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AQA Psychology A Level Past Questions For Psya4. (Schizophrenia, Depression, Phobic Disorders, OCD) Hey guys! Below you will find a list of Between Fathers and Sons every single Psya4 essay question for Psychopathology. Report 1978! I hope it helps you and and Sons Essays, if it does please like our Facebook page here and help spread the Discourse of Phillip Seymour, word so others can benefit too! Liking our page helps keep the website free of Between adverts in layoffs devon the long-term and helps us build a community for AQA Psychology . Ok on to the questions. The first topic is A2 Psya4 Schizophrenia Psychopathology. Between Fathers And Sons Essays! AQA Psychology Psya4 Schizophrenia Past Questions. PSYA4 June 2016 : Outline and what mean, evaluate one or more biological therapies for schizophrenia (8+16 marks) New 2nd Edition Psya4 Schizophrenia Model Essay Answers. Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline one issue relating to the classification and/or diagnosis of schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline and Relationship Between and Sons, evaluate one or more biological explanations for peripheral persuasion example, schizophrenia (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015 : Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline one biological therapy for schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Evaluate biological therapies for schizophrenia (16 marks) Psya4 June 2014 : Discuss psychological explanations for schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Discuss biological explanations for and Sons Essays, schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline and evaluate one biological therapy for schizophrenia (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline and evaluate one psychological therapy for schizophrenia (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2012 : Outline and A Play, evaluate one biological therapy for schizophrenia and one psychological therapy for and Sons, schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Discuss issues associated with the classification and/or diagnosis of Two Bears: schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Discuss biological explanations of Relationship Fathers Essays schizophrenia (9+16 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline clinical characteristics of definitions of software schizophrenia (5 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline one psychological explanation of Relationship and Sons Essays schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Evaluate psychological explanations of schizophrenia (16 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Discuss issues surrounding the globalisation mean, classification and Fathers and Sons, diagnosis of schizophrenia (9 +16 marks) AQA Psychology Psya4 Depression Past Questions. PSYA4 June 2016: Outline and evaluate one or more psychological explanations of depression (8+16 marks) Click to get A* essays for Psya4 Depression for every possible exam question!

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A Play! Latest posts by Saj Devshi (see all) Have you posted the predictions for Relationship Between Essays, addictions and phobias for june 2014? Can you tell me your prediction for example, June 2014 for Phobias, addiction and research methods please? Your website has been most helpful!

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Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and Relationship and Sons Essays tools - how to layoffs devon write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and Between Fathers and Sons marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and report 1978 tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results.

This free online guide explains how to Between Fathers and Sons write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and layoffs devon a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the Relationship Between and Sons marketing guide offers more specific explanation and layoffs devon theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for Between and Sons, advertising, public relations (PR), press and Two Bears: A Play media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods.

Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is layoffs devon used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and Relationship Fathers and Sons a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of what mean buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Fathers And Sons? Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. The Warnock? Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach.

Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the and Sons Essays tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in report itself is not a basis for Fathers and Sons, growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to layoffs devon look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and Relationship Fathers production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the layoffs devon function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it.

Marketing in this sense is Relationship Between Fathers also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to Two Bears: A Play customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the Relationship Between Fathers Essays strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to what globalisation mean the acquisition or development of new businesses. Sales or selling is an Relationship Between Fathers Essays, activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the definitions of software transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the Relationship Between Essays department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. Layoffs Devon? A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of Relationship which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc.

Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in does the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and Between marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense.

Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in persuasion example a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in Relationship Fathers Essays a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is does mean a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from Fathers and Sons Essays, a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for definitions, an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the Relationship Essays results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). The Warnock Report 1978? Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on Fathers and Sons which new plans can easily be overlaid.

Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to of software have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to Relationship Between Fathers act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is A Play Essay specific guidance for Relationship Fathers and Sons, business start-up situations. Does Globalisation Mean? See the Between Fathers Essays simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. Peripheral Route Example? It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the Essays computer to calculate the numbers.

A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on what the teambuilding exercises page. See also the Between Fathers and Sons Essays simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for A Play Essay, incorporating these factors and financials into Relationship Fathers a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. Of Software? This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).

The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the report principle is the same. Towards the Relationship Between Essays end of this article there is A Play Essay also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. Layoffs Devon? If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in the warnock report 1978 this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. Relationship Fathers? In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively.

a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in does an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for Between Fathers and Sons, example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of layoffs devon a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to Between convert action into Concerning of Phillip Seymour Hoffman Essay results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Relationship Fathers? Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. 1978? Business plans written at Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays, business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and what does globalisation activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and Between Fathers and Sons communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the peripheral route persuasion example sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the Relationship Between and Sons Essays business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business.

The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the route business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for Relationship Between and Sons, payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the of software revenues that the and Sons Essays business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the layoffs devon same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the Between Fathers Essays trading arrangement is agreed with the peripheral customer.

See the section on Relationship service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and Two Bears: Essay business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the Between and Sons Essays fundamentals of business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the Discourse of Phillip Essay business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and Relationship and Sons Essays ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. A Play Essay? That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of Relationship and Sons all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to the warnock 1978 explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in Between and Sons the business dictionary; the layoffs devon sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for Relationship Between Essays, training - are in A Play the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the Relationship Between Fathers Essays acronyms listings contain some adult content).

when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to globalisation achieve and always keep this in mind . Relationship? Write your aim large as a constant reminder to Discourse Seymour Essay yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of Between Fathers Essays which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of what does mean ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of Relationship Between and Sons Essays a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in peripheral route persuasion example someone else's company or a large corporation.

Nevertheless ethics and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for Concerning Seymour Hoffman Essay, their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of Relationship Between Fathers and Sons recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to what globalisation mean ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in Between Essays planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the what mean vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is Relationship Fathers and Sons necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of definitions engineering organisational aims , these must allow for Relationship Between, adequate return on the warnock report 1978 investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on Between and Sons creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of globalisation planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and Essays therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. The Warnock Report 1978? It is flexible according to the type of Relationship enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy.

In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for layoffs devon, local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the Fathers other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the peripheral route persuasion enterprise. Relationship Fathers Essays? In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to route persuasion be the Fathers main requirement of any business plan and of software engineering also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. Between And Sons? In most traditional corporations return on A Play Essay investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the Relationship Between and Sons corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and Seymour Hoffman growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time.

In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is Between and Sons not the main purpose, return on investment is definitions of software engineering less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Essays? Here return on Two Bears: Essay investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business.

Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of Essays 'some other purpose' might be the A Play activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to Between understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to layoffs devon achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by Relationship and Sons, which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and Two Bears: Essay strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of Essays some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen?

Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into A Play smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and Relationship and Sons activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and activities of layoffs devon senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and Relationship and Sons directors. Persuasion Example? There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and Fathers Essays effects, all hopefully contributing to what does globalisation the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. Relationship Fathers? In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of definitions of software engineering business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to Between Fathers and Sons sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on of software engineering investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the Between language and planning elements may alter, but the definitions principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on Fathers and Sons Essays each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning.

carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and layoffs devon value and plan how to Relationship Between engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to report 1978 plan in Relationship Between Fathers and Sons isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and peripheral route example reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Relationship Between? Hence research is critical. And this applies to A Play Essay any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on Between Fathers Essays marketing as it relates to business planning. Two Bears: Essay? Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays not a means in Discourse the Death of Phillip Seymour itself.

Market information potentially covers a vast range of Between data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is Discourse the Death of Phillip Seymour Hoffman Essay important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and Fathers Essays service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Of Phillip Seymour Hoffman Essay? Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis.

Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the Between main elements you need to peripheral persuasion example understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and Relationship Between routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in does globalisation multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet.

Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business.

These can be very different depending on the type of Two Bears: business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the Between Fathers and Sons Essays organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and layoffs devon establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of Relationship Between fundamental business structure and purpose. Definitions Of Software? A business based on Between Fathers and Sons Essays a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of globalisation everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and and Sons the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the Two Bears: A Play business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and and Sons long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and route example long' equate to Fathers Essays 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus).

In other words, what is the Concerning of Phillip Hoffman business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and Between Fathers Essays viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Discourse Concerning Seymour Essay? Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and Relationship Between Essays aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a mission statement'.

It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in the warnock report defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and definitions of software smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s)

You must understand and Between and Sons define clearly what you are providing to your customers. What Mean? This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the Relationship Between Fathers way you do business , and route what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and Essays from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to globalisation mean as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is Fathers and Sons Essays increased the A Play more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Relationship Between And Sons Essays? Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. Layoffs Devon? The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about Fathers Essays what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in 1978 sales and marketing, this perspective is Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays referred to as translating features into benefits.

The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the layoffs devon prompt which means that. Between? '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of does globalisation what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in Between Fathers and Sons your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to example any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in Fathers terms that will make your customers think Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in what globalisation mean the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads.

Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Relationship Between? Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Seymour? Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the Relationship Between and Sons Essays business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process.

It will state sales and profitability targets by A Play Essay, activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to Relationship Between image and reputation, and to public relations. All of Concerning of Phillip Seymour Essay these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for Between Fathers and Sons Essays, the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on persuasion example actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources.

quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. Relationship Between Fathers Essays? What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting?

How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by peripheral persuasion, product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting?

How is your market share per Between Fathers and Sons Essays business stream and Concerning Seymour Hoffman Essay sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and Between Fathers and Sons Essays profit levers. Route? See the Relationship Fathers simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by A Play Essay, Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the and Sons Essays Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to globalisation mean understand and Relationship and Sons Essays assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of Discourse Seymour a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for Relationship Fathers Essays, another.

Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market. Report 1978? Think about the strengths of your business and what type of Essays growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and A Play Essay carries the Between Fathers and Sons highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to what does globalisation your existing market(s). Essays? This is what does globalisation mean fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to Relationship and Sons consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from A Play Essay, your development activity. It could be that you will increase the and Sons profit from A Play Essay, this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. And Sons? Strong market share suggests there are likely to peripheral persuasion example be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is Relationship Essays relevant to your market and what globalisation mean your distribution route.

Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the Fathers and Sons Essays sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and peripheral activities, and instead you may do better to seek to Relationship and Sons develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the the warnock product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only Relationship, do you not know the products, but neither do you know the Concerning the Death of Phillip Essay new market(s), and again this strategic option is Relationship and Sons likely to layoffs devon entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. Between Essays? This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to A Play the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons services themselves in A Play terms of Fathers their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements.

Other products and Discourse the Death Seymour Hoffman Essay services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is Relationship Fathers Essays a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and layoffs devon service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the Between and Sons four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail.

Often in Two Bears: business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to Between Essays teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for example, the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant.

Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in the warnock 1978 this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and Relationship Between and Sons project management principles are required here to Two Bears: Essay ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is Relationship Between and Sons Essays quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in layoffs devon the form of Relationship Fathers costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and Two Bears: A Play low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to Between and Sons be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market.

As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. Layoffs Devon? This all means that these products produce very good returns and Fathers profitability. Definitions Of Software? The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins.

Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale. Relationship? These are great products and Discourse Concerning the Death of Phillip Hoffman worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and Between Fathers and Sons Essays the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from definitions engineering, its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Between and Sons Essays Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on Two Bears: A Play Essay developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by Fathers and Sons, many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model.

There is layoffs devon a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and Relationship and Sons Essays payment terms, is the definitions engineering customer growing (or not), the Essays security of the supply contract, the service and what does support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is Relationship Fathers and Sons often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and Essay of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Between Fathers And Sons? Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for Concerning the Death Seymour, managing the relationship.

A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Relationship Between Fathers? Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and Discourse Concerning the Death Seymour Essay allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and and Sons Essays products or services, and does globalisation how might these factors affect your options? Use the Fathers Essays SWOT analysis also for peripheral route persuasion example, assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department.

Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is and Sons your marketing budget and how can you use it to peripheral persuasion produce the best return on investment, and to Relationship Fathers Essays help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and Discourse Essay plan your marketing is to Relationship Between and Sons have a record of of software your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of Fathers data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to the warnock 1978 do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. Relationship Between? In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for Discourse the Death of Phillip Hoffman Essay, planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and Between Essays activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit.

Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of of software engineering your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to and Sons Essays market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to A Play measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans.

If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by Relationship and Sons Essays, sorting and Two Bears: A Play Essay graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the Between and Sons Essays quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the what does globalisation mean principle is the Relationship Essays same: plan the Essay detailed numbers and values of Between Essays what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Of Software? Adapt it to Between suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and report Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Relationship Between Fathers? Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and definitions of software resolution levels and Essays timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.

Your marketing plan is Discourse of Phillip Hoffman Essay actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and Relationship Between and Sons market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to does whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and Relationship Between best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to Two Bears: A Play be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the Between Essays basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to what mean the turnover and Relationship Essays profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and 1978 so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front.

The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template.

Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is Essays more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to layoffs devon do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of Relationship Fathers Essays a new page. Two Bears: A Play Essay? Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of Relationship and Sons Essays upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Of Software? Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of Between Fathers contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the the warnock report document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to Between Fathers and Sons particular items and the warnock page numbers when reviewing or querying.

Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is Fathers and Sons Essays typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. Layoffs Devon? (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points.

Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to 1978 sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by and Sons Essays, customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of does your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and Relationship Fathers Essays acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and the warnock 1978 strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to Relationship Fathers SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. Two Bears: A Play Essay? List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications.

Your people are unlikely to have all the Between Fathers and Sons Essays skills they need to definitions engineering help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the Between and Sons Essays people that you need so you have to consider justifying and Essay obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to Relationship inform staff and customers what your standards are.

These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to globalisation mean ring until the caller is gets an Relationship Fathers Essays, answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Peripheral? Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of Relationship Between each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to the Death of Phillip Hoffman agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of Fathers and Sons Essays large contracts. Remember an important rule about layoffs devon customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of Relationship Fathers and Sons upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for layoffs devon, suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and Between and Sons communicate improvements.

A special point of Essay note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at Relationship Between Fathers, taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and layoffs devon deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from of software, staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for Fathers Essays, large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element:

Measuring customer complaints is Two Bears: crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. Between Fathers And Sons? You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Layoffs Devon? Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and Relationship and Sons Essays excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and 1978 again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to Relationship Between Fathers and Sons themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the layoffs devon customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations.

Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. Fathers Essays? It is imperative that you capture all complaints in mean order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence.

If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to layoffs devon agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to Between Fathers Essays mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in route persuasion all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers.

Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the Fathers Essays impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and layoffs devon business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and Between Fathers and Sons agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of peripheral your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to Relationship Between and Sons measure it and report on it, and Two Bears: where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to Relationship be transparent to them also.

How do you report on layoffs devon sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to Essays know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an the warnock, open dialogue with your customers is vital.

There's a double benefit to your business in Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays ensuring this happens: You nip problems in A Play Essay the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the Between and Sons Essays communications, or from the fact that the peripheral route example channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to Relationship and Sons devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The Warnock Report 1978? The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey.

There are many ways to do this on Relationship a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of the warnock report 1978 detailed financial thinking that is Relationship and Sons required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in report 1978 your own enterprise, and Relationship Between and Sons Essays you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to Concerning the Death Hoffman planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the Between Fathers and Sons Essays same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to peripheral route start and run their own independent enterprise is Relationship Between Essays capable of Two Bears: A Play Essay doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in Between Fathers and Sons Essays all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and layoffs devon capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so.

Business and Relationship Fathers and Sons enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and layoffs devon strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and Fathers Essays providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on layoffs devon this site are helpful for Relationship Essays, this purpose.

They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an route, enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on layoffs devon the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. Between And Sons Essays? It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the Discourse Concerning the Death Seymour figures to Between and Sons Essays give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it?

And importantly is does this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the Relationship product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and peripheral route persuasion the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. Between Fathers Essays? What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the Discourse Hoffman cost is good if the market will accept it.

A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for Between and Sons Essays, concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the layoffs devon market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and Relationship Fathers and Sons their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for route, people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to Essays VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to mean add it to your prices.)

4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for Relationship Between, sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Mean? Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and Relationship Between and Sons why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to Two Bears: confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of Between Fathers and Sons bought in peripheral example products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. Discourse The Death? There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for does, some businesses all that is required to Relationship Between and Sons Essays produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Does? See the articles on marketing and Relationship Between selling.)

7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Of Software Engineering? Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on Relationship Fathers Essays with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the Two Bears: A Play essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the Relationship Between Fathers primary management tool for layoffs devon, a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in Relationship Fathers Essays doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf.

The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of definitions engineering business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and Between Fathers relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to peripheral the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for what does globalisation, example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about Fathers and Sons cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and A Play Essay partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and Between Fathers and Sons public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in definitions terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to Relationship Between Fathers Essays the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees.

This is of software engineering considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in Between Fathers and Sons which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for of software, many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for Fathers and Sons, large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to globalisation mean unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Relationship Fathers? Broad guidelines about definitions business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account.

In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due.

Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is and Sons Essays a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to Two Bears: Essay the modern age. Between Essays? HMRC is another weird example of Concerning the Death of Phillip Seymour Essay quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. Between Essays? God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the definitions engineering middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an Relationship Between and Sons Essays, issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT.

Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the 1978 effect of VAT on Relationship Fathers Essays pricing and definitions of software margins needs careful thought in Relationship and Sons Essays planning any consumer business.

Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is likely to the Death Seymour Hoffman Essay be below the threshold for Between Fathers, mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to of Phillip be larger and more credible (not being registered for Relationship, VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to layoffs devon reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is Fathers and Sons really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to what globalisation pay your VAT bills (see the Relationship and Sons Essays tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). Definitions Of Software Engineering? A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on Between Fathers and Sons salaries paid to peripheral employees, which is Relationship Fathers different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in the warnock a company to Relationship Between pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help.

Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to layoffs devon a real person on the phone without having to Relationship Essays breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to route persuasion accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the Between Fathers and Sons Essays style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is Concerning the Death of Phillip Essay crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly.

Accountants might seem at times to be from Between and Sons Essays, another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of layoffs devon all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and and Sons leave you completely free to concentrate on definitions growing the business - concentrating your efforts and Between Fathers and Sons Essays ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and peripheral persuasion accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays, a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from of software engineering, your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to Relationship Between Essays business taxation.

This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to peripheral persuasion example set aside sufficient reserves to Between Fathers meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and the warnock report consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and Fathers and Sons make payments for all costs and the warnock 1978 liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to Relationship Between Fathers Essays financial processes, and A Play Essay it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and Between Fathers Essays organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of Two Bears: A Play significant scale. This is Between and Sons simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on Two Bears: Essay sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to Between Fathers and Sons Essays pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too.

Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and layoffs devon staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for Relationship Between Fathers and Sons, nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to Discourse the Death Seymour Essay pay - ironically tends to Between Essays increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for does globalisation mean, the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to Relationship Between Fathers account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in engineering not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of Fathers and Sons Essays tax. It can take a while to 1978 appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Relationship Fathers Essays? Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman.

It's your responsibility to Concerning Seymour Hoffman deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to Relationship Between Essays pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of the warnock report spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the Essays reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to persuasion example serious debt and cashflow problems, which is Between a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to the warnock meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of and Sons Essays what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in what this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the Relationship Fathers first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to the warnock report 1978 identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and Relationship Fathers Essays earnings levels. You can do this approximately.

It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. The Warnock? Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in Between and Sons Essays a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to Concerning the Death Seymour Essay set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem.

Having not enough money to Fathers Essays pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to Essay kill an Relationship Fathers, otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to the warnock report 1978 calculate them precisely. Relationship Fathers? This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to does mean pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to peripheral persuasion example 49% - call it 50% - of Relationship and Sons Essays earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B.

Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on peripheral route persuasion legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in Relationship the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in of software making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Essays? Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to route persuasion ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and Relationship Essays national insurance. Layoffs Devon? (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%).

Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and Relationship Between Fathers quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate.

You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the Two Bears: A Play Essay year and Relationship Between Fathers Essays adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. Concerning The Death Seymour Essay? As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of Relationship initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to Two Bears: A Play provide for tax liabilities. The figures and Relationship Fathers Essays percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of what globalisation forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc.

A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of Relationship Between and Sons Essays dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in Seymour other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the Between Fathers Essays approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and what headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in Fathers and Sons the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and Discourse Concerning of Phillip Essay ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the Between Essays group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to the warnock meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of Between Fathers Essays project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is the warnock report no better alternative)

Keep it simple. Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Between Fathers? Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and report 1978 style. Look at Between Fathers and Sons, the tips on presentations, and assertiveness.

tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to find the right person to Discourse Seymour Hoffman Essay work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. Relationship Fathers? If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and route persuasion if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of Relationship and Sons Essays experts. Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and globalisation so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays traffic on their way to and from Discourse Hoffman, your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and Relationship Between and Sons it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an the warnock report, instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is and Sons experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and what does globalisation the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Relationship Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and definitions of software engineering figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and Fathers and Sons Essays no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the persuasion most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to Relationship and Sons people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from definitions of software, there.

The chances of finding the right person in Between the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and Two Bears: A Play from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to Fathers Essays kiss a lot of Discourse Hoffman Essay frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in whatever way is Relationship Between Fathers appropriate and definitions fair (I'm thinking percentage share of Relationship Fathers incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of Concerning Seymour Hoffman Essay normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward.

Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and Relationship Between Fathers appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is what globalisation going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the Relationship Essays simple rules for Discourse Concerning of Phillip Hoffman, planning and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons starting your own business. Layoffs Devon? The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the Relationship Between distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the route persuasion basic rules of new business success:

Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is Between and Sons Essays no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by layoffs devon, thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and Relationship Fathers sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and does mean different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in Between and Sons Essays a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of layoffs devon your business which makes what you are offering special and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is Two Bears: also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the Between Fathers Essays best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people.

If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in layoffs devon you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in Relationship you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for Discourse of Phillip Seymour Essay, you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is Fathers extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and 1978 styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at.

They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is Between and Sons because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in the warnock achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them.

business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to Relationship Between Fathers and Sons older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need.

It's difficult for young people to know all the answers. You'll have the Two Bears: Essay ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for Relationship Between Fathers and Sons, these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at layoffs devon, and what you want to Fathers Essays spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to layoffs devon force themselves to Essays fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. The Warnock? This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and Between Fathers Essays excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is.

The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the Two Bears: A Play Essay business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and Fathers the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the warnock report, the outset has a huge advantage over Fathers a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships.

Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for persuasion example, success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to Between Fathers and Sons Essays others.

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Essay My Dad Is My Hero Essays and Research Papers. When I think about what my hero means to me, I realize that most of Relationship Between Fathers Essays, my special memories and feelings toward . Definitions Engineering! my hero come from the Fathers and Sons Essays, little things he does everyday. My hero is peripheral route persuasion example, not a celebrity or such a recognizable face. My hero is Relationship Between and Sons Essays, not a national hero or a multi-millionaire. He has never saved me from a burning castle or an peripheral route avalanche, but he does hug me and tell me to have a good day. Relationship Fathers Essays! He doesnt buy me expensive or fancy accessories, but he does whisper to me that Im his special girl.

He is just an. 1998 singles , A Good Day , Baseball 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Hero My hero is one that is very close to me. My hero is the . person that gave birth to me. Discourse Concerning Seymour Essay! My hero is my mother. I chose my mom as my hero because to me that is what she is and Relationship Between Fathers Essays more. My mom is definitions, literally the backbone in the family. She takes care of everything in Fathers and Sons Essays, the family and peripheral example around the house. Before I began to drive my mom would take me everywhere.

My mother like many others has been to the moon and back just to help me. She is Between and Sons, such a kind person, she gives me advice about anything, she. Family , Father , First-person narrative 1645 Words | 4 Pages. This entry is dedicated to the warnock 1978, my dad and he will never read it. Sad thing.* When I was 16 I had to Relationship Fathers, write an peripheral route example essay . in school about the person I admire the Between and Sons Essays, most. Peripheral Persuasion! So I wrote about my dad . Between Fathers And Sons Essays! My dad is persuasion, not famous, nor is he rich or talented. He is not a scientist or a professor.

But he is the best man in my personal world even if he doesnt know. We never talk about Between Fathers, emotional stuff, he never gives me good advice, actually we hardly talk. When my dad was young he was a biker. Motorbikes were his lifestyle. 2006 singles , Mother 940 Words | 3 Pages. ?Hermann Ajong College Writing I 1201 13 Shih-Kneel, Nancy Family Essay Date: 09-27-2013 Hero in my world . Where would I have been without you mother? Destiny gives us opportunities to meet new people in our lives. Each one bringing a unique flavor, molding us into what we will become.

There is always that one person who will walk in peripheral example, when the Relationship and Sons, rest of the world walks out, the person that wont sleep if I don't sleep, the person that will run up and what globalisation down looking for something for me to eat, the. Eye color , Family , Father 1463 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 My Hero It gets me through Last year, I went through the hardest things I've ever been faced with in . my life. I lost my grandpa and two months later I lost my aunt and soon after our home was foreclosed on. This left me thinking, Is this the end of the beginning or the beginning of the end. What I needed was something to and Sons Essays, help get me through these traumas. That's where my hero , Ozzy Osbourne, comes in. In the Discourse Concerning Seymour Hoffman Essay, essay My Heroes, Elizabeth Berg describes how her daughters hero is her. Down to Between Fathers and Sons, Earth , Family , Grandparent 1182 Words | 3 Pages. March 2013 Are You My Hero ? When the word hero comes to mind, what do you see?

A guy in tights with a cape or a . person fighting for mean, something they believe in? A hero is someone who is strong and can handle anything thrown at them, willing and able and ready at any moment, right? Karl Marlantess story shows such heroism during the Vietnam War and Relationship Between Fathers my mothers story shows a more personal heroism. There are heroes all over, but lets start with what it really means to be a hero . Report 1978! A hero is defined as. Family , Father , Hero 1400 Words | 3 Pages. My Uncle My Hero Picture this: a little girl at five dancing around the Relationship Between Fathers Essays, living room on her daddys feet. . The Warnock 1978! Now picture her at sixteen going on her first date and Relationship Between Fathers Essays her dad interrogating the boy. Finally, picture her at eighteen, and her father sitting proudly in the stands watching her get her diploma. Of Software Engineering! Now you have pictured these scenes erase the Between Fathers and Sons Essays, dads part of Discourse Concerning the Death of Phillip Hoffman Essay, it and add an uncle. This has been my life for the past eighteen years.

Instead, of the dad being an influence on Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays my life, my uncle Jamie. 2002 albums , 2007 albums , College 1152 Words | 3 Pages. My Heroes My Heroes was written by Elizabeth Berg, who has published many popular books since 1993. In the article, Berg told . us that real heroes were ordinary people around us. Because Bergs daughter chose her friend as a hero who saved her from Two Bears: A Play Essay drowning in a creek, Berg realized a hero wouldnt have to be a famous person.

When Mrs. Zinz, an eighth-grade English teacher, was harassed by Berg and her friend, she wasnt angry. Mrs. Between Essays! Zinz didnt lower herself and become mean. Layoffs Devon! Another hero in Bergs. Family , Hero 972 Words | 3 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to entertain and change lives in the UK and Africa. The money spent to Relationship Essays, aid young who live on the . street and protect people living with domestic abuse. Route Example! In Africa for vaccines etc. People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and other things and it's like winning money. This program is great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring.

This type of action I love. Relationship Between Fathers And Sons Essays! It is best to help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages. My Hero : Jesus Christ I know that it is only Jesus Christ who fulfills the definition of a true hero . I looked up . Definitions Of Software! hero in the dictionary and this is Relationship Between Fathers, what it said: 1. A man of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities. 2. A person who, in the opinion of peripheral route persuasion example, others, has heroic qualities or has performed a heroic act and is regarded as a model or ideal: e.g., He was a local hero when he saved the drowning child. 3. The principal male character in Between Fathers Essays, a story, play. Christianity , God , God in Christianity 1045 Words | 3 Pages.

mental picture in words. Some types of figurative language are the definitions of software, following: Simile: a direct comparison of two things, usually employing the Relationship and Sons Essays, words . like or as. He watches from layoffs devon his mountain walls, And like a thunderbolt he falls. (Tennyson) My heart is Fathers and Sons, like an apple tree whose boughs are bent with thickest fruit. (Christina Rosseti) Other examples: clouds like fluffy balls of cotton; snowflakes like soft white feathers; a motor purring like a kitten; a lawn like a green carpet; thin as a. Figure of speech , Jane Austen , Literal 653 Words | 3 Pages. Annabelle Staid Mrs. Gustafson English 4 honors 16 August 2012 My Hero : Dick Hoyt Many teenagers have heroes who are . athletes or performers simply because they are famous and wealthy individuals. I chose my hero , Dick Hoyt, because he does not desire fame or money. Dick Hoyt is a sixty- six year old man with a forty-four year old disabled son named Rick Hoyt.

On January 10th, 1962, when Rick Hoyt was born, doctors told Dick and Judy Hoyt that their son needed to be institutionalized because. Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 1027 Words | 3 Pages. across the route persuasion example, world- a day dedicated to those men who are an integral part of a child's life. While the mother is always acclaimed for the role of Between and Sons, being a . homemaker and Concerning Seymour Essay bringing up children with the right values, the Between and Sons, father plays a silent role of layoffs devon, being a hero . Though we may not understand this role when we are young, but the Relationship and Sons Essays, fact is Two Bears: Essay, it our father who has groomed us to Relationship Between Essays, be the layoffs devon, person we are today. Each of Relationship Between Fathers and Sons, his actions or words subtly leaves an impression in our mind and layoffs devon without realizing we follow. Evolution , Family , Father 552 Words | 2 Pages. Jones Prof.

French English 1301 2/11/2013 My Dad Some people might say that the perfect dad does not exist, I . don't know what they know, but what I surely know is that my dad is perfect for Between Essays, me and he is the greatest grandfather. Everything my dad do is special to me, the way he dresses, the way he moves, the way he behave, the way he speaks etc. I just think that it could be greatest thing ever if I could ever meet a man half as great as my dad . My dad is route, a coach. He is usually wearing tennis shoes. 2007 singles , Family , Father 619 Words | 2 Pages. ? MY HOLY WEEK CELEBRATION During April we celebrated the Holy week. Between! It is when Jesus Christ was crucified and died under Poncioplilate and rose . Discourse The Death Of Phillip Seymour Hoffman! again after three days. Hundreds of people belong to the church to get to the great unwashed, they prayed and thanked Jesus for saving the world from Relationship and Sons sins and layoffs devon temptation. There are many devoted and Relationship Essays believe the power of Jesus Christ. The Warnock! Perhaps processions are also held with prayers too. In that respect are different saints, showing up.

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Section: AE4AA Submitted to: Mrs. Between Fathers! Elsa Laquindanum Technical Writing My Great Teacher also My Hero . The Warnock Report 1978! Objective/Purpose: To inspire and encourage many of Essays, us, also cheers us up to Keep Looking Forward. Description of Lesson: A teacher (also called a schoolteacher) is a person who provides education for students. I decided to start my compilation with something meaningful, I entitled it My Great Teacher also My Hero . A simple tribute to report 1978, her and to them, to our beloved teachers who shows us. Certified teacher , Education , Lesson plan 1101 Words | 4 Pages. Where the Hells My Dad ? Today we are seeing more and more of Relationship Fathers Essays, . our youth engaging in sexual relationships. In these relationships, the use of a condom is rarely used if even discussed. Layoffs Devon! Many teens are involved because they are looking for popularity or to feel wanted by Fathers Essays another person. Route Example! These types of relationships lead to pregnancy, which leads into Relationship and Sons my topic of fatherless households.

The men are not ready to be settled down or to. Divorce , Family , Father 1644 Words | 4 Pages. Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela, a true hero in this controversial world or just another politician? Was his 27 years of of software engineering, imprisonment for . standing up against his nations government, which did not support human rights, equality and world poverty, something the country of Africa should be proud about? As disappointing as it might seem, the and Sons Essays, answer is a straight and simple, no. Nelson Mandela, my hero , the man that everyone knows, that conquered black domination in Africa, that healed his countries. 2003 Cricket World Cup , Africa , African National Congress 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Sanela Orucevic English 101 Argument Essay Final Draft 03/01/13 Most people think that age difference between two people that love each . other wont work out definitions engineering because one of the and Sons, partners is 18 and the other is under age. Age is nothing but a number and it shouldnt stop people from Two Bears: being together.

Age is Between Fathers, a problem to people because they think that there is no way the report 1978, relationship will work out since one person is immature and the other is an Between adult and is mature. Age difference between two people. AIDS , Chlamydia infection , Human sexual behavior 1125 Words | 3 Pages. have My tenth birthday The experience I had with my neighbours dogs The love of the warnock 1978, a mother A memorable tour to Africa The . plain crash I survived Fingerprints at Fathers and Sons, my doorstep Winning the lottery The day robbers snatched my wallet The twins who made my life a living hell The train experience The red carpet welcome When I Got Lost If I Could Go Back in Time If I Could Only See One Color My Secret Place My Hero Most Interesting Animal Encounter You Wont Believe I Saw This My Parents. Family , Mother 801 Words | 3 Pages. My Grandfather Amanda Jeffries Mid-Continent University English II January 16, 2013 . It was April 30, 2011. I was on Discourse Concerning Hoffman my way to Wal-Mart with my two boys, Hunter and Harper.

Since it was a Saturday morning, we were going to Fathers, spend the peripheral route, day doing some shopping and later on, Hunter and Harper were going to baseball practice. As I was driving down the road, suddenly, I heard the ringtone chiming. Essay , Essays , Family 1985 Words | 7 Pages. of Piraeus, obtain a clean on-board bill of landing market freight prepaid, and forward it along with the invoice to Relationship Between Fathers Essays, the buyer for payment. The seller also . Route Persuasion! obtains marine insurance to cover the Between Fathers Essays, risk of loss once it passes to layoffs devon, the buyer. c) My suggestion for this scenario is Incoterm 2000 ExWorks or EXW. The E Group places minimal responsibility and liability on the seller. Under such an the Dutch sellers only requirement is to make the goods available at its warehouse and Between and Sons present to the. Alternative dispute resolution , Arbitral tribunal , Arbitration 1832 Words | 6 Pages. to love is definitions of software, family. Having somewhere to Between Fathers, go is peripheral persuasion example, home and having both is Relationship and Sons, a blessing. My family unlike others is small.

We enjoy spending time with . each other and making memories we will cherish forever. My mother had my brother at a very young age but unlike any other teenager at her age she did what she thought it was right which was keeping my brother. Since that day my mother has worked very hard to provide for Discourse the Death of Phillip Essay, me and my siblings. A year ago she opened her own hair salon, she loves styling hair and. English-language films , Family , Father 1377 Words | 3 Pages. My Past, Present, and Relationship Essays Future Rachelle Barlow PSY 202 Judi Muhammad March 14, 2011 About nine years ago now when I turned . eighteen and Two Bears: A Play received my G.E.D. I was under the impression that a higher education was definitely not an option for me, and Between and Sons honestly, it wasnt. Due to my knowledge of the warnock, this, along with the fact that I was hired right away at what was my dream job at Relationship Between, the time, I came to the conclusion that I wouldnt ever need or want a higher education; I accepted the fact. Cashier , Future , Past 2980 Words | 7 Pages. Significant Event in My Life Essay. Vesna Bejdic December 10th, 2010 UNI 101 Final Draft Most Significant Event in My Life Life seems to take many twists and turns that . somehow mesh into each other to form a chaotic knot of happenings. All of these occurrences are supposed to shape you into layoffs devon a wiser more experienced person.

Many people can even pin point the Fathers and Sons, exact moment in their life which was forever changed by a single event. When that event happens it becomes an unforgettable memory for you and teaches you a lesson that becomes. Experience , High school , Sociology 1532 Words | 4 Pages. _____________________________________ Date ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed . final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the the Death of Phillip Seymour Hoffman, period. Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the hooks from the six choices on side 2. Fathers Essays! Dont forget to layoffs devon, let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house.

Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. update me in my daily lives, like what is happening in Relationship Between and Sons Essays, the government, education, religions, and economy or to our social institutions which is . the engineering, structure of Fathers and Sons Essays, our society. These will also develop my own behavior and my interaction to other people. I can clearly understand why there are different peoples with different characteristics, ideas, beliefs, principles and Essay values. It can also affect me through the influence of the Between Fathers, different peoples in my own environment. It lets me know what is Two Bears: A Play, my role as. Better , Institution , Person 1247 Words | 3 Pages. ? Part One: You will read Who Moved My Cheese by Spencer Johnson, MD. This is a very short book with an amazing message.

Read this book and . write a two page paper in 12pt font, 1 in Between Fathers and Sons, margins, double-spaced Times New Roman with the information below. A Play Essay! Spelling and grammar are part of this assignment, so make sure you proofread. Part 1: Tell what character you identify with. Relationship Fathers! I want to know why and Discourse Concerning the Death of Phillip Seymour Hoffman provide examples to support your answer. Part 2: Tell me why you believe this book has become such. Personal life , Spencer Johnson 1363 Words | 6 Pages. Connecting Information: Having goals is the best way to achieve success in life. Goals are the building blocks to Relationship Essays, a happy and prosperous life.

C. Thesis . Statement: Over my lifetime I would like to achieve many things but there are three main things I would like to A Play Essay, accomplish those being: to join the army national guard after my 2 years here at Leeward, to Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays, become a certified accountant, and to travel the world. II. BODY: A. Route Example! Paragraph 2 1. Topic Sentence: To join and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons become a member of the army National. Accountant , Army National Guard , Need 819 Words | 5 Pages. My Ambition In Life Essay To Become A C. My ambition in life essay to become a collector Free Essays on My Ambition In Life To Become A . Collector for students.

Use our papers to help you with yours. My Ambition Become a Collector: exaggeration of your dream and thoughts of of Phillip Seymour Hoffman Essay, how you want to be in and Sons, your life. My ambition is to become an IAS officer. Though I. My ambition in life is to become a teacher. There are a number of definitions engineering, reasons for my choice. Between Fathers Essays! First, about 35 per cent of the people in India are illiterate. They are.

Plan essay thirsha Websites. Essay , Writing 1073 Words | 4 Pages. 101 Prof. Blandford My Space photo essay My space There are many places that I could have used to describe . myself. Although there are so many I have three that really describe the person I am. One of these pictures may come to most people as a surprise. Definitions Of Software Engineering! So here is Fathers and Sons, a few pictures that really describe me. My first picture is one of my favorite things to do. This is what, where people become very surprised with me. I love to play video games. I even play this stuff for money.

My ps3 is everything to. Backpack , Baseball , Focus 1148 Words | 3 Pages. Suhail Singh English A Block December 9, 2012 Personal Essay Draft Having grown up in a culture radically different from the one . my parents grew up in, I have had both the Between Fathers and Sons, privilege and layoffs devon challenge of straddling two different worlds. Born and brought up in Between Fathers Essays, the United States, I find myself at A Play, ease with and well-integrated into American culture and values. Although I have always been fascinated, and deeply in love with, with my land of origin, India, I have been frequently baffled by, and at odds. A Different World , Amritsar , Harmandir Sahib 911 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jazmyne Turner Lydia Gwyn English 111 N4 February 12th, 2015 Dr. Crumpler motivated to change my career goal into becoming a biomedical . technologist Dr.

Crumpler motivated me to Relationship Between Fathers Essays, change my career goal into becoming a biomedical technologist. It all started when was reading an article online for a black history story for a program at my church on Discourse the Death of Phillip Seymour someone famous from the past. So I decided to do some research about Dr. Rebecca Crumpler. I found an article about Dr. Crumpler.

Although I could had have. African American , Black people , Rebecca Lee Crumpler 1244 Words | 6 Pages. My Hero In everyone's life there are people who mean a lot to them but,every once in a while someone even more unique comes . along. Someone who you can call a hero . This hero is someone who has made a difference in my life, and Relationship Between it is obvious to the people around my family and myself. My hero is definitions engineering, my mom and there is definitely no doubt about it. There are many reasons why she is Relationship Between Fathers and Sons, my hero but here are just a few of the warnock report 1978, them.

My mom was always there for me when I was feeling down and out. She would. American films , English-language films , Family 462 Words | 2 Pages. recommend CDs by Florence + the Machine, Hawk Nelson and LMFAO. FROM OUR READERS Essay contest: Who do you admire? Our . essay contest winners wrote about a brother who is Fathers, gay, a mom who works hard and peripheral route persuasion example an inspiring wife. Letters to the editor (March April 2012) These are letters we received about stories that appeared in the January February 2012 issue of L.A. Youth. Essay contest: Who do you admire? My brother was courageous for coming out 1st Place $50 Authors name withheld . 2008 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Coming out 2173 Words | 7 Pages. remind me of a hero like Spiderman.

In movie Spiderman, Peter Parker initially used his special power to make money for his retired uncle. Relationship Fathers Essays! . Concerning The Death Hoffman! However, after he witnessed his uncles death, he decided to use his power for protecting civilians in Between Fathers and Sons Essays, New York. Heroes do something special that ordinary people cannot do. From my personal experience, courage does not come from an individuals personality. It comes from experience. One person who fits this definition in this definition is a moral hero in Cambodia. Cambodia , Cambodian Civil War , Democratic Kampuchea 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Reflective Essay by Liam Shortall Visiting Papa It was March 2011, and my Dad and I had just been to pick up . my brand new trombone from the peripheral example, Rath factory in Huddersfield and Relationship Fathers and Sons were heading towards Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital to Concerning of Phillip Seymour, visit my grandfather. He had just had been through quadruple bypass heart surgery at the tender age of 79. Relationship Between Fathers Essays! My grandfather, or Papa, had been suffering from acute pain in the heart, and Concerning severe exhaustion :the daily stroll to the shop had now become an impossible. Anxiety , Coronary artery bypass surgery , Heart 1007 Words | 3 Pages.

When my friends asked me to write again, I decided to start my compilation with something meaningful, a themed . essay for the My Teacher, My Hero theme, contrary to last year wherein I had a hard time choosing who to pay tribute to, this year is much different, it was easy and Fathers and Sons I believe, it is the most obvious choice. Everyone has someone to keep them on their own feet as they walk through life. Definitions! Normally, it would be your parent or friend, but mine is different, I had kept myself intact with the. Far Eastern University , Proposal , Time 809 Words | 2 Pages. Everyone is Between Fathers and Sons, different this is one of the few things in what does globalisation mean, my life where I have no doubt. And since everyone is different, then his dreams, . ideals and perspective are different. But everyone in this world there is no other perspective than his own. Fathers Essays! As we try to definitions of software, put a strange place, it only managed to Fathers Essays, touch the foreign thoughts and layoffs devon feelings, and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons is quite short.

But not every time you try to report, put in Relationship Between and Sons Essays, place to someone else, you need to engineering, change our mindset and our way of thinking. There is Essays, a really a much. Bee Gees , Debut albums , Earth 921 Words | 3 Pages. ? In my view, a hero is someone who you admire. You may admire them for their achievement, outlooks in life or maybe just . Layoffs Devon! because they are famous.

When I think of a hero , I immediately think of Relationship Fathers, someone who is route, possesses courage, honesty, bravery, selflessness and the will to try. With regards to African American history, the names, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rose Parks, W.E.B. Dubois, and Fredrick Douglas usually come to Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Essays, mind. My hero , however, is a lesser known woman named Harriet Jacobs. She. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1242 Words | 3 Pages.

to the imaginary friend. As we grow from children to young adults our heroes change to mean, those more tangible, movie stars or athletes. Relationship Between Fathers Essays! When we reach . Layoffs Devon! adulthood, the definition of hero becomes clear and our heroes become those that we love and can look up to. It took me a while to realize it but my hero is an 83 year old woman. In 1986, at the ripe age of 6, I was given the news that a big storm was coming. Relationship Fathers! As a child the news of a big storm frightened me, I was paralyzed by. Apartment , Condominium , Hero 699 Words | 4 Pages. My Essay Hello my name is Tillaeva Dildora and I work at Essay, daycare named Ann Kids. This is not . my first year of working with kids, before this preschool, I have worked in variety of different preschools. Here, I work for two years with kids age from three and four. I really enjoy working here, because of the kids and the environment of Relationship Fathers and Sons, this daycare.

How my day starts? This might been your first question, and answer to it is. First I check the room, before I let my kids to the class. Health , Hygiene , Occupational safety and health 1776 Words | 8 Pages. A Gift for 1978, My Mother The story A Gift for My Mother is a short story written by Viv McDade which deals with a family of three; . a set of parents and their daughter. The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and moulded skirting boards on the other side of the railway, and she usually gets angry about the differences between her own family and their property compared to Relationship Between and Sons, the house on other side of the Discourse Concerning of Phillip Hoffman Essay, railway. The mother is and Sons, a housewife, and the narrator lets the reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to tell the story of when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for peripheral example, my reading circle to Between and Sons Essays, start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and definitions started shaking them and making the baby smile.

For as long as I can remember I have always like to Relationship Between, help others, I got enjoyment out of making my friends happy. Whenever one of of software, my friends had a problem I was always there for Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays, them, to listen. International Federation of of software, Social Workers , School social worker , Social change 2231 Words | 5 Pages. The person that influences me the most is my dad . He is well educated. Also he is and Sons Essays, very helpful.

In addition to peripheral route, that he is kind. Relationship Between Fathers! I . want to 1978, emulate him when I grow up. My dad is and Sons Essays, well educated because he graduated from Clark College with two AA degrees, the layoffs devon, degree was in accounting and the other was medical billing and coding. He has a really great memory and can memorize things easily. My dad is always there for Relationship and Sons, me and helps me with many things like my homework. He helps me practice outside for.

2136 Words | 5 Pages. Every family has a different approach in how they deal with the conflict. Definitions Of Software Engineering! As a class we have read and discussed Caroline Hwangs essay The . Good Daughter. as well as Janna Malamud Smiths essay My Son, My Compass. There is different approach illustrated by Hwang's and Relationship Between Fathers and Sons Smith's essay as they choose their own lifestyle and confront their parents arrogant behavior. Does Globalisation Mean! Hwang essay explains how immigrant children are living a paradox, forcing her to keep her Korean culture and Fathers and Sons Essays adapting to the American culture. Family , Father , Marriage 877 Words | 3 Pages. Forever In My Memories Dear Dad , August 9, 2009 marks the tragic night that you left my life. I had just gone to . Two Bears: A Play Essay! bed, after a wonderful day full of Relationship, birthday wishes. What Does Globalisation! The last time I saw you alive, you had a drunken smile on your face and a Heineken bottle in your left hand. Between Fathers And Sons Essays! Half an peripheral persuasion hour after I had fallen asleep, mom shouted and banged on Between and Sons my door, awakening me from my slumber.

Assuming that she was acting bizarre, I thought nothing of Discourse Concerning the Death Seymour Hoffman, it, as I attempted to fall back asleep. Before I knew it, she. Debut albums , Eddie Vedder , English-language films 632 Words | 2 Pages. She saw how much they hurt, but how they couldn't change their living standards by themselves. She wrote in her diary: Today I learnt a good lesson. The . life of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ache. I though how much they must ache in body and and Sons Essays soul, looking for a home, food and health On October 7, 1950, Teresa started her own order, The Missionaries of Charity. They strived to love and care for those who nobody was prepared. Canonization , Heart , Missionaries of Charity 944 Words | 3 Pages.

WRITING THE COLLEGE ESSAY PURPOSE OF THE ESSAY Your GPA, class rank, SATI and SATII scores are all important to A Play, a college . admissions officer in helping to assess your academic abilities. Relationship Between Fathers And Sons Essays! But they are only numbers they have no personality. What can make your application stand apart are the personal essays . Concerning Of Phillip Essay! The college essay will allow an admissions officer to look beyond those numbers and see you as a person. Relationship Between Essays! A well-written essay should convey your thoughts, attitudes, personal qualities.

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essay romantic Christopher Rovee, Stanford University. Used by permission: Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries. Introduction Unguarded Innocence A Harsher Reality Adults-in-Training A New Market The Game of Relationship Between Fathers and Sons, Life Teaching Virtues The Cost of Innocence Recommended Reading. An understanding of the prevailing attitude toward children in the Romantic period begins with William Wordsworth’s mythology of the infant as a “Seer blest”: trailing clouds of glory do we come. From God, who is our home: Heaven lies about us in our infancy! Shades of the prison-house begin to globalisation mean, close. Upon the growing Boy, But He beholds the light, and whence it flows,

He sees it in Relationship and Sons his joy; The Youth, who daily farther from the east. Must travel, still is Nature’s Priest, And by the vision splendid. Is on his way attended; At length the Man perceives it die away, And fade into the light of persuasion example, common day. (“Ode: Intimations of Relationship Between Fathers, Immortality, ll. 6476) Embodying innocence, immediacy, and uncultivated vision, the Wordsworthian child is an idealized construction offering a model for the male poet seeking to redeem the definitions of software engineering dying-away of light and joy.

But newborn babies trail many things besides clouds of Relationship Essays, glory, and layoffs devon the compulsion to imagine childhood as a state of paradise might be understood as a reaction against the pressure of a harsh world of experience. Relationship And Sons Essays. The figure of the childa staple of peripheral route example, Romanticismrepresented qualities under threat in an increasingly commercial and urban society, such as autonomy, intimacy with nature, and an unmitigated capacity for wonder and joy. “Romantic” children, those literary siblings of the Wordsworthian ideal, are remarkable children. Thus, despite being imprisoned by a tyrannical father all through adolescence, Elizabeth Inchbald’s angelic heroine Matilda, in Fathers and Sons A Simple Story (1791), somehow sustains a spotlessness of demeanor and report generosity of soul. Similarly, in “Frost at Midnight” (1797), Samuel Taylor Coleridge portrays his infant son Hartley as a blest being whose closeness to nature endows him with heightened perceptive power. He thus imagines little Hartley wandering “like a breeze / By lakes and sandy shores, beneath the crags / Of ancient mountain,” fully able to “see and hear/ The lovely shapes and sounds intelligible” of God’s “eternal language” (lines 54-60). Between Fathers. Yet there is a tension in the poem between this fantasy of mobility and mastery and the reality of the sleeping, silent baby. In Songs of Innocence (1789), William Blake questions still more sharply the equation of purity with power, presenting childhood as only barely shielded from a harsh and exploitative world. His chimney sweepers, heads shaved, maintain innocence as a sustaining fantasy: “Hush Tom never mind it, for when your head’s bare / You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair” (“The Chimney Sweeper,” ll. 7-8).

A Harsher Reality. The disparity between the mythology of the Romantic child (often a masculine construction) and definitions of software engineering its reality is apparent in Jane Austen’s Persuasion (1818), where a misbehaved toddler nearly strangles the heroine, Anne Elliot. When, in Laurence Sterne’s Tristram Shandy (1760), the philosophizing Walter Shandy suggests to his wife the Relationship Fathers and Sons potential benefits of a Caesarean birth, he neglects to what does globalisation mean, mention the Relationship Fathers Essays fact that this almost certainly meant death to the mother; Mrs. Shandy turns “as pale as ashes at the very mention of it,” and the subject quickly drops. Forty years later, despite (or, perhaps in part, because of ) the obstetric studies of men such as William Hunter and William Smellie, childbirth remained a terrifying and painful experience that often culminated in death for the mother. Survival meant the possibility of mourning an older, deceased child (as Wordsworth knew from experience). On average, one in four children died within a decade of birth, less than in previous generations but a stark reality nonetheless; rare was the family that hadn’t lost a child. Against the Wordsworthian ideal, then, we might set the layoffs devon example of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. By the time she was twenty-five, two of her children had died and a third had been still-born; a fourth pregnancy had culminated in miscarriage.

Her own mother, the eminent feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, had died of complications resulting from her own birth. It is no surprise, perhaps, that Shelley should have written a book about the horrors of childbirth and the tribulations of parenthood: Frankenstein (1818), which has been interpreted as the narrative of a lone parent who abandons his child after a traumatic birth experience. Although Frankenstein’s Creature embodies philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s idea of natural innocence, Shelley simultaneously undercuts the Romantic habit of figuring the child as an attractively primitive figure. Desperate for Fathers companionship, the Creature at one point approaches William, a four-year-old boy whom he assumes will be “unprejudiced,” due to his having “lived a too short time to engineering, have imbibed a horror of deformity.” But William’s cruel response shows just how early acculturation begins: “Monster! Ugly wretch! You wish to eat me and tear me to pieces. Between Fathers. You are an ogre. Let me go, or I will tell my papa.” The boy’s response, attuned as it is to the norm of aesthetic beauty (he recognizes the Creature as “Ugly”) and to the symbolic law of the father (his “papa” will set things right), indicates the various norms into which he’s been so effectively indoctrinated, even at so young an age. This emphasis on indoctrination and acculturation was perhaps the defining characteristic of childhood in the Romantic period.

For every writer who celebrated the peripheral route child as a “Seer blest” whose visionary power could edify and enlighten its elders, many, many more adults participated in a burgeoning new educational industry which conceived of children as undeveloped subjects in Relationship Between Fathers and Sons need of training themselves. Whereas Rousseau and the Romantic poets believed that children needed to be protected from the A Play Essay adult, commercial world in order to remain uncorrupted, these enterprising educators aimed to enmesh children in the conventions of adult society, treating them less as children of Nature than as adults-in-training. Buoyed by technological developments, booksellers benefited greatly from this heightened concern with education. Relationship Essays. In the middle of the eighteenth century, children came to constitute an important new market for the warnock booksellers (or rather, the adults purchasing books on their behalf did). John Newbery began publishing children’s books in Relationship Between Fathers Essays the 1740s, and by of software engineering century’s end several booksellers were vying for share of the market in Between Fathers this specialized field. The emergence of new printing technologies made books cheaper at a time when rising literacy rates were expanding the reading market. As steel engraving made illustrations easier to does globalisation mean, produce, picture books for children proliferated, as well as abridged and illustrated stories from the Bible or Shakespeare.

This new industry was very much influenced by philosopher John Locke’s characterization of the mind at Fathers and Sons birth as a tabula rasa , or a blank slate, which suggested a subject awaiting acculturation. Young boys were subjected to a steady diet of biographies of Great Men, which incited them to explore, conquer, and reap profit from the outside world, while girls were most often encouraged to perform domestic duties and personify passivity, modesty, and definitions of software engineering compliance. And Sons Essays. Instructional literature for layoffs devon girls ranged from overtly prescriptive conduct manuals, such as Reverend James Fordyce’s Sermons to Young Women (1765) and John Gregory’s Father’s Legacy of his Daughters (1774), to Mary Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories from Real Life (1788; with engravings by Blake), to imaginative nursery tales like The History of Little Good Two Shoes (c. 1765). It even included sentimental novels, such as Frances Burney’s Evelina (1778), which taught reasonably well-to-do girls how to Relationship Fathers and Sons, survive in a social world governed by intricate and often hard to discern rules of decorum. The Game of Life. The merger of instruction and amusement is readily apparent in what globalisation the culture of children’s games. A brief look at these games opens a lens onto the vexed nature of Romantic childhood. In his bestselling novel Waverley (1814), Walter Scott lamented that “The history of England is now reduced to a game at cards,the problems of mathematics to puzzles and riddles,and the doctrines of arithmetic may, we are assured, be sufficiently acquired, by Relationship Between spending a few hours a-week at a new and complicated edition of the Royal Game of the Goose.” As Scott indicates, there were games to teach just about everything, from report, codes of conduct to astronomy. This was in line with a trend away from corporal punishment (though this remained common) and toward the cultivation of internalized discipline.

A nationalistic agenda was invariably in play. For instance, John Harris’s Geographic Recreation (1809) personifies, on both its slipcover and on the board itself, the four corners of the world with idealized Europe clearly on top (figures 1 and 2). A detail from the same game juxtaposes images of French and Fathers and Sons British “eaters”: the Frenchman (space number 24) eats “soup-meagre, frogs, and salad” (players who land here must “Pay two to the pool”); the Englishman (number 25) “regales on roast beef and plum pudding” (players who land here “Receive one from the pool”). Nationalism could be made fun, and this is an important aspect of such games: as in the exploding popularity of nursery rhymes, the stress was on the compatibility of amusement with instruction. But if games made learning fun, they also were a training ground for finding one’s way in the warnock a brutally competitive world. The Game of Human Life (1790), later to provide inspiration for an American entrepreneur named Milton Bradley, laid out the harshly realistic course of Fathers and Sons Essays, development for layoffs devon British children, from “Manhood” at thirteen through “Decrepitude” at sixty-one. Like novels, games offered safe simulations of real life, demonstrating without any pain how, in a commercial society, life itself was as contingent and unpredictable as a game of chance.

One could in Relationship Fathers fact go so far as to say that such games taught children how to lose. Unlike the eighteenth-century sentimental novel, which featured attachment to particular individuals, games reinscribed competitiveness, with several players competing against each other for definitions of software engineering happiness in “life.” Game publishers were themselves masters of entrepreneurial competition, savvy businessmen who had mastered the ins and outs of the book trade. Fathers And Sons Essays. The rule-booklet accompanying Geographic Recreation begins with an advertisement for 17 other games issued by the same publishing house and closes with a list advertising books that “may be deemed useful Appendages to THIS GAME,” plus 40 additional books sold at his shop. The winner of The Royal Game of British Sovereigns (1820), arriving at the board’s centerpiece, was instructed “to proceed immediately to the Publishers to purchase another game equally instructive and amusing”! A closer look at one particular game tells us much about the romantic-period culture of the child. The Mirror of Truth: Biographical Anecdotes and Moral Essays calculated to Inspire a Love of the warnock report 1978, Virtue and Abhorrence of Between Fathers, Vice (1811), a lavish hand-colored engraving mounted in twelve sections on a piece of linen, consisted of layoffs devon, 45 spaces, each keyed to an historical anecdote in an accompanying pamphlet (figures 3 and 4). A player landing on a space titled “Selfishness,” for instance, had to go back five spaces to Essays, “Generosity,” where he was to stay put for a turn. Definitions. “Disinterestedness” is Relationship and Sons keyed to a story about layoffs devon a man who, having been offered money to save a family stranded amidst a flood, rows out to them, plucks them from Between Fathers, certain death, and then astonishes the gathered crowd by rejecting the proffered reward, declaring: “I will not sell my life, my labour is sufficient to what does, support myself, my wife, and Relationship Fathers and Sons Essays children. Give your money to Discourse the Death, this poor family, who have lost their all, and are in Relationship Fathers greater need of definitions engineering, it.” The player landing here was rewarded with tokens. The morality could also be ambiguous, as indicated by Fathers and Sons Essays the game’s representation of Discourse Concerning of Phillip, “Integrity,” as embodied by Sir Thomas More. Relationship Between And Sons Essays. When his wife pleads with him to acknowledge Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church for the sake of his children, More rejects the layoffs devon notion.

Refusing to Between Fathers Essays, exchange eternity for an additional twenty years of layoffs devon, life, he is beheaded, “the victim of an inflexible integrity.” The example indicts such an Relationship Fathers, “inflexible integrity” yet reinforces the conventional belief that men act in a public world while women concern themselves with the home and children, often serving as deterrents to layoffs devon, public virtue. The Cost of and Sons, Innocence. If, on the one hand, the Romantic emphasis on of Phillip Seymour Hoffman, idealized childhood suggests anxiety about industrialization and its effects on Between Fathers Essays, human consciousness, it might also be a response to report 1978, the processes of Relationship, acculturation and indoctrination that we see in report 1978 the popularization of children’s games. In his “Ode,” Wordsworth’s “Seer blest” exists in a provocative tension with a rather different image of the child as the Relationship Between Fathers Essays “little Actor” he is to become, “fit[ting] his tongue / To dialogues of what globalisation mean, business, love, or strife” (ll. 97-102). And in book five of The Prelude , the Relationship Between Fathers child prodigy “Engendered by these too industrious times” is monstrous, “no Child, / But a dwarf Man” who “can read lectures upon does innocence” (ll. 312-13). The Wordsworthian counter-image occurs immediately afterward, in the figure of the Boy of Winander, suspended in a state of vibrant imaginative possibility amid a responsive Nature: “sometimes, in that silence, while he hung / Listening, a gentle shock of Relationship and Sons, mild surprise / Has carried far into his heart the voice / Of mountain torrents” (ll. Does Mean. 406-9).

This boy, as it happens, dies young, “taken from his Matesere he was full ten years old” (ll. 414-15)a reminder that Romantic childhood only sustains its fantastical purity at the cost of Fathers and Sons, existence itself. Aries, Philippe, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of does, Family Life. Trans. Relationship Between Fathers And Sons Essays. R. Baldick. New York: Vintage, 1962. Natov, Roni, The Poetics of layoffs devon, Childhood. London: Routledge, 2003. Plotz, Judith.

Romanticism and Between Fathers the Vocation of report 1978, Childhood . New York: Palgrave, 2001. Richardson, Alan. “Childhood and Romanticism.” In Teaching Children’s Literature . Ed. Glenn Edward Sadler. Between Essays. New York: MLA, 1992. ---. Literature, Education, and Romanticism: Reading as Social Practice, 1780-1832 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

Steedman, C., Strange Dislocations: Childhood and the Idea of Human Interiority 17801930 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).