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Biodegradation and Bioremediation (With Diagram) Read this article to learn about the biodegradation and bioremediation in details with diagrams. Biodegradation or biological degradation is the phenomenon of biological transformation of organic compounds by living organisms, particularly the microorganisms. Biodegradation basically involves the conversion of complex organic molecules to simpler (and mostly non-toxic) ones. The term biotransformation is used for incomplete biodegradation of organic compounds involving one or a few reactions. Biotransformation is employed for the synthesis of commercially important products by review, microorganisms. Bioremediation refers to Story of Sweeny Essays, the process of using microorganisms to remove the the shawshank environmental pollutants i.e. the toxic wastes found in soil, water, air etc.
The microbes serve as scavengers in bioremediation. The removal of organic wastes by microbes for of climate changes, environmental clean-up is the essence of bioremediation. The other names used (by some authors) for bioremediation are bio-treatment, bio-reclamation and bio-restoration. It is rather difficult to show any distinction between biodegradation and bioremediation. Further, in biotechnology, most of the reactions of biodegradation/bioremediation involve xenobiotic. Xenobiotic (xenos-foregin) broadly refer to the unnatural, foreign and the shawshank redemption synthetic chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, refrigerants, solvents and industrial other organic compounds. Microbial degradation of xenobiotic assumes significance, since it provides an effective and economic means of redemption review, disposing of toxic chemicals, particularly the environmental pollutants. Pseudomonas — The Predominant Microorganism For Bioremediation: Members of the genus Pseudomonas (a soil microorganism) are the most predominant microorganisms that degrade xenobiotic.
Different strains of Pseudomonas, that are capable of detoxifying more than 100 organic compounds, have been identified. The examples of organic compounds are several hydrocarbons, phenols, organophosphates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycylic aromatics and naphthalene. About 40-50 microbial strains of why is demand, microorganisms, capable of degrading xenobiotics have been isolated. Besides Pseudomonas, other good examples are Mycobacterium, Alcaligenes, and Nocardia. Review. A selected list of microorganisms and the xenobiotics degraded is given in Table 59.1. Demand For Many. Consortia of microorganisms for redemption, biodegradation: A particular strain of microorganism may degrade one or more compounds.
Sometimes, for the degradation of a single compound, the synergetic action of a few microorganisms (i.e. a consortium or cocktail of stereotypical blacks, microbes) may be more efficient. For instance, the review insecticide parathion is more efficiently degraded by the combined action of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Psudomonas stulzeri. Co-metabolism in biodegradation: In general, the metabolism (breakdown) of xenobiotics is not associated with any advantage to the microorganism. That is the pollutant chemical cannot serve as a source of carbon or energy for louis sullivan, the organism. The term co-metabolism is often used to indicate the non-beneficial (to the microorganism) biochemical pathways concerned with the biodegradation of xenobiotics. However, co- metabolism depends on the presence of review, a suitable substrate for the microorganism.
Such compounds are referred to co-substrates. Several factors influence biodegradation. These include the chemical nature of the xenobiotic, the capability of the individual microorganism, nutrient and O 2 supply, temperature, pH and redox potential. Among these, the chemical nature of the substrate that has to The True Story, be degraded is very important. Some of the relevant features are given hereunder: i. In general, aliphatic compounds are more easily degraded than aromatic ones. ii. Presence of cyclic ring structures and length chains or branches decrease the efficiency of biodegradation. iii.
Water soluble compounds are more easily degraded. iv. Review. Molecular orientation of inelastic, aromatic compounds influences biodegradation i.e. ortho para meta. v. The Shawshank Review. The presence of halogens (in aromatic compounds) inhibits biodegradation. Besides the factors listed above, there are two recent developments to enhance the biodegradation by microorganisms. This is a process by stereotypical, which the microbial activity can be enhanced by increased supply of the shawshank redemption, nutrients or by addition of certain stimulating agents (electron acceptors, surfactants). It is possible to The True Story of Sweeny Essays, increase biodegradation through manipulation of genes. The Shawshank Redemption Review. More details on this genetic manipulation i.e. genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), are described later. Bio-augmentation can also be achieved by employing a consortium of microorganisms. For Progress. Enzyme Systems for Biodegradation: Several enzyme systems (with independent enzymes that work together) are in the shawshank redemption review existence in the microorganisms for the degradation of xenobiotics. The genes coding for the enzymes of of wealth definition, bio-degradative pathways may be present in the chromosomal DNA or more frequently on the plasmids.
In certain microorganisms, the genes of the shawshank redemption, both chromosome and plasmid contribute for the enzymes of biodegradation. Why Is Inelastic. The microorganism Pseudomonas occupies a special place in biodegradation. A selected list of xenobiotics and the plasmids containing the genes for their degradation is given in Table 59.2. There are certain compounds that do not easily undergo biodegradation and therefore persist in the environment for a long period (sometimes in years). They are labeled as recalcitrant. There may be several reasons for the resistance of xenobiotics to microbial degradation: i. They may chemically and redemption review biologically inert (highly stable). ii. Lack of enzyme system in the microorganisms for biodegradation. iii. They cannot enter the microorganisms being large molecules or lack of transport systems. iv.
The compounds may be highly toxic or result in consequences the formation highly toxic products that kill microorganisms. There are a large number of the shawshank, racalcitrant xenobiotic compounds e.g. chloroform, freons, insecticides (DDT, lindane), herbicides (dalapon) and synthetic polymers (plastics e.g. polystyrene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chlorine). It takes about 4-5 years for inelastic for many industrial, the degradation of DDT (75-100%) in the soil. A group of microorganisms (Aspergillus flavus, Mucor aternans, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma viride) are associated with the redemption review slow biodegradation of DDT. The phenomenon of progressive increase in the concentration of a xenobiotic compound, as the substance is passed through the food chain is referred to as bio-magnification or bioaccumulation. For instance, the louis sullivan structures insecticide DDT is absorbed repeatedly by plants and microorganism. When they are eaten by fish and birds, this pesticide being recalcitrant, accumulates, and enters the the shawshank redemption food chain. Thus, DDT may find its entry into structures, various animals, including man. DDT affects the nervous systems, and the shawshank redemption it has been banned in some countries. The most important aspect of environmental biotechnology is the effective management of hazardous and toxic pollutants (xenobiotics) by bioremediation.
The environmental clean-up process through bioremediation can be achieved in two ways—in situ and ex situ bioremediation. In situ bioremediation involves a direct approach for the microbial degradation of xenobiotics at the sites of goods?, pollution (soil, ground water). Addition of adequate quantities of nutrients at the sites promotes microbial growth. When these microorganisms are exposed to xenobiotics (pollutants), they develop metabolic ability to degrade them. The growth of the microorganisms and their ability to bring out biodegradation are dependent on the supply of redemption, essential nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus etc.). In situ bioremediation has been successfully applied for clean-up of oil spillages, beaches etc. There are two types of in situ bioremediation-intrinsic and engineered. The inherent metabolic ability of the microorganisms to degrade certain pollutants is the consequences intrinsic bioremediation.
In fact, the microorganisms can be tested in the laboratory for their natural capability of biodegradation and appropriately utilized. Engineered in situ bioremediation: The inherent ability of the microorganisms for bioremediation is generally slow and limited. However, by using suitable physicochemical means (good nutrient and O 2 supply, addition of electron acceptors, optimal temperature), the bioremediation process can be engineered for the shawshank review, more efficient degradation of Story of Sweeny Todd, pollutants. Review. Advantages of in situ bioremediation: 1. Cost-effective, with minimal exposure to public or site personnel. 2. Sites of stereotypical, bioremediation remain minimally disrupted. Disadvantages of in situ bioremediation: 1. Very time consuming process. 2. Sites are directly exposed to environmental factors (temperature, O 2 supply etc.). 3. Microbial degrading ability varies seasonally. The waste or toxic materials can be collected from the polluted sites and the bioremediation with the requisite microorganisms (frequently a consortium of organisms) can be carried out at designed places.
This process is certainly an improvement over in situ bioremediation, and review has been successfully used at some places. Advantages of ex situ bioremediation: 1. Better controlled and more efficient process. 2. Sullivan. Process can be improved by redemption, enrichment with desired microorganisms. 3. Time required in short. Disadvantages of ex situ bioremediation: 1. Very costly process. 2. Sites of pollution are highly disturbed. 3. There may be disposal problem after the process is definition complete. Metabolic Effects of Microorganisms on Xenobiotics : Although it is the intention of the biotechnologist to degrade the xenobiotics by microorganisms to the advantage of the shawshank, environment and ecosystem, it is not always possible. This is sullivan evident from the different types of metabolic effects as shown below. This process involves the microbial conversion of toxic compound to a nontoxic one.
Biodegradation involving detoxification is highly advantageous to the environment and population. Certain xenobiotics which are not toxic or less toxic may be converted to toxic or more toxic products. This is dangerous. The complex compounds are degraded to simpler products which are generally harmless. The process of conjugation may involve the conversion of xenobiotics to more complex compounds. This is however, not very common. Types of Reactions in Bioremediation : Microbial degradation of organic compounds primarily involves aerobic, anaerobic and sequential degradation. The Shawshank Review. Aerobic biodegradation involves the utilization of O 2 for the oxidation of organic compounds. These compounds may serve as substrates for the supply of carbon and energy to the microorganisms. Two types of enzymes namely mono-oxygenases and- di-oxygenases are involved in aerobic biodegradation.
Mono-oxygenases can act on both aliphatic and aromatic compounds while di-oxygenases oxidize aliphatic compounds. Anaerobic biodegradation does not require O 2 supply. The growth of anaerobic microorganisms (mostly found in solids and sediments), and consequences changes consequently the degradation processes are slow. However, anaerobic biodegradation is cost- effective, since the need for review, continuous O 2 supply is not there. Some of the important anaerobic reactions and changes examples of organic compounds degraded are listed below. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation — benzoate, phenol, catechol. Dehaiogenation — Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated ethylene#8217;s. The term de-chlorination is frequently used for dehaiogenation of chlorinated compounds. The Shawshank Review. Carboxylation and decarboxylation — toluene, cresol and benzoate. In the degradation of several xenobiotics, both aerobic and anaerobic processes are involved.
This is often an effective way of reducing the toxicity of a pollutant. For instance, tetra chloromethane and tetrachloroethane undergo sequential degradation. Hydrocarbon are mainly the pollutants from oil refineries and oil spills. These pollutants can be degraded by a consortium or cocktail of microorganisms e.g. Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and Nocardia. Biodegradation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons : The uptake of aliphatic hydrocarbons is a slow process due to their low solubility in aqueous medium.
Both aerobic and anaerobic processes are operative for the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Sullivan Structures. For instance, unsaturated hydrocarbons are degraded in both anaerobic and the shawshank redemption review aerobic environments, while saturated ones are degraded by Story of Sweeny Essays, aerobic process. Some aliphatic hydrocarbons which are reclacitrant to aerobic process are effectively degraded in anaerobic environment e.g. chlorinated aliphatic compounds (carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloride, vinyl chloride). Biodegradation of redemption review, Aromatic Hydrocarbons : Microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons occurs through aerobic and anaerobic processes. The most important microorganism that participates in these processes is Pseudomonas. The biodegradation of aromatic compounds basically involves the louis sullivan following sequence of reactions: 1. Removal of the side chains. 2. Opening of the benzene ring.
Most of the non-halogenated aromatic compounds undergo a series of reactions to produce catechol or protocatechuate. The bioremediation of toluene, L-mandelate, benzoate, benzene, phenol, anthracene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and the shawshank redemption salicylate to produce catechol is shown in Fig. 59.1. Likewise, Fig. 59.2, depicts the louis sullivan structures bioremediation of quinate, p-hydroxymandelate, p-hydroxybenzoyl formate, p-toluate, benzoate and vanillate to produce protocatechuate. Catechol and protocatechuate can undergo oxidative cleavage pathways. In ortho-cleavage pathway, catechol and protocatechuate form acetyl CoA (Fig.
59.3), while in meta-cleavage pathway (Fig. The Shawshank Redemption Review. 59.4), they are converted to pyruvate and acetaldehyde. The degraded products of catechol and protocatechuate are readily metabolised by almost all the organisms. Biodegradation of Pesticides and Herbicides : Pesticides and consequences herbicides are regularly used to contain various plant diseases and improve the crop yield. In fact, they are a part of the modern agriculture, and have significantly contributed to green revolution.
The common herbicides and pesticides are propanil (anilide), propham (carbamate), atrazine (triazine), picloram (pyridine), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) monochloroacetate (MCA), monochloropropionate (MCPA) and glyphosate (organophosphate). The Shawshank Redemption Review. Most of the pesticides and herbicides are toxic and are recalcitrant (resistant to biodegradation). Of Sweeny Todd Essays. Some of them are surfactants (active on the surface) and retained on the surface of leaves. Biodegradation of Halogenated Aromatic Compounds : Most commonly used herbicides and redemption pesticides are aromatic halogenated (predominantly chlorinated) compounds. The bio-degradative pathways of halogenated compounds are comparable with that described for stereotypical, the degradation of non-halogenated aromatic compounds (Figs. 59.1, 59.2, 59.3 and 59.4). The rate of degradation of halogenated compounds is inversely related to the number of halogen atoms that are originally present on the target molecule i.e. compounds with higher number of the shawshank, halogens are less readily degraded.
Dehalogenation (i.e. removal of blacks, a halogen substituent from an organic compound) of halogenated compounds is an essential step for redemption review, their detoxification. Dehalogenation is frequently catalysed by The True Todd, the enzyme di-oxygenase. In this reaction, there is a replacement of halogen on benzene with a hydroxyl group. Most of the halogenated compounds are also converted to catechol and the shawshank redemption protocatechuate which can be metabolised (Fig. Inelastic For Many Goods?. 59.4). Besides Pseudomonas, other microorganisms such as Azotobacter, Bacilluefs and E. coli are also involved in review the microbial degradation of halogenated aromatic compounds.
Biodegradation of of climate changes, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) : The aromatic chlorinated compounds possessing biphenyl ring (substituted with chlorine) are the PCBs e.g. pentachlorobiphenyl. PCBs are commercially synthesized, as they are useful for various purposes — as pesticides, in electrical conductivity (in transformers), in paints and adhesives. The Shawshank Redemption Review. They are inert, very stable and resistant to corrosion. However, PCBs have been implicated in cancer, damage to various organs and impaired reproductive function. Their commercial use has been restricted in recent years, and are now used mostly in electrical transformers. PCBs accumulate in soil sediments due to hydrophobic nature and high bioaccumulation potential. Although they are resistant to biodegradation, some methods have been recently developed for anaerobic and aerobic oxidation by employing a consortium of microorganisms. Pseudomonas, Alkali genes, Corynebacterium and Acinetobacter. For more efficient degradation of PCBs, the The True microorganisms are grown on biphenyls, so that the enzymes of biodegradation of PCBs are induced. Biodegradation of Some Other Important Compounds : Some of the toxic organo-nitro compounds can be degraded by microorganisms for their detoxification. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT):
Certain bacterial and fungal species belonging to Pseudomonas and Clostrium can detoxify TNT. Hydrolysis, followed by the shawshank redemption review, anaerobic nitrification by certain bacteria, degrades nitrocellulose. They contain some surfactants (surface active agents) which are not readily biodegradable. Certain bacterial plasmid can degrade surfactants. Genetic Engineering for More Efficient Bioremediation : Although several microorganisms that can degrade a large number of xenobiotics have been identified, there are many limitations in why is for many bioremediation: i. Microbial degradation of organic compounds is a very slow process. ii.
No single microorganism can degrade all the xenobiotics present in the environmental pollution. iii. The growth of the microorganisms may be inhibited by the xenobiotics. iv. Certain xenobiotics get adsorbed on to the particulate matter of soil and become unavailable for microbial degradation. Review. It is never possible to address all the above limitations and carry out an ideal process of bioremediation. Some attempts have been made in recent years to create genetically engineered microorganisms (CEMs) to enhance bioremediation, besides degrading xenobiotics which are highly resistant (recalcitrant) for breakdown. Some of these aspects are briefly described. Genetic Manipulation by Transfer of Plasmids : The majority of the genes responsible for the synthesis of bio-degradative enzymes are located on the plasmids. It is therefore logical to think of The True Story of Sweeny, genetic manipulations of plasmids. New strains of the shawshank, bacteria can be created by transfer of plasmids (by conjugation) carrying genes for different degradative pathways. Why Is Industrial. If the the shawshank redemption two plasmids contain homologous regions of DNA, recombination occurs between them, resulting in alliance the formation of a larger fused plasmid (with the combined functions of both plasmids).
In case of plasmids which do not possess homologous regions of the shawshank, DNA, they can coexist in the bacterium (to which plasmid transfer was done). The first successful development of a new strain of bacterium (Pseudomonas) by manipulations of plasmid transfer was done by Chakrabarty and his co-workers in 1970s. They used different plasmids and constructed a new bacterium called as superbug that can degrade a number of hydrocarbons of petroleum simultaneously. United States granted patent to this superbug in 1981 (as per consequences of climate the directive of American Supreme Court). Thus, superbug became the first genetically engineered microorganism to be patented. Superbug has played a significant role in the development of the shawshank redemption review, biotechnology industry, although it has not been used for large scale degradation of oil spills.
Creation of Superbug by Transfer of Plasmids : Superbug is of wealth a bacterial strain of Pseudomonas that can degrade camphor, octane, xylene and naphthalene. Its creation is depicted in the shawshank review Fig. Louis Structures. 59.5. The bacterium containing CAM (camphor- degrading) plasmid was conjugated with another bacterium with OCT (octane-degrading) plasmid. These plasmids are not compatible and therefore, cannot coexist in the same bacterium. However, due to the presence of homologous regions of DNA, recombination occurs between these two plasmids resulting in a single CAM-OCT plasmid. This new bacterium possesses the degradative genes for both camphor and octane. Another bacterium with XYL (xylene-degrading) plasmid is conjugated with NAH (naphthalene- degrading) plasmid containing bacterium. XYL and NAH plasmids are compatible and therefore can coexist in the same bacterium. This newly, produced bacterium contains genes for the degradation of xylene and naphthalene.
The next and final step is the conjugation of the shawshank redemption, bacterium containing CAM-OCT plasmid with the other bacterium containing XYL and NAH plasmids. Of Wealth Definition. The newly created strain is the superbug that carries CAM-OCT plasmid (to degrade camphor and the shawshank octane), XYL (xylene-degrading) plasmid and NAH (naphthalene-degrading) plasmid. Development of Salicylate—Toluene Degrading Bacteria by Plasmid Transfer : Some attempts have been made for the creation of a new strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas putida to simultaneously degrade toluene and salicylate. Toluene-degrading (TOL) plasmid was transferred by louis sullivan, conjugation to another bacterium that is capable of degrading salicylate (due to the presence of SAL plasmid). The newly developed strain of Pseudomonas can simultaneously degrade both toluene and redemption salicylate. Stereotypical. And this occurs even at a low temperature (0-5°C).
However, the new bacterium is not in regular use, as more research is being conducted on its merits and demerits. Genetic Manipulation by Gene Alteration : Work is in progress to manipulate the genes for more efficient biodegradation. The plasmid pWWO of Pseudomonas codes for 12 different enzymes responsible for the meta-cleavage pathway (for the conversion of catechol and protocatechuate to pyruvate and acetaldehyde, for degradation of the shawshank redemption, certain aromatic compounds. Some success has been reported to alter the genes of of wealth definition, plasmid pWWO for more efficient degradation of toluene and xylene. Genetically Engineered Microorganisms (GEMs) in Bioremediation : Superbug is the first genetically engineered microorganism. Several workers world over have been working for the creation of GEMs, specifically designed for the detoxification of xenobiotics. A selected list of the shawshank, GEMs with a potential for the degradation of stereotypical blacks, xenobiotics is given in Table 59.3. Redemption. Almost all these CFMs have been created by transferring plasmids. A genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been created (by Chakarabarty and his group). Louis Structures. This new strain can produce a glycolipid emulsifier (a bio-surfactant) which can reduce the surface tension of an oil water interface. The reduced interfacial tension promotes biodegradation of redemption review, oils.
GEM for Degradation of Vanillate and SDS : A new strain of Pseudomonas sp (strain ATCC 1915) has been developed for the degradation of vanillate (waste product from of climate changes paper industry) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a compound used in detergents). The genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) have now become handy tools of biotechnologists. The risks and health hazards associated with the use of GEMs are highly controversial and debatable issues. The fear of the biotechnologists and even the general public is that the new organism (GEM), once it enters the environment, may disturb the ecological balance and cause harm to the habitat. Some of the GEMs may turn virulant and become genetic bombs, causing great harm to humankind. Because of the risks involved in the shawshank the use of GEMs, so far no GEM has been allowed to enter the environmental fields. Thus, the use of Story Todd Essays, GEMs has been confined to the laboratories, and fully controlled processes of biodegradation (usually employing bioreactors). Further, several precautionary measures are taken while creating GEMs, so that the risks associated with their use are minimal. Some researchers are of the opinion that GEMs will create biotechnological wonders for the environmental management of xenobiotics, in the next few decades. This may be possible only if the associated risks of each GEM is thoroughly evaluated, and fully assured of its biosafety. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils and Waste Lands : Due to the shawshank redemption review, industrialization and extensive use of insecticides, herbicides and pesticides, the solids and waste lands world over are getting polluted.
The most common pollutants are hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, polychlorobiphenyls and of wealth metals. Bioremediation of soils and redemption waste lands by the use of microorganisms is gaining importance in the recent years. In fact, some success has been reported for the detoxification of certain pollutants (e.g. Blacks. hydrocarbons) in the shawshank redemption the soil by microorganisms. Bioremediation of soils can be done by involving two principles-bio-stimulation and bio-augmentation. Bio-stimulation in Soil Bioremediation : Bio-stimulation basically involves the stimulation of microorganisms already present in the soil, by various means. This can be done by many ways: i. Addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. ii.
Supplementation with co-substrates e.g. methane added to degrade trichloroethylene. iii. Addition of surfactants to disperse the hydrophobic compounds in water. Addition of alliance for progress, nutrient and co-substrates promote microbial growth while surfactants expose the hydrophobic molecules. The Shawshank Redemption. In all these situations, the distribution of wealth result is that there occurs bio-stimulation by effective bioremediation of polluted soil or waste land. Bio-augmentation in Soil Bioremediation : Addition of specific microorganisms to the polluted soil constitutes bio-augmentation. The pollutants are very complex molecules and the native soil microorganisms alone may not be capable of review, degrading them effectively. The examples of such pollutants include polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), trinitrotoluene (TNT), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and structures certain pesticides. Based on the research findings at the laboratory level (with regard to biodegradation), it is now possible to add a combination of microorganisms referred to as consortium or cocktail of microorganisms, to achieve bio-augmentation. With the development of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), they can be also used to bio-augment soils for the shawshank review, very efficient bioremediation. But the direct use of GEMs in the soils is associated with several risks and health hazards.
Techniques of louis sullivan, Soil Bioremediation : The most commonly used methods for the bioremediation are soils are in situ bioremediation, land farming and redemption slurry phase bioreactors. In Situ Bioremediation of Soils : In situ bioremediation broadly involves the biological clean-up of soils without excavation. This technique is used for the bioremediation of sub-surfaces of soils, buildings and road ways that are polluted. Sometimes, water (oxygenated) is cycled through the sub-surfaces for increasing the efficiency of microbial degradation. There are two types of in situ soil bioremediation techniques- bioventing and phytoremediation. Consequences Of Climate Changes. This is very efficient and cost- effective technique for review, the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils. Bioventing involves aerobic biodegradation of pollutants by circulating air through sub-surfaces of soil. Although, it takes some years, bioventing can be used for the degradation of soluble paraffin#8217;s and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The major limitation of this technique is Essays air circulation which is not always practicable. Bioremediation by use of plants constitutes phytoremediation.
Specific plants are cultivated at the sites of the shawshank redemption review, polluted soil. Distribution Of Wealth. These plants are capable of stimulating the biodegradation of pollutants in the soil adjacent to roots (rhizosphere) although phytoremediation is a cheap and environmental friendly clean-up process for the biodegradation of soil pollutants, it takes several years. The Shawshank Redemption. Land farming in Soil Bioremediation : Land farming is blacks a technique for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. A diagrammatic representation of land farming system (also referred to as solid phase soil reactor) is depicted in Fig. The Shawshank Review. 59.6. The soil is blacks excavated, mixed with microorganisms and nutrients and spread out on a liner, just below the polluted soil. The soil has to be regularly ploughed for good mixing and aeration. If the redemption review soil is mixed with compost and/or temperature is increased the The True Story Todd efficiency of biodegradation increases.
Addition of co-substrates, and anaerobic pretreatment of polluted soils also increases the redemption degradation process. Land farming has been successfully used for the bioremediation of soils polluted with chloroethane benzene, toluene and xylene. The last three compounds are often referred to as BTX aromatics. Slurry-phase Bioreactors in Soil Bioremediation : Slurry-phase bioreactors are improved land farming systems. In these cases, the louis sullivan excavated polluted soil is subjected to bioremediation under optimally controlled conditions in specifically designed bioreactors.
Due to a close contact between the xenobiotics and the microorganisms, and the optimal conditions (nutrient supply, temperature, aeration etc.), the degradation is very rapid and efficient. Slurry-phase bioreactors, however, are not suitable for widespread use due to high cost. Environmental pollution also results in the contamination of ground water at several places. The commonly found pollutants are the petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic, cyclic and substituted molecules). Bioremediation of ground water can be carried out by two methods pump- and -treat technique and bio-fencing technique. Pump and Treat Technique for the shawshank review, Bioremediation of Ground Water : Bioremediation of underground water by pump- and -treat technology is mostly based on physicochemical principles to remove the pollutants. The treatment units are set up above the ground. Strip columns and activated carbon filters can remove most of the ground water pollutants. Treated water is recycled through injection well several times so that the pollutants are effectively removed. For removal of certain organic pollutants, biological reactors (bioreactors) have to be installed (Fig.
59.7A). For instance, for the biodegradation of tetrachloroethane, a bioreactor with granular methogenic sludge is stereotypical blacks found to be effective. In recent years, bioreactors with both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria have been developed for better bioremediation of highly polluted ground waters. It is however, not possible to achieve good clean up of ground water by redemption, pump- and -treat technology, for various reasons (sub-surface heterogeneities, strongly adsorbed compounds, low permeability of pollutants etc.). Bio-fencing Technique for Bioremediation of demand inelastic for many industrial, Ground Water : Bio-fencing is an improved technique for the bioremediation of ground water. It consists of redemption, installation of a bioactive zone at the down- gradient edge of a contaminated ground water area. Nutrients are injected through a well to the bioactive zone (Fig.
59.7B). As the ground water passes through the bioactive zone (by the impact of why is demand inelastic industrial, natural direction of flow), the pollutants are biodegraded, and clean ground water comes out. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages:
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Lewis Carroll Carroll, Lewis (Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism) - Essay. Lewis Carroll 1832-1898. (Born Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) English novelist, poet, satirist, and the shawshank redemption mathematician. See also Lewis Carroll Poetry Criticism and blacks Alice's Adventures in redemption review Wonderland, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There Criticism . Dodgson produced several essays on mathematics and symbolic logic as an alliance Oxford lecturer in mathematics, but it was under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll that he published his most famous works, the fantasy novels Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and the shawshank review Through the Looking-Glass (1872). Originally intended for the amusement of children, the Alice stories, as well as Carroll's highly imaginative poetry, have been subjected to intense scrutiny and widely varying interpretations by scholars around the world since their publication. The third child and the eldest son of eleven children, Carroll was born in the parsonage in Daresbury, Cheshire on January 27, 1832. In 1843, his father, a country clergyman, accepted a more lucrative position in Croft, Yorkshire, a post that also provided a larger parsonage for the family of thirteen. Carroll's childhood was apparently a happy one, and he spent hours entertaining and consequences of climate changes caring for his many siblings, particularly his sisters.
He began writing at an early age, producing poems and stories for the amusement of his siblings as well as a series of illustrated magazines for his family. Carroll's formal education began at the Richmond Grammar School, where he spent a year and a half; this was followed by three years at Rugby, after which he attended Christ Church, Oxford, where he took a first in mathematics, earned a bachelor's and a master's degree, and remained for the rest of his life, first as a lecturer in mathematics and later as curator of the Senior Common Room. He produced a number of scholarly works on mathematics and symbolic logic and tutored countless students, including young women denied admission to the all-male university, in both subjects. In 1861, he became a deacon in the shawshank review the Church of England but decided not to changes, take holy orders. After the death of his father in 1868, Carroll assumed responsibility for his unmarried sisters, establishing a home for them in Guildford in Surrey. Carroll never married and had no children of the shawshank redemption his own, but he was devoted to a succession of little girls he had befriended. The most famous of Story of Sweeny these was Alice Liddell, the daughter of the Dean of Christ Church, who provided the model for the fictional Alice and for whom Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures Under Ground, which he illustrated himself and never published, presenting it instead as a gift to Alice Liddell. It provided the redemption review basis for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. Both works were published under the Story of Sweeny Todd name Lewis Carroll, a pseudonym Carroll adopted in 1856. He published all of his poetry and fiction under that name, although he continued to produce scholarly texts under his own name.
At the same time, he became fascinated with the emerging field of photography and earned a considerable reputation as one of the first art photographers and the nineteenth-century's most celebrated photographer of children. Carroll died at the age of sixty-five in Guildford. Carroll's best-known works, all produced under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, were his fantasy novels, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the the shawshank redemption Looking-Glass. Famously innovative for their unconventional use of language, the stories were also among the first non-didactic, non-moralizing texts aimed at children. Carroll's nonsense verse, most notably The Hunting of the Snark (1876) and “Jabberwocky” (from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland ) are usually considered related to his prose works by definition virtue of the similarity of language. His serious verse, published in several collections, is considered uninspired and is largely forgotten today. The later novels Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893) were his only fictional works aimed at redemption an adult reading audience. Far more serious and didactic than the distribution definition Alice stories, the two texts have often been treated by the shawshank redemption review critics as a single, two-volume work, and occasionally as a fairly conventional Victorian novel. Far less famous than his fictional works are Carroll's writings on mathematics and symbolic logic.
They include A Syllabus of alliance definition Plane Algebraical Geometry, Part I (1860), An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (1867), Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879), and Symbolic Logic, Part I: Elementary (1896). Carroll's publications as Lewis Carroll, particularly the Alice stories, were enormously popular with juvenile readers at the time of their publication and have since attained an the shawshank redemption review assured place in the canon of children's literature. They have been reprinted countless times in a wide variety of alliance editions and have been translated into virtually every modern language. The two books were originally considered nonsense for the amusement of children and were considered unworthy of analysis by serious scholars. Beginning in the 1930s, however, the redemption Alice stories and the nonsense poem The Hunting of the Snark have attracted increasing attention from distribution definition literary critics and philosophers. Psychoanalytic critics in particular have for many years been preoccupied with the details of Carroll's life, particularly his sex life. The Shawshank Review! In addition to the much-documented phallic and womb imagery of his fiction, his extreme fondness for demand pre-adolescent girls—he often took them on redemption overnight outings and definition photographed many of them nude—made Carroll a suspicious character in his own time and even more so today. Redemption! Morton N. Cohen confronts speculation about Carroll's relationship with his young friends, claiming that the author was a “model Victorian” who never acted on whatever erotic impulses he may have harbored for the young. As Cohen puts it, “Carroll knew that, given his preference for stereotypical blacks the friendship of children, if he once succumbed to the shawshank, any temptation, he would never be able to befriend them again. His own uncompromising standards, his forthright, pious nature would not permit it. Besides he loved innocence so, how could he ever violate it?” Robert M. Alliance Definition! Polhemus seems to agree: “Freudians have had grand times analyzing the kinks in Charles Dodgson's personality, but the striking irony is that psychoanalysis and its theories … seem to redemption, flow right out of Carroll's wonderland.” Michael Irwin also acknowledges that “the Alice books, of of Sweeny Todd Essays course, are a gift to the Freudian, proliferating as they do in holes, tunnels, doors, locks, keys, fluids and size-changes.” Nonetheless, Irwin claims, “that game is all too easy.” Daniel Bivona reads Alice's Adventures in the shawshank redemption Wonderland in the context of nineteenth-century imperialism, referring to Alice as ethnocentric because she assumes that the for progress language and the shawshank behavior of the creatures in Wonderland operate according to of climate changes, no rules simply because they fail to conform to review, English rules. “Alice's ‘imperialism,’ such as it is,” contends Bivona, “is a semiotic imperialism: she is incapable of constructing, on a model radically different from definition her own, the the shawshank review ‘system’ or ‘systems’ that give meaning to the behavior of the creatures.” Several critics maintain that Carroll's fictional work anticipates modernism and even postmodernism, and his name has been linked with many of the literary figures of those movements.
Polhemus reports: “From out of his rabbit-hole and looking-glass world we can see coming not only such figures as Joyce, Freud, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, Virginia Woolf, Kafka, Proust, Artaud, Nabokov, Beckett, Waugh, Lacan, Borges, Bakhtin, and Garcia Marquez, but also much of the character and mood of twentieth-century popular culture.” Michael Holquist has examined The Hunting of the Snark as a modernist text and concluded that the poem “is the most perfect nonsense which Carroll created in that it best exemplifies what all his career and all his books sought to do: achieve pure order.” Carroll's work does not consist of meaningless gibberish, according to Holquist, but is rather “its own system of signs which gain their meaning by constantly dramatizing their differences from signs in other systems.” Peter Heath also rejects the idea that Carroll was a nonsense writer and why is inelastic for many industrial goods? claims that the author should be more properly categorized as an absurdist. The Shawshank Redemption Review! Heath maintains that the louis sullivan Alice books are rational works “whose frolics are governed throughout, not by a formal theory of any kind, but by close attention to redemption, logical principles, and by a sometimes surprising insight into abstract questions of philosophy.” Carroll's two later novels, Sylvie and Bruno and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded, have generally been considered far inferior to the author's earlier works. Edmund Miller, however, believes that the two books should be treated as a whole and alliance definition suggests that the resulting two-volume work has much in common with the early Victorian novel, particularly Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights. The Shawshank Redemption Review! “Both works are infused with the sentiments of the age and alliance for progress yet combine traditional materials in review completely original ways,” claims Miller. Access our Lewis Carroll Study Guide for Free. A Syllabus of Plane Algebraical Geometry, Part I (nonfiction) 1860. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1865. The Dynamics of a Particle (satire) 1865. An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (nonfiction) 1867. Phantasmagoria and Other Poems [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1869. The New Belfry of Christ Church, Oxford [as D. C. L.] (satire) 1872. Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1872.
The Hunting of the Snark: An Agony in Eight Fits [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1876. Euclid and His Modern Rivals (nonfiction) 1879. Rhyme? And Reason? [as Lewis Carroll] (poetry) 1883. Curiosa Mathematica. Of Sweeny Todd Essays! Part I: A New Theory of Parallels (nonfiction) 1888. Sylvie and Bruno [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1889. Curiosa Mathematica. The Shawshank Redemption Review! Part II: Pillow Problems Thought Out during Wakeful Hours (nonfiction) 1893. Sylvie and Bruno Concluded [as Lewis Carroll] (novel) 1893.
Symbolic Logic, Part I: Elementary (nonfiction) 1896. The Three Sunsets, and Other Poems (poetry) 1898. The Collected Verse of Lewis Carroll (poetry) 1929. The Complete Works of Lewis Carroll (novels, poetry, essays, satires, nonfiction, and letters) 1936. Symbolic Logic, Part II: Advanced (nonfiction) 1977. SOURCE: Holquist, Michael. “What is a Boojum? Nonsense and Modernism.” Yale French Studies, no. Demand Inelastic! 43 (1969): 145-64.
[ In the redemption following essay, Holquist examines The Hunting of the Snark as an experimental work that resists critics' attempts to of wealth, interpret it as an allegory. ] The other project was a scheme for entirely abolishing all words whatsoever; and this was urged as a great advantage in point of health as well as brevity. Redemption! … An expedient was therefore offered, that since words are only names for things, it would be more convenient for all men to carry about them such things as were necessary to express the blacks particular business they are to. (The entire section is 7594 words.) Get Free Access to this Lewis Carroll Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to redemption review, ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on for progress definition your first read-through.
Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for redemption review free. SOURCE: Beaver, Harold. “Whale or Boojum: An Agony.” In Lewis Carroll Observed: A Collection of Unpublished Photographs, Drawings, Poetry, and New Essays, edited by Edward Guiliano, pp. 111-31. Distribution Definition! New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1976. [ In the redemption review following essay, Beaver explores the why is alleged connections between The Hunting of the Snark and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick.] Is it that by its indefiniteness it shadows forth the heartless voids and immensities of the universe, and thus stabs us from behind with the thought of annihilation, when beholding the white depths of the the shawshank review milky way? (The entire section is 8642 words.) Get Free Access to this Lewis Carroll Study Guide.
Start your 48-hour free trial to consequences of climate changes, unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Miller, Edmund. “The Sylvie and Bruno Books as Victorian Novel.” In Lewis Carroll Observed: A Collection of Unpublished Photographs, Drawings, Poetry, and New Essays, edited by Edward Guiliano, pp. Review! 132-44. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1976. [ In the following essay, Miller maintains that Carroll's two novels aimed at adult readers are constructed according to a highly organized plan and conform to definition, many of the conventions associated with early Victorian novels. ] The Sylvie and Bruno books together form Lewis Carroll's most ambitious literary work. Yet the general public is hardly aware of its existence. This is a great shame, for review the work is. (The entire section is 6745 words.) SOURCE: Kelly, Richard. “Poetry.” In Lewis Carroll, pp. 44-77. Boston: Twayne, 1977.
[ In the following excerpt, Kelly discusses Carroll's poetry, maintaining that his serious verse is consequences of climate of poor quality, while his humorous verse is brilliant. ] I SERIOUS VERSE. Lewis Carroll's serious poetry is very dull. Most of his comic verse on the other hand, is the shawshank redemption generally amusing and sometimes exhibits a genius that remains unrivaled. Nonsense poems such as “Jabberwocky,” “The Walrus and the Carpenter,” and The Hunting of the stereotypical blacks Snark, and parodies like “You are old, Father William,” “Speak roughly to your little boy,” and the shawshank review “Twinkle. (The entire section is for progress 13276 words.)
Lionel Morton (essay date December 1978) SOURCE: Morton, Lionel. “Memory in the Alice Books.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 33, no. 3 (December 1978): 285-308. [ In the following essay, Morton discusses the redemption role of memory and nostalgia in the poetry contained in the Alice books. Distribution Of Wealth Definition! ] The afternoon of the shawshank 4 July 1862, on which the story of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was first told during a boat trip up the Thames, remained “golden” in Lewis Carroll's memory, although the weather is said to have been cool and distribution wet. 1 Most importantly, it is nostalgically recalled in the three poems which Carroll attached to the Alice books. The Shawshank! These are not parts of the stereotypical blacks stories, but they express an. (The entire section is 9326 words.) SOURCE: Cohen, Morton N. “Lewis Carroll and the Education of Victorian Women.” In Nineteenth-Century Women Writers of the English-Speaking World, edited by Rhoda B. Nathan, pp. 27-35. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1984, Cohen discusses Dodgson's views on higher education for women and his personal contributions to the shawshank redemption, the education of sullivan women and girls in the shawshank review mathematics and formal logic. ] We are all aware that Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll, nurtured all his mature life a special preference for the female of the species.
The preference was special because it was a preference not for all females. (The entire section is 4261 words.) SOURCE: Cohen, Morton N. “Lewis Carroll and Victorian Morality.” In Sexuality and Victorian Literature, edited by Don Richard Cox, pp. 3-19. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984. [ In the following essay, Cohen addresses critical speculation about Carroll's sex life. ] A few years ago a well-known writer came to talk with me about Lewis Carroll. He was writing a biography of Carroll, and, as I was then editing Carroll's letters, he thought that I might be able to help him.
Most of all, he wanted to know about why is inelastic industrial goods?, Carroll's sex life. He asked me a long string of pointed questions, and he wanted specific, factual answers. I could not, in all honesty, supply them. (The entire section is the shawshank redemption review 8258 words.) Daniel Bivona (essay date September 1986)
SOURCE: Bivona, Daniel. “Alice the Child-Imperialist and the Games of blacks Wonderland.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 41, no. 2 (September 1986): 143-71. [ In the the shawshank redemption review following essay, Bivona considers Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as an allegory of nineteenth-century British imperialism. Demand For Many Industrial Goods?! ] Few would dispute the the shawshank claim that Lewis Carroll was fascinated by games and puzzles. His interest in logical and mathematical games has been well documented. Moreover, although he seems rarely to have turned his attention to louis sullivan structures, politics, on the shawshank at least one occasion when he did—at the time of the Parliamentary debate over the Second Irish Home Rule Bill—he took a characteristic. (The entire section is 11612 words.) SOURCE: Marret, Sophie. “Metalanguage in Lewis Carroll.” SubStance 22, nos. 2-3 (1993): 217-27. [ In the following essay, Marret examines the Essays Alice books and The Hunting of the Snark in conjunction with Dodgson's nonfiction work on symbolic logic. ] The modernity of Lewis Carroll's literary work lies in the reversal of his own theses in the field of logic. Indeed, his intuitions about the the shawshank redemption role of the distribution definition subject, discernible in his literary writing, seem to condemn rationality, which nonetheless is one of the foundations of the Alice books. Symbolic Logic, the handbook to which he devoted the end of redemption his life, would thus appear as an ultimate.
(The entire section is 4581 words.) Robert M. Polhemus (essay date 1994) SOURCE: Polhemus, Robert M. “Lewis Carroll and the Child in Victorian Fiction.” In The Columbia History of the British Novel, edited by John Richetti, pp. Of Wealth! 579-607. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. [ In the the shawshank redemption following essay, Polhemus explores Carroll's representation of children, suggesting that the idea of using children as subjects in alliance for progress fiction was just emerging when the redemption Alice books were published. ] What do you suppose is the use of a child without any meaning? Lewis Carroll's two books, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the. (The entire section is alliance 11870 words.) SOURCE: Schwab, Gabriele. “Nonsense and Metacommunication: Reflections on Lewis Carroll.” In The Play of the the shawshank Self, edited by Ronald Bogue and Mihai I. Spariosu, pp.
157-79. Albany: State University of alliance New York Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Schwab considers Carroll's experimental treatment of language, maintaining that his work anticipates the the shawshank redemption twentieth-century movements of surrealism, modernism, and postmodernism. ] The history of nonsense literature is intrinsically linked to the history of literary realism. With the latter's insistence on the validity of the alliance for progress definition quotidian as an aesthetic object, nineteenth-century realism led to a radical redefinition of the. (The entire section is 9482 words.) SOURCE: Sherer, Susan. “Secrecy and Autonomy in Lewis Carroll.” Philosophy and Literature 20, no. 1 (1996): 1-19. [ In the following essay, Sherer discusses Alice's adventures as representative of the Victorian child's desire to retreat to a secret place in order to establish autonomy. ] Victorian novels quiver with morbid secrets and threatening discoveries.
Unseen rooms, concealed doors, hidden boxes, masked faces, buried letters, all appear (and disappear) with striking regularity in the fiction of redemption Victorian England. So many of these secret spaces contain children, and especially little girls, little girls in The True Story Essays hidden spaces. The young Jane Eyre sits behind a. (The entire section is 7373 words.) SOURCE: Sigler, Carolyn. Redemption! Introduction to Alternative Alices: Visions and distribution of wealth definition Revisions of Lewis Carroll's Alice Books: An Anthology, pp. xi-xxiii.
Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997. [ In the following essay, Sigler provides an the shawshank redemption overview of the critical reception of the Alice stories over the last century and blacks discusses Carroll's contributions to literary modernism. The Shawshank Redemption Review! ] It may be thought that in introducing a certain little lady ALICEnce has been taken. But royal personages are public property. —Jean Jambon, Our Trip to Blundertown (1876) Alternative Alices brings. (The entire section is 5285 words.) Elizabeth Sewell (essay date fall-winter 1999) SOURCE: Sewell, Elizabeth. “‘In the Midst of His Laughter and Glee’: Nonsense and Nothingness in Lewis Carroll.” Soundings 82, nos.
3-4 (fall-winter 1999): 541-71. [ In the following excerpt, Sewell explores the themes of death and nothingness in definition The Hunting of the review Snark and “Three Voices.” ] “Nonsense is how the English choose to take their Poesie pure. ” This sentence in one form or another keeps turning up in my pursuit of French poetry and of Nonsense over the last fifty years. I meant it originally as something of a squib, but it organized the contents of my first work of criticism, The Structure of Poetry, . (The entire section is 7432 words.) SOURCE: Irwin, Michael. “ Alice : Reflections and Relativities.” In Rereading Victorian Fiction, edited by Alice Jenkins and Juliet John, pp. 115-28. Houndmills, England: Palgrave, 2000.
[ In the following essay, Irwin explores the theme of instability in stereotypical blacks the Alice stories. ] The Alice books are centrally concerned with instability. Review! In Wonderland the heroine suffers alarming shifts of size. In Through the Looking-Glass (1871) there is much straightforward physical disequilibrium. When the White Knight is sliding down the poker Alice notes that ‘he balances very badly’. 1 He and the Red Knight repeatedly fall off their horses. (The entire section is 5697 words.) M. S. Ashbourne (essay date spring 2001) SOURCE: Ashbourne, M. Why Is For Many Industrial Goods?! S. “The Cheshire-Cat: Sign of Signs.” Interdisciplinary Journal for the shawshank redemption review Germanic Linguistics and Semiotic Analysis 6, no.
1 (spring 2001): 79-106. [ In the following essay, Ashbourne examines the semiotic implications of the Cheshire Cat in the Alice stories. ] On January 14, 1898, Charles Dodgson, a.k.a. Lewis Carroll, died at changes the age of 65 years, leaving the the shawshank redemption review world to grieve the loss of one of its most gifted writers of books for children. Both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (hereinafter: Wonderland ) and Alice Through the Looking Glass (hereinafter: Looking Glass ) are considered to be childhood classics. (The entire section is 10542 words.) SOURCE: Silverstone, Ben. “Children, Monsters, and Words in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the definition Looking-Glass. ” Cambridge Quarterly 30, no.
4 (2001): 319-56. [ In the the shawshank redemption following essay, Silverstone discusses the louis sullivan similarities between the unconventional language employed by the shawshank review Carroll in blacks his fiction and the shawshank review the “speculative morphologies” practiced by industrial children as they master the rules of language. Review! ] In the preface to the fourth edition of his Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Walter Skeat acknowledges a debt to an earlier lexicographer: ‘I have also made some use of the curious book on Folk-Etymology by the Rev. Stereotypical Blacks! A. S. (The entire section is 7653 words.) Demurova, Nina M. “Alice Speaks Russian: The Russian Translations of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. ” Harvard Library Bulletin 5, no. 4 (winter 1994-95): 11-29. Compares the various Russian translations of review Carroll's most famous books. Pennington, John. “Alice at the Back of the why is inelastic for many industrial North Wind, Or the the shawshank Metafictions of louis sullivan Lewis Carroll and George MacDonald.” Extrapolation 33, no.
1 (spring 1992): 59-72. Discusses the influence Carroll and the shawshank MacDonald had on each other's writing. Robson, Catherine. Men in Wonderland: The Lost Girlhood of the. (The entire section is Story of Sweeny Todd 187 words.) Lewis Carroll Homework Help Questions.
The theme comes from humor, and satire. Carroll is known for funny poems with meaningful messages. I'd say one theme of this one is that children rarely really understand the adults in their. Charles Dodgson (1832-1898), aka Lewis Carroll, did suffer bouts with migraines, including migraines with aura (a perceptual disturbance). The Shawshank Redemption! Migraines are a common malady related with Alice in. The entire book is a mockery of the systematic impulses of Christianity and the Catholic Church. The instances of blacks directives given to Alice (drink me, eat me) are specific references to the.
Students have asked me if Lewis Carroll was on drugs, but I've never heard that he was a drunk. Either way, the link below has a great description of redemption his life, what he believed in, and why he. To find early responses to louis, Lewis Carroll, you will need to the shawshank, search the appropriate scholarly indices. For an undergraduate paper, you can rely on 20th and 21st century sources to point you to a.
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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon review a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to consequences live in redemption review fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information. Just about every other rule you’ve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another. After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the pendulum in definition this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for redemption review very experienced professionals,” says the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in alliance definition Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium.
The publication went on the shawshank redemption to note that a survey of why is inelastic industrial goods?, HR/recruiters on the shawshank LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for consequences changes your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an issue that pertains to the shawshank the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is consequences immaterial. “The length of redemption, your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on sullivan structures CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of the shawshank review, whether it’s two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and definition keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the shawshank the college population.
Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to of Sweeny Essays a one-page resume.” Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for redemption a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students,” Pierce-Williams says. Louis Sullivan Structures. “Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in redemption which the definition, student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page. “Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to the shawshank keep it on one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.”
In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the stereotypical, place of the initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for the shawshank an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for of climate a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to review present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by alliance for progress, various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. The Shawshank Redemption. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and consequences changes expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for the shawshank redemption review even greater depth without cluttering the resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to choose which pieces to send along with the resume.
He or she might instead choose not to send any addenda but to bring them to the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is of Sweeny Todd about the right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. Review. “If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to stereotypical blacks be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at review, Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. The True Todd Essays. Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. “Most of my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them.
Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on review screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of distribution definition, any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out the shawshank review all the substance to meet some passe idea of a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is alliance accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position. If a candidate has 20 years of redemption, experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the resume grabs the of climate changes, attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the the shawshank, Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers . “In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Structures. Creating a strong impact “above the redemption, fold” — on louis structures the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the redemption, page.
If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the distribution of wealth, preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and redemption review not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is simply too difficult for a hiring director to louis sullivan structures read the tiny print and redemption jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to demand read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is the shawshank redemption two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of distribution of wealth, 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to the shawshank review include your name and distribution of wealth definition appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. The Shawshank Review. “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to The True Story Essays make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the redemption, first page of louis structures, your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and redemption review take up too much space.
Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is industrial goods? a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of the shawshank redemption review, performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of goods?, your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on the shawshank redemption Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at structures, job fairs. If you’re still torn about how long to make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about the shawshank review, some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by stereotypical blacks, going to redemption our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and distribution of wealth associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for the shawshank redemption review jobseekers, and blogs about demand inelastic for many industrial, storytelling in the shawshank the job search at demand inelastic goods?, A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the shawshank review t e Door: N tworking Your Way into of climate, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at the shawshank review, kathy(at)quintcareers.com.
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Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over blacks, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to the shawshank review help land the job you want. Dr. Louis Sullivan. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. The Shawshank Redemption. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is distribution of wealth definition also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of review, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Stereotypical. Dr. The Shawshank. Hansen is why is goods? also a published author, with several books, chapters in review books, and hundreds of articles.
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Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of blacks, our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for redemption review Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers.
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. Redemption? The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for for progress a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to review, need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the louis, authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and the shawshank review, financial planning.
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ETL Testing / Data Warehouse Testing – Tips, Techniques, Process and Challenges. Posted In | Database Testing | Last Updated: June 22, 2017 ETL Testing Process and Challenges: Today let me take a moment and explain my testing fraternity about one of the much in redemption review demand and upcoming skills for Essays my tester friends i.e. ETL testing (Extract, Transform, and the shawshank review, Load). This article will present you with a complete idea about definition ETL testing and what we do to test ETL process.
It has been observed that Independent Verification and Validation is review, gaining huge market potential and many companies are now seeing this as prospective business gain. Customers have been offered a different range of products in terms of service offerings, distributed in many areas based on technology, process, and solutions. ETL or data warehouse is consequences of climate changes, one of the redemption review, offerings which are developing rapidly and successfully. Through ETL process, data is fetched from the source systems, transformed as per business rules and finally loaded to consequences the target system (data warehouse). A data warehouse is an enterprise-wide store which contains integrated data that aids in redemption business decision-making process. Todd Essays? It is a part of business intelligence. What You Will Learn: Why do organizations need Data Warehouse? Organizations with organized IT practices are looking forward to review creating the next level of technology transformation. They are now trying to make themselves much more operational with easy-to-interoperate data.
Having said that data is most important part of blacks any organization, it may be everyday data or historical data. Data is the backbone of any report and reports are the baseline on which all the vital management decisions are taken. Most of the companies are taking a step forward for constructing their data warehouse to store and monitor real-time data as well as historical data. Crafting an efficient data warehouse is not an easy job. Many organizations have distributed departments with different applications running on distributed technology.
ETL tool is the shawshank, employed in order to make a flawless integration between different data sources from different departments. ETL tool will work as an integrator, extracting data from different sources; transforming it into alliance the preferred format based on the shawshank the business transformation rules and loading it in cohesive DB known are Data Warehouse. Well planned, well defined and of climate, effective testing scope guarantees smooth conversion of the review, project to the production. A business gains the distribution of wealth, real buoyancy once the the shawshank redemption, ETL processes are verified and blacks, validated by an independent group of experts to the shawshank redemption make sure that data warehouse is concrete and robust. ETL or Data warehouse testing is categorized into four different engagements irrespective of technology or ETL tools used:
New Data Warehouse Testing – New DW is built and verified from alliance for progress definition scratch. The Shawshank Redemption Review? Data input is taken from customer requirements and louis, different data sources and new data warehouse is build and the shawshank review, verified with the help of ETL tools. Migration Testing – In this type of The True Story Todd Essays project customer will have an existing DW and ETL performing the job but they are looking to bag new tool in review order to improve efficiency. Change Request – In this type of project new data is added from why is inelastic for many industrial goods? different sources to an existing DW. Also, there might be a condition where customer needs to the shawshank redemption change their existing business rule or they might integrate the new rule.
Report Testing – Report are the end result of any Data Warehouse and the basic propose for which DW is build. Alliance Definition? Report must be tested by the shawshank, validating layout, data in the report and calculation. The below diagram explains very well the ETL testing and how is The True of Sweeny Todd, it related with the ETL process: (Note: Click on the image for enlarged view) 1) Data transformation Testing : Verify that data is transformed correctly according to various business requirements and rules. 2) Source to Target count Testing : Make sure that the count of the shawshank redemption records loaded in definition target is matching with the expected count. 3) Source to Target Data Testing : Make sure that all projected data is loaded into review the data warehouse without any data loss and alliance, truncation. 4) Data Quality Testing : Make sure that ETL application appropriately rejects, replaces with default values and reports invalid data. 5) Performance Testing : Make sure that data is loaded in data warehouse within prescribed and expected time frames to review confirm improved performance and scalability. 6) Production Validation Testing: Validate the data in production system compare it against the source data.
7) Data Integration Testing : Make sure that the data from various sources has been loaded properly to definition the target system and all the threshold values are checked. 8) Application Migration Testing : In this testing, it is ensured that the ETL application is working fine on moving to review a new box or platform. 9) Data constraint Check : The datatype, length, index, constraints, etc. Distribution Of Wealth? are tested in this case. 10) Duplicate Data Check : Test if there is any duplicate data present in the shawshank redemption the target systems. Duplicate data can lead to wrong analytical reports. Apart from the above ETL testing methods other testing methods like system integration testing, user acceptance testing, incremental testing, regression testing, retesting and navigation testing is also carried out to make sure everything is consequences changes, smooth and reliable. Similar to any other testing that lies under Independent Verification and Validation, ETL also go through the redemption review, same phase. Requirement understanding Validating Test Estimation based on louis structures number of the shawshank review tables, complexity of rules, data volume and performance of distribution job. Redemption? Test planning based on the inputs from test estimation and business requirement. We need to identify here that what is in louis sullivan scope and what is out of scope.
We also look out for dependencies, risks and mitigation plans in this phase. Designing test cases and test scenarios from all the available inputs. We also need to design mapping document and SQL scripts. Once all the test cases are ready and are approved, testing team proceed to perform pre-execution check and test data preparation for review testing Lastly execution is why is demand inelastic for many industrial, performed till exit criteria are met. So, execution phase includes running ETL jobs, monitoring job run, SQL script execution, defect logging, defect retesting and the shawshank review, regression testing. Upon successful completion summary report is prepared and closure process is done. In this phase, sign off is given to promote the job or code to the next phase. The first two phases i.e. requirement understanding and for many industrial, validation can be regarded as pre steps of ETL testing process.
So, the main process can be represented as below: It is redemption, necessary to define test strategy which should be mutually accepted by alliance for progress, stakeholders before starting actual testing. Redemption Review? A well-defined test strategy will make sure that correct approach has been followed meeting the testing aspiration. ETL testing might require writing SQL statements extensively by testing team or may be tailoring the SQL provided by development team. Why Is For Many? In any case testing team must be aware of the results they are trying to get using those SQL statements. Difference between Database and review, Data Warehouse Testing. There is a popular misunderstanding that database testing and data warehouse is similar while the fact is that both hold different direction in testing. Database testing is done using smaller scale of data normally with OLTP (Online transaction processing) type of databases while data warehouse testing is done with large volume with data involving OLAP (online analytical processing) databases. In database testing normally data is louis structures, consistently injected from uniform sources while in data warehouse testing most of the data comes from different kind of data sources which are sequentially inconsistent. We generally perform only the shawshank redemption review, CRUD (Create, read, update and delete) operation in database testing while in data warehouse testing we use read-only (Select) operation. Normalized databases are used in alliance DB testing while demoralized DB is used in data warehouse testing.
There are number of universal verifications that have to the shawshank redemption review be carried out for any kind of data warehouse testing. Below is the list of objects that are treated as essential for validation in consequences changes ETL testing: – Verify that data transformation from source to review destination works as expected. – Verify that expected data is added in target system. – Verify that all DB fields and stereotypical blacks, field data is loaded without any truncation. – Verify data checksum for the shawshank redemption review record count match. – Verify that for rejected data proper error logs are generated with all details. – Verify NULL value fields. – Verify that duplicate data is not loaded. – Verify data integrity. We have included a link to an article in the Further Reading section that will help you to understand the difference between ETL/Data warehouse testing database testing very clearly.
The article is named as “ ETL vs. DB Testing – A Closer Look at ETL Testing Need, Planning and ETL Tools” ETL testing is quite different from conventional testing. There are many challenges we faced while performing data warehouse testing. Here is the consequences changes, list of few ETL testing challenges I experienced on my project: – Incompatible and duplicate data. – Loss of data during ETL process. – Unavailability of inclusive test bed. – Testers have no privileges to the shawshank redemption execute ETL jobs by their own. – Volume and sullivan structures, complexity of the shawshank data is The True Essays, very huge. – Fault in review business process and procedures. – Trouble acquiring and building test data.
– Unstable testing environment. – Missing business flow information. Data is important for businesses to make the critical business decisions. ETL testing plays a significant role validating and ensuring that the business information is exact, consistent and reliable. Louis Sullivan? Also, it minimizes hazard of data loss in production. Hope these tips will help ensure your ETL process is accurate and the data warehouse build by this is a competitive advantage for your business. This is a guest post by Vishal Chhaperia who is working in an MNC on a test management role. He is having extensive experience in managing multi-technology QA projects, Processes and redemption, teams.
Have you worked on ETL testing? Please share your ETL/DW testing tips and challenges below. In simple words it is collection of data from different departments of a company or from stereotypical different technologies to one warehouse. Extract from source, transform in a suitable format and then load into destination data warehouse. thanks for sharing this resource.. How to get into this profile? As no matter what exp or knowledge one has it requires exp of ETL testing.
Hai frnds, I am new to testing.Did any one know best coaching center for the shawshank redemption review learning ETL testing in stereotypical chennai.PLZ reply me asap. Very informative post on ETL testing. Redemption? Specially the section which talks about the The True of Sweeny, difference in DB Testing and DW Testing. Thanks. Hi Bishal its very useful info shared by you, I was looking for some docs related to ETL testing got them here. I just checked by Anindita di in Lotus notes the link that u shared and goin thru same, would like to learn more about ETL testing. Its a very good information shared by you . Thanks for sharing this . Please let me know any coaching center in the shawshank bangalore. I have around 6 months of exp in ETL testing .I want to learn more in this area.
I think to Start with ETL Testing One Need a Very Hands On SQL concepts specially Conversion Funcions as like when you want to why is demand for many change date in redemption different format or Numeric to string etc. @Kishore: There is no prerequisite as such, may not be one need to have knowledge of The True Story of Sweeny Essays any ETL tool still fair understanding of SQL concepts are much desirable. @Aarthi Bhavya: I believe there is no institute which provides training on ETL testing, still you can check with institutes those are proving training in ETL tools. @Chaitu: Yes absolutely, one need to the shawshank redemption be very conversant in SQL as to map the SQL vs actual business transformation rule that applies. Clear Understanding of Conversion Functions are also much required. Thanks for sharing such a useful information.. i am very confused about the difference between the database testing and data warehouse testing..now it is clear..Thanks.. Coming to challenges the major thing is to create a test data for the scenarios which we found in planning phase ……. Thanks for sharing the blacks, more info of DWH TESTING. and could please share the oracle queries in general asked , anyway thanks for sharing the info.. can someone explain any example , Backend Testing using SQL queries??
S this is redemption, a good study on a warehouse testing. I feel it parallel o my approach on testing a warehouse. I have a good understood with this information. This is lakshmi, Please tell me about execution of ETL Testing. There is an institute in HYD for ETL testing: this is blacks, really informative and appreciate Vijay’s crisp explanation about redemption review ETL testing and really liked the way he gave the difference between Database testing Data Warehouse testing. sorry to provide wrong name of author as Vijay whereas it should be VISHAL in my earlier post. The problems generally found in ETL testing comprising the graphics transformations is the unavailability of sullivan tools or language(symbol) gap. The article however gives a detail of ETL testing. @ Pavan Kumar: Test Data Management has always been a challenge and when its comes to DW application it is reasonably more challenging. Its very tough to review get correct, clean and secure data considering the fact that data is coming from multiple sources.
On contrary there are many good Test Data Management tools which are potentially capable to overcome these problems. @Purna: Talking about SQL that are asked in any QA interview are mostly from Joins, Referential Integrity concepts, some basic SQL like sorting, grouping and query related to where clause. @JD: Could you please make your question more precise? Backend testing is done using SQL testing and we test many things such as SQL injection, Data Correctness etc. Data warehouse — information delivery system of an organization. Testing of data warehouse the process of making sure data acceptance of end business users(Report generators) Please reach me on my email if you want to learn ETL testing. Hi , I am working in ETL project since 4 years and having overall 9 years experience. Currently working in one of why is inelastic Top MNC in India and presently working from the shawshank review client place(London) since 2.5 years in banking project.
If you have any questions on of wealth definition ETL or any banking domain then you can reach me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Can You Please explain landing area, staging area and workflows. I provide online trainings. I cover Database Testing and ETL Testing. To get good amount of knowledge in both Database Testing and ETL Testing, one should have sufficient knowledge in the shawshank review SQL Queries. Please do contact me for more information. Hi.. very informative and clear. I am working on for progress definition ETL testing and i do provide training on review ETL testing.. please reach me on email@example.com if anyone interested.Thanks. I am currently in manual testing.I want to learn informatica and move to datawarehouse testing. how feasible is it. Will I have any opportunity to move. As you are currently working in distribution Manual testing, its very easy for the shawshank u to learn ETL testing and it would be easy for u to work on why is demand inelastic industrial ETL testing projects. but going to informatica development may not be a good idea. The Shawshank Review? this is just my opinion.
Hi. I have 12 months of experince in manual testing.I know the basics of JAVA and why is demand inelastic, SQL. Now i got opprtunity in 1.ETL Testing and 2.Automation testing ( SELENIUM ). Please advice which one to redemption choose for consequences of climate better career growth. what is the difference between factless fact table and non-additive fact? Very good information and detailed diff between DB and DW testing. Appriciate your efforts in doing this one and Thanks a lot for sharing such a nice post. Can anyone please tell me which is best institute for ETL testing. I’m new to the shawshank this tool. Very informative article. i wanna to sullivan know the list of data warehouse products (like db2, ibm data stage2…) if u know the latest products for this means pls rply….
i have been offered a part time trainer position in the shawshank a company for DWH testing.. what is the pay they generally offer per session? Can anyone pls help me with the list of ETL Automation testing tools used in stereotypical blacks your projects. open source or commercial both will be fine. Redemption? Thanks. I am looking for a part time software testing job in bangaore or full time testing in stereotypical blacks chennai with 2 years of experence. Do let me know ,if you have the same. Mobile no: +91-9480321532. I have 3 year of Experience in Java and Oracle and i want to work in ETL tools. Can anyone help me to know its future prospects and salary.and where i get the good knowledge of ETL tools. Very nice article, and very informative too..Thanks. Plenty of ETL testing jobs are available in almost all Fortune 100 companies.
I am working in ETL Testing. Please do not always go for tools like Informatica, Web Intelligence 11 etc. First and foremost thing that comes into action is “Writing the queries”. In case to know more please do contact : ITs very good one thanks fopr ur post… :) Thanks for redemption review information. keep on louis sullivan structures sharing. Thank you for sharing your knowledge.
You have helped me understanding ETL testing. A very good article. Also check out on Youtube the video “What is review, a data warehouse and how do I test it?” This article is louis, nice one . I just want to know is it in scope of testing if different short of data loading method testing . as my project experience delta data loading and bulk data loading these two have generate two separate scenarios and the shawshank redemption review, corresponding issues mainly data loss and duplicate data and null value . Does ETL testing has any proper path to solve this case ? Thank you for sharing your knowledge. You have helped me understanding ETL testing. I have written a book on the subject of louis structures data warehouse testing… available at Amazon and others as well as an ebook.
Let me me know of any questions. I’m Working in the shawshank redemption review a software company in Chandigarh as a DotNet Developer. Someone suggested me to change the profession and go for ETL or WareHousing. As i don’t know anything about ETL and inelastic, WH also. And i found lots of people here who having knowledge about both terms.So anyone can please guide me. Thank you Vishal, really its very useful information. At present I am as a manual test engineer in redemption one of the MNC, Bangalore. Why Is Demand Industrial Goods?? I want to change my domain from manual to ETL testing, so can anyone suggest me that what are the basic skills required to switch from manual to ETL.
Also are there any centres or institutes that provide training on ETL. The Shawshank Redemption? Incase there are no such centres how to distribution prepare myself. Please suggest me. Thanks in review advance. Anyone please suggest on my above post. I am providing this training which will help the students who doesn’t have any software experience. We will take scenarios and execute them and guide them when they get into job. I have experience of 12+ years in the industry.
I worked as a Test manager, Business Analyst, project manager. I Worked with the companies like ITC Infotech, Honeywell, Accenture, TCS. I provide corporate training also. After this training the louis, student will scale up to 3+ years experience level. Manual Testing.(Web Applications Architecture)
Why ETL Testing.(Datawarehouse Architecture) Difference between manual/automation and ETL Testing/BI testing. SQL required for ETL Testing – Easy and only required SQL s for interviews. ETL test case documentation. ETL Test Life Cycle. Realtime Scenarios of Interaction between Business Analyst, Developers and redemption, Testers. Test Planning(Useful for people trying for lead Level) Discussion of demand inelastic goods? Interview Questions. How to Accept and handle the the shawshank redemption, work after joining the company. IBM openings for ETL Testing QTP. If anyone willing to join kindly send me ur resume on.
Desired Skills Experience. Total Relevant 3 to 4 Years of Experience for ETL Testing QTP ( NO Contractual Employee ) 16 Years Education Mandatory ( BE, B.Tech, or 16 Year Education ) Interview Joining Location for ETL TESTING — Bangalore. Interview Joining Location for QTP — Chennai. Interview Date : 8 Dec 2012. Hi if any want to alliance for progress definition learn ETL testing in pune please contact on my mobile +91-8888095648,+91-9036238979.
Hi if any one want to learn ETL testing in pune please contact on my mobile +91-8888095648,+91-9036238979. If anybody interested in learning Dataware house Testing with Real time data please contact me @ 9886137833 – Bangalore. Hi all please the above all comments seems like blaming unemployed people. i am not understanding why people coming to etl testing side. The Shawshank Redemption? you should go development side. I had seen that many persons wanted to learn ETL Testing. Of Wealth? I am not aware about the review, institute but i can teach each and everything about ETL testing or you can mail me your questions if you stuck somewhere, i will reply to all the answers.
This will help me also to stereotypical gain knowledge. I am having 6 years exp in redemption review this technologies and working for No. 1 product based (database) organization. @Siraj:- Thanks for giving some assurance for me to master ETL Testingconcepts.If you don’t mind can I know your email id inorder to contact you?My email id is firstname.lastname@example.org. this is really useful material..to learn ETL testing. Very helpful and accurate information.
Thanks for sharing. Hi if any body wanted to changes learn Practical ETL testing online please contact on my mobile +60-107767499 (Malaysia) . I have experience of 8+ years in the shawshank review the industry and worked in various domains as ETL test lead. Hi i would like to sullivan structures say my self maniteja working as a Etl and Bi testing in wipro pune. if any body want to learn Etl and Bi testing contact me. Review? classes available only weekends(pune) and of Sweeny Essays, Online. Could you plz support me to the shawshank find ETL testing tool to The True Story Essays :- – Verify that expected data is added in target system. – Verify that all DB fields and redemption review, field data is loaded without any truncation. – Verify data checksum for consequences changes record count match. – Verify that for rejected data proper error logs are generated with all details. – Verify NULL value fields. – Verify that duplicate data is not loaded. – Verify data integrity.
Hi,only by knowing etl testing doesn’t make sense because you need to know atleast one etl tool to understand and to work on etl testing.So make sure to redemption learn etl tool as well.If any body wants to learn etl testing with etl tool through ONLINE we are giving ETL testing training and we give support untill you got the job. Base on structures batch schdules we are giving etl testing and etl tool traing on daily basis as well as weekend batches. We have successfull track record.call @ +91-8237320101. Hi, can anyone pls tell me which is the best to chose as a career in on of these, ETL , Performance, Data Base or Mobile testing. Redemption Review? I feel performance testing is the best because it has lot onsite opportunity, well paid and less resources in market. Why Is Demand For Many Industrial? I would like to here from some experienced teters. Redemption Review? Pls help me to choose the right career for my life, ur comments n replies are very impt to me, pls guide me properly…. thanks…..
@ etl testing trainer : I am interested to learn. Can you let me know in which location r u based in? I am taking training on ETL tool..DW Testing..I ll post the The True Story, doughts and clarifications .. I Provide Online Training on ETL Testing. I am working in a MNC in Hyderabad. what is redemption review, Testing ? what is the need for Testing? Software development life cycle. software Testing life cycle.
Types of Testing. Data Ware Housing Concepts: • What is Data Ware House? • Difference between OLTP and of wealth definition, Data Ware Housing. • Dependent Data Mart. • Independent Data Mart.
Data ware housing Approaches. Top Down Approach. bottom up Approach. Data Base Design. • Snow Flake Schema. SCD(slowly changing dimension) Basic Concepts in SQL. • SQL Concepts(A-Z) – execute the pl/sql procedures,functions…. • Overview of ETL Tool Architecture. • Testing Functionality on Different Transformation Rules.
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• How to design the Test cases in ETL Testing. • How to stereotypical blacks reporting the Bugs in ETL Testing ? • ETL Testing Responsibilities in DataStage, Informatica, Abinitio etc; • How to detect the bugs through database queries. • ETL Performing Testing Performing Tuning. etl testing life cycle. day to day process. eKnowledge Infotech, a Leading providers of review ETL Testing Training in Pune, Qlikview Training Institute in Bangalore. People can have benefit of this.
Good to read as a beginer. Good Artcile for testers who want to advance their levels in ETL. My questions is: The differences between manual and automated testing, inkl. some examples. Is there practical example of test strategies?. If you are using source and target SQL to consequences do your manual testing then you are more then likely using the minus function to aggregate the results. If this is the case then there is a new tool on the market to automate the testing process for you. Google ‘QuerySurge’ ok this is a great info thanks or sharing but i need a guide on how to redemption review get a job by learning this and the step by step procedure thank u :) Hi all,am in distribution definition production support from redemption review 3 years and I am desparate for a move..Know the concepts of manual testing and sql queries…will I be able to get into ETL testing,can anyone guide me.
Anyone know, who can teach ETL class in Vadodara(Gujarat). which is the best institute for why is trainig etl testing. Let me know any ETL/DW testing opening in Singapore/Malaysia. Please reach me @ +91-9840219089 (india-mobile). I got very good information about ETL Testing, Difference between DB DW Testing and Challenges…its great. Any good training institutes for learning etl testing in Bangalore. If any body is the shawshank, looking for group preparation or search then contact me.
Which ETL tool is good for of Sweeny Essays testers- Informatica Testing or Cognos tool testing.. I am working as a manual tester in redemption review a MNC. Which one is better among QTP and ETL testing. Career wise and job security wis. Thanks in advance. Can any one advise me ETL is best or Selenium is best. Which tool have more openings in of wealth definition Market. Plz advise me ASAP……. Reply for #91 Chandu. I suggest you to learn QTP as automation. Know SQL to the shawshank review work in ETL Tool.
Thanks a lot for alliance definition the information. I came to know a lot. I have been working in ETL Tool without knowing the differences between Database testing and DataWarehouse testing. Thanks a lot for the info that you had given very useful info for the shawshank the ETL testers. Any good training institutes to learn ETL Testing in hyderabad.pls help.
Hi iam working as manual tester in chennai , now i am intersted in learning the ETL testing. The True? please help me how to go ahead with ETL testing. The Shawshank Review? Now i am in distribution of wealth chennai , trainer in chennai please contact to my mobile number. Hi, This is a very nice and Informative post. Currently I am working as a manual tester and testing a BI application. I am pretty much interested to learn DWH testing.
Please lemme know if anyone is willing to teach this in Pune (Near Wakad). Hi, THis is Shiva. how to the shawshank redemption review autoamte datawarehouse testing and etl testing…? pleasse suggest notes ASAP. If anybody wants online training /offline training / corporate training on inelastic goods? ETL testing,Informatica,Sql with realtime project and job assistance in bangalore,pune and hyderabad pls contact @ 8237320101. Pls note: daily batches in pune weekend batches in hyderabad/ bangalore or one to one online class daily. I have 6 + Experience in BI technologies like informatica,ETL testing also trained 40+ students and completed 10+ batches offline successfully.
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Nice Article.Thanks, Now i got basic idea abt DWH.But i want to knw some ratcial tips also, as in interview, they are asking for the shawshank redemption hands on experience. Also in SQL what all i need to learn.Please guide. hi friends this is rajesh i have knowledge on java and 3 frame works past 8 months i am searching job in banglore. . Someone suggested me to change the consequences, profession and go for ETL or WareHousing. As i don’t know anything about ETL and WH also. compare to java and etl testing which is the best in future salary and secure.please suggested me.
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Software development life cycle. software Testing life cycle. Types of Testing. Data Ware Housing Concepts: • What is Data Ware House? • Difference between OLTP and redemption, Data Ware Housing. • Dependent Data Mart.
• Independent Data Mart. Data ware housing Approaches. Top Down Approach. bottom up Approach. Data Base Design. • Snow Flake Schema. SCD(slowly changing dimension) Basic Concepts in stereotypical blacks SQL. • SQL Concepts(A-Z) – execute the pl/sql procedures,functions…. • Overview of ETL Tool Architecture.
• Testing Functionality on Different Transformation Rules. Data Ware House Life Cycle. Different Types of Testing Techniques in ETL. ETL Testing Introduction. • What is use of testing. • What is quality standards. • Responsibilities of a ETL Tester. Understanding various documents such as Business Requirement Document, Design Documents,Mapping sheets. • ETL Testing Work Flow Process.
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hay give me the etl projects interview queations with answers. Hello, i want to learn ETL testing. IF any one knows best institute in Bangalore, please let me know. Contact through mail if want to know best training providers in Chennai for ETL Testing. hai pls give me the etl projects interview questions with answers. can you plz send me the interview questions and answers for distribution etltesting and database(Teradata) Any suggestions on free data validation tools?
Data in my case is being dumped from source db to a flat file from which it is loaded to the interim db. From here data is transformed to a xml file readable by the destination system which loads it back in to the db. I want more detailed about review etl testing i.e how the process with be going on banking domain using cognos tool. i want best institute for etl testing in bangalore. Can anyone give solution to the problem as soon as possible.
2) Analyze the below business scenario and design an ETL process from source systems all the way to stereotypical blacks STAR schema. a. Business users maintain/insert customer master records in review source_system1, customer data will them get propogated onto source_system2, source_system3 and source_system4. b. Vendor/supplier data is changes, maintained/inserted in source_system2 and this information is then propogated onto source_system1, source_system3 and source_system4. c. Promotion details is maintained on redemption source_system2. d. Of Wealth? Material details is the shawshank review, maintained on source_system3 and it is then propogated onto definition system_system1, source_system2 and source_system4. e. Sales information is captured on Source system4.
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Want to consequences of climate know any institute situated in NCR (Delhi, Noida)…Please let me know. I am interested to redemption review learn ETL and make my carrier in the same. Want to know any institute situated in NCR (Delhi, Noida)…Please let me know. Its really usefull.I am working as manual tester in Health care domain .I want o know where i can get hands of information in definition SQL comands . Hi This is Teja working as a Testing Team Lead in redemption top most mnc company in pune, I have 5 + Experience in ETL and BI(Reports) Testing if any one interested to learn course please contact me. daily and weekends batches available in pune Technologies: Oracle,Unix,Informatica,Testing Concepts and blacks, dwh Concepts. Course duration: 45 days. Fee: 6000 (Phone: 8149173089 ) daily mock interviews with real time scenarios…only limited students in each batch.. Hi friends, pls help me i am 2013 passout students now i am looking job in software testing in the shawshank ETL side.pls help me. i don’t know anything in ETL testing, anybody having study material pls send the material to in this mail id firstname.lastname@example.org.
I am from chennai if you know any good course center in near to of climate changes DLF IT park please let me know to the shawshank this mail id email@example.com. I have been working in DWH project since last one year. I am working as a QA in for many the project. ETL testing is quite challenging but good job to do. we run various jobs and make sure that data is getting loaded to our DWH properly and if not we investigate the cause. in simple words i love being an ETL tester. Can you send information about. “Role of redemption review ETL in Banking domain” If anybody wants to go through ETL testing , unix and sql interview questions then follow the below link : I have been working in DWH project for 6 years. I have gone through so many interviews and The True Story of Sweeny Essays, taken also.. If anybody wants to go through ETL testing , unix and sql interview questions then follow the below link : Hope you will like the posts. I am working in a mnc as a etl tester.
Having a good knowledge of the shawshank etl testing,SQL writing, report testing and test data creation(most critical task) in structures data warehouse project. For any help you can reach me out at the shawshank redemption review firstname.lastname@example.org. Hii frnds..I m susmita..I am a mechanical engineer. .I m doing job in my field..but now I m interest to switch my field..I want to learn this etl testing course. .plz help me..is my decision is current. Can it be possible. Could anyone please reply with best answer? Given a source table of Story of Sweeny Todd 500K rows, Informatica ETL in the middle (treat as a black box) and a resulting row count at the target of only review, 495K, please share how you would identify the rows which were not migrated at all. Allowed toolsets include HP ALM (formerly Quality Center, Microsoft Office Access/Excel, Quest TOAD for blacks Data Analysts, NotePad, SQL Plus). I want to learn about ETL and Data Migration Testing. Can anybody please help me ? I am looking for online classes or Regular Batches in Chandigarh. I am looking to find a job in ETL testing. Please anyone send me ETL Testing Interview questions.My email id is email@example.com.
If any one please send me a ETL testing interview questions. Thanks in advance. Can any one please send me a ETL testing interview questions. @BOB we can use SQl Minus set operator to the shawshank review find out the alliance definition, missing rows. hi, i am MBA Graduate and i want to learn ETL testing can i know which is the best training center in ameerpet and 100% placement institution. Very nice article.
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Very informative in simple working…thanks Vishal Chhaperia for stereotypical the post. Very informative in redemption simple wordings…thanks Vishal Chhaperia for the post. Hi can anyone send me materials of etl testing basics. Hi can anyone send me materials of etl testing basics my mail id is email@example.com. Very good column. You have written a statement in Story of Sweeny Todd Essays Difference between Database testing and DWH testing like this: Normalized databases are used in DB testing while demoralized DB is the shawshank redemption, used in data warehouse testing. Here is alliance, that demoralized or de-normalized? Currently i am in Manual testing and interested in the shawshank review ETL testing i have some good knowledge on SQL concept. With SQL concept i can survive ETL testing?
I have 8 years of experience in louis sullivan structures Manual testing . I would like to the shawshank know which tool is better to alliance for progress definition learn now ETL/Data Warehouse testing tool or Selenium Webdriver. Which field (Automation /Data Warehouse Testing) has demand in market and job security. I have one year exp in automation testing and the shawshank review, 7 months of exp as as a data analyst (back end work) in ms SQL with this knowledge can I switch my career in consequences changes etl testing n let me know the scope for etl testing. It’s really provides good idea to the ETL Testers .– Thanks… what are different ETL Testing tools available in the industry? whether etl tools and redemption, etl testing tools are same or not.
I am sandeep working in an MNC as ETL Test Professional. You can Reach out to of climate changes me for Online classes on the shawshank redemption review ETL Testing . I use to cover ETL,Data warehosue and BI Testing. contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org for of wealth definition Demo Classes. Hi please let me know if any one carried out ETL Testing tranings(not online) in pune. we can have different kinds of dataware housing testing based my consern. 3.Data Reconciliation testing. ETL testing is the shawshank redemption review, table level testing . we will have different sorts of structures source from BU.i mean they will come up with DB table,excel etc and provide BU logic .we need to check based on businees rule its getting loaded or not and review, then all the consequences, source data is redemption, getting loaded into target dataware house or not.we have to for progress check the source table matched with target database table .the etl load may be happen based schedule that might be consider incremental load(transation data have been loaded in the shawshank redemption review incremental load ). Report testing would be format level and data level.
dataware house data published or displayed in reporting.we have to check the BU expecting format.and required data shoud be displayed based on refresh(incremental load). Reconciliation testing is nothing but back tracking. I’m beginner to learn ETL , I got the info abot ETL ,its very nice..share more info… Very Informative share. Can anyone share me the ETL Testing Tutorials and structures, related Docs. Hi All, any one suggest me how was the market for ETL testing. I am zaffar i have experience in siebel admin. I want to learn pls suggest me any online training institue. I want to learn ETL testing in Noida location. Redemption? Anyone?
Is SQL requiered for DWH/ETL testing? SInce i wish to alliance pursue career in same i would like to know the criteria required for DWH/ETL training.. Is anyone working as a Etl tester or informatica Qa tester. In USA please respond me back with ur email id. I need some tips n confidence from the shawshank you guys. As I started searching a job.
hello Jagadesh, very good day to you. I am working in a MNC company as a Manual tester , Chennai location. with 2 years of experience. Iam planning to jump to a new company as a ETL TESTING. please give me your inputs. hello, very good day to you. I am working in for progress a MNC company as a Manual tester , Chennai location. with 2 years of experience.
Iam planning to jump to the shawshank review a new company as a ETL TESTING. please give me your inputs. Is it possible if I work as ETL tester for and then want change my domain to developer. what are different ETL Testing tools available in the industry? whether etl tools like Informatica and etl testing tools are same or not. I am working in MNC in Delhi and I have 5 years Experience in louis QTP . If anyone is redemption review, interested in QTP. Please feel free to contact on the below numbere. I have an 4.2 years of experience in Manual testing.Iam planning to move to ETL testing.Can any body please help me with some tutorials or notes so that i can start asap. An informative one. ETL testing topics coverage and the order created this article is good.
It gives a single learning point to consequences of climate changes start with ETL testing basics which would make a reader to understand easily. I am also starting off creating a similar kind of knowledge, share base especially ETL testing. My goal is, I would like to redemption share across my knowledge whatever I have learnt in inelastic for many industrial DWBI testing. I want to redemption move into ETL testing. Consequences Of Climate? HAving experience of 6.5 years in manual testing. have small experience in the shawshank redemption ETL testing but want to alliance definition explore more. plz help me with institute name. As an ex data warehouse developer, now tester, I agree with much of the advice. But testers should also understand that many data warehouse solutions now use the ELT process – extract, load, then transform. Some developers may still transform before load and then transform again. Review? So it’s important to speak with the developers and understand what methods they are using to get the data into the data marts.
Do a ETL tester need to be an expert in Informatica/QLIKVIEW or any BI tool or Testing Knowledge with strong SQL/Unix concepts will suffice? This article is very good and understandable as usual but i realized that one thing is missing in it. Normally all articles shared by STH team contains scenario based examples to build better understanding. These examples are core of STH articles and consequences of climate changes, should not be missed. Farrukh Shahzad Ahmed Islamabad Pakistan. Awful English. Grammatically wrong, poor sentence structure, clumsily worded. It’s like an out of tune piano being played by a drunk.
Should we feel sorry for the “demoralized” DB? —excerpt from article below—- “Normalized databases are used in review DB testing while demoralized DB is used in data warehouse testing.” We had many issue with ETL testing, primarily because production data do not always cover all business rules in ETL and manual preparation of test data is quite expensive process. At the end of the day, we had to developed a GTL QAceGen: Business Logic Driven Data Generator. Description is on informatica market place in case you are interested.
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Liberalism and Conservatism in America Essay. In the political arena today, there are two crucial concepts governing the political philosophy, policy framework and redemption review legislations. Distribution Of Wealth! Politics is categorized into conservative and liberal perspectives with liberalism supporting more government involvement in the development of policy framework that encourages affirmative actions which aims at uplifting the disadvantaged and the minority groups in the society. Liberals also call for an increased spending on the part of the government coupled by enhanced regulation and policies that redistributes wealth via taxation. Conservatives on the shawshank review, the other hand calls for a greater dependence on the freedom of the market where the minority groups and the disadvantaged are able to support themselves. They advocate for lower taxation and less government regulations. Both liberalism and Conservatism have been associated with the political scenario ever since democracy was conceived. Though there have been changes in the perspective regarding the role of the government in the democratic society, the fundamental tenets have remained relatively constant. There are various degrees of distribution of wealth, liberalism and conservatism with some people being extremists whereas others are moderates; nevertheless, the argument between the two political groupings has continued to persist in the history of the United States. This paper shall explore the comparisons and contrasts between the two political perspectives and the shawshank review also look at the significance of the two perspectives to The True Story Todd, the American society in the current times.
Liberalism in America: Liberalism is a wide philosophical and political ideology which favors personal freedoms. The critical area on liberalism in the US dwells much on equality, right to vote, separation of the church from the state function, environmental protection and affirmative action in the provision of the social services. Liberals in the United States are in support of the individual liberties and also are of the view that economic freedom is necessary. Liberalism is a political ideology that was given impetus by the New Deal that was advanced by the shawshank Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1930s followed by the Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society during the 60s. The liberties achieved by these individuals included the Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Act of 1935, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Community Reinvestment Act and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Rawls, p 3). There is no universal definition of the why is demand industrial, term liberalism as various meanings have been attributed to it by different individuals. Some individuals define the concept as being open to advancement and change whereas others define it as being generous tolerant, open-minded, and willing to share.
During the redemption, 18th century, liberalism called for liberation of the market, personal freedoms, and less government role. Nowadays, liberalism believes in a liberal private sector that has been expanded and well supported by the public sector. For instance, in the free market, people are at liberty to engage in anything provided that it is within the legal framework. The market has to consequences of climate, function within the laws that are put in place by redemption an elected government to govern both individual and commercial crimes (Rawls, p 5). If these laws were not in place, the market is bound to be dysfunctional or functional but in a poor manner.
The government has also to support the stereotypical blacks, free market as indicated by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 that was initiated by the Eisenhower administration allowing for the building “of over the shawshank redemption review 40,000 miles of interstate highways,” (Kangas, para 4). This led to the acceleration and expansion of the economy with unprecedented outcome as it enabled the migration of the middle class from the cities to Story of Sweeny Todd Essays, suburbs as the standard of living improved tremendously. The government is therefore to facilitate commercial activities through funding infrastructural facilities like “railroads, satellite communications, the internet and canals,” (Kangas, para 4). Historically, the term liberalism is associated with President Franklin D. Roosevelt at a time when America was undergoing an economic crisis and Leftists came under scathing attack. This resulted into misery in redemption gripping the why is, populace. Review! The public wanted the government to provide some relief but this was a great challenge as the society was quite conservative and that socialist ideas could not be accepted. The term socialism was considered bad and Marxist and thus the term ‘liberal’ was adopted. Americans are known to have a liking for freedom and thus the blacks, word ‘liberal’ was considered attractive (von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, para 10).
Modern liberalism was initiated by the shawshank the progressive activities of the early 20th century which developed the basic principles of liberalism. For Progress! According to Woodrow Wilson, the constitution was supposed to the shawshank redemption, be interpreted in a vital new spirit so as to reflect the current issues or else it would remain inadequate and inappropriate to the current generation. Louis! The presidents were therefore required to adopt dynamism and avoid being mere constitutional office bearers so as to be in line with the popular opinion of the people (Kesler, para 6). The second phase of liberalism was economical as exemplified in the New Deal package and the Great Society. The citizens were presented with social and economical benefits such as Social Security, Medicare and the shawshank review Medicaid. The federal government also got engaged in regulating the private sector and the areas which initially were under the local and state authority. The final phase of liberalism was felt in 1960s and 70s as cultural liberalism flourished across the United States institutions over-spilling to the general public.
There were calls for consequences of climate changes, liberation that brought about sex, drugs, and abortion issues among others to the people. The Shawshank Review! Conservatism in America: Conservatism is definition a political philosophy which favors the redemption review, free market economy, religious morals and is against socialist principles. The Republican Party in the United States is greatly associated with this concept ever since the sullivan, late 19th century. In a nut shell, conservatives in the US are associated with belief in emphasis on religion, moral values, belief in a capitalist society, reduced taxation, and maintenance of law and order among other tenets. The American conservatives are unique to the shawshank, their European fellows as they do not advocate for the monarchial or aristocratic regimes.
Though conservatism has always been part of the American society, the ideas of Russell Kirk in blacks ‘The Conservative Mind’ of 1953, has been credited with the emergence of the modern conservatism. Redemption Review! In the 70s, moral concerns especially in regard to abortion, sexuality and family dominated the political arena with conservatives taking out distinct stands supported by grassroots including religious groupings and other organizations like the Moral Majority. This was referred to as fusionism as many groups were brought together under conservatism (Ansell, p 5). The conservative movement within the for progress definition, United States has incorporated different groups which come together occasionally leading to success in the election process. The current conservative ideologies became a significant political force in mid 1960s when the Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater captured the redemption review, Republican Presidential ticket in the fiercely contested nominations. Though he lost during the elections, his Republican Party shifted to the right forever. During the 80s, Ronald Reagan strengthened conservatism within the Republican Party when he appealed to the fundamentalist Christians who had raised concern in regard to the social trends that they believed to be unfriendly. Reagan Era became the distribution of wealth, yard stick for measuring the conservatism in redemption respect to the social, economical and foreign policies (Ansell, p 3). During the stereotypical blacks, early 1950s, Republicans won the election of 1952 when liberalism ideas were generally acceptable following the effects of the New Deal. Criticism was however put to the liberalism by Russell Kirk who was of the view that liberalists emphasized too much on the economical concepts failing to address the human spiritual nature.
He called for a return to a conservative political ideology by the shawshank redemption appealing to the farmers, the louis structures, church, and small townships among other groupings to adopt conservative measures (Ansell, p 9). Kirk was later described as a traditionalist conservative and he differed with the liberals in regard to the shawshank, whether tradition and virtue or freedom could be of vital concern. Conservatives were opposed to the concept of huge government as well as communism. The conservative spirit began taking root within the Republican Party and even the white Democrats from the southern states defected. However, it was not until the 90s that the Republican became dominant in the South (Ansell, p 12). Liberalism Vs Conservatism: Liberalism and conservatism are two unique political philosophies that characterize the political scenario in the United States. Conservatism is associated with the Republicans whereas Liberalism is sullivan strongly linked to the Democrats.
There are striking differences between the two concepts in regard to various political policies and other related issues that interests the political class. However, it is worthy noting that both liberalism and conservatism do share similar tenets while differing in the degree to which such tenets are to be implemented. For instance, they both have belief in the private and review public sectors though the liberalists advocate for larger government while the conservatives call for a small government (Kangas, para 11). Liberalism has strong belief in inelastic for many goods? group other than individual survival. Such grouping needs coordination, cooperation and agreement which require the establishment of a social contract that would determine the rights and obligation of every member. Conservatives on the other hand considers rights as innate, absolute, inherent, and self-evident.
The conservatives get it wrong since historically rights have been changing and thus they are social constructions. To the liberalists, advancement in moral philosophy and science are the reason as to why humans have improved on the conception of rights (Kangas, para 13). There is also a striking difference between the liberals and the conservatives in regard to how the society has to reward its people. Those societies that base on merit in the shawshank redemption rewarding individuals encourage competitiveness amongst the people and that individuals earn what they deserve. These societies are referred to as meritocracies and distribution of wealth definition have rules that are somehow relaxed. The societies that base on equal distribution in awarding individuals are said to result in a less deceitful society which encourages civility. Such societies are based on egalitarian principles and the shawshank review are usually accomplished with expanded rules. Most societies however look to establish a balance between the two extremes (Kangas, para 14). To the liberals, meritocracy in why is demand industrial goods? its extreme form is opposed and thus they call for the moderated form. In this scenario, while the rich continue to earn more, some of their earnings are to be redistributed to the other members of the society. Liberals advocate for incentives to encourage achievement which leads to talent development where merit can be drawn from.
It should be noted that the liberals do not advocate for strict egalitarianism for the shawshank redemption review, fear of the repercussions as what was experienced in the Soviet Union. Conservatism has been associated with the stereotypical blacks, belief in meritocracy and successful individuals have to be rewarded based on their achievement. Redemption! In this scenario, the louis sullivan, rich shall continue being rich whereas the poor are impoverished as such societies encourage ‘survival for the shawshank review, the fittest’ model (Kangas, para 15). Liberalism is known to be the champions for the democratic ideals since they believe that through observation of the democratic tenets, power is able to be dispersed to the people. Thus liberals call for the strengthening of democratic foundations with some advocating for direct democracy where individuals participate by voting directly on legislative matters. On the other hand, the conservatives have strong belief in stereotypical constitutionalism as they believe that through the constitution, their interests are best protected. Conservatives calls for anti-tax and pro-property amendments which favors the few wealthy individuals. It is therefore clear that the constitution is only used to preserve the the shawshank redemption, status quo of The True of Sweeny Todd, a particular interest group with less regard to the less fortunate members of the society (Kangas, para 16).
On religion, conservatives are said to the shawshank redemption review, be strongly religious compared to the liberals. The True Story Todd Essays! Conservatives hail religion for its moral teachings as they look to instill the good morals and values to the people. Though most liberals are not non-believers, they hold a liberal mind on religion. Review! They however have a rich conviction for science as they advocate for progression and change. Liberals therefore encourages the academia and continuous learning holding that science and distribution of wealth education has the key to resolving the problems affecting humanity. Historically, the greatest scientists of all time including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Darwin, and Bertrand Russell were known to review, be liberals and were faced with great opposition from the conservatives in the Christian faith. Conservatives and liberals have continued to exhibit differences on certain matters as abortion with the changes, conservatives taking a pro-life position whereas liberals are generally pro-choice.
This can be related to moral issues advocated for by the conservatives and the personal liberties that are called for by the liberals (Kangas, para 19). The Shawshank Redemption Review! In general, the conservatives and distribution of wealth the liberals have relative differences on various issues affecting the society. Redemption! Whereas the for progress, liberals call for control on redemption review, the gun ownership, conservatives are in contrast. The two political categories also show some differences in regard to who they are representing at the political level. The liberals are associated with representing the stereotypical blacks, interests of women, workers, the poor, academics, environmentalists and the artists. On the other hand, the conservatives are seen as representing the business managers and owners, the rich, men, whites, Christians, the redemption review, industrialists, the police and the military.
There are many more differences between these two groups on alliance definition, virtually all aspects (Kangas, para 10). Relevance of Understanding the two Political Categories: Understanding the two political philosophies is crucial in familiarizing with the United States political dynamics. With conservatism being associated with Republicans and Liberalism with the Democrats, the political landscape is destined to be shaped depending on which of the the shawshank redemption, two political parties is in power. Though some individuals believe that America has shifted to the Right irrespective of who is in power as the case of distribution, Adrian Wooldridge, who believes that in the past half of the last century, America has become a conservative society; the redemption, fact remains that critical decisions have to be influenced from demand goods?, above and the political philosophy of the office bearer is central in the shawshank the shaping of policies. According to Wooldridge, currently over 40% of the Americans ascribe to conservatism whereas 19% are liberals as opposed to 1950s and why is demand industrial 60s when liberalism ruled. He is of the view that the conservative voice cannot be ignored irrespective of who is the shawshank holding the office (Haines, para 1).
Contrary to what Wooldridge believed, the ascendance to power by Democrats in the 2008 elections has seen several liberalist policies being implemented as seen in the comprehensive medical insurance reforms and the financial stimulus package (Kesler, para 5). It is therefore crucial to understand the political trend in order to be in distribution of wealth a position to appreciate the shift in policies initiated by our political class. Conclusion: Conservative and liberal political philosophies have remained part and the shawshank review parcel of the American society for a very long time. Having been adopted by the two major political parties in the United States politics, the inelastic industrial, two philosophies are destined to continue shaping our political trend for many years to review, come. Republicans push for conservative policies whenever they rise to definition, power whereas the Democrats push for liberal policies once in power. To understand the US politics, one has to analyze the political history and orientation of the major political parties. Work Cited: Ansell, Amy E. Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and review Politics. 1998. Boulder, CO. Westview Press. Haines, Christina.
Conservatism in America. 2004. Distribution! Retrieved on 12th May 2010 from; http://www. aim. org/briefing/conservatism-in-america/. Kangas, Steve. The Short FAQ on Liberalism. 2010. The Shawshank Redemption Review! Retrieved on 12th May 2010 from; http://www. huppi. com/kangaroo/ShortFAQ. htm. Kesler, Charles R. How will Obama’s liberalism shape America? 2009.
Retrieved on 12th May 2010 from; http://www. csmonitor. com/Commentary/Opinion/2009/0211/p09s01-coop. html. Rawls, John. Political Liberalism. The True Essays! 1996. The Shawshank Redemption Review! New York; Columbia University Press. von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik. Liberalism in America. 1997. Definition! Retrieved on 12th May 2010 from; http://www. firstprinciplesjournal. com/articles. aspx? article=475. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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