agree and definitely from an blue nile competition, artistic viewpoint but I think sometimes in definition, the case of systematic prejudice sometimes a subtle message against expectations it wont actually penetrate the definition great, consciousness of those who are mired in the prejudice. So for we feminists, we perceive the blue competition, subtle feminist messages of ASOIAF, but a sexist can ignore them very easily its less easy to ignore an definition great, aesop. Conformity. But it can be a tradeoff, although I feel some media can make it obvious without being too preachy (take for example the Avatar: the Last Airbender series, which has strong feminist messages without being totally aesop-y about it!). Im actually in the midst of writing a post about this.

In short: just because a character in a show is great, bigoted doesnt mean the show is problematic. However, the Hitler´s to Benito Essay, bigoted character and their actions needs to be clearly condemned by great, the narrative and anglo, the other characters for the media to be sending the definition great, message that bigotry is not okay. Yes, of course, the most important thing for art of any kind is to Send A Message. Fuck subtlety or moral ambiguity, right? This is completely irrelevant to the discussion at blue nile hand. Whether a book or film intends to send a message or be morally ambiguous and subtle is clearly unrelated to whether it is problematic. Plenty of morally ambiguous films contain fewer harmful tropes than films that intend to send a message.

That distinction is really not what this post is about. Aside from an obvious mastery of the irrelevant, I am not sure what you have to contribute to the discussion here. Great Schism. Future comments in this vein will not be approved. Though now that I think about chapter 33, it, I cant honestly say I remember seeing a Medeival-era movie even featuring POC. Does Men in definition, Tights count? I really dont mean to sound judgmental here, but it jumped out at me quite strongly when reading your comment that you chose to great, highlight the one passing ableist line in an /entire song/ whose purpose is to great, illustrate Hammers classism, in which he calls homeless people scary and says they smell like poo.

Though now that I think about it, I cant honestly say I remember seeing a Medeival-era movie even featuring POC. Costners Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves had Morgan Freeman playing Robins sidekick, Azeem. Though there he was largely playing the Magical Negro. But yeah Im struggling to think of another. Even 13th Warrior which is ostensibly about an Arab in Viking lands had Antonio Banderas playing Ibn Fadlan. Youve gotten quite popular on pillar, Tumblr!

Beautiful article and very helpful. I had to think about this a lot because most media is still pretty problematic, even media that claims to be progressive. By the way, while Scott Pilgrim, both the books and definition, the movie, do suffer from the problems you mentioned, I just wanted to anglo conformity, note that in the books, Roxy and Scott actually had a very decent sword fight, he even had to get over being too moral to definition, fight women. Mcdonald Target. On the other hand, when he defeated her, she left bunnies and birds instead of coins. Yeah -_- The whole orgasm thing was used by Ramona against Envy in the books. I have one disagreement, though, which seems to great, have been already mentioned; I dont believe Scott Pilgrim panders to gay men stereotypes. Its true that the movie focused on Wallace since hes a main character but, in the books, therere a lot more gay men, and only Wallace(and maybe his boyfriend Mobile) are the only promiscuous ones. I completely agree about the portrayal of women queernes, though. I might be wrong about pillar of salt symbolism, this but, Scott Lynchs Gentleman Bastard is an example is an great schism, example of a medieval fantasy that has women as real equals and queer sexuality as normal.

Yes! I was hoping someone would mention Scott Lynch. His series is great chapter, part of a new movement in fantasy to bring an end to definition great schism, the tired old tropes of medieval-era European fantasy for target market, one thing, his books are actually set in a Renaissance era, and POC and non-hetero characters abound. Another example is the writing of definition Patrick Rothfusss he deals pretty directly with racism, class elitism, discrimination and nile competition, misogyny. Hetero chacters are everywhere, but there are a few gay and bisexual minor characters, and its Not A Big Deal, Guys. Its really heartening to definition great, see my favourite genre moving in such a progressive route. Weve come a long way since the days of Grandpapa Tolkien! The most problematic thing about Wallace in the Scott Pilgrim movie is how he says I dont make up the gay rulebook, implying that stealing your friends boyfriends is anglo, totally okay for homosexuals and he just has to follow the great schism, rules.

Still love the competition, movie though. (The comics are more problematic, but in a sexist way, and therefore I like them way less) This was really a fantastic post to read. Ive been considering similar concepts myself for the past year and a half or so. My husband and definition, I have set out to watch every movie we own ( 640) and review them all. Blue Competition. Watching things with a more critical (and more aware of definition schism privilege) eye years after first seeing them and enjoying them has been an nile competition, interesting and sometimes troubling experience.

I know I can enjoy something while still acknowledging that it has problematic elements, but sometimes its a difficult balance inside my own head. This is a great post. Ive been writing an original fantasy story for my NaNo, and one of the things Im trying to be conscious of is how gender and inequality are handled (in my society, people arent treated differently based on their gender, but rather on definition, how their magic manifests), as well as different cultural portrayals in Hitler´s Letter Mussolini, my story. And the idea that the culture some of my protagonists hail from has issues just as problematic as others in the story. Its a challenging thing to balance sometimes, but I hope by reading posts such as this one I can be aware of definition schism such things. Not to be problematic, but if the media we surround ourselves with influences us subconsciously, how is it okay to surround ourselves with _____ist media? Being influenced and surrounded by (problematic) media is expectations chapter 33, a fact of definition schism life. One way to be aware of competition subconscious media influences is to engage in dialogue and talk a lot about it. Definition Schism. Short of anglo living as a hermit, no one can get away from the great schism, kyriarchy and the products it produces. And just because media is problematic in blue, one way doesnt mean its devoid of all artistic merit. It may actually have good things to say in one particular area of marginalisation (intersectionality!). (There may be some media that are devoid of all artistic merit because they only contain problematic things but I would say these are a minority of cases.)

I understand that all media is a mix of positive and great, negative. However, since some things are more positive/progressive than others, wouldnt it be better to leave behind, say, Eminem and Scott Pilgrim, and focus on things that dont reinforce the status quo so much? Why not *minimize* the amount of negativity around you? How do we gauge progressiveness? How do we gauge what reinforces the status quo so much versus just a little bit? Even consuming media that is anglo, devoid of definition schism outright stereotypes and problematic elements, if were consuming something with a protagonist that is privileged in some way (white, straight, cismale, able-bodied, etc) then were probably reinforcing the dominant narratives of privilege in target market, some way, simply due to the fact there arent as many narratives about marginalised people. From the a pragmatic point of view policing what media other people like is great schism, unrealistic and, in my opinion, unhelpful, especially when some people may not understand what is mcdonald target, problematic about that media. Great Schism. On the other hand, creating spaces where works can be critically discussed is highly educational and more likely to Gun Control Laws Should be Tightened Essay, succeed, because fans love discussing media. Im not interested in policing other people and I dont care about great schism, being a fan. Im just pointing out that if media affects us on a subconscious level, then we should take some control over what type of media we consume. Chapter. Its pretty simple. Yes, talk about what is offensive in definition great schism, the work, but, hey, if the movie/song/book isnt chocked full of blue competition stereotypes and negativity, theres less crap seeping into great, our brains.

Clearly, individuals have different tolerance levels for intolerance and ignorance, and mine tends to nile competition, be kind of low. Definition Great Schism. Do I love gaming culture so much that Im willing to inundate myself with the blue nile competition, isms that are tied to some of it? Is crunk so great to dance to that Ill let the dehumanization of women pound its way into my head? Is the definition, entertainment value of Pulp Fiction greater than the de-valuing of human beings it propagates? I understand that most entertainment contains isms and phobias. That doesnt mean I should drown myself in that sort of thing. There is some media out there that isnt so bad. And, actually, there is life outside of media. At this point Im not sure what point youre trying to make that hasnt already been covered by great expectations 33, my previous comments. Im not interested in policing other people and I dont care about being a fan. Considering this post is great, about being a fan your advice about having a life outside of media comes off as extremely condescending (and in fact, policing of what other people should do with their lives and Laws Should Essay, free time).

Contrary to what this site might suggest, everyone at SJL are living extremely busy and definition, fulfilling lives concurrent to pillar of salt symbolism, running this website. Whether fannish activities make up a large part of someones life is entirely the choice of each particular person. Most people who consider themselves to definition schism, be progressive *do* make some effort to leave behind the Should be Tightened, negative stuff and definition schism, focus on the positive, dont they? Its impossible to do completely, as almost everything has some problematic elements, but speaking for to Benito Essay, myself I avoid films and great, TV shows without any decent roles for women, for chapter, example, or which are overtly misogynist, racist and/or homophobic. As Connie has said, its not an either/or though. Many programmes do very well in some areas and not so well in others. Everything is problematic. Everything.

I find both these comments very problematic. There is something that deeply bothers me about definition, this post. Not about recommendations or pointing out problematic aspects of certain movies/shows/etc. Yes, Im a fan of pointing them out and talking about them. In no way do I believe these topics should be glossed over or avoided. Its more a reaction to two things: (1) how to interact with people who think differently from you; (2) the nature/purpose of art.

Maybe its just my perception, but I found it a bit hypocritical to implore people to respect being hurt by something while at blue nile competition the same time telling them dont make excuses and dont change the subject. Shouldnt discussions of definition great schism something problematic have a certain amount of Gun Control back-and-forth? What you call making excuses could open a discussion about society X, Y and Z. Definition Great Schism. I agree that trying to mcdonald, silence someone when they point out something problematic is definition schism, not the right approach but why not try to 33, engage the reaction instead of simply telling someone not to react that way? It seems to definition great schism, me to Hitler´s Letter Mussolini, be just as much imposing your views on definition, someone else if you dont try at least to understand their reaction. Also, as an artist, I find some of the hidden and expectations chapter, not-so-hidden assumptions about the purpose of definition art extremely troubling. In the Laws be Tightened Essay, comments, people openly discuss bigotry being used effectively for villains.

So youd rather completely wash away the complexities that all HUMANS have? A movie about Malcolm X shouldnt show the problematic aspects of the Nation of definition great Islam? A movie about FDR shouldnt discuss the internment camps? But more fundamentally you seem to be assuming that media in the broad sense should be used to pillar symbolism, educate people and advance the cause for schism, social justice, asking for one fantasy epic that doesnt reinforce stereotypes/inequality. Maybe this isnt an audience that will agree with me, but I say this is great 33, ONE purpose for media one in which you participate and that you enjoy. Definition Great Schism. It is also a way to of salt symbolism, express some of the darkest and least flattering parts of what it means to be human. This is the art that I personally find compelling. Violence, inequality, subjugation they are all both real and powerful. Schism. It is possible to have a desire/drive and disagree with it on moral grounds at Essay the same time. In fact, I would go so far as to definition schism, say that EVERYONE experiences this or is lying to themselves.

I dont think avoiding this is going to do much of anything to advance social justice. I think youre using a slightly different definition of problematic to the one I used. I dont think displaying the great chapter, cruelty of which humans are capable is problematic. We need media that explores sexism, heterosexism, abuse, inequality etc those stories need to be told and its not problematic to definition great schism, tell them. What is anglo conformity, problematic is great, when they are told without fully exploring the pillar symbolism, traumatic consequences of these horrible things, and thus, without giving full weight to the victims. It becomes problematic when the definition great, narrative subtly reinforces the bigot or the abuser rather than exploring the pain of the victim. So for example I dont consider True Grit problematic even though it portrays a deeply sexist society, in fact I think its the best film of the past few years precisely because it explores how a young girl experiences that society during her revenge quest. Gun Control Laws Should Be Tightened Essay. I dont consider films about Reuben Carter problematic if they focus on schism, Reuben Carter etc. I feel like we probably agree on this as a whole. I also agree that a back and forth can be part of this as long as its respectful. Hitler´s Letter Mussolini Essay. Its definitely fine to listen to definition great schism, the other person and then say Thats interesting, I think thats a totally valid reading of the great expectations chapter, text, heres how I read it.

But dont say No you read it wrong, heres why they did this! thats making excuses. I dont see how this is hypocritical? The question that arises, Rachel, and I ask this sincerely, is what if you think they -are- reading it wrong? What if it IS a totally ridiculous assertion? Are we supposed to simply decide ok, something is problematic and thus Bad the moment that -anyone- gets upset by it? For example. I was recently playing the PSN game Journey. My sister, who is definition schism, not a gamer but is Hitler´s Mussolini Essay, a political science student from a progressive-to-radical-leaning university, watched, and then said: You know, I think this is Orientalist. Of -course- the protagonist looks like a woman with a burkha on to invoke the Other! I found this quite ridiculous, and frankly at great schism best a misreading.

Am I not allowed to say, no, it was an aesthetic choice? There are absolutely times when I think someone is reading something wrong. In that case, I find it best to Laws Should, say something like I do not understand how you read that from the text, but I respect your interpretation of the definition great, text as problematic. After all, I do not suffer from a crushing need to force everyone to agree with me (contrary to target, what my detractors would say, I think!). However, theres something else at work here. It is great, possible that you cant understand someones interpretation of the text as problematic because your privilege blinds you to the messages being sent by the text. For example, I find I must be suspicious of myself when I, a white woman, do not read a text as racist while a non-white friend does. Is it really likely that *I* am a better judge of racism than a POC? No. In fact, as a white person, I am socially conditioned to be blind to blue nile, racism.

You will meet many white people who claim its not racism until the KKK hoods go on. Dont be that (white) guy. Definition Schism. This is great 33, a general problem, Im just illustrating with my own example. And I must say, the example you gave is really unfortunate: it sounds like your sister is definition, right. Our aesthetic choices are never made in a vacuum your sister is applying critical thinking to the choice. And what is blue nile competition, more, a burqua is a highly politicised item of clothing, so I very much doubt it appeared in schism, a video game *purely* as an aesthetic choice anyway.

Having seen the game in question, I think the anecdote about nile competition, Jamess sister is fascinating as is definition great schism, your willingness to accept his sisters reading as clearly right on the basis of a single sentence. I thought the game clearly referenced Islamic art and culture in its visual style, in a way that had a flavor of mcdonald market this is exotic and Other! and definition, thus could be inherently problematic. But there was nothing to indicate the mcdonald target market, sex or gender of the great schism, protagonist (or any other character), who never speaks and is always fully covered in Laws, pants and a knee-length cloak topped with a neck scarf and a cornered hood which shadows the face but was, to me, little reminiscent of the definition great, round silhouette and draped face of a burqa in particular any more than any number of desert garments intended for sand exclusion and shade. The Otherness was, to my eye, created by the speechless, wordless design of the game, and by its nonviolence, and by the completely ambiguous presentation of the protagonist (which seemed at times catlike), and more problematically, depending on Letter to Benito, your reading of the definition great, game and of the value of creating Otherness with elements drawn from reality by its mostly-desert setting, architecture full of pillars and complex geometric windows and meshes, and by the ambiguity of the setting, which changed seamlessly between snow and sand and water, and color scheme maybe meant to be reminiscent of native North American art bolstered by to Benito Mussolini Essay, the occasional woven blanket tapestry motif. This doesnt make Jamess sister wrong, but I guess I find your acceptance of a third party judgement without apparent application of context problematic. For reference, heres a screenshot of the game, since Im not sure my description is definition schism, sufficient: I know this is pillar symbolism, more detail than was necessarily merited, especially so long after the comments were posted, but Im curious to great, hear your thoughts about this imagery in blue nile, its own context, if you have thoughts to share. Im fairly torn myself on the apparent equation (and amalgamation) of desert peoples with the project-your-own-deep-meaning feel I got from the game, and with what felt like haphazard mixing of disparate, tenuously related cultural signifiers, but I really liked the ambiguity of the game and its conflicts and story. Well this post was amazing, and your comments/replies are fantastically even-handed and level-headed.

Definitely going to great, forward this on to Everyone. Everyone I know. #128512; This is Letter to Benito, one of the most well-worded, expressive, thoughtful pieces Ive read in a long while, and great, I loved every bit of it, from the post itself to every comment and discussion. I appreciate the mention of Dune, because this is something Ive discussed on multiple occasions with my best friend. Its her favorite book, and I absolutely cannot stand it because of the obviously homophobic quality in the writing. However, and this is the important thing, we both respect each others opinions. I wish other people would realize that, just because someone else might find something offensive or hurtful in something you might love, doesnt mean that you should become defensive or even ashamed of liking it, as long as you understand where the other person is pillar of salt symbolism, coming from. All it comes down to is understanding. I think that you have to realize that in order for some story structures to work such as Adventures Quest, Hero with a Thousand Faces or Ship of Fools you have to have to definition, condemn entire races (mythological or real) to anglo, less-than-human status. If you dont then you end up with Star Wars droids as the enemy..

Why do you think there are so many WWII movies, cause Nazis are okay to pick on. Im not sure which story structures you mean since I havent heard of any of the ones you mentioned, and Im finding it hard to understand why any story structure would need an entire race of people to be evil and definition great, subhuman. Target. I mean, Star Wars is a great example of a narrative that didnt do that! I dont see why youd ever need to schism, have every single member of a fictional race be evil. In LotR it certainly was not necessary and be Tightened, the story would not have fallen apart if there had been a few good orcs or even a lotor in fact if Saurons army had been made up of men, elves, dwarves etc as well as orcs. What structure are you referring to? Saurons army was not a race, it was constructed from schism parts of dead people from other races, hince why they were called orochi This comment makes no sense on any level, and I am publishing it so everyone can gaze upon it in wonder. I googled the word orochi but I still have no idea where you got it, so I shall assume you refer to the uruk-hai. If so, they are indeed a race! They are bred by of salt symbolism, Sauron and then later bred to definition schism, be even stronger by Saruman (the fighting uruk-hai).

They are not constructed from mcdonald market dead parts of other people. Indeed, their name does not hint at definition great them being constructed from dead people, but rather highlights that they are part of the orc race because the word uruk-hai means orc folk in the language of Mordor. And what colour are these evil monsters? Black. Expectations Chapter. And what colour are our heroes? White.

Also, the uruks were more associated with Sarumans army by the time the LotR books took place, although we can assume they formed part of Saurons too. Schism. Saurons army was made up of orcs (uruks and great expectations, others) for great schism, the most part, although it also included trolls and evil men. Target Market. [So I was wrong before when I said there were not men in his army]. Great. Still, my major claim is that in LotR the trope this whole race is mcdonald target market, evil is true of the orcs, and thats a problematic way to represent race. This comment wins the blog. Perhaps Redpen was getting mixed up with the origins of Orcs I seem to remember that their forefathers were Elves, tortured and deformed into something evil. Uruk-Hai were Men who had undergone the same process, hence why they were stronger and faster and able to withstand the Sun (as this work is all about the definition great schism, ending of the age of Elves and the beginning of the Age of Man, which we are still living in.)

There are so many ways that could be discussed in terms of race but Redpens comment doesnt really seem to fit into any of them. =/ They must have got mixed up with something else. no, id agree that orcs were essentially tortured and Should be Tightened, mutilated elves, and you could mix uruk-hai into that as well. you have the great, black and white issues, largely because of target shadow/night and light/day, BUT the descriptions of uruk hai were basically dreaded and with descriptive that would describe black men in an unflattering way. and obviously however they were created, essentialism is problematic, though you could say they were brought up to great schism, kill and not value their lives. what i do find problematic is that the Gun Control Should Essay, bad guys or the definition great schism, men most likely swayed into evil, time and time again, are those of the southern and eastern origin. in the films, it seems like there was an effort to make the ababian/oriental look combined with western paleness for balance, but i think thats the bigger issue. Anglo. obviously if you read the silmarillion books youll see its due to a mix of schism which gods they interacted with and nile competition, their racial qualities (can be read as cultural) but its still problematic that theres a strong romanticism about the west and the white fair folk. I always thought of orcs as a species, not a race, and didnt find their portrayal problematic in definition schism, and of itself.

However all of Tolkiens bad guys come from the south and of salt symbolism, the east (on his maps), and they are definitely imbued with real life details from definition schism South East Asia, the Middle East and India. The kind of army they have (oliphants are clearly justbig elephants) and armor they wear and all the dudes riding on them in eyeliner- far more problematic than the goblin-y orcs in my opinion. Redpen is confused and needs to re-read their Silmarillion. Orcs = evil Elves. Uruk Hai: Orcs :: Marines : Army.

/super LOTR geek-out. Also, I really love this article and Im forwarding it to like, the universe. Why do you think there are so many WWII movies, cause Nazis are okay to pick on. You do realise that Nazis are not a race of people right? Im not sure why you imply that any story structure would require an blue competition, entire race be condemned. Schism. Can you explain why in Gun Control Should Essay, clearer detail? Pretty much any story could leave room for good members of definition a race, a culture, or even mythical creatures. Many stories dont, for a few likely reasons: 1) Its far easier to mcdonald target market, just demonize the race/creature/culture because you need to write less, and only have to outline the definition great schism, bad characteristics and symbolism, deeds. Definition Schism. Paining with a broad brush is easy.

2) It keeps stories shorter and more concise, because the writer wont have to expand on secondary characters, or work to fit in Laws be Tightened, exceptions into the narrative. This reason seems to me to be the likeliest. 3) Its a natural fallout of the schism, conflict/war narrative that we humans tend to target, live by: fear of the other. Its easier to definition, justify war when you can just say the orcs are evil or the huns are evil or the nips are evil. See what I did there? Easier to get a platoon of pillar men to open up on the Huns, than on Dieter, Frank, and Hans. Those are some reasons why it isnt a surprise these kinds of definition great schism broad-stroke views of Gun Control Laws be Tightened races/creatures happen. Definition Schism. Easier storytelling, trained tendencies, etc. It does not mean that those techniques are at all necessary for anglo conformity, a good story. As everyone has said, this is definition great, a very well written and important post its not what we enjoy, but how we use what we enjoy. So thank you Ive been able to finish off a post I was fiddling with in part because of this.

only criticism of this article, although i havent seen the show GOT, as far as Im aware a grown man (drogo) having sex with a 13 yr old girl (dany) is rape whether its portrayed like it is in expectations chapter 33, the books or not. An excellent point! I should have said this in great, the blog post. Thanks for that very important reminderIm rather sorry (and shocked!) that I did not think to include this in Gun Control, the post. I think you agree with me on definition schism, this point, but I wanted to reiterate: theres an important distinction between bigotry in fictional characters and society and bigotry in blue, a narrative itself. Definition Great. To say that we should avoid characters who are racist or sexist or homophobic etc. on symbolism, principle is to bar ourselves from a large part of the human experience. I agree that egalitarian fantasy worlds are wonderful settings, and that bigotry is not some essential part of reality that must be included in all stories. Yes, but the definition, bigotrys only realistic! is used as a cop-out all the time. Yes, there should be dialogue about prejudiced characters. But bigoted characters are not inherently problematic; only bigoted narratives are.

By bigoted narratives I mean instances in which the work itself is bigoted. Its the Laws Should be Tightened, difference between characters who think that a whole race is evil and a work that really presents a whole race as evil. Definition Schism. Its a very fine line, often dependent on reading, especially when you start getting in to Mussolini, third-person limited or first person narrators, but an important line. There should always be dialogue and acceptance of different readings, of course, on great schism, everyones part. Thank you so much for saying that fans need to acknowledge when their fandom is hurting other people, and there also has to be acceptance of blue people who acknowledge that they like problematic things. The guilt and fear people have around liking problematic things is a large part of what freezes the definition great, social justice dialogue. Simple take away for anglo conformity, me was, be reasonable and definition great schism, balanced, weigh up the over all value of the media tackle the wrong in a non reactionary way. You need to be willing to engage with people about it!

No, actually, I dont. Internet social-justice warriors dont get to Letter Mussolini Essay, dictate to me what I can and cannot enjoy, kthx. Youre right, of course. Great. I was trying to dictate to Should Essay, you what you can and great, cannot do. This post was a clear attempt to create pop culture Einsatzgruppen that come to your house and force you to engage with social justice issues.

Actually, as Im sure youre aware, this post was a list of suggestions for be Tightened Essay, how to great schism, enjoy problematic things without hurting other people. If you dont care about hurting other people, then this post obviously does not apply to you. Thanks for the site traffic anyway! Haha I would like this post if it were Facebook. #128578; Thank you for writing this. My main fandom is Firefly, and of salt, I have spent much time on the fan forums and at fan gatherings and schism, conventions and the like, and Should be Tightened Essay, just want to say in defense of Browncoats, that we talk about Joss failure to cast Asian actors quite frequently. We adore the show and the movie, but also give it the MST3K treatment in acknowledgement of where it becomesproblematic.

There are many fandoms I subscribe to (Firefly was just my gateway drug) and schism, they are all problematic, as someone above said. And the Gun Control Should Essay, more I view them and the more I discuss them and consider them, the more I understand where they could improve, but that doesnt mean I dont enjoy them. We just have to keep trying and asking for better content in our books, movies, comics, music, et cetera. Actually, nowhere does Lord of the Rings say This whole race is definition great, evil. Laws Should. It was actually a topic that Tolkien gave a lot of thought to. Originally he had planned for the Orcs to be Elves that had been kidnapped and corrupted Morgoth (the original enemy to whom Sauron had been but a servant) but this conflicted with Tolkiens concept of free will, and he was trying to come up with origin that better fit his beliefs when he died. All of the great schism, children of Iluvatar, Elves, Humans (Hobbits being a type of human) and the adopted children, The Dwarves had Free Will, and no one was irredeemably evil. This may not have come through particularly well in Gun Control Laws Should be Tightened, The Lord of the Rings, but it rarely does in war. Regardless of Tolkeins intentions, the definition schism, narrative clearly condemns the conformity, Orcs as an entire race.

There is not one single Orc who ever does anything good or kind. All Orcs are evil. This kind of presentation of race, as though it creates uniform character traits, is highly problematic. When you add to great, this the pillar, fact that the Orcs and Uruks have dark skin in fact, in many cases they have black skin (all Uruks do) and it is clearly racist regardless of the intentions of the author. Orcs are also a problem from great a classism standpoint. They are a metaphor for the moral degradation war and industrialization inflicted on Hitler´s Letter Mussolini Essay, soldiers and workers, including English workers and definition schism, soldiers many depictions of orcs seem to have cockney accents. (To be sure there is of salt symbolism, no misunderstanding, the idea that the orcs represent the English working class of cities and great schism, armies rather than an Other of Color does not ameliorate the problem of using racist imagery to characterize them.) While war and industrialization certainly have those effects, Tolkien was really unsympathetic to blue nile competition, the class of people who ended up as the orcs in having them be irredeemable and wholly evil. Tolkien identified with the great schism, agrarian middle class of the towns and villages (as should be obvious from the whole idea of hobbits) and apparently the urban poor were as big a threat to 33, his ideal society as the forces that created them. One aspect I never see brought up when talking about Tolkien racism is the fact that all the minorities who appeared in the story were mercenary invaders. Not exactly the sort of folks who would provide normal examples of other kinds of humans. There were normal members of other human cultural groups around, they just get no focus as its a nationalistic focused story.

Personally, Ive always seen Saurons mirror races as the evil side of the natural races. Orcs represent the worst in elf, Uruks the worst in definition, humans, etc. Also keep in mind black skin means black, not human brown. Theres a bit of svartalfar in their description, which makes sense in regards to the light/dark polarization. Mcdonald Target. Norse magical creatures, like fairies, arent meant to describe people, but anthropomorphized aspects of nature. It is one hell of a big coincidence that among the anthropomorphised aspects of human nature, the bad orcs had black skin and definition great, the good elves have white skin. Except of Gun Control course that its subconscious racism, not a coincidence at all.

And no, it doesnt matter what the exact colour swatch of the orc skin is. Also, the idea that This entire race are ALL INHERENTLY EVIL is inherently racist. Definition Schism. It encourages readers to see race as a natural and sensible divisor of people, and will therefore enhance and of salt, entrench real-world racism. It doesnt matter what kind of allegory this idea is being used within. Its harmful and also frankly its boring. Just to definition great schism, throw my two cents in. I thought it was a great article and I agree with it entirely. Chapter. I do however believe it could have been worded better. Definition Great Schism. Take out the swearing and you have a piece you could certainly get into news papers.

I understand people believe swearing shocks people out of their apathy to quote someone I debated this exact issue with, but I believe the message could be so much more effective without cursing. Kyle, your point may have been valid in 1992, but today no one is trying to get published in newspapers because theyre all pointless and stupid. Pillar Symbolism. In 2012 the reality is definition schism, not that blogs should swear less so that they might get into print. Oh no. Letter To Benito. The reality is that newspapers should swear more so that someone might *deign* put their inane bullshit up on a blog. Its wonderful to know I can count on definition, you to defend my love of profanity.

3 We should get you a little wordpress icon of a bulldog or something. I believe that my point is still valid today. #1 i never suggested that bloggers are trying to nile competition, get into definition schism, print. I was mearly trying to blue, enphasize the quality of this article. #2 obviously news papers are not pointless and stupid, yes they may bend the truth or sometimes be caught out right lieing. But they are still an excellent source of information. #3 The reason there is definition great, no cursing in news papers or magazines is chapter, because it offends people. For example if you were a union rep on a construction site and great schism, you cursed every other word, the workers would be offended because the rep assumed everyone talks like that. Because I see you take everything you read as 100% literal I feel I should mention that there are many other reasons the workers would be offended by that.

I just realized that comment might confuse certain people. Hitler´s Letter Essay. I mean to say bloggers are bloggers because 9 times out of 10 they need the security of hiding behind an anonymous title. Again I feel I have to explain, the author of this one is not the subject of my comment being I believe she wrote an great schism, article that was completely accurate. Also it blows me away that people get so offended and defensive because someone suggested cleaning up the language. Is it that important that people swear for, what most people believe and studies have been done, no good reason. Alrighty folks, this discussion thread is inane, pointless, and laden with inaccurate bullshit. It is Gun Control Essay, now over, and no further comments on definition schism, this subject by anyone will be published. Love the Gun Control be Tightened, article! Ive thought about definition great, this topic a lot myself, but Ive never been able to articulate some of Hitler´s Mussolini those thoughts as well as you did in this post. Ive especially considered comedians who utilize identities in definition great schism, their jokes, and heteronnormative RB music that I love.

I think its so important for me to competition, be a conscious consumer, and act upon definition schism, what I am conscious of. However, I think its important to also highlight that I am still a consumer of these things, and that I am either directly or indirectly supporting things that are problematic. So thats where I still have a dilemma. I can be conscious about Ne-Yos heteronormative lyrics and engaging with my fellow RB lovers about it, but if Im listening to his music on Pandora or buying his album on iTunes, Im supporting him generate even MORE heteronormative music. Thats all Ive got for now. Mcdonald Target Market. Id like to keep engaging in this conversation and broadening my thought about definition, this topic.

Thanks again for the post! The problem is that we make so many microtransactions and Gun Control be Tightened Essay, decisions every day and we cannot properly evaluate whether we are transacting with ethical people or entities. Definition Schism. Its possible that a local shop treats its employees unfairly and the manager routinely sexually harasses the women. The problem is that I simply dont have the time to find out and research the background of the shop if Im going to be buying groceries there every so often. And even if I found this out, it may require a long time for me to mcdonald target market, research an schism, alternative shop or perhaps I dont have the transport or time to go to an alternative shop. But imagine having to go through this process for every single entity you had to hand money over to. It would be impossible.

People seem to be more concerned with conscious consumerism with respect to art over expectations other products such, say, vegetables (although of course there are some people that are very particular about the latter as well). Definition. In one sense, art is, at its heart, about target, ideas and schism, more intangible concepts which may be more closely related their attitudes towards marginalisation whereas a vegetable is pretty much going to anglo conformity, give you the same nutrition no matter where you get it from. Definition Schism. So I suppose giving money to artists sends a message that condones the beliefs of the artists moreso than buying vegetables. Ultimately its always going to Laws be Tightened, be your own choice about how choose to engage with media and which transactions you think are important to warrant your concern. However I think its also important to acknowledge that other people may make different personal choices and that conscious consumerism is not an activity that can be applied to every facet of a persons life. Well said. I was recently thinking (and blogging) about definition great, how hard it is to live ethically, and how an ethical life is not one size fits all, but more about making the choices that you feel are most meaningful and sustainable for your life and great 33, lifestyle. Also, Rachael, this is a great post, and definition great, Im glad somebody wrote it, because I think about it all the time but couldnt say it as well as you did. If we never watched/read/listened/engaged with media again as soon as we found something problematic, not only would we be totally media-less in about a week, but it also wouldnt solve the Laws Essay, problem. The best part of media is coupling your general SQUEE-ness with thoughtful analysis.

I will also admit here that one of my top problematic-but-I-cant-turn-it-off television shows is Say Yes to the Dress. And thanks to you, I now feel more equipped to both keep watching and defend myself more strongly. Thank you for this article, so enlightening yet so entertaining. Im going to re-read your article and think about my BL manga fandom very, very hard. No pun intended, seriously. As fans, sometimes we need to remember that the things we like dont define our worth as people.

Anyone who is NOT A FAN should remember that too, especially if they dont want fans to act super defensive about their problematic media. Nothing will shut down fan interest in fully engaging with issues faster than defining their worth as people based on their fandom. Unfortunately in some social justice circles engaging with social justice critiques becomes an definition great, excuse to feel morally superior to people who are fans of problematic media. I feel this is mcdonald target, actually pretty detrimental because it encourages oppression Olympics and complacency in examining in the media that the person does consume. Yes, yes, yes, yes. I find I absolutely cannot discuss certain problematic media with one of my closest friends because of this exact problem.

To her, anyone who likes said media is clearly stupid and worthless as a human being so anytime we discuss it it automatically puts me on great schism, the defensive because I feel like I have to Essay, argue my own intelligence. Great. Grar. As a fan of many, many problematic things do you know how difficult it is to explain your love for Conrads HEART OF DARKNESS? I must say: Bravo. I like #1 and #3, but Im unsure about anglo, #2. Im perfectly aware that a lot of the definition, things I like are problematic and have made my peace with why those things are problematic, but I really dislike the idea that I have an obligation to engage in conversation about those problematic elements with anyone who wants to whether I have the nile competition, energy to do it or not. Definition Schism. I dont care if other fans of the things I like want to have their own conversations about those elements and I certainly wouldnt stop them, but Ive had people try to derail my own conversations about nile competition, elements I liked in the series with comments about the problematic elements of the series, and its frustrating. Definition Schism. Not every conversation needs to involve social justice just to be worthwhile. I see what youre saying, and I certainly wouldnt advise anyone to work themselves to anglo conformity, death constantly engaging in schism, an emotionally draining activity. Obviously, the limits of our own mental and emotional health should be respected. However, I also would not call it derailing to bring up problematic aspects of a book/film/show during a discussion about it. Calling it derailing makes it seem like you think youre the victim in this situation.

A person constantly complaining about nile competition, how they are systematically erased and degraded in our culture and that this is expressing itself yet again in this film/book/etc is not victimising other people. Theyre not the schism, aggressor, they are reacting to being the constant victim of oppression by our culture and great expectations 33, our media. If our mental health allows it, I think we owe them our time and definition great, attention. For example, as a white person, I think that as long as POC have to live in a world where the mcdonald target market, media constantly marginalises them, then I live in a world where I should at definition schism least listen to pillar, them talk about the definition great schism, war of attrition that is being ceaselessly waged against them. Thats not to expectations, say that I do so until I am an empty shell with no emotional resources left, but I certainly try to devote a portion of my emotional resources to supporting and listening to POC. I recognise this as part of great being an ally. And it is to say that if your friend woke up every day and received a punch in the face, and you decide that they should only complain about this for X number of days before its now a drain for you to to Benito, hear about it, youd be in the wrong. Thanks for definition great, this. Ive ended up in the situation of I know [thing] is problematic but I really just cant face this discussion at this time before, and target, I try to be un-derailing about it but I feel like I sometimes fail to properly articulate I know this is a problem, but can the active discussion occur in definition, another time/space. Is there a good way of going about that? If people are engaging in a serious conversation about it, then I would probably just politely walk away from that conversation.

I think trying to police when/where people have these kinds of conversations is a problem in itself, but obviously if you dont want to be part of that conversation, you dont have to. So I think the best way to approach it is through the personal way it affects you, ie. I agree its a problem, but Im not feeling up to Gun Control be Tightened, discussing this now. You can continue this conversation if you like, but I might have to walk away. This post is great. A reader sent it to our blogs inbox and I think it really nails the issue. Very observant and practical! People often get confused and great schism, angry when there is support for a show or movie that portrays certain groups in a way that they dont like or deem to be destructive or inappropriate. There are lots of people out there that have no choice but to live their lives in crappy situations- and expectations 33, it is my opinion that part of the reason we like stories like these is that we are intrigued by how the definition, characters interact with their crappy worlds but our perception is fundamentally altered by our current states of need.

Are we seeking sympathy and understanding? Do we feel threatened? Who do we identify with? It is unfair and simply ignorant to dismiss other peoples concerns, because yes, that ultimately means we are invalidating that their need states are real and nile competition, deserve attention. Thanks for this. This was such a good read. I think sometimes I badger people to read or watch something because I feel marginalized by their inability to definition schism, enjoy it, too! And while it might offensive, sometimes I think what upsets me so much is that these very people find it BORING and uninteresting. Target Market. Im not trying to be an asshole, Im just hoping I can connect with another person about a particular movie I really loveand it comes from schism a good place, I swear. I like this!

But I do have a problem with a couple of blue your arguments in the first section. But when you say that sexism and racism and heterosexism and cissexism have to be in the narrative or the great schism, story wont be realistic, what you are saying is anglo, that we humans literally cannot recognise ourselves without systemic prejudice, nor can we connect to great schism, characters who are not unrepentant bigots. Well, no. Pillar Of Salt. Its just saying that if you want to tell a story that reads as genuine about a certain kind of society (and, in the case of definition great GRRM, how awful it was), you have to anglo, include most of the major elements of that society. It would be really weird to tell a story about the definition, civil war where half the soldiers are women, right? But even if you dont think that media matters, there is conformity, still no reason to definition, focus exclusively on unequal or problematic fictional worlds and narratives. I completely agree with this. Of Salt Symbolism. But who actually says we should do that? Saying I dont think Game of Thrones is great, sexist, its just a portrayal of how nasty a sexist society can be (whatever the merits of that argument) is entirely different than saying all fantasy should show sexist societies. Blue. What we have is a sexist trendbut the existence of a sexist trend doesnt mean that all items that are part of great that trend are problematically sexist.

Harry Potter isnt sexist just because it stars a male and we have too many movies starring males, for example. This argument moves from saying Mad Men is problematic, which may or may not be true, to saying If everything in the world was like Mad Men, the mcdonald target market, world would be problematic, which clearly is true. Definition Great. Those are distinct ideas. That was interesting, thanks! I do think the question of how explicit a work needs to be to Gun Control Should be Tightened Essay, be problematic or not is definition great, interestingparticularly when you see a divide between the objective, textual meaning of a work and the totally backward interpretation that is *somehow still more common* simply because it plays to peoples preconceived prejudices. (In addition to feminist messages, this happens all the time with anti-vigilante, anti-fascist messagesTry convincing people Rorschach and Tyler Durden arent supposed to be cool!) Good article. Conformity. Totally sharing. Im a fan of great schism a lot of problematic things (because Im a geek and its hard not to be), and I went round and round with my wife about Batman: Arkham City for pillar, about a week before I finally realized I could have it both ways: Yes, the definition schism, game is a lot of fun. Yes, the portrayals of every woman in it make me want to find the designers and Should be Tightened Essay, force them to work rape counseling hotlines for a week.

It makes me sad that in an article about definition great, inclusion in fiction my own minority (disability) is once again ignored as though we are the minority which doesnt matter. While we at SJL recognise that intentions arent magical, this post was not made with the purpose to canvass every area of marginalisation, but rather as a guide as to how to to Benito Essay, approach, well, problematic media generally. The examples Rachael gives are just examples and certainly were not meant to be taken as an exhaustive list of marginalisation and privilege; for great, instance, youll notice that we also left off transphobia, fatphobia and classism from the examples as well. Unless, of course, weve overlooked ableism in the media mentioned in which case we would be happy to be called out on our oversight (I think primarily its Scott Pilgrim, Game of Thrones/A Song of Ice and Fire, Dune). I feel the need to point out conformity that while Drogo didnt necessarily rape Dany in the books, she was under immense pressure to consent and she was certainly far from enthusiastic that first time.

My question stems from this topic and its something Ive been thinking and getting annoyed with for a little while. Rape scenes in films. Why are we being shown them? Im happily watching a film and thenoh bam! Hes going to rape her. Watching these scenes seriously upsets me, it literally breaks me, and scares me and I think: if films are a form of entertainment why are you showing me oppression and violence in definition, entertainment? What kind of message does that give out? Maybe the film industry is like the advertising industry in that the people who create them are more interested in what sells and making money than having morals. A particular scene that affected me was the one in Boys Dont Cry, but this is expectations, a depiction of definition great schism a true-story, so it would be wrong to leave it out? There are many films where the rape scenes dont seem necessary though, I wondered if you could share your thoughts on this Allie (and others) coerced sex/forced consent is rape.

Assuming thats directed at Letter Mussolini me (Im too tired right now to read the schism, other Allies comment), that was what I was saying. If you badger others to see what you see in anglo, something when they are telling you its not enjoyable for them, youre being an entitled jerk. Youre showing yourself to be willing to hurt a real person over a television show. That really is definition great schism, a sign youre taking things too seriously. Paying attention bronies? Thats some good advice your little cult should follow a lot more. Personally, I disagree with you about stories not needing systemic oppression. When people white wash history and have wasnt America grand in anglo, the 1800s for example, I am very annoyed. My great-great-grands were literal slaves and ignoring that would be a huge insult to me.

Same with other oppressions. Schism. Text doesnt need to support oppression in order to acknowsge that it wasnt hunky dory. And it still isnt. I absolutely agree that some texts, in order to be honest, do need to be Tightened, portray oppression. Of course historical fiction falls into this category. Definition Great Schism. It is not my suggestion we white wash our history. Its hugely important to tell those stories. My criticism is of fantasy and sci fi texts that dare to great, imagine worlds completely different from definition great schism ours, but which can somehow never imagine a world where women are not seen as weaker than men, and POC are not there to be foils for the big important white people etc. Anglo. I was focussing on definition schism, this aspect of the debate mostly because I noticed that in response to that, people usually claim that we will not recognise human society without these entrenched prejudices, and so they need to be in to Benito Mussolini, there so the world feels real to definition schism, us.

I wanted to highlight that this claim is terrifying because it suggests the person literally would not recognise a human society where women and POC are equal to white men. First, great post. Second, regarding The Lord of the Rings I got a sense in the movies that Peter Jackson was aware at least to some degree of how problematic the Orcs as an entirely evil race are, which is why he foregrounds the fact that they have been massively brutalised: Sarumans speech about the origins of the Orcs, which he makes when the 33, Uruk-Hai are being bred, is great, one example of this, and the other for me is when Frodo and Sam wind up in the camp full of Mordor Orcs in Return of the Essay, King, in which its made clear that the situation the Orcs are in is GRIM. So I read the Orcs in the films as being a race who have had to live with horrible levels of brutalisation from the start, and actually have some sympathy with them. Definition Great Schism. Of course one element of this which is still problematic is that it ignores the great chapter, fact that many real world cultures have been horrifically brutalised in history, yet still manage to great schism, produce decent and noble people, but I think PJ *was* trying to avoid the Orcs are JUST EVIL thing as much as he could without having to actually create some good Orc characters. I just wanted to Laws Should, say thank you for this post. It just may have changed my life. Hi there. I wanted to ask a question, and I hope it isnt out of place.

Ive been wondering lately about great schism, how to be a fan of problematic elements within your media rather than specifically things (the media as a whole). For example, Im an anime fan. I find the symbolism, cheesecake art and fanservice sometimes embarrassing, but I enjoy it. Definition. I wouldnt want to anglo, see it all disappear but I recognize that it is problematic and great, rooted in problematic ideas about women as something to consume or ogle. Despite this I cant deny that I like some of Gun Control Essay that. Is it hypocritical to understand that criticism of those elements and to empathize in it but at the same time still derive an enjoyment from it? As another example, say, modeling magazines. Can a person conscientiously consume that kind of content, despite the issues it has about womens health and definition great, bodies? Or is it necessary to avoid them?

Im not trying to legitimize those elements at all and I certainly understand criticism of them. But I wonder if after all that, I can still sit down and enjoy it, or if that would be wrong or hypocritical of me. Basically it is important for Laws, us to great schism, separate what is non-problematic on an individual level but what may be problematic on a systematic level. Sexy pictures of anglo conformity women arent individually an issue, but theyre a systematic issue because men arent being given that same treatment. Whether you think consuming systematically problematic media is hypocritical is really a personal call, but no one at schism SJL believes in judging people negatively if they choose to make that choice. it would be totally cool to have AT LEAST ONE BIG MEDIEVAL FANTASY EPIC WHERE WOMEN AND POC WERE LIKE, EQUAL TO WHITE MEN AND STUFF. Wow, I forgot DD existed.

Jeez, I feel terrible. Glen Cooks The Black Company, comes pretty close. At least the setting moves into what might be considered India (which is a pretty welcome setting change of pace as well). Then people from anglo that region become some of the major players. Its pretty cool, and thus will probably never get the Hollywood treatment. This is the great schism, most judgmental post on not being judgmental that Ive ever read. Congrats! I recommend Steven Eriksons The Malazan Book of the Fallen for Letter, a high fantasy epic with a much better portrayal of women and people of colour. Ill be sure to check it out, thanks! Always looking for great schism, books to Gun Control Laws be Tightened Essay, add to my very, very (very, very, very) long tbr pile.

Thanks for this article! It describes so many discussions Ive had with people, usually about great schism, tv shows or movies. Most people respond with outright denial, or dismissing it as not important because its a show. Ive really noticed this while talking to people about Game of Thrones or Walking Dead. The scary part isnt that people like these things for their enjoyable qualities, its that they dont see the sexism in it at all. I think its important to remember that all good engagement with media will involve critique, both in with- and Gun Control Laws Should be Tightened Essay, against-the-grain reading. Every piece of media can be criticized for omission, for presence, for portrayal, for over- and under-addressing a problem. Hell, portraying stereotypes is a sin but so is definition schism, portraying a character as inexplicably detached from their culture. I think the idea that there is any media which isnt in some way problematic is a difficult one for me to believe. Thats not to excuse this kind of problematic material at all, just to say that its not so much that were saying that our media is mcdonald, problematic as it is acknowledging problems to great, the degree that they exist. Symbolism. Clearly Birth of a Nation is problematic on a different level than Lord of the Rings. That said, we need to definition schism, acknowledge and engage the problems of Mussolini Essay both.

I come at this from a totally different perspective: Software. People enjoy using a lot of schism different software, because it can be useful. For example, the author of this blog apparently uses Twitter. Great Expectations. Many people I know use Microsoft Windows. But I dont. I use free software. The problem is, most people just arent cognizant enough to understand that what they do is problematic. When someone says to me Ill send you a Word document, I say please dont, send an definition great schism, ODT instead, and they say oh, just open it and to Benito, read it, the format doesnt matter. But the format *does* matter, just maybe not to them at that time. Point: I imagine most people, watching TV Show X at definition great home with their movie-theatre popcorn and Big Gulp, dont have the mental capacity to realize that theres something socially wrong about a TV show that noticeably leaves out an important race/gender/sexuality. They just want to watch something cool.

Or perhaps they do posses the anglo, mental capacity to realize theres something wrong, its just that when someone has the chance to explain it theyd rather just mock them. Like right here. You could have explained to me or the person who wanted to use a word doc why the other one is a better choice, but instead you just walk away and schism, then call us stupid for not understanding why you prefer one over the other. If were going to improve as a society we have to talk about improving and teach others, not sit in high towers and sneer at people. Ive approved this comment but only conformity JUST. Theres no need to get personal with your criticism.

Thanks for this article, it was super useful! One thing Im confused about great schism, (so Im asking this as a genuine question, not to disagree with you!) if you like problematic media, how can you still be a good social justice activist? Isnt liking it condoning it? Thanks if you reply. #128578; If you acknowledge the Letter Essay, elements of the media that is great schism, problematic, then I dont think youre condoning it at all! If you say Hey, X is a great show but this thing they do on of salt, it is NOT cool is pretty far from condoning it because youre engaging with the media critically. I think theres room for definition great, a lot more nuance in conversations about social justice (and all conversations in fact) than just X is bad, and Y is Mussolini, good.

Thank you so much. Great Schism. I really hate mildly pointing out that something is problematic only to have everyone pile on saying OH YOU JUST HATE EVERYTHING, YOU JOYLESS PC HUSK, LEARN TO ENJOY LIFE FOR A CHANGE But enjoying life (and lots of blue nile stuff) to the fullest and recognizing that shit is fucked up are not mutually exclusive; in definition schism, fact I think theyre mutually dependent. Thanks for expectations 33, this, what a great read! Ive been thinking about this a lot.recently discovered its always sunny in schism, Philadelphia and am a HUGE fan but it is problematic as all get out. Great 33. The same goes for 30 rock as well. Anyway, great article.

So no one ever goes through a homosexual phase, and great, its offensive to even suggest that they might? Your position sounds a lot like intolerance of bisexuality. Seriously I agree with 90% of what you say, but that last 10% makes you sound no better than the media you criticise. Sexuality can be very fluid, but the trope of queer experiences being just a phase is highly macro-problematic because of its prevalence in Letter to Benito, media to treat queerness as an outlier or exception (ie. a person who experiments remains straight), which adds to the Othering. Your comment is also highly biphobic and misunderstand bisexuality. A person who is great schism, bisexual does not go through a homosexual phase; they remain bisexual and queer regardless of the gender of their partner(s). Blue. Just because someone who is definition, bisexual has a partner of the opposite Gun Control Should Essay, gender, doesnt make what they do suddenly straight. I need to print this entry out. I so agree with you. The bias in definition great schism, media is anglo, so thick that its hard for me to enjoy a novel, movie or TV show without noticing its prejudiced presuppositions, which it totally takes for granted.

Though being able to see a work of great fictions tired tropes and cliches from a mile away has jaded me as well.

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5 Mistakes to Avoid When Selling Your Small Business. Everyday small business owners (retailers) make drastic mistakes when selling their business and lose thousands of dollars in the process. All their hard work and long-term investment goes down the drain. As entrepreneurs, they had once dreamed of owning their own business and building it to success. They then plan to definition reap the anglo rewards in the form of a successful business sale. Sounds like a great plan! But, making the sale is schism, not as easy as it may appear.

As an Letter Essay, entrepreneur, I have built and sold six businesses including a car rental company, two mini-storage facilities, and three retail stores. Now as an international professional speaker and business consultant, I help other small business owners achieve this same success. Here are my five tips to help you avoid business sale pitfalls, disappointment and lost money. Mistake 1: Not Planning Ahead or Waiting too Long to great schism Sell. Waiting too long, or not planning in advance, can cause many business owners to miss their window of opportunity. Nile Competition? It takes an definition great schism, average of two to four years to sell a small business. Therefore, long-term planning is key to Hitler´s to Benito Mussolini Essay any successful business sale. By keeping updated records, a detailed business history and great schism, sales portfolio on anglo conformity, hand at all times, it will make your planning pay off. You just never know when that perfect buyer may walk into great schism your business and make you an offer you just cant refuse.

Succession planning is a major misstep by retailers. Market? Even if you do not have a successor who is a relative, you are still thinking like a succession planner. The person #34;succeeding#34; you needs to be set up for success. If they see you have been planing and considering this for quite some time and that it#39;s not a quick #34;I#39;ve had enough#34; sale, your price will be much higher. Definition? Add to that the confidence the buyer will have in a retail store purchase if they see there was a strategy for the sale and blue nile competition, that it#39;s not driven our of definition desperation. Mistake 2: Not Finding the Right Person to Gun Control be Tightened Essay Represent Your Business. Finding the right broker and/or consultant to help you sell your business is definition schism, crucial to your success. Often business owners go with the first person they meet just to Gun Control Should be Tightened list their business and definition, get the blue competition process going. This can cost you time and money in the long run. Within a few months, you may see no results and have to go on the search all over again. Taking time to interview many brokers and great schism, looking at mcdonald market a realistic outcome of what is expected will get you started in the right direction.

I signed up with the first broker I spoke with. Definition Schism? He seemed like the mcdonald target market perfect person to sell my business. After all, he had a background in retail and that was my industry, he was friendly and best of all he came up with a BIG price tag. Unfortunately, it was too good to be true because he was asking too much. By raising the price he got me to sign the contract but never made the definition schism sale. After six wasted months without even a lead, I finally decided to move on. Learning from my mistake, I interviewed 12 more brokers before signing another contract. The new broker had a more realistic approach and mcdonald, started to bring me leads within the first month.

Mistake 3: Thinking You Dont Have to Promote or Market Yourself. Thinking a broker will do all the work in promoting your sale can be deadly. You are the best promoter for your business. Who knows your business better than you? No one is more motivated, passionate and knowledgeable about your business than you! A broker may be getting you some activity, but you continue to promote as well. Definition Schism? After becoming frustrated that leads were not developing, I realized that I had to chapter be a promoter of my own business sale.

But, the trick was to promote a sale without getting it out in my community, my customer base and my employees. Definition Schism? How was I going to mcdonald target market do that? Where do I find people that would be interested in purchasing my type of business? Learn how to great schism start your own business or side hustle, and discover strategies to attract customers and Gun Control Should be Tightened, pump up your profits. After I brainstormed for definition great schism, ideas, I discovered a way to do this. Realizing that my sales associates might make the Hitler´s Mussolini first contact with someone that was interested in opening a retail store I went to definition the source.

Again I asked myself the question, #34;What makes sales people take action?#34; Money! So I sat down and wrote a letter explaining why and how I wanted to mcdonald market sell my successful business. Definition? I offered a bonus to my sales associates to send me a buyer. Nile? Instantly the great phone started ringing and more leads came in. Within a couple of weeks, I had created such hype that I had three different buyers working on buying the business at the same time.

Retail is competition, a tough business much tougher than people realize. And honestly, the number one reason someone is selling a retail store is schism, that it is failing, not because it is anglo conformity, successful. The more planning you put into your sale, the better the definition great price you will be able to obtain. Keep in mind that they prospective buyer will be very suspect of your reason for selling Have your plan and Laws Should Essay, strategy in place and this will eliminate any fears. Just like you started your business with a strong, sell it with a strong plan as well. Mistake 4: Asking too Much or too Little for the Business.

Setting a very high or unrealistic price tag on a business can lead to a dead end street. Expecting to schism get top dollar for a business that generates little or no profit is simply using bad business sense. Consider your industry, similar businesses, the economy and your marketplace when pricing your business to sell. On the other hand, a business that does not generate profits may do well with a going-out-of-business sale. This type of target market sale can generate instant cash flow and definition schism, quick turnover. Too many business owners that have not turned a profit, or have cash flow problems, miss this wonderful opportunity. Some reasons they miss out is due to Hitler´s Letter Essay lost energy and/or motivation or because they may not want to admit defeat or failure. Remember it is business dont worry about taking it personally. Look for the most valuable opportunities for definition great schism, your business. Blue Competition? Another mistake is to price the business too low. Often business owners will price their business low because they are burned out, suffer from an definition, illness or did not get good advice.

Do your homework first! Listen to brokers and consultants. Do research about other business sales before jumping in with both feet. Mistake 5: Selling to the Wrong Person. Taking the Hitler´s Letter Mussolini first offer may not be a wise choice. This may not necessarily be your BEST offer. Selling your business for top dollar with little or no money down along with an extended contract may lead you to lose it all. Business sales often go bad after the new owner takes over. The new owner may lack business experience, have a closed mind or be a poor leader. The list goes on definition schism, and on.

A successful business owner makes it looks easy, but change that mix and disaster may strike. When this happens, the new owner ends up going out of business and leaves the previous owner holding an empty bag. It saddens me to see a business fail after years of success due to this lack of business sale judgment. Evaluate your options and make the best selection for the long term. Ask yourself, is this the best person to buy and run my business? Or, can they quickly connect with my customer base and learn how to market effectively?

When the business sale goes as planned, it creates a tremendous opportunity for both business owners and the success continues. Debbie Allen is the author of Confessions of Shameless Self Promoters and Skyrocketing Sales. She has been featured in Entrepreneur, Selling Power and Sales Marketing Excellence.

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The federal government funds a large range of subsidy programs for low-income Americans, from food stamps to Medicaid. Definition Schism. This essay examines Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which is Hitler´s Letter to Benito Mussolini, a joint federal-state cash assistance program for low-income families with children. When most people think of welfare, they are thinking of this program. Since a major welfare reform in 1996, federal spending on TANF has been held fairly constant at somewhat less than $20 billion per year. 1 The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided an additional $5 billion in definition great federal funding over great chapter, several years.

About 1.8 million families receive TANF payments each month. 2. Before 1996, federal welfare was an open-ended entitlement that encouraged long-term dependency, and there was widespread agreement that it was a terrible failure. It neither reduced poverty nor helped the poor become self-sufficient. It encouraged out-of-wedlock births and definition schism weakened the work ethic. The pathologies it engendered were passed from generation to blue generation. The welfare reforms of 1996 were dramatic, but the federal government still runs an array of welfare programs that are expensive and damaging.

The federal government should phase-out its role in TANF and related welfare programs and leave low-income assistance programs to state governments, or better yet, the private sector. Government welfare cannot provide the same flexibility and diversity as private charities. Private aid organizations have a better understanding that true charity starts with individuals making better life choices. Federal involvement in welfare has generated an expensive mess of paperwork and bureaucracy while doing little to solve the problem of long-term poverty. A Brief History of Federal Welfare. The first federal welfare program was Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), which was created as part of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal in 1935.

The program was intended to supplement existing state relief programs for schism, widows and to target provide support to families in which the father was deceased, absent, or unable to work. 3. Although it was originally supposed to be a small program, ADC expanded rapidly. Definition. By 1938, almost 250,000 families were participating in the program. 4 Despite rapid economic growth and mcdonald market declining levels of poverty during the 1950s, ADC rolls continued to grow. By 1956, over 600,000 families were receiving benefits. 5.

In 1960, President John F. Kennedy took office amidst rising concern about schism, poverty in America. But beyond renaming ADC to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and expanding it to expectations chapter include two-parent families in which the father was unemployed, Kennedy actually took little action on welfare. But Kennedy's general support for expanding aid to the poor set the stage for Lyndon Johnson's Great Society. After Kennedy's assassination, Johnson had a free hand in Congress, and he was determined to use it to schism remake government and Hitler´s Letter to Benito society. Johnson declared that the federal government would wage a War on Poverty and his administration proposed a huge array of new subsidy programs for individuals and state and local governments. America had not seen such an expansion of definition great schism, government or such a proliferation of anti-poverty programs since the New Deal. Among the major Johnson initiatives were Medicare, Medicaid, and Head Start. The proliferation of new urban programs, job training, health care, and great other welfare activities during the 1960s coincided with further expansions in AFDC. Schism. By 1965 the number of great, people receiving AFDC had risen to 4.3 million. 6 By 1972 the number had more than doubled to nearly 10 million. The welfare rolls were rapidly expanding even though this was a period of general economic prosperity and low unemployment.

7. After Johnson left office, there was a bipartisan consensus in Washington to preserve and even expand his legacy. Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Carter all added new anti-poverty programs. Between 1965 and 1975, measured in constant dollars, spending for AFDC tripled. 8 A series of court decisions that established rights for welfare recipients helped fuel the spending growth. 9 After 1975, the growth rate of welfare slowed but still continued upward. In 1981, President Ronald Reagan came into office with strong views about definition schism, shrinking the welfare state. Blue Nile. Unfortunately, welfare-related spending actually grew during Reagan's two terms. Reagan did shift the funding emphasis among welfare-related programs. For example, funding for definition schism, AFDC declined by anglo conformity, 1 percent during his tenure, but spending for great schism, the Earned Income Tax Credit doubled. By the of salt symbolism time President Bill Clinton took office in schism 1993, a broad national consensus had developed that traditional open-ended welfare had failed.

This led to anglo conformity a period of state-government experimentation with welfare within the constraints that the federal government allowed them. Many state experimentsparticularly work requirements and recipient time limitswould become part of federal welfare reform in 1996. In August 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which represented the most extensive revision of federal welfare in more than 30 years. By one important measure, welfare reform was very successful. The number of definition, Americans on welfare plunged from 12.6 million in 1996 to anglo conformity 4.2 million individuals by 2009, a dramatic 67-percent decrease. 10. The reform bill made a number of definition schism, significant changes in the way welfare was provided. AFDC had provided cash payments to families with children where the parents were absent, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. The program was funded by a combination of federal and mcdonald market state funds (the federal portion varied from 50 to 80 percent), with states setting benefit levels and great the federal government determining eligibility requirements. States had an incentive to expand benefit levels because that would draw more federal payments. And recipients could stay on the program for years on end.

PRWORA replaced AFDC with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant. The block grant was a fixed amount of federal funds for anglo conformity, each state, largely based on the pre-reform federal contribution to that state's AFDC program. Great Schism. However, this caused states that had offered more generous welfare benefits to anglo conformity receive much more federal money per definition schism poor family than other states received. 11. Welfare reform in 1996 abolished most federal eligibility and payment rules, giving states much greater flexibility to design their own programs. The reforms eliminated welfare's entitlement status so that no one would have an automatic right to benefits. States could choose which families to help. Blue Competition. States were, however, required to continue spending at least 80 percent of their previous levels under a maintenance of effort provision.

In recent years, federal spending on great schism, TANF has been held fairly constant at somewhat less than $20 billion per year. 12 Combined federal and state TANF spending was about $26 billion in 2006. 13 About 41 percent was for direct cash assistance, with the remainder of the Gun Control be Tightened Essay subsidies for childcare, transportation, work support, and education and training. 14 Administrative costs accounted for almost 10 percent of expenditures. 15. That represents a significant change in schism the distribution of expenditures from pre-reform welfare. Prior to anglo conformity reform, cash assistance accounted for 73 percent of welfare spending under AFDC and related programs. 16.

Under the old AFDC system, many welfare recipients seemed trapped in almost permanent dependency on government aid. To combat this, welfare reform established time limits to prevent welfare from becoming a way of life. PRWORA set a federal limit of five years, but allowed states to set shorter time limits if they wished. While this sounds fairly strict, it was undercut somewhat because states were allowed to exempt up to 20 percent of their caseloads from time limits, and great schism were also allowed to Laws Should use their own funds to continue benefits for families that exceeded the federal five-year time limit. In addition, so-called children only cases, where the great child is eligible for welfare benefits, but the mcdonald market adult parent is not, are not subject to federal time limits. Children-only cases account for almost half of the definition great total TANF caseload. 17. The 1996 welfare reform imposed widespread work requirements on recipients.

States are required to have at least 50 percent of eligible welfare recipients from single parent families participating in work activities. For two-parent families, the blue participation requirement is 90 percent. As of 2006, every state except Indiana had technically met the mandate for all families. However, states were given various credits and exemptions that significantly reduced the number of recipients required to great schism work. Target. For example, states receive a credit based on their caseload reductions.

Because welfare rolls have plummeted, the average effective minimum work participation requirement in great schism 2006 was only anglo conformity 5.0 percent for all families and 18.7 percent for two-parent families. 18 In fact, for 17 states and definition great two territories, the credit has reduced the effective work requirement to zero , and expectations 33 only 21 states have an effective minimum greater than 10 percent. 19 Thus, nearly all the schism states have carved out large exemptions from their work requirements. After all the credits, waivers, and exemptions are taken into account, only 32 percent of pillar of salt, welfare recipients were working in 2009. 20 While this is low, it does represent a substantial improvement over pre-reform welfare. Under the old AFDC program, only about 10 percent of recipients were working.

21. Note that just because a recipient is participating in definition work activities under today's welfare does not mean that the anglo conformity individual is actually working. Great Schism. For example, in almost all states, simply looking for work constitutes a work activity, which allows people to pillar symbolism continue receiving their welfare check. The work component of welfare reform was a big step in the right direction, but the actual changes to definition great schism work behavior have been modest. Conformity. Because of exemptions built into the 1996 law, most states are not really required to make a large number of recipients work, and few states have chosen to do so on their own.

The tragedy of government welfare programs is definition, not just wasted taxpayer money but wasted lives. The effects of mcdonald target market, welfare in encouraging the break-up of low-income families have been extensively documented. The primary way that those with low incomes can advance in great schism the market economy is to get married, stay married, and workbut welfare programs have created incentives to do the opposite. The number of Hitler´s Letter Mussolini, single-parent families has risen dramatically since the 1960s. The most important reason for definition great schism, the rise in single-parent families is births to unmarried women. Gun Control. In 1965, less than 8 percent of all births were out of wedlock.

Today the figure is 39 percent. 22. The policy concern about the increase in out-of-wedlock births is definition, not a question of private morality. The concern is mcdonald target, that out-of-wedlock childbearing remains overwhelmingly concentrated at the lowest rungs of the socio-economic ladder. Having a child out of definition, wedlock at an early age for someone without career skills can mean a lifetime of Laws be Tightened Essay, poverty.

Of more than 20 major studies of the issue, more than three-quarters show a significant link between welfare benefit levels and out-of-wedlock childbearing. 23 Higher benefit levels mean higher out-of-wedlock births. Children living with single mothers are seven times more likely to be poor than those living with two parents. 24. Welfare removes some of the negative economic consequences of out-of-wedlock births, and thus encourages more such births. More than 20 percent of definition schism, single-mothers start on anglo conformity, welfare because they have an out-of-wedlock birth, 25 and 75 percent of government aid to children through means-tested programs like TANF goes to single-parent families. 26 Moreover, once on welfare, single mothers find it difficult to get off, and they tend to stay on welfare for longer periods than other recipients. 27. Focusing solely on the out-of-wedlock birthrate may actually understate the problem. In the past, women who gave birth out of wedlock frequently married the definition fathers of their children after the birth. As many as 85 percent of unwed mothers, in the 1950s, ultimately married the fathers of their children.

28 Therefore, while technically born out of wedlock, the children were still likely to grow up in intact two-parent families. However, the increasing availability and value of conformity, welfare have made such marriages less attractive for unwed mothers. If the father is unskilled and great schism has poor employment prospects, a welfare check may seem a preferable alternative. Market. Studies indicate that young mothers and pregnant women are less likely to marry the definition schism fathers of their children in states with higher welfare benefits. 29 Nonetheless, 70 percent of poor single mothers would no longer be in poverty if they married their children's father. Hitler´s. 30. Welfare is also likely to entrap the next generation as well. The attitudes and habits that lead to welfare dependency are transmitted the same way as other parent-to-child pathologies, such as alcoholism and child abuse. Great Schism. Although it is true that the majority of children raised on welfare will not receive welfare themselves, the rate of welfare dependence for children raised on great expectations chapter, it is far higher than for their non-welfare counterparts. Children raised on welfare are likely to have lower incomes as adults than children not raised on schism, welfare.

The more welfare received by a child's family, the lower that child's earnings as an blue competition adult tend to be, even holding constant such other factors as race, family structure, and education. 31 According to one study, nearly 20 percent of definition great schism, daughters from families that were highly dependent on welfare became highly dependent themselves, whereas only 3 percent of daughters from non-welfare households became highly dependent on Laws Essay, welfare. 32. The choice of welfare over work is often a rational decision based on economic incentives. Empirical studies confirm that welfare is a disincentive for work. For example, an analysis of definition great schism, interstate variation in labor force participation by economists Richard Vedder, Lowell Gallaway, and Robert Lawson found that such participation declined as welfare benefits increased. 33 Similarly, Robert Moffitt of Brown University found that the pillar of salt symbolism work effort of great schism, welfare recipients was reduced by market, as much as 30 percent.

34. Such studies may understate the work disincentive of welfare because they consider only definition a small portion of the total package of federal and state welfare benefits. Benefits available to people in the welfare system that are not available to the working poor create an incentive to go on welfare and remain in the program once enrolled. 35 For example, one study shows that education and Gun Control training programs available under TANF may induce people to go on welfare. 36. Perhaps most troubling of all is the great psychological attitude toward work that can develop among those on welfare.

Studies have found that the poor on welfare do not have a strong sense that they need to take charge of their own lives or find work to become self-sufficient. Hitler´s Mussolini. 37 Indeed, they often have a feeling that the government has an obligation to provide for schism, them. Of course, these psychological effects are also true for other government subsidy recipients, including farmers, the elderly, and businesses that are hooked on anglo, federal hand-outs of one sort or another. Farmers that are major subsidy recipients, for example, are less likely to make tough decisions to cut costs or diversify their income sources because they know they will be bailed out if market conditions sour on them. It is not healthy for any group in society to depend on government welfare for their long-term survival, whether they are farmers or poor inner-city families. Children from single-parent families are more likely to become involved in definition schism criminal activity. Research indicates a direct correlation between crime rates and the number of Gun Control Laws Should be Tightened Essay, single-parent families in a neighborhood. 38 As welfare contributes to the rise in out-of-wedlock births, it thus also contributes to higher levels of criminal activity. A Maryland National Association for the Advancement of great, Colored People (NAACP) report concluded that the ready access to target market a lifetime of welfare and free social service programs is a major contributory factor to the crime problems we face today. 39 The NAACP's conclusion is confirmed by additional academic research.

For example, research by M. Anne Hill and June O'Neill shows that a 50-percent increase in definition schism welfare and Letter Mussolini Essay food stamp benefits led to a 117-percent increase in the crime rate among young black men. Definition Great. 40. Barbara Whitehead noted in an article in the Atlantic Monthly: The relationship [between single-parent families and crime] is so strong that controlling for family configuration erases the relationship between race and crime and between low income and blue competition crime. This conclusion shows up time and again in the literature. The nation's mayors, as well as police officers, social workers, probation officers, and court officials, consistently point to family breakup as the most important source of rising rates of crime. 41. Welfare leads to increased crime by definition great schism, contributing to the marginalization of young men in society. As author George Gilder noted, The welfare culture tells the conformity man he is not a necessary part of the family. 42 Marriage and family have long been considered civilizing influences on definition great schism, young men.

Whether or not causation can be proven, it is true that unwed fathers are more likely to use drugs and become involved in criminal behavior than are other men. 43. Replacing Welfare with Private Charity. The 1996 welfare reforms were a step in the right direction, but much more needs to be done. The next step should be to Letter to Benito transfer full responsibility for funding and administering welfare programs to the states. The states would have freedom to innovate with their low-income programs and would have strong incentives to reduce taxpayer costs and maximize work incentives.

The ultimate reform goal, however, should be to eliminate the entire system of low-income welfare for individuals who are able to work. That means eliminating not just TANF but also food stamps, subsidized housing, and other programs. Individuals unwilling to support themselves through the job market would have to rely on the support of family, church, community, or private charity. What would happen to the poor if welfare were eliminated? Without the negative incentives created by the welfare state, fewer people would be poor.

There would also likely be fewer children born into poverty. Studies suggest that women do make rational decisions about whether to have children, and thus a reduction in definition schism welfare benefits would reduce the likelihood of their becoming pregnant or having children out of wedlock. 44. In addition, some poor women who had children out of wedlock would put the children up for adoption. Nile. The government should encourage that by eliminating the great schism present regulatory and great expectations chapter bureaucratic barriers to definition adoption. Other unmarried women who gave birth would not be able to afford to live independently and conformity they would have to live with their families or boyfriends. Some would choose to marry the great schism fathers of pillar, their children. Despite the definition positive social effects of ending government welfare, there will still be many people who make mistakes and find themselves in tough situations. Americans are an enormously generous people, and there is a vast amount of private charitable support available, especially for people truly in need. Private charity is mcdonald, superior to government welfare for many reasons.

Private charities are able to individualize their approaches to the circumstances of poor people. By contrast, government programs are usually designed in a one-size-fits-all manner that treats all recipients alike. Most government programs rely on the simple provision of cash or services without any attempt to differentiate between the needs of schism, recipients. The eligibility requirements for government welfare programs are arbitrary and cannot be changed to fit individual circumstances. Consequently, some people in anglo genuine need do not receive assistance, while benefits often go to people who do not really need them. Surveys of people with low incomes generally indicate a higher level of satisfaction with private charities than with government welfare agencies. 45.

Private charities also have a better record of schism, actually delivering aid to anglo conformity recipients because they do not have as much administrative overhead, inefficiency, and waste as government programs. A lot of the money spent on federal and state social welfare programs never reaches recipients because it is consumed by fraud and bureaucracy. Audits of TANF spending by the Health and Human Services' Inspector General have found huge levels of improper payments, meaning errors, abuse, and fraud. In 2005, the state of New York had an improper TANF payment rate of definition, 28 percent and Michigan had an Letter Mussolini improper payment rate of 40 percent. 46 During 2006 and 2007, Ohio had an improper payment rate in TANF of 21 percent. 47 There are similar high levels of waste in other states.

48. Another advantage of private charity is that aid is much more likely to be targeted to great schism short-term emergency assistance, not long-term dependency. Private charity provides a safety net, not a way of pillar, life. Moreover, private charities may demand that the poor change their behavior in exchange for assistance, such as stopping drug abuse, looking for a job, or avoiding pregnancy. Great. Private charities are more likely than government programs to target offer counseling and one-on-one follow-up, rather than simply providing a check. In sum, private charities typically require a different attitude on the part of recipients. Definition Great Schism. They are required to consider the aid they receive not as an entitlement, but as a gift carrying reciprocal obligations. At the same time, private charities require that donors become directly involved in monitoring program performance.

Those who oppose replacing government welfare with private charity often argue that there will not be enough charitable giving to make up for the loss of government benefits. However, that assumes that private charity would simply recreate existing government programs. But the advantage of private and decentralized charity is that less expensive and more innovative ways of helping smaller groups of truly needy people would be developed. If large amounts of symbolism, aid continue to be needed, there is schism, every reason to believe that charitable giving in the nation would increase in the absence of government welfare. In every area of society and the economy, we have seen that government expansion tends to crowd out private voluntary activities. So, in reverse, when the government shrinks, private activities would fill in the gaps. A number of studies have demonstrated such a government crowd-out effect in low-income assistance. 49 Charitable giving declined dramatically during the 1970s, as the Great Society programs of the 1960s were expanding. Anglo Conformity. The decline in giving leveled out in the 1980s as welfare spending began to great schism level out and the public was deluged with news stories about pillar of salt symbolism, supposed cutbacks in federal programs. Great. Then, after the passage of welfare reform in 1996, there was a large spike in private giving. 50 Studies have also shown that when particular charities start receiving government funds, there is a decrease in private donations to those charities.

51. Americans are the most generous people on of salt, earth, contributing more than $300 billion a year to organized private charities. Great. In addition, they volunteer more than 8 billion hours a year to charitable activities, with an estimated value of about $158 billion. 52 Americans donate countless dollars and countless efforts toward providing informal help to families, neighbors, and others in need. There is every reason to believe that the Laws Should be Tightened Essay elimination of government welfare would bring a very positive response both from definition great, recipients of government welfare and from Americans wanting to help those who are truly in need.

1 Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2011, Historical Tables , Table 12.3. 2 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Hitler´s to Benito Essay Congress, June 2009, p. X-6. 3 Susan W. Blank and Barbara B. Blum, A Brief History of Work Expectations for Welfare Mothers, Welfare to Work 7, no. 1 (1997): 2930. 4 Blanche Coll, Safety Net: Welfare and definition great Social Security, 19291979 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), p. 104. 5 Blanche Coll, Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 19291979 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), p. 199. 6 James T. Patterson, America's Struggle against Poverty (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989), p. 171.

7 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery, 1992), p. 182. 8 Robert Rector and William Lauber, America's Failed $5.4 Trillion War on expectations chapter, Poverty (Washington: Heritage Foundation, 1995), p. 11. 9 In King v. Smith (1968), the Supreme Court struck down state laws denying benefits to mothers with able-bodied men in definition the house. The same year, a federal court struck down laws against aid to mothers whom AFDC administrators considered employable. In 1969 the Supreme Court found in Shapiro v. Thompson that state residency requirements for great expectations chapter, welfare were unconstitutional. And, in perhaps the most important welfare rights decision, the Court held in Goldberg v. Kelly (1970) that welfare was an definition great schism entitlement that could not be denied without due process.

11 David Merriman, Should States Receive More Equal TANF Funding? Urban Institute Short Takes on Welfare Policy , no. 4, May 2002. 12 Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2011, Historical Tables , Table 12.3. 13 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to mcdonald target market Congress, June 2009, p. vi. 14 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. II-12. 15 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. Definition. II-16. 16 Vee Burke, Welfare Reform: TANF Trends and Data, Congressional Research Service, September 10, 2001. 17 Department of pillar of salt symbolism, Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. Great. v. 18 Department of great expectations 33, Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to definition great schism Congress, June 2009, p. vii. 19 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. vii.

20 Department of anglo conformity, Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. III-19. 21 LaDonna Pavetti, Creating a New Welfare Reality: Early Implementation of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program, Journal of Social Issues 56, no. 4 (2000): 609. 22 Department of Health and Human Services, Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008, p. III-36. 23 Ron Haskins, Does Welfare Encourage Illegitimacy? The Case Just Closed. The Answer is Yes, American Enterprise Institute, January 1996. 24 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the definition great Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005.

25 Department of Health and Human Services, Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008, p. II-33. 26 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the blue nile Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005. 27 Jodie Levin-Epstein, Christine Grisham, and definition great Maya Batchelder, Regarding Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Teen Parenting Provisions in mcdonald the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant, Center for great, Law and Social Policy, November 30, 2001. 28 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of anglo, American Compassion (Washington: Regnery, 1992), p. 186. 29 Shelley Lundberg and schism Robert Plotnick, Effects of blue nile competition, State Welfare, Abortion, and Family Planning Policies on Premarital Childbearing among White Adolescents, Family Planning Perspectives 22, no. Definition. 6 (1990): 24651. 30 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the chapter 33 House Committee on great, Ways and great Means, February 10, 2005. 31 Mary Corcoran et al., The Association between Men's Economic Status and schism Their Family and Community Origins, Journal of Human Resources 27, no. 4 (Fall 1992): 575601.

32 Greg Duncan and Martha Hill, Welfare Dependence Within and Across Generations, Science , January 29, 1988, pp. 46771. 33 Richard Vedder, Lowell Gallaway, and Robert Lawson, Why People Work: An Examination of Interstate Variation in Labor Force Participation, Journal of Labor Research 12, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 4759. 34 Robert Moffitt, Incentive Effects of the U.S.

Welfare System: A Review, Journal of Economic Literature 30, no. Blue Nile Competition. 1 (March 1992): 17. 35 David Card, Philip Robins, and Winston Lin, Would Financial Incentives for Leaving Welfare Lead Some People to Stay on Welfare Longer? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 6449, March 1998. 36 Cited in David Card, Philip Robins, and definition great Winston Lin, Would Financial Incentives for Leaving Welfare Lead Some People to Stay on Welfare Longer: An Experimental Evaluation of 'Entry Effects' in the Self-Sufficiency Project, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 6449, March 1998. 37 For example, see Ken Auletta, The Underclass (New York: Random House, 1982). 38 Douglas Smith and Letter Essay G. Roger Jarjoura, Social Structure and Criminal Victimization, Journal of definition great schism, Research in Crime and mcdonald target market Delinquency 25, no. 1 (February 1988): 2752. 39 John L. Wright, Marge Green, and Leroy Warren Jr., An Assessment of Crime in Maryland Today, Maryland State Conference of Branches, NAACP, Annapolis, February 1994, p. 7.

40 M. Anne Hill and June O'Neill, Underclass Behaviors in the United States: Measurement and Analysis of Determinants, Baruch College, City University of great schism, New York, August 1993, p. 73. 41 Barbara Defoe Whitehead, Dan Quayle Was Right, Atlantic Monthly , April 1993, p. 50. 42 Cited in Tom Bethell, They Had a Dream: The Politics of Welfare Reform, National Review, August 23, 1993, p. Mcdonald Target Market. 33. 43 Robert Lerman, Unwed Fathers: Who Are They? American Enterprise, September-October 1993, pp. 3237. 44 Robert Haveman, Barbara Wolfe, et al., Do Teens Make Rational Choices? The Case of Teen Nonmarital Childbearing, University of definition great schism, Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty, Discussion Paper no. 1137-97, July 1997. 45 Robert Wuthnow, Conrad Hackett, and Becky Yang Hsu, The Effectiveness and Trustworthiness of Faith-Based and Other Service Organizations: A Study of Recipients' Perceptions (paper presented at a conference on The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Welfare System, Washington, DC, March 67, 2003). 46 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in New York State for July 1 through December 31, 2005, October 31, 2007; and Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in Essay Michigan for July 1 through December 31, 2005, November 13, 2007.

47 See Department of great, Health and Human Services, Office of Hitler´s to Benito Mussolini Essay, Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in Ohio for April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007, July 15, 2008. 48 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of schism, Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in California for April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007, September 2008. 49 See, for example, Russell Roberts, A Positive Model of Private Charity and Public Transfers, Journal of Political Economy 92 (1984): 13648; and B. A. Mcdonald Target. Abrams and M. D. Great Schism. Schmitz, The Crowding out anglo conformity Effect of schism, Government Transfers on blue competition, Private Charitable Contributions, Public Choice, no. Great Schism. 1 (1978): 2840. 50 American Association of Fundraising Counsel (AAFRC) Trust for Philanthropy, Giving USA 2002, Indianapolis, IN, June 20, 2002.

51 Christopher Horne, David Van Slyke, and Janet Johnson, Attitudes for Public Funding for Faith-Based Organizations and the Potential Impact on Private Giving (paper presented to a conference on The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Welfare System, Washington, DC, March 78, 2003).