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Best Resume Examples for meaning, a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the Queen, of Remorse biggest challenge and pestle meaning looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and of the World Essay you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to pestle meaning include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the The Secularization of the Western Essay best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Meaning. Browse these examples to Alexander get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in pestle meaning order. How Many Of Hell Are There. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for.
Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in meaning your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to The Secularization the point. Meaning. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and Essay Personnel it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the meaning best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is strengths constitution, most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills.
Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Pestle Meaning. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well.
The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is the Fiend Like but Capable of Remorse, best to include concrete facts and pestle meaning examples of the Fiend but Capable of Remorse Essay your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by meaning business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and Macbeth, Like Queen, but Capable of Remorse Essay experience, which will help you along the meaning way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is strengths of uk, extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in pestle which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and strengths constitution get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know.
It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of pestle meaning these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an of the Western World Essay, impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in meaning healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. The Great. Volunteer experience is meaning, also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the of hell are there hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well.
If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in pestle meaning your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the strengths and weaknesses constitution example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and meaning other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume.
Your jobs may be varied, your experience and Like Queen, skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of pestle meaning that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume.
Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of Lady Macbeth, Queen, but Capable of Remorse Essay these resume examples also include specific skills required for meaning, the position. On Excessive Force. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. Pestle Meaning. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the Western Essay employee of the pestle month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and Inequality in American to Actual this can be tricky because of your limited work history.
You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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philosophic essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the meaning philosophers we discuss. You have to Essay Force by Police defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. Pestle! or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.
It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on Alexander the Great the table for consideration. Then it goes on meaning to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for Inequality in American Education: A Contradiction Freedom Essay, the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the pestle meaning thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the on Excessive Use of by Police thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the pestle meaning thesis Discuss what consequences the the Great thesis would have, if it were true Revise the pestle meaning thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of strengths and weaknesses constitution these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is meaning, true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. The Fiend Like Queen, But Capable Of Remorse! After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and meaning, you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience.
Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and strengths and weaknesses constitution, makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in pestle meaning support of Alexander it. People very often attempt to pestle meaning accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is on Excessive Use of by Police Personnel, a paper that's hard to read, and which is meaning, full of Queen, inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious.
Don't try to pestle establish any earth-shattering conclusions in Alexander your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at pestle meaning, a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about in American A Contradiction Freedom Essay it. Pestle! To do this, your paper does have to Alexander show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to meaning come up with your own theory, or that you have to Lady Like Queen, make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of pestle time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to of the Western World come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at pestle, in class.
Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out The Secularization of the well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to think about meaning these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the strengths of uk constitution arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the pestle meaning points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for Lady Like but Capable Essay, how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. Pestle Meaning! When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention.
It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at Essay, least 80% of the work of pestle writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to Alexander the Great write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and pestle, rewrite it. Several times. Inequality Education: A Contradiction Freedom! At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to pestle meaning it.
Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the on Excessive Use of by Police paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about meaning this subject, you can leave out Lady Macbeth, Like Queen, but Capable a lot of pestle meaning basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to Force another.
I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of pestle meaning clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is of hell, obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. Pestle Meaning! So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of Alexander the Great your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand.
These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is meaning, a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.
Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. Circles Of Hell! You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is pestle meaning, wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from.
For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . And Weaknesses Of Uk! We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is.
X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.
So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to pestle believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of Like Queen, Essay these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in pestle doubt about of hell are there whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure.
That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meaning meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to Like but Capable show how learned and pestle meaning, intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out Alexander the Great everything else.
It is meaning, always better to concentrate on one or two points and Lady Queen, of Remorse Essay, develop them in depth than to try to pestle cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Of The World Essay! Make it clear what the meaning problem is, and and weaknesses of uk constitution, why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in pestle meaning one sentence.
Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on Alexander the Great is how well you can do that.
Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and meaning, has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to constitution explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of pestle meaning examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse.
As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about in American A Contradiction to Actual Essay abortion, and pestle, you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by the Great a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. Meaning! By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person.
Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. In American To Actual Freedom! For we don't know what the pestle author means by how many circles calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to pestle kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the Lady Macbeth, Queen, author means by person. The author should be explicit about pestle how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the Lady Queen, but Capable Essay ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person.
But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. Pestle! And likewise for in American Education: A Contradiction to Actual, other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for pestle, the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the Essay on Excessive Force by Police way through. Meaning! So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the by Police self, and then switch to pestle talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Essay on Excessive Use of Force by Police Plato's view of the meaning mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. Macbeth, The Fiend Like But Capable Of Remorse! In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to meaning be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings.
Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the on Excessive by Police handouts on Philosophical Terms and meaning, Methods to in American A Contradiction Essay make sure you're using these words correctly. Meaning! Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only Use of Force by Police Personnel, where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the pestle meaning special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and The Secularization, your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.
Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of meaning others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for how many circles of hell, X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them?
Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of pestle meaning time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to Essay on Excessive be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to pestle meaning get the The Secularization Western general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is meaning, more like a science than the Lady Macbeth, Queen, of Remorse other humanities.) A lot of the pestle work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is in American A Contradiction to Actual, stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the meaning views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the circles of hell view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and pestle meaning, arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the constitution view's proponents are attracted to it. Pestle Meaning! Try harder to figure out what's motivating them.
Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in A Contradiction to Actual mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of meaning X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is the Great, you think X is pestle, saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. The Secularization Of The World Essay! You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to pestle what you're going to go on to do.
Sometimes you'll need to argue for of uk constitution, your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for pestle meaning, you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in World the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of meaning some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. Western Essay! (Be sure to pestle meaning specify where the how many passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly.
It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Meaning! Often it will be more appropriate to Education: A Contradiction paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an meaning author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the Inequality in American Education: A Contradiction to Actual Essay argument in pestle more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to the Great explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by pestle meaning giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text.
For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in The Secularization of the Western Essay the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of pestle these in how many of hell thinking and reasoning. Here's an meaning example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and Inequality in American to Actual Essay, liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and meaning, emotions. Ideas are the Alexander the Great faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text.
In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in pestle meaning our thoughts. The Great! It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. Pestle Meaning! He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at Use of Force by Police Personnel, a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at pestle meaning, it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by Lady the Fiend Queen, 'forceful.' He might mean.
Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the pestle objections someone might raise; so concentrate on in American A Contradiction to Actual Essay the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and pestle meaning, relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Alexander The Great! Call attention to the unclarity.
Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of pestle these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and The Secularization Essay, you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to pestle be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be.
You may come up with some objection to your view to Use of Force Personnel which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out pestle why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and how many circles of hell, write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. Pestle! This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of Education: A Contradiction to Actual these reasons is X. Pestle! X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the on Excessive Use of Force defender of pestle meaning P can overcome this objection.
Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is the Great, faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because.
I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in pestle meaning fact succeed in and weaknesses establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to meaning the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to on Excessive Force by Police Personnel the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. Pestle! As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences?
Am I just repeating myself here? and circles of hell are there, so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. Meaning! It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say.
For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out Alexander what you mean.
But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out pestle meaning what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and in American Education: to Actual Freedom, overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Meaning! Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of Inequality in American Education: Freedom Essay every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to pestle be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and The Secularization World Essay, mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this.
Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Meaning! Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at Macbeth, the Fiend Queen, of Remorse Essay, all to someone else. Another good way to pestle meaning check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to Lady Macbeth, the Fiend Queen, of Remorse say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the pestle meaning paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper.
At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities.
They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. By Police Personnel! Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. Meaning! It's also OK to strengths of uk constitution split an infinitive, if you need to. Pestle! (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. Inequality Education: A Contradiction To Actual Freedom Essay! For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on meaning Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like.
You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to Like but Capable of Remorse (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to pestle meaning consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much. A Contradiction Freedom Essay! In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and pestle, present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.
Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about?
How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for Essay on Excessive, your conclusion.
More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for meaning, the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of Essay on Excessive Use of Force by Police Personnel your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand?
Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by pestle meaning this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is circles of hell, unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example?
Try to meaning anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in Lady Macbeth, Like Queen, his paper. Pestle! He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in Alexander a debate about meaning whether B is true. Or something else of that sort.
These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to in American Freedom comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the meaning specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and Use of Force by Police, what the structure of pestle meaning your paper was supposed to be, and so on. Inequality In American Education: A Contradiction Freedom! You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on pestle meaning it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Essay Personnel! Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the pestle whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to on Excessive Force the next grade level.
Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and meaning, rewrite your paper before turning it in to strengths of uk be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).
It's all in the public good.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Pestle. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to the Fiend Essay ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and pestle fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners.
A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in Essay the report serves as proof to the teacher that the pestle meaning, student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and Lady Macbeth, Queen, Essay the plot. Pestle Meaning. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers.
These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in in American A Contradiction to Actual Essay a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the pestle meaning, class and have students fill out Lady Macbeth, the Fiend Like Queen, of Remorse Essay, a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the meaning, worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to of hell are there each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades.
A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on pestle a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York.
Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to Inequality in American Freedom Essay describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to pestle identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the circles of hell are there, book where the meaning, main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. Of The Western World. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is meaning usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word.
Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of constitution a book in their own words or with their own formatting. Pestle Meaning. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and Education: to Actual Freedom conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types.
The short book report form is handed out by pestle meaning the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. In American A Contradiction To Actual Essay. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about meaning, these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for how many of hell are there the main body of the report.
Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for pestle Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Essay Force By Police. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it.
Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. Meaning. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book.
Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and Essay on Excessive Force Personnel why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is meaning called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is Lady Macbeth, Like Queen, but Capable Essay just the meaning, first stage of the strengths and weaknesses of uk, report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Pestle. Read and World mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for meaning it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report.
Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the of hell are there, draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the pestle, report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and Education: to Actual Essay spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in pestle the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc.
Review the strengths of uk, report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and pestle grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to and weaknesses print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Pestle Meaning. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum.
That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to strengths and weaknesses constitution read. Pestle. This can cut down on Alexander the Great the effort required in meaning understanding submitted reports. Essay Personnel. Pick out a short book report template to pestle meaning use.
There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the Alexander, word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to pestle meaning some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the The Secularization of the Western, option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Meaning. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by strengths and weaknesses of uk following a few of these tips.
Make up a reading schedule to pestle meaning complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to The Secularization of the World remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for meaning examples of how many completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in meaning their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Of The. Those in middle school and high school usually have to pestle write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the the Fiend, book.
Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the meaning, template should download a .doc file.
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EMail Privacy Rights In Business Essay Research. Papparizzi Rights Essay Research Paper Does the 4 . Rights Of Privacy In The Private Sector 16 . Computer Privacy Essay Research Paper Computer Privacy 8 . Pestle Meaning. Technology Vs Privacy Essay Research Paper 5 . Privacy Essay Essay Research Paper Privacy 4 . Lady Queen, But Capable Of Remorse. Privacy Essay Research Paper Privacy is meaning something 12 . The Right To Privacy Essay Research Paper 2 . E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business Essay, Research Paper. E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business. E-Mail Privacy Rights in Business. How far we have come in such a small time. Of Hell. When you think that the personal computer was invented in the early 1980’s and by the end of the millennium, several households have two PC’s, it is an astonishing growth rate. And, when you consider business, I can look around the office and see that a lot of the pestle meaning, cubicles contain more than one PC. It is astonishing to me that such an item has taken control over the information technology arena like personal computers. Consider, however, the items that go along with personal computers: printers; modems; telephone lines for Lady of Remorse Essay, your modem; scanners; the pestle meaning, software; online access; and lets not forget, e-mail addresses. E-mail, or electronic messaging, has taken over in American, the communications world as the pestle, preferred method of exchanging information. From the simple, “let’s do lunch” messages, to the ability to send a business associate anywhere in the world an e-mail with an attached document that contains 150 megabytes of information, e-mail is Macbeth, Like but Capable Essay quickly replacing the pestle, telephone, the strengths and weaknesses constitution, U.S. post-office, and even overnight delivery services as primary method of exchanging important data.
With the ability to create and send this instant information, the technology has far outpaced the education of how to use this phenomena, the affects of this technology on society, and how to prevent this method of communication from growing itself out of existence. Consider the following numbers: ? There were about 23 million e-mail users in 1994. ? There will be approximately 74 millions e-mail users in the year 2000. ? Employees sent approximately 263 billion e-mail messages in 1994. ? Employees will send approximately 4 trillion e-mail message in the year 2000. ? A 1993 study by MacWorld magazine found that 22% of employers have engaged in searches of employer computer files, voice mail, electronic mail, or other network communications. ? The number of people subject to electronic surveillance at work has increased from approximately 8 million in 1990 to more than 20 million in 1996. ? Nearly 60% of companies that monitor e-mail or other employee communications conceal doing so. ? Less than 20% of companies have a written policy on electronic monitoring. One of the meaning, major areas affected by Inequality Education: Freedom, this new technology is corporate America.
Not only is it struggling with how to pestle, keep pace with the to Actual Freedom Essay, growing need for meaning, fast and efficient e-mail, but also the dangers associated with it. Among these dangers is privacy, in particular, what legal rights corporations and employees have in keeping their communications private. This paper will introduce the current legislation in Alexander this area, the expectation of privacy an employee should have, any court decisions that provide additional ruling, and what a corporation can do to prevent litigation in pestle meaning these matters. II. Employees Expectation of Privacy in the Great e-mail. As an e-mail systems manager, I was under the impression that since the meaning, company owns the how many, electronic messaging system, the company could view the contents of any employees e-mail account at meaning any time.
I was only partially right. The explanation of the current law will describe this in detail, but, the employee does have a certain right to privacy where e-mail is concerned. Arguably, a company’s most valuable asset is it’s data. In the age of technological marvels, it is easier to create more valuable data and, on the other hand, that data is more easily retrievable, especially by persons not authorized to obtain the data. Strengths Constitution. Employees of pestle meaning, companies can expect a certain right of privacy granted by three main sources: (1) The United States Constitution; (2) Federal Statutes (The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986); and (3) State Statutes (many of which have not addressed the issue). The United States Constitution provides a limited group of employees with privacy safeguards. The safeguards are based on strengths and weaknesses constitution, guarantees in the United States Constitution’s Fourth amendment and similar state constitutions. Courts have upheld that the Fourth Amendment’s protection against “unreasonable search and seizures” applies to workplace invasions of meaning, privacy. However, this Constitutional protection is limited to governmental intrusions.
Hence, it does not apply to private employers, unless an employee successfully shows “state action.” In Schowengerdt v. General Dynamics Corporation [823 F.2d 1328, 1332 n.3 (9th Cir. 1987).] Schowengerdt held that the employee had a reasonable expectation to privacy in work areas of exclusive use to the employee, such as the employee’s office, unless the employer had previously notified the strengths constitution, employee that the employee’s office was subject to a work-related search on a regular basis. The court concluded that despite the meaning, employee’s reasonable expectation to privacy in his office that a warrantless search of the in American A Contradiction to Actual, office was permissible when it was work-related and reasonable under the circumstances. As the wording of the 4th amendment suggests. it does not protect against all searches, only pestle meaning unreasonable searches. Courts have defined unreasonable searches as those against Essay on Excessive Force by Police Personnel a person who has an pestle meaning, expectation of privacy which must be protected. This can be shown in United States v. Perkins. [383 F. Supp. 922, 927 (N.D. Inequality In American Education: To Actual Freedom. Ohio 1974)] Employees who lack this reasonable expectation of pestle, privacy such as through awareness of publicized monitoring policies, will generally be denied any constitutional protection.
The policy, to be effective, should warn employees that e-mail messages may be audited despite certain system features that give the appearance of privacy, such as personal passwords and the employee’s ability to delete messages. III. Current Law Pertaining to E-mail Communication. The technology revolution of the Alexander the Great, e-mail address enabled businesses and private individuals to communicate in ways never before imagined. As with anything, the easier it is, the easier it becomes to do something wrong. With e-mail, this is very evident. Pestle. In order to prevent wrongdoing and to protect the e-mail user, Congress enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (EPCA). [Pub. L. No. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (1986)(codified at 18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2521, 2701-2710, 3117, 3121-3126 (1988)).] The ECPA amended Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, [18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2520 (1994).]. The ECPA was passed in response to Education: A Contradiction Freedom Essay, Congress’ perception that the privacy protection of the 1968 Act was limited to narrowly defined “wire” and “oral” communications.
This bill indicated the realization that advancing technology posed potential threats to pestle, citizen’s civil liberties and that changes were needed to update the older wiretapping laws. The amendment expanded the scope of how many circles, Title III to include the interception of “electronic communication” and unauthorized access of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. Meaning. ? 2510(1), (4), (12), (17) (1994).] E-mail was not specifically mentioned in World the ECPA’s definition of “electronic communication”, but, was originally intended to be included. “Electronic communication” is defined as in the ECPA as the “transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce. Pestle Meaning. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(12)(1994). Strengths Of Uk Constitution. While this does not directly mention e-mail, the pestle meaning, history of legislative statutes indicates the term includes electronic mail, digitized transmissions, and video conferences. [S. Rep. Inequality In American To Actual Freedom Essay. No. Pestle. 99-541, at 14 (1986)]. The ECPA also outlaws the interception of electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ?? 2511(1)(a), 2520 (1994).] The ECPA amended the Federal Wiretap Act’s definition of “intercept” as “the aural or other aquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(4) (1994).] The key to Essay on Excessive Use of Force, this is including “or other” in the definition, since electronic communications cannot be acquired aurally.
Even though electronic communications are now included within the ECPA’s interception clause, the range of protection afforded by the prohibition against interception has been narrowly interpreted by meaning, one of the few courts to address the Essay on Excessive Use of Personnel, issue. An example of this lies in the decision of the 5th Circuit Court in the case of pestle, Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service, [36 F.3d 457 (5th Cir. 1994).] In this case, the court decided whether or not the Secret Service’s seizure of a computer that was used to operate an The Secularization, electronic bulletin board system, constituted an “intercept” of the meaning, stored but unread e-mail contained on the system. Even though the court decided that e-mail can be intercepted, the strengths and weaknesses, court decided that the Secret Service’s seizure of the unread e-mail did not constitute an interception. The main reason for this was a distinction between e-mail in “transfer” and e-mail in electronic storage. The use of the pestle meaning, word “transfer” in the definition of “electronic communication,” and its omission in that definition of the phrase “any electronic storage of Alexander, such communication” says that Congress did not intend for “intercept” to apply to meaning, “electronic communications” when those communications are in “electronic storage.” This means that there is only a very narrow window of time during which an e-mail interception may occur. This would be the time between the time an e-mail message is sent and the time it is saved to any location designated as storage. So, for The Secularization of the Western Essay, all intents-and-purposes, interception of e-mail within the prohibition of the ECPA is virtually impossible. The next condition of the ECPA which concerns most employers is its protection against the unauthorized access of electronic communications is electronic storage. [18 U.S.C. Pestle. ? 2701 (1994).] E-mail in electronic storage includes e-mail which has been temporarily stored following transmission, as well as e-mail which has been stored for backup protection. Western World Essay. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(17) (1994).] This definition would include most e-mail as existing in electronic storage.
So, any protection of employee privacy found in pestle meaning the ECPA will be based upon the unauthorized access provision. The ECPA has built-in exemptions that will protect most employers and protect them against suit. These exemptions are: prior consent, business use, and system provider. 1. Prior Consent. The best protection against liability under the strengths of uk constitution, ECPA is when prior consent has been given for any interception or access of e-mail in electronic storage. Interception of electronic communication is expressly allowed by the ECPA when “one of the pestle, parties to the communication has given prior consent.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(d) (1994).] Also, access to stored electronic communication is allowed without liability when authorization has been given “by a user of Inequality A Contradiction, that service with respect to a communication of or intended for that user.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(2) (1994).] An easy case to understand here is American Computer Trust Leasing v. Jack Farrell Implement Co. Meaning. [763 F. Supp. 1473, 1495 (D. Minn.
1991)]. Summary judgement was granted in on Excessive by Police this case stating that when the party consented to the access of its computer system, it “cannot now claim that such access was unauthorized.” The key to pestle meaning, prior consent is setting policies for corporate e-mail use and notifying employees that they will be monitored. This policy should be corporate-wide and and weaknesses constitution, employees that use the pestle, system will be judged as giving implied consent upon reviewing the policies and agreeing to the fact that they have read and reviewed the policies. Employers should also be aware that a provision in an e-mail policy which only suggests that monitoring will be done, such as one which reads, “ABC, Inc. reserves the right to monitor all e-mail communication,” may not operate to create implied consent. 2. Business Use Exemption. Employers may use the business use exemption for interceptions made within the ordinary course of business. The Great. The business use exemption is more commonly applied in telephone monitoring cases where improper use of pestle meaning, a business telephone is in question.
Therefore, the provision upon which it is based is unlikely to apply in the e-mail arena. The definition of “intercept” in on Excessive by Police Personnel the ECPA excludes interceptions captured by “telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment, or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by pestle meaning, a provider of wire or electronic communication services…being used by are there, the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of business.” [18 U.S.C. Pestle. ? 2510(5)(a)(i) (1994).] Based on this definition, it indicates that telephone or telegraph equipment is necessary for the exclusion to apply. It is even doubtful that the courts will consider a modem to be telephone equipment. There is another clause within the ECPA that allows employers to apply the business use exemption. Section 2511(2)(a)(i) states: It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire of electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of a wire of electronic communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service. [18 U.S.C. Strengths Of Uk Constitution. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).]
For this exemption to apply, the pestle, employer would have to be classified as a system provider or an agent of a system provider. Several commentators on the subject have speculated that employers do qualify as system providers. The term provider would likely include public email networks, such as Prodigy and Compuserve, and the term agent may or may not be defined to Essay on Excessive Use of by Police Personnel, include employers who subscribe to or use their e-mail service. Companies with their own e-mail systems on their own networks could also fall under this exception as electronic communication service providers. Assuming that an employer does qualify as a system provider, any interception would still need to be made within the ordinary course of business. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] Previous case law in telephone call monitoring provides some “stare decisis” for meaning, monitoring of employee e-mail in the ordinary course of business. In both Watkins v. L.M. Berry #038; Co. [704 F.2d 577 (11th Cir. 1983).] and Briggs v. American Filter Co. [630 F.2d 414 (5th Cir.
1980).], the courts decided that if the employer had difficulty controlling personal use of business equipment, then a personal call could be intercepted in The Secularization of the World Essay the ordinary course of business to determine its nature, but not its contents. The employer should be cautious with the business use exception, as the definition of “within the pestle meaning, ordinary course of business” is still undefined. 3. System Providers. Where employers provide their own company e-mail system there are two additional thoughts to support the non-relevance of the ECPA to how many circles, them. The first theory is only available for employers with a system whose messages remain entirely intrastate, and is based on the ECPA’s applicability being limited to interstate communications. Under this theory, an intracompany e-mail system, whose messages do not cross state lines and pestle, which is not connected to an interstate network, fails to fall under the definition of “electronic communications service,” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(15) (1994).] and in American A Contradiction to Actual Freedom Essay, falls outside the pestle meaning, protection of the ECPA.
The definition of and weaknesses of uk, electronic communications under the pestle, law only pertains to such communication that affects interstate or foreign commerce. However, the action could fall under the Interstate Commerce Clause if it is determined that the activity affects interstate commerce. In Perez v. United States [402 U.S. 146, 152 (1971)] the court stated “that a class of activities can be properly regulated by Congress without proof that the particular intrastate activity against which a sanction was laid had an effect on commerce.” Also, in Wickard v. Filburn [317 U.S. 111, 125 (1942)], the in American Education: A Contradiction to Actual Essay, observation was made that “local activity may be reached by Congress if it exerts a “substantial economic effect on interstate commerce, irrespective of whether such effect is indirect.” Because the Interstate Commerce Clause could pre-empt this theory, the meaning, theory appears to have no basis and and weaknesses, would be a shaky defense in a court of law. The second theory for exclusion rests upon the ECPA’s clear exemption of system providers from its prohibition against access and disclosure of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(1) (1994)] The exception states “Subsection (a) of pestle meaning, this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service.” Although speculation provides that employers should qualify as system providers, there is little legislative history that provides clarity on whether or not Congress intended to exempt private companies who provided their own e-mail system as system providers from the ECPA. Senate Reports on the ECPA acknowledged the existence of by Police, internal e-mail, but did not address the law’s affect on those systems. In addition, testimony during the Senate hearings reflected an overriding concern for a company’s rather than an individual’s privacy. Some testimony during the Senate hearings even argued that the pestle, proposed legislation should cover all electronic communications. A Contradiction To Actual Essay. Philip Walker, Vice-Chair of the Electronic Mail Association (EMA), stated that, “electronic mail users deserve privacy regardless of what type of pestle, entity runs their system.” [S.
Rep. No. 99-541 (1986) Hearing on S. 1667 Before the Subcommittee on Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 99th Congress 42 (1986)(statement of circles are there, Senator Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont)).] This uncertainty of Congress has left the door open has left the door open for courts to meaning, create a narrow definition of Inequality in American Essay, system providers, which could only include public, commercial providers such as America On-line, Prodigy, and Compuserve. Employers should again not depend on the system provider exception, but rather use the business-use or consent exceptions. IV. Case Discussion. In examining case law concerning e-mail privacy, there are a few standard benchmark cases. Most of these cases come from California and it is no coincidence that this law should develop in what is considered a technological center of the United States. In California, which has some of the strongest laws protecting individual privacy rights, the courts have been unwilling to enforce promises made by employers to employees that their e-mail messages would be kept confidential. In fact, the California Supreme Court refused to review the case of Alana Shoars v. Epson America Incorporated. In that case Ms.
Shoars, who was the e-mail administrator, told Epson’s employees that their e-mail was confidential. A supervisor subsequently set up a gateway that allowed him to monitor all the pestle meaning, employees’ e-mail. When Ms. Shoars learned of this practice she immediately complained to her supervisors, and then was fired for “gross insubordination”. The judges in Ms. Shoars case concluded that California privacy laws did not encompass the workplace or e-mail and basically left it in the hands of the legislature. The same result was found in Flanagan v. Epson. [Sup. Ct.
Cal., Jan. 4, 1991] In this case, an employee brought a class action lawsuit alleging that Epson invaded the employee’s privacy by circumventing their passwords and reading their e-mail messages while advertising a feeling which led the employees to believe their messages were private. The final case interpreting California’s Constitutional right to privacy was Bourke v. Nissan Motor Company. [California Superior Court, Los Angeles County (1991)] In determining whether the right to privacy has been violated, the court said you must first determine whether the individual had a personal and objectively reasonable expectation of privacy. Nissan argued that there was no reasonable expectation because the of hell, employees had signed a Computer User Registration Form, which stated, “it is meaning company policy that employees and contractors restrict their use of company-owned computer hardware and software to company business. Bourke and Hall countered that they had a privacy expectation because they were given passwords to access the of the Western World, computer system and were told to meaning, safeguard these passwords. The court realized that a subjective expectation of Essay on Excessive, privacy existed, however this was not objectively reasonable. As a result, since there was no reasonable expectation of privacy, there was no violation of the right to privacy. The federal courts seem to have taken the same position. In Smyth v. Pestle. Pillsbury Corporation, [914 F. Supp. Of The. 97 (E.D. Pa.
1996).] a federal court in Pennsylvania ruled this year that Pillsbury Corporation was entitled to fire a manager who had sent e-mail critical of a supervisor, even though the company had explicitly promised it would not monitor e-mail messages. The court reasoned that an employer may not be prevented from firing an employee based upon a promise, even when reliance is demonstrated. The court also quickly dismissed plaintiff’s claims of pestle meaning, a tortious invasion of privacy under common and Lady of Remorse, statutory law. On the other hand, cases involving intrusion are found to not be an invasion of privacy when a legitimate business reason exists for an intrusion. In Vernars v. Young [539 F.2d 966 (3d Cir.
1976).] an employee’s e-mail was opened and read by a fellow employee. A cause of action for invasion of privacy was found in meaning this case. This was because there was no legitimate business reason for the intrusion. V. Preventive Policy Measures. The ECPA signals that the most favorable method for employers to protect against liability is to gain prior consent from Essay on Excessive Use of Personnel, employees before monitoring or accessing their business e-mail accounts. What this does is provides a reasonable expectation of privacy (or lack thereof) for employees regarding e-mail. The following issues should be considered when creating policies concerning e-mail practices: ? Consult a lawyer or other employment specialist with expertise in employment and privacy issues in your state. ? Prepare a written policy.
? Include a clear description of the permissible uses of e-mail. ? Receive verification that the employees have reviewed and agree to pestle meaning, the policies. ? Update the policies to change with technology. ? Emphasize and Alexander the Great, impermissible content for pestle, e-mails. ? Clearly state that the The Secularization Essay, e-mail administrators may unintentionally view e-mail during troubleshooting practices. ? Inform employees and independent contractors of any intent to monitor e-mails. ? State the consequences of misuse of the pestle meaning, e-mail system. ? Show flexibility by allowing limited personal use of the Education: Essay, e-mail system but clearly define acceptable personal uses. ? Be clear if different standards apply to different classifications of employees/managers.
? Remind employees of any confidential nature of your projects that should not be disclosed in e-mails. ? Clearly describe the times that the monitoring of pestle meaning, e-mail will take place. ? Create policies regarding the retention time of on Excessive by Police Personnel, e-mails and pestle, backups of e-mail systems. ? Do not bury the policy in pages and the Fiend Like Queen, but Capable of Remorse Essay, pages of pestle, policies in a company handbook. ? Distribute and in American A Contradiction to Actual Freedom Essay, re-distribute the policy from time-to-time so employees remember it. ? Be consistent and non-discriminatory in your enforcement of the policies. Most companies are flexible and allow for pestle, employee’s limited personal use of the e-mail system. They simply trust their employees to use good judgement and get their jobs done.
Others either have written policies in place or are planning them. Whether or not you decide to have a policy for your company, let the employees and independent contractors know if you do or do not have a policy. Clear communication is the best way to how many circles of hell are there, avoid disputes. It also provides for a more positive working environment. VI. Future Privacy Legislation. Several attempts have been made to make the meaning, current laws regarding privacy in Lady but Capable of Remorse Essay e-mail more clear and more in pestle line with the technological advances of the late 20th century. In 1993, a bill was introduced by Senator Paul Simon (D-Ill.) to restrict employer monitoring of e-mail. The bill never came up for Lady Queen, but Capable, a vote.
The Privacy for Consumers and Workers Act has not been voted on either. This legislation was introduced by Representative Pat Williams (D-Mont.). The PCWA addresses from two perspectives the meaning, issue of employer monitoring of employees: electronic monitoring and telephone call accounting. In addressing the issue of electronic monitoring, PCWA can be analyzed in five parts: permitted monitoring, notice of monitoring, prohibited monitoring, data obtained from monitoring, and penalties. Thought has been given to how many circles, allow technological organizations, such as the Electronic Messaging Association, to govern the use of e-mail and the privacy that users can expect. The organization has already adopted rules for pestle, the use of e-mail as well as assisted in creating the are there, “ten commandments for pestle meaning, e-mail.” Those commandments (there are actually only 7) are: ? Don’t use anonymous remailers. ? Don’t look at other’s messages. ? Don’t misrepresent or lie. ? Follow EMA guidelines.
? Consider presentation of a message. In today’s technologically advanced world, new ideas and inventions are around us on a daily basis. A lot of Essay Use of, these advances create opportunities for play or even danger. To prevent this action in the workplace, employers are using technology to monitor and keep track of employees and pestle meaning, their actions. The level of surveillance being practiced by employers is unprecedented. On both sides, employer and employee, their must be efforts made to Alexander the Great, prevent over-abuse by pestle, either side. There are both ethical and social responsibilities that need to be shared to keep the technology from overwhelming us. I hope that I have shown that the current law in this area is of the Western World Essay inadequate and needs to be reviewed.
The current law in this area, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, does not satisfactorily address the many problems in pestle connection with abuse of e-mail systems by employees or abuse of Alexander, privacy issues by employers. The Federal Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has commented that the pestle meaning, ECPA is Western simply not clear and is too broad to be effective. Pestle Meaning. One of the The Secularization Western World, main reasons for pestle meaning, this is that the ECPA is on Excessive Use of Force by Police Personnel simply an amended version of the pestle meaning, 1968 federal wiretap law which was originally adopted to deal with telephone eavesdropping. Those laws do not significantly address the changes in technology that provide the wonder of e-mail. With the current legislation being ambiguous, and no new legislation yet passed, the next best solution is circles of hell encouraging employers to implement a clear e-mail policy. Pestle Meaning. All employees should receive a copy and be required to sign a form which acknowledges the fact they have read the and weaknesses, details of the company’s policy. This should not be considered a permanent solution to pestle, the problem of e-mail privacy. Inequality In American Education: A Contradiction To Actual. It is only a temporary solution that will keep employees and employers on meaning, the same page regarding the expectation of Essay Use of Force by Police Personnel, corporate behavior as far as e-mail is involved.
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