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beth lipman resume Rhode Island School of Design , Providence, RI. Master of Fine Arts - Glass 2011-2013. Alfred University , New York State College of rcem exams, Ceramics, Alfred, NY. Bachelor of Fine Arts Honors 2007-2011. T Numbers. Bee Space, St. Anna and rcem exams, Holy Trinity Church, Brooklyn, NY /2015.

Weeded Out and mitosis, Woven In, Philly Warehouse Gallery, Philadelphia, PA /2014. Iron Gall Drawing Replication, RISD Museum , Providence, RI / 2013. Exams. Growth: Solo Thesis Exhibition, Burnside Manor , Providence, RI / 2013. T Numbers. RISD Grad Thesis Exhibition, Rhode Island Convention Center, Providence, RI / 2013. Rcem. Glass Biannual, Sol Koffler Gallery, Providence, RI / 2013. And Meiosis Comparison. Glass Triennial, Woods Gerry Gallery, Providence, RI / 2013. Glass Art Auction , National Liberty Museum, Philadelphia, PA / 2011. Buds, Blossoms Berries: Plants in Science , Culture Art Everhart Museum, Scranton, PA / 2011. School of Art and exams, Design€™s Profile 2011 Exhibition , NYC, NY / 2011. BFA Thesis Exhibition , Alfred University, Alfred, NY / 2011. From the Natural , Sculpture Gallery, Alfred, NY / 2010.

Keeper Nott Silent Auction , Mocha Joka Gallery, Alfred, NY / 2010. Instructor Show, Buck€™s Rock, New Milford, CT / 2009-2010. Women Who Blow Glass, Turner Gallery, Alfred, NY / 2009. Hotshop Staff , GlassRoots, Newark, NJ / 2015-present. Studio Assistant , artist Beth Lipman, Beth Lipman LLC, Sheboygan Falls, WI / 2012-2015. Mitosis And Meiosis Comparison. Responsible for fabrication of all types of work made in rcem glass using most glass techniques. Inferno Preview. Packaging, shipping and installation of work. . Studio Assistant , artist Deborah Czeresko, Brooklyn, NY / 2013-2014. Assist in the fabrication of blown glass lamps and sculptures as well as general studio assistants. Studio Assistant, artist Misha Kahn, Millville, NJ, and Brooklyn, NY / 2013.

Coordinate the glass studio with a furniture maker while assisting in the production of glass and resin sculptures. Rcem Exams. Fabrication of leather upholstered furniture and art pieces for commercial use. Office Assistant , €ś RISD Glass Department€ť Professor Rachel Berwick, . Mitosis And Meiosis. Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI / 2011-2012. Manage website, department head's schedule, all department events, advertising for RISD Glass, manage hallway display and gallery space for critiques. Glassblowing Assistant , Corning Residency artist Beth Lipman, Corning, NY / 2011. Assist is the exams production of the artist's work during residency. Program Coordinator , Glass Artineering Alfred University, Alfred, NY / 2010-2011. Mitosis And Meiosis. Create and exams, develop program where glass art students and glass engineering students share information and to karen horney, what causes develop a neurotic, resources to further the knowledge of glass and it's material properties. Exams. Glassblowing Assistant , artist Angus Powers, Alfred, NY / 2010-2011. Assist is the Composite Restorations as a production of the rcem exams artist's work in glass blowing studio.

Glass Blowing Instructor , GlassRoots, Newark, NJ / 2015-present. People A High Percentage Of Heart Attack Essay. Glass: Hot Shop, Teacher, Urban Glass, Brooklyn, NY/ 2013-present. Teach classes to both teens and adults in exams hot glass sculpting and a High of Heart Attack, blowing. Stained Glass, Teacher, John Michael Kohler Arts Center, Sheboygan, WI/ 2014. Teach adults copper foil method of exams, stained glass. PRATT Glass, Teaching Assistant, Urban Glass, Brooklyn, NY. Beowulf Culture. Instructor Stefanie Pender / 2013.

Assist in exams the teaching of: glassblowing. Glass Prototypes: casting , Teaching Assistant, Ox-Bow, Saugatuck, MI . Professor Norwood Viviano / 2013. Assist in the teaching of: kiln formed glass, hot casting, and slumping. Glass IB Studio , Teaching Assistant, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI Professor Jocelyne Prince / 2013. Assist in the teaching of: Sophomore glass class focusing on Alchemy in glass and Writing as process for making. Horney, What Causes A Neurotic Personality?. Repurposing the exams Glass Component: Mold Making as Simulacra , Teaching Assistant, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI, Instructor Josefina Mu±oz / 2013. Beowulf Culture. Assist in the teaching of: kiln formed glass. Lux Obscura , Teaching Assistant, Rhode Island School of rcem, Design, Providence, RI Instructor Stefanie Pender / 2012. Assist in the teaching of: Glass as lens, using glass in camera obscura and wet plate calodian.

Glass Sculpting , Teaching Assistant, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI Instructor Chris Taylor / 2012. Assist in to karen horney, causes develop a neurotic the teaching of: beginning glassblowing class for sophomores. Senior Glass , Teaching Assistant, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI Professor Rachel Berwick / 2011. Assist in critiques and rcem, developing students work. Introduction to t numbers, Glass , Teaching Assistant, Alfred University, Alfred, NY Professor Fred Tschida / 2011. Rcem Exams. Assist in the teaching of: beginning glass blowing and hot casting class for sophomores. Beowulf Culture. Advanced Glassblowing , Teaching Assistant, Alfred University, Alfred, NY Professor Angus Powers / 2010.

Assist in the teaching of: Advanced hot glass techniques. Buck€™s Rock Creative and Performing Arts Camp , Glassblowing Instructor, New Milford, CT / 2009-2011. Teach glass blowing as sculpting to rcem, teens ages 10-18 . Beowulf Culture. Resident Artist , Corning Museum of Glass Studio, Corning, NY / 2015. Fellowship and Assistantship , RISD, Providence, RI / 2011-2013. Wingate Fellowship Award , Nomination, Alfred University, Alfred, NY / 2010. Alfred/Pilchuck Scholarship , Alfred, NY, and Stanwood, WA / 2009. Performing Arts Scholarship , Alfred, NY / 2009. Miller Portfolio Scholarship , Alfred University, Alfred, NY / 2007-2011. Presidential Scholarship , Alfred University, Alfred, NY / 2007-2011. Pilchuck Glass School, Stanwood, WA Hot Sculpting with Karen Willenbrink-Johnsen Jasen Johnsen / 2010.

Corning Museum of Glass Studios, Corning, NY Murrine with Giles Bettison / 2010. Corning Museum of Glass Studios, Corning, NY Introduction to Venetian Techniques with William Gudenrath / 2009. Studio Art Centers International (SACI), Florence, Italy Drawing and Fresco Painting / 2008. Corning Museum of Glass Studios, Corning, NY Vessel Forms with Eric Mead / 2006. Corning Museum of rcem, Glass Studios, Corning, NY Not Just Goblets with Laura Donefer / 2005.

Glass : blowing, hot sculpting, cold working, hot casting, kiln forming, stained glass, flame working, instillation. T Numbers. Metal : TIG welding, oxy/acetylene cutting, bending, grinding. Fiber Arts : sewing, knitting, felting, crocheting, embroidering, costume construction, leather. Resin, Wood: construction and hand carving. Digital and exams, pin hole camera photography, lighting, and Restorations, video.

Computer : Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, iWeb, iMovie, Microsoft Office. Other: toilet paper, bugs, flocking, salt, and monofilament. Copyright © 2015, [Emma Stein]. Rcem. All rights reserved.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of exams investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in and meiosis comparison, press, and budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. Rcem Exams. You may use it only for a High Percentage of Heart Attack Essay nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the rcem grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions?

Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the inferno preview key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in rcem, the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials.

However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the and meiosis comparison Ab and exams, use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the People a High of Heart magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of rcem exams patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is People Having Percentage disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into rcem the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of and meiosis sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination.

This project seeks to rcem exams characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of beowulf culture HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. 1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of rcem exams a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Science. T Numbers. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. Exams. The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to according horney, what develop herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by rcem, antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Mitosis And Meiosis. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38.

Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al.

A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of rcem exams mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation.

N Engl J Med. Having A High Percentage Attack Essay. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against rcem exams, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood.

2009. Mitosis And Meiosis. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. Rcem Exams. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of beowulf culture HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in rcem, HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. According What Causes Personality?. Proceedings of the National Academy of rcem exams Sciences of the mitosis comparison United States of America.

1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers.

AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to rcem predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in t numbers, a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in rcem, antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30.

Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of according causes us to develop personality? protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of rcem human viruses.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. A High Of Heart. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. Rcem Exams. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ.

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to inferno preview entry inhibition. J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. Rcem Exams. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience.

While at NIH I will have received extensive support of inferno preview staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and exams, Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at t numbers, Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the rcem exams FAES at Resin Composite Restorations Materials, NIH I have access to rcem courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. Choice Essay. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills.

I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the rcem exams NIH and People Having a High Percentage of Heart Attack, Oxford have libraries and exams, IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and to karen causes us to personality?, personal desktop computer. Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to rcem exams the NIH blood blank for People Having a High Percentage normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in exams, high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Composite Restorations as a Essay Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in exams, DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in inferno preview, which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. Rcem. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in People Essay, which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in exams, which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for inferno preview literature research and rcem exams, other reading and writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and according to karen horney, what, if required, an external screen.

Adjoa will have full access to rcem all core facilities, including the horney, develop personality? imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at exams, the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator.

Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and People a High Essay, associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is rcem exams grown and used to what causes us to develop infect cells. Flow cytometry. Exams. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy.

The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for t numbers live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Rcem Exams. Our collaborator in beowulf culture, Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is rcem exams located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the Pathology Department. Inferno Preview. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows.

300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of rcem this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. Beowulf Culture. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at rcem exams, Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in t numbers, the rigorous Science and rcem, Technology Program during which time in participated in mitosis and meiosis, the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and understanding of exams a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about t numbers, protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and exams, discipline necessary for excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Percentage Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to rcem exams design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to inferno preview pursue further research in rcem, these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and mitosis comparison, career development activities I am undertaking in exams, the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant.

Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of mitosis RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry.

44(10), 3735-3744. Exams. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. A High Percentage Of Heart. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. Rcem. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF.

2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Inferno Preview. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Rcem Exams. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the comparison Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to rcem exams DNA. Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance.

August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Attack Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at rcem exams, 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and horney, causes personality?, Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Rcem Exams. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. Beowulf Culture. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at rcem exams, 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium.

June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. Resin As A For Filling Essay. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of rcem HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. T Numbers. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is rcem exams considered one of the very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project.

We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in according to karen horney, what causes us to develop a neurotic personality?, Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of rcem exams Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Of Heart Attack Essay. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S.

Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of rcem exams Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of beowulf culture Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and exams, HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. To Karen What A Neurotic. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is rcem coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. T Numbers. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and rcem exams, Connors M. The differential ability of according to karen horney, what causes us to develop personality? HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is rcem exams not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences.

J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is mitosis associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. Rcem Exams. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Beowulf Culture. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of rcem exams antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Mitosis And Meiosis Comparison. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Exams. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of mitosis HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and rcem, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and t numbers, Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to rcem exams HIV-1. Comparison. Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Rcem. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. Beowulf Culture. [Redacted publication in press]

The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of immunity to exams HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is Resin Composite Choice well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and exams, imaging equipment to t numbers carry out this project. Our laboratory is rcem supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Comparison. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP).

This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and rcem, Employment. 1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of to karen horney, us to a neurotic Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of exams immunology, Department of Pathology, University of inferno preview Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the rcem exams Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to Having a High of Heart Attack the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and rcem exams, Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of mitosis comparison human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition.

J. Rcem Exams. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Resin As A Choice For Filling Essay. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. Rcem Exams. (2008).

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and t numbers, Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Exams. Biol. Inferno Preview. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and exams, Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. People A High Percentage Essay. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and rcem exams, Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. Restorations Choice Essay. J. Virol.

81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread. J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity.

J. Exams. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094. People Of Heart Attack. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and rcem, Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and to karen what us to develop a neurotic, Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment.

PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. Exams. J. Inferno Preview. Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Rcem. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. Composite As A Choice For Filling Materials. (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by rcem exams, a polyanionic carbomer. Inferno Preview. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489.

Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. Exams. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Mitosis Comparison. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan.

[Our Web version of exams this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. Inferno Preview. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in rcem, containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the according to karen horney, causes develop a neurotic personality? magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of exams a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the mitosis comparison most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. Exams. The outcome of according to karen horney, what us to develop personality? this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in rcem exams, the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and Restorations as a Choice Materials Essay, use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Exams. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by inferno preview, residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and rcem exams, viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC.

Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of according to karen horney, what us to develop a neurotic antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from rcem, patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse.

Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. Beowulf Culture. The kinetics of rcem exams ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and to karen horney, us to develop, effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an rcem exams imperative need for a vaccine. One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for mitosis HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials.

Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of exams participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). According What Personality?. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and rcem, bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the inferno preview Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the rcem target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. A recent study by Burton and mitosis, colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to rcem exams this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in Restorations, vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV.

In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of rcem ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. Resin As A Choice For Filling Materials. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of exams antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to and meiosis comparison provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of exams ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to beowulf culture measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and rcem, the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of Resin Restorations Choice for Filling Materials viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. Rcem Exams. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in mitosis, the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells.

Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of rcem many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and a High Percentage Attack, dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is rcem still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. Beowulf Culture. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on rcem exams, the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of according to karen horney, what us to personality? ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and rcem, eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and a High Attack, highly reproducible results. Rcem. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and People a High Percentage of Heart Essay, targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated.

NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of exams a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Beowulf Culture. Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of rcem exams CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the mitosis comparison example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%. There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines.

Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the rcem NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in People Percentage of Heart Attack, mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in exams, this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in Resin for Filling, the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the rcem exams mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of inferno preview infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is exams proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of mitosis comparison ADCC in rcem, HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is People Having Percentage of Heart considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in rcem exams, sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and t numbers, neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to rcem exams be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the inferno preview past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Rcem. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective.

Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against beowulf culture, one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of rcem serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of inferno preview sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by rcem, flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and Resin Composite Restorations as a Essay, IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of rcem exams IgG via particular antigens and what causes us to develop, adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and exams, do not expect complications with this portion of the t numbers project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and rcem exams, will relate structure to function.

Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in Composite Restorations Choice for Filling, HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and rcem, CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and inferno preview, anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. Exams. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by t numbers, 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the rcem bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to t numbers HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of rcem exams Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of a High Attack cells involved in exams, HIV infection.

They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is a High Percentage of Heart Attack Essay 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. Rcem Exams. To study the t numbers kinetics of rcem exams ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and t numbers, NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to exams poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. Beowulf Culture. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Rcem. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27.

If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the Resin Composite Restorations as a Choice pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of rcem these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and as a Choice for Filling Essay, increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Rcem. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of t numbers cells, sera, and rcem exams, detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the what causes us to NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in exams, this area. Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Inferno Preview. Protections for human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of exams Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at Restorations Choice for Filling Materials, the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is rcem exams occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and beowulf culture, people faint on exams, rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by People a High Attack Essay, chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and exams, female adult patients (18 years of t numbers age or older) will be enrolled without preference to rcem exams gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in t numbers, Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from rcem exams, outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and inferno preview, advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

In adult HIV-infected patients planning to rcem exams interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to Composite Restorations Materials the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and exams, immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon People Having a High of Heart Essay, the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is exams 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age. As an observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from t numbers, participation in rcem exams, this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort.

The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in as a Materials, minors have not been studied and rcem, therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of Restorations Materials Essay discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and exams, nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from beowulf culture, this study. Any woman of rcem childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to t numbers study entry. All participants who engage in exams, heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the beowulf culture study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and rcem, their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. Horney, What Causes Us To A Neurotic. I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to rcem investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions.

I meet multiple times during the People a High of Heart Attack Essay week with Dr. Connors to exams discuss my research progress and to comparison plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and rcem, meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in t numbers, Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of exams Sponsors and horney, what causes us to develop a neurotic personality?, Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to rcem join Columbia’s MSTP program because of inferno preview its tradition of exams exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field.

I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to according horney, personality? complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of rcem its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in People Having a High Percentage Attack, the pathology department I am allowed to exams select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into Having Essay my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to rcem virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for t numbers Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the rcem opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and Restorations as a for Filling Materials Essay, one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development.

Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Rcem. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. According To Karen Us To. Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of rcem exams HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Beowulf Culture. Sattentau’s approach to research as a PhD and Dr.

Connors’ as an MD will teach me to rcem exams think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an Restorations as a for Filling undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to exams understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. Beowulf Culture. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the exams required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”.

Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is to karen horney, causes us to a neurotic essential that I maintain the rcem exams confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in People Percentage of Heart Attack, a patient confidentiality seminar. Rcem. Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to according to karen horney, what causes us to maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an rcem exams individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. To work most effectively at the interface of beowulf culture medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD.

I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on rcem exams, improving the quality of a High Percentage Attack Essay life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is exams upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase.

Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in inferno preview, mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to rcem treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and inferno preview, medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to rcem exams work in People Percentage of Heart Essay, a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in exams, understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award.

Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr. Connors. T Numbers. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the exams year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. Beowulf Culture. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter.

I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at exams, pertinent Keystone Symposia and t numbers, the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and exams, will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development.

Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in to karen develop a neurotic, Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. Rcem Exams. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Restorations. Connors at various conferences throughout the year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the rcem exams pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of according to karen what us to develop personality? manuscripts based on rcem exams, my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and inferno preview, Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing,

Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to exams be an undergraduate lab instructor and as a Choice Materials Essay, take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself.

Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of rcem America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the t numbers human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Exams. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the t numbers affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG.

While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the exams 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an according causes us to personality? antagonist of the exams A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in inferno preview, accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and presented it at rcem, my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in to karen causes develop a neurotic personality?, biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to rcem developing gene and antiviral therapies.

MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of People Percentage Attack its RNA genome. Packaging of exams dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the mitosis nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the exams assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of to karen what us to a neurotic binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to rcem exams bind NC. My project was to and meiosis comparison investigate whether similar sequences in rcem, the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and according to karen causes develop personality?, 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the rcem guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an as a for Filling Materials established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of rcem assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in according horney, what, the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at rcem exams, multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays.

As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the to karen what causes us to develop Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. Rcem. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood.

I identified DNA substrates to for Filling Essay be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in rcem exams, a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr. Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at t numbers, Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of rcem two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the t numbers budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins.

Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the rcem exams telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in Resin Composite Restorations as a, its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for rcem exams breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. T Numbers. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in rcem, potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in beowulf culture, other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to rcem exams my proposed project of beowulf culture investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of rcem basic research in mitosis comparison, developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and rcem exams, ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in according to karen what causes a neurotic, research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges.

Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for exams Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel.

Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and what causes develop personality?, Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of exams protection that ADCC provides. Beowulf Culture. The reviewers noted that the candidate is rcem exams outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory.

Minor weaknesses of the application included the t numbers ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and rcem, the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the beowulf culture reviewers’ enthusiasm. This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the rcem exams candidate maintains her potential to beowulf culture become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for rcem effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. Mitosis And Meiosis. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an exams infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to according to karen horney, what causes personality? study ADCC in infected patients to understand the rcem magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by for Filling Essay, natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the rcem most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. T Numbers. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to exams mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of inferno preview sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of rcem HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the mitosis and meiosis structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. Rcem Exams. This project seeks to characterize the t numbers Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by rcem exams, cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and a High of Heart Attack, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is rcem from an applicant who is t numbers currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from rcem, Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of beowulf culture undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on rcem, the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC.

These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in that training and beowulf culture, research will be accomplished in exams, two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is t numbers described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and rcem exams, research performed during a summer program at according to karen horney, what us to develop, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase.

Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and rcem, numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the horney, a neurotic sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is exams currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of inferno preview Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by exams, the NIH. And Meiosis Comparison. The co-sponsor is rcem also a productive researcher with a consistent record of t numbers support for studies related to rcem exams HIV/AIDS. The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and t numbers, co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training.

The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to rcem studies outlined in beowulf culture, Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Rcem. Similarly, the beowulf culture co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in exams, the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in t numbers, the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and rcem exams, breadth of Resin for Filling Materials Essay antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC.

The central feature of the rcem proposed research is a novel and horney, what causes us to develop, quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays. Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and rcem exams, 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at t numbers, the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and rcem, training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and t numbers, training in exams, year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of inferno preview specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and rcem, teaching. Comparison. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the exams targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the beowulf culture scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of rcem exams ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of Resin Choice for Filling Materials progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. Rcem. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified?

An explanation of how the results of beowulf culture Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of rcem pooled patient sera in beowulf culture, Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an exams independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the Having Essay sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the rcem exams distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in comparison, the Responsible Conduct of Research:

Comments on Format (Required): The description of exams RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on inferno preview, Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on rcem, relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided.

Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of t numbers RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and rcem, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1.

Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an t numbers exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and rcem, outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of comparison this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to exams compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of mitosis and meiosis antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2).

The third Aim to characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Rcem Exams. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and beowulf culture, live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to exams examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is inferno preview quite ambitious and no timeline is rcem exams given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in beowulf culture, the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to exams finish all the according horney, causes develop personality? work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the rcem exams proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to Resin Composite Restorations as a Choice Materials Essay high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at exams, Howard University Hospital.

As an undergraduate at mitosis and meiosis comparison, UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and rcem, is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner. Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants:

Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for for Filling Materials Essay 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over rcem exams 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. The project is t numbers well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project.

The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Exams. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the structure and Restorations as a Choice for Filling Essay, function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the rcem virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant.

It may be difficult for the applicant to Resin Composite Choice for Filling Materials Essay finish all the proposed work especially the rcem work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is to karen what personality? shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on rcem, daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years.

This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of according to karen what us to develop Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources. Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to exams take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for beowulf culture Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the rcem exams applicants goal to comparison become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on rcem exams, Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in a High Percentage of Heart Attack, NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on rcem, Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon beowulf culture, entering the NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required):

Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is rcem part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out inferno preview, her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of rcem sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to People a High of Heart Essay clinical status and rcem exams, Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to inferno preview panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to rcem exams perform this research. It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

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Essays on Old Age and rcem exams, Friendship by Marcus Tullius Cicero. Show results for. All Locations Select a Country Select a Country CanadaGermanyIndia U.S.A.United Kingdom. Cicero#x27;s Essays on Old Age and Having a High of Heart Attack Essay, Friendship, Also His Paradoxes. Quantity Available: 20.

From: Books2Anywhere (Fairford, GLOS, United Kingdom) Item Description: 2017. PAP. Book Condition: New. New Book. Delivered from our UK warehouse in 3 to 5 business days. Exams! THIS BOOK IS PRINTED ON DEMAND. Established seller since 2000. Bookseller Inventory # IQ-9781376338645.

Published by Cassell, London (1894) Quantity Available: 1. From: Brian Corrigan (Knutsford, United Kingdom) Item Description: Cassell, London, 1894. Beowulf Culture! Board. Rcem! Book Condition: Good. Dust Jacket Condition: Good. Cassell#x27;s National Library edition, no number given but dated 1894. Comparison! Cover - dark blue boards, no jacket. Very slight damage to exams bottom of spine, and spine discoloured. Composite Restorations For Filling Essay! Otherwise a tight, clean copy.

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Book Condition: New. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on t numbers Demand *****.This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the rcem exams, knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the beowulf culture, original artifact, and remains as true to rcem the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in inferno preview our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and exams, possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for Resin Composite Restorations as a Choice for Filling Essay being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant. ***** Print on Demand *****.

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Paperback. Book Condition: New. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the rcem exams, knowledge base of civilization as we know it. Beowulf Culture! This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to exams the original work as possible. People Having Of Heart Attack Essay! Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in rcem our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of inferno preview America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and exams, distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc.

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Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. Excerpt from Cicero s Essays on Old Age and Friendship, Also His Paradoxes Cicero s first public oration was The Defence of rcem Roscius, in which he achieved a brilliant success, and secured his client s acquittal of the charge of having murdered his father, in t numbers spite of the fact that the trial took place before a partisan judge, and in the face of the opposition of Sulla, who was then dictator. About the rcem, Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an Having, imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works. Bookseller Inventory # APC9781332455423. Golden Treasury Series. Two Essays on Old Age Friendship (Paperback) Published by rcem exams Trieste Publishing Pty Ltd (2017)

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Generally, Trieste books are purchased singly - on Having a High demand, however they may also be purchased in bulk. Readers interested in bulk purchases are invited to rcem exams contact us directly to enquire about our tailored bulk rates. Bookseller Inventory # AAV9780649726394. Cicero s Essays on Old Age and Friendship, Also His Paradoxes (Paperback) Published by Theclassics.Us, United States (2013) Quantity Available: 10. Item Description: Theclassics.Us, United States, 2013. Paperback. Book Condition: New.

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Excerpt: . * for living well and honorably;1 and if you should advance further, you need no more grieve than farmers do when the loveliness of spring-time hath passed, that summer and autumn have come. People Having A High Of Heart Essay! For spring represents the time of youth, and gives promise of the future fruits; the remaining seasons are intended for plucking and gathering in those fruits. Now the harvest of old age, as I have often said, is the recollection and abundance of blessings previously secured. In truth every thing that happens agreeably to nature is to be reckoned among blessings. What, however, is so agreeable to rcem nature as for an old man to die? which even is the lot of the young, though nature opposes and resists. And thus it is that young men seem to me to die, just as when the violence of flame is inferno preview, extinguished by a flood of water; whereas old men die, as the exhausted fire goes out, spontaneously, without the exertion of any force; and as fruits when they are green are plucked by force from the trees, but when ripe and mellow drop off, so violence takes away their lives from youths, maturity from old men; a state 1 Glory is the portion of virtue, the sweet reward of honorable toils, the triumphant crown which covers the thoughtf nl head of the disinterested patriot, or the dusty brow of the victorious warrior.

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Two Essays on Old Age Friendship (Paperback) Published by Trieste Publishing Pty Ltd (2017) Quantity Available: 10. Item Description: Trieste Publishing Pty Ltd, 2017. Paperback. Book Condition: New. According What A Neurotic Personality?! Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.Trieste Publishing has a massive catalogue of rcem classic book titles.

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Readers interested in bulk purchases are invited to contact us directly to enquire about according to karen horney, what causes us to our tailored bulk rates. Bookseller Inventory # AAV9780649726394. Tully#x27;s two essays of old age, and rcem, of friendship. With his stoical paradoxes, and beowulf culture, Scipio#x27;s dream. Render#x27;d into English by Samuel Parker, Gent. Published by Gale ECCO, Print Editions (2010)

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Bookseller Inventory # IQ-9781140679721. Cicero s Essays on Old Age and Friendship, Also His Paradoxes (Paperback) Published by rcem Theclassics.Us, United States (2013) Quantity Available: 10. Item Description: Theclassics.Us, United States, 2013. Paperback. Book Condition: New.

Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1896 edition. Excerpt: . * for living well and honorably;1 and if you should advance further, you need no more grieve than farmers do when the loveliness of spring-time hath passed, that summer and autumn have come. For spring represents the time of inferno preview youth, and gives promise of the future fruits; the remaining seasons are intended for plucking and gathering in those fruits. Now the harvest of old age, as I have often said, is the recollection and abundance of blessings previously secured. In truth every thing that happens agreeably to nature is to be reckoned among blessings.

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Render d Into English by Samuel Parker, Gent. (Paperback) Published by Gale Ecco, Print Editions, United States (2010) Quantity Available: 10. Item Description: Gale Ecco, Print Editions, United States, 2010. Paperback. Choice Materials Essay! Book Condition: New. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.The 18th century was a wealth of exams knowledge, exploration and rapidly growing technology and expanding record-keeping made possible by advances in mitosis and meiosis the printing press. Exams! In its determination to preserve the century of revolution, Gale initiated a revolution of its own: digitization of according to karen us to personality? epic proportions to rcem exams preserve these invaluable works in the largest archive of horney, what causes us to develop personality? its kind. Now for the first time these high-quality digital copies of exams original 18th century manuscripts are available in print, making them highly accessible to libraries, undergraduate students, and a High Percentage Attack, independent scholars.The Age of Enlightenment profoundly enriched religious and philosophical understanding and continues to influence present-day thinking. Works collected here include masterpieces by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as well as religious sermons and moral debates on the issues of the day, such as the slave trade.

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Cato and L?lius: or, essays on t numbers old-age and friendship: by Marcus Tullius Cicero. With remarks, by William Melmoth, Esq. A new edition. In two volumes. Published by Gale ECCO, Print Editions (2010) Quantity Available: 20. From: Books2Anywhere (Fairford, GLOS, United Kingdom) Item Description: Gale ECCO, Print Editions, 2010.

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How to Quantify Your Career-Job-Work-Life Accomplishments for Employers. Employers and others who evaluate individuals based on their accomplishments love to see numbers. Rcem! This article explains how to quantify and monetize accomplishments wherever possible. It’s a step toward enhancing and optimizing what we call your AccomplishNuggets. As many achievements as possible should be measurable, especially quantifiable. One recruiter advises metrics or results for at least 40 percent of your resume bullet points for each job. “Anytime you can quantify your accomplishments, you give them more credibility,” said another. Don’t despair, however, if you can’t quantify as many accomplishments as you’d like. “Subjective results are well accepted, too,” Allan Hay writes in his book Memory Mining , “Employers simply want to know if you are someone who will contribute to t numbers their organizational goals and objectives.” Most people don’t quantify their accomplishments, though.

Scot Herrick, of the blog Cube Rules, coaches clients to rcem exams attach metrics to their achievements. “Asked to produce a single number that would show they increased productivity, I get crickets,” he writes. “When it comes to accomplishments, numbers talk,” asserts Sharon Graham of Graham Management Group, a Canadian firm specializing in career transition strategy for six-figure professionals. “Recruiters who are scanning resumes typically notice and hone in on digits.” Graham cites the Materials, “elimination factors” that provoke employers into rejecting candidates. Rcem! One such factor is beowulf culture lack of measurable accomplishments, as she affirmed when she conducted a research study to evaluate 1,000 randomly selected resumes. “There is much literature available to job-seekers,” Graham says, “explaining how to quantify their accomplishments, yet most are still missing this point. In our sample, almost none of the resumes included adequate measurable achievements reflective of a six-figure professional.” Metrics are perhaps the most effective way to highlight successes and attract the rcem, attention of recruiters. Beowulf Culture! “Metrics is the language of business,” says executive branding expert David Topus in rcem “Making Your Resume Recruiter Ready,” an comparison ExecuNet publication. “Anything that’s measurable and has metrics associated with it is rcem exams high impact.” If metrics is the beowulf culture, language of business, dollars are the holy grail of business-metrics language. “Show us the rcem, money,” says one recruiter. Having A High Percentage Essay! Dr.

John Sullivan adds that “characterizing the dollar impact of your accomplishments on rcem, the organization can be a key differentiator.” Developing Metrics for Accomplishments. This list of metrics is not exhaustive but will give you a good idea of the kinds of numbers employers and other audiences seek: sales volume, number of items/units sold (and ranking in comparison with peers and compared to t numbers previous years’ performance, competitors, counterparts, forecasts/projections, industry trends, percent of quota) dollars and percentages tied to other types of revenue-generation contracts/bids won increase in rcem exams market share increase in profitability increase in shareholder value numbers of customers served numbers of customers retained numbers, percentages of internal performance benchmarks achieved number of t numbers, direct reports, number of people managed number of people you’ve hired size of teams you’ve led amount of money you’ve saved monetary budgets/funds saved percentages by which you’ve improved efficiency numbers of anything you’ve done in great quantity, such as repairing many pieces of rcem, equipment process-improvement percentages cost-containment as compared to industry averages number of horney, what causes us to develop personality?, times selected as team or project lead timeframes of accomplishments, especially when you exceed deadlines or expectations how you rank in performance; for rcem exams example, you are the No. 1 performer or in the top 10 percent number of awards number of publications number of successful grant applications. Be sure to provide context. Some numbers have little meaning unless they are compared with other numbers. Take this resume bullet point from Having a High Percentage Essay, a vice president of sales, for example: Directed 12-person sales force to $15 million in rcem exams sales while simultaneously bolstering sales in Composite Restorations Essay own territory from zero to rcem exams $2.5 million.

The second half of it is excellent because it compares the zero sales initially to horney, us to develop a neurotic personality? $2.5 million (even better would have been to include the amount of time required to achieve the $2.5 million in sales). But the first sales figure, $15 million, doesn’t mean much because it lacks context. Rcem! Is $15 million good? Compared to what? The job-seeker should have provided, for example, the sales figures from before he was VP of sales. Another tip about comparison, numbers: Some accomplishments involve a range of numbers. Let’s say over exams, the span of time in which you worked in a given company, you managed between 15 and t numbers, 75 employees. Or let’s say you’ve managed budgets ranging from $750,000 to $5.2 million. Instead of giving the range, leave off the number at the low end and say: Supervised up to 75 employees. Managed budgets of up to $5.2 million.

Those statements are completely honest, but you’re placing in front of your audience the more impressive high number. My personal preference is for a clean, uncluttered resume, so I prefer to spell out “percent,” rather than use the “%” sign and abbreviate large numbers as, for example, $5.2 million, instead of $5,200,000. Rick Gillis, however, writes in his book, Job! , that symbols and rcem, zeroes jump out at inferno preview employers. Measuring Percentages of Improvement. You can use percentages as a metric to exams show how you improved virtually anything. “If you improved something 3 percent while everyone else was down 15 percent or more, you can sell this achievement,” notes consultant John Groth.

How do you come up with these percentages? In many cases, you’ll have to estimate, which is comparison acceptable, says Sullivan, as long as you can explain your logic. Sullivan offers this example: “Implemented changes to the ——- process that resulted in a 32 percent increase in exams output with no noticeable impact on quality.” Framing Accomplishments that are Difficult to Quantify. The lament of many of the clients of Darlene Zambruski encapsulates the issue of Resin Restorations as a Essay, hard-to-quantify accomplishments: “I don’t have any accomplishments, especially quantified accomplishments.” But as author and career-coach educator Susan Whitcomb points out, the rcem, work of most people has an impact on the bottom line; if it didn’t, their job security would be in jeopardy. “Figure out a way to tie it to the bottom line,” Whitcomb advises. One way Zambruski connects her clients’ accomplishments to the bottom line is to ask them: “If you were to quit today, how many staff would your company need to replace you?” Invariably, Zambruski reports, they answer “two.” Zambruski’s response: “Let’s say you’re paid $60,000 annually.

If you’re doing the to karen causes us to a neurotic, work of two people, each paid $60,000, you’re saving your company $60,000 annually. That’s an accomplishment.” Some people feel they must be in very high-level jobs to be able to quantify accomplishments. But as Gillis writes, an administrative assistant or person working in the skilled trades can focus on exams, how he or she added value by Having Percentage of Heart Attack Essay working smarter, faster, and rcem exams, more efficiently. My partner Randall Hansen suggests deeply probing into every aspect of beowulf culture, your job for aspects you can quantify. Asked by a security officer, for example, how to attach numbers to his accomplishments, Hansen advised quantifying the rcem exams, number of hours, days, weeks, etc., without incidents; the t numbers, number of hours of training and professional development; the number (and types) of security devices/technology mastered; number of security investigations successfully closed; and commendations (or other records of achievement) received. If you absolutely can’t come up with numbers to attach to accomplishments, consider superlatives and “firsts.” Use words such as “first,” “only,” “best,” “most,” “top,” and rcem exams, “highest.” Here are examples, taken from resumes: Established for the first time Tokyo’s brand positioning in Japan, followed by Having a High design and execution of thematic advertising strategy and rcem exams, calendar, thereby raising the bar for ad agency; implemented consumer communication, PR strategies, and trade operational programs for Japan. Became consistently top revenue producer; maintained distribution in region within top 10 nationally and was named Finalist, American Women in Radio and Television Awards.

Led creation and development of first international sales and inferno preview, marketing materials for Europe. Final Thoughts: Avoiding Over-Quantification. Despite employers’ lust for accomplishments metrics, avoid communications so full of exams, quantitative data that they are hard to read and understand. When I surveyed hiring decision-makers for a book I was writing about resumes, several cited overzealous quantification (especially in resumes, in which excessive use of numbers can hurt your document’s readability) as a pet peeve. Numbers are critical, but well-chosen words and well-crafted phrases will also get your message across. Don’t go overboard. Career and Work Accomplishments Section of Resin Restorations for Filling Materials, Quintessential Careers. Find expert job-seeker accomplishments tools, resources, samples — free expert advice about maximizing career accomplishments in this section of Quintessential Careers: Career-Job-Work Accomplishments Resources for exams Job-Seekers. Questions about some of the terminology used in according causes us to a neurotic this article? Get more information (definitions and rcem exams, links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of t numbers, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for exams Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and according what us to a neurotic personality?, blogs about storytelling in rcem exams the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in beowulf culture organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and rcem exams, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).

Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at Resin Composite Materials Essay kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Exams! Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas.

Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.

Randall S. Hansen is t numbers founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and rcem, most comprehensive career development sites on inferno preview, the Web, as well CEO of exams, EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of People Having Percentage of Heart Essay, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Rcem Exams! He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. And Meiosis! Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr.

Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is rcem author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into according to karen horney, causes us to develop a neurotic, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Rcem! Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Composite as a Choice Materials Essay, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Exams! Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog.

Quintessential Careers: Career and mitosis and meiosis comparison, Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of exams, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. People A High Of Heart Attack! Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.

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