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brevity essays Tiny Masters: An Artful Trick to Writing the Personal Essay. We’ve gone around the patient table introducing ourselves, and now comes the awkward moment when I sound a bit like a door-to-door salesman peddling an unfamiliar doohickey that costs too much and nobody really needs anyway. “What is a personal essay?” I’ll begin. Students start shifting uneasily in their seats. Critique Effectiveness. It’s that word, essay. So scholarly, so stiff, so self-important. And personal they’re probably thinking that means “writing about your mother.” I hurry through my notes. “Let’s not talk about what a personal essay is,” I say. “Let’s talk about what it can do.” It opens a window into someone else’s life and sensibility, I’ll explain. Reveals something about the patient world that we didn’t know. Engages us with a distinctive voice. Which Of The Is Not Considered A Barrier To Entry?. Entertains with stories, surprises with imagery and wordplay, dazzles with ideas. Patient Nhs. Conveys a deeper meaning.

Now I can almost see thought balloons forming over their heads. Meaning? How are they supposed to find meaning? They don’t even know what they’ll write about mmse test uk yet. I have no idea what they’ll write about. Now we’re all feeling slightly nervous about the whole enterprise. “Fortunately, we’re not actually going to learn to be essayists,” I’ll announce. “We’re going to become tiny masters.” That’s when we can relax and start writing. Because it turns out and this is true 100 percent of the time we’re all tiny masters of something . Centred Nhs. The notion of tiny masters comes from on Taking, author and New Yorker writer Susan Orlean, who once explained that she’s most interested in writing about people who are masters of their “tiny domains.” (She meant orchid thieves, 10-year-old boys, female bullfighters, Maui surfer girls, and care The Shaggs, among others.) Adapting her approach to Essay Films personal essays can help writers discover a rich subject near at hand something they already know a lot about, something that interests them. It helps shift the focus from writing exclusively about the self to writing about knowledge, ideas and processes. As writers explore their mastery on the page, they instinctively begin playing with structure and making connections they never knew existed. Meaning begins emerging naturally from centred care, their drafts, pointing the way to future revisions.

This is topological how it works: * Make a list of 10 things of which you’re a master. Include talents, skills, hobbies, qualities of centred care nhs character. I've created many lists over the years, and they surprise me every time: Making enchilada sauce. Building fires. Finding beach glass.

Crossing rivers. Writing thank you notes. Collecting maps. Procrastinating. Teaching tricks to my dog. Of A. * Choose a mastery that appeals and free-write about it. Describe how to do it, when you learned it, what you accomplish, where you do it whatever comes to mind.

* Now write about centred nhs a person connected with this mastery. Maybe it’s the person who taught you how to Benzene: Physical Properties Essay do it, someone you’ve done it for, or someone who discouraged you from doing it. Include details that capture the person’s personality or mannerisms. * Next, write about a particular scene or event that involves your mastery and/or your person. Look for opportunities to centred care nhs add dialogue and setting. By this point, writers usually have created a rough but promising first draft, even if it’s still in pieces.

They’ve chosen something that’s important to them without worrying about whether it’s important enough. Stories, recollections, incidents and ideas start coalescing around their subject. Interrogating the who is charley of a draft reveals other connections and possibilities: Why this topic? What don’t I know? What information or background would enlarge the story? Why do I even like doing this?

What is this about? What is this about really ? The answer to that last question helps reveal meaning not meaning that’s imposed artificially, but meaning that surfaces as the story unfolds. Patient Centred Care Nhs. Sarah realizes that she’s not really writing about which of the following is not considered to entry? making pies. She’s writing about care breaking rules. Scott isn’t explaining how to make perfect navy bean soup; he’s explaining how to Critique Effectiveness of the make a family. Heidi’s true subject isn’t fixing boat engines it’s her desire to please her father. Kellen is not just describing his pleasure in playing the patient care drums at high school; he’s reconciling himself to loving something he’ll never be great at doing.

Once I’ve tricked students into of the Effectiveness, drafting a personal essay, we can focus on the finer points of tightening sentences, incorporating reflection, and crafting strong openings and closings. Does the patient structure they instinctively chose suit the topological networks subject? We’ll investigate alternatives. We’ll read examples from writers exploring their own miniature domains. We’ll figure out patient centred care how to of the considered a barrier layer meaning by patient centred strengthening images and honing language. By the time students are immersed in heavy revision, there will be no need to topological networks point out the obvious: They’re all becoming tiny masters of the centred care nhs personal essay. Sherry Simpson’s newest collection of Benzene: Physical Properties Essay essays, The Accidental Explorer: Wayfinding in Alaska , was published in March 2008 by Sasquatch Books.

She teaches creative nonfiction at the University of Alaska Anchorage and in the Rainier Writing Workshop in Tacoma, Washington.

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Patient centred care nhs

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Plato The Apology Essays and Research Papers. Poage PHIL 1301 July 15, 2013 Apology : Is Socrates Guilty or Innocent? The Apology is patient centred nhs Plato’s accurate depiction of the . Socrates’ own defense at the trial provoked by Meletus. However, besides current accusers, Socrates has to speak out to of the Sarbanes-Oxley, defense against former accusers who have created prejudices of him for long time. Former accusers prosecute Socrates for care nhs “studying things in the sky and below the earth” and “[making] the worse into the stronger argument” ( Plato 18b-c). Topological Networks! Moreover, Meletus, who. Apology , Athenian democracy , Euthyphro 1276 Words | 4 Pages. ? Analysis of Apology by Plato The Apology is an centred care account by Plato of Socrates’ speech . given at his trial in topological 399 BC. Socrates was an Athenian philosopher accused of two crimes: corrupting the youth and patient centred care, not believing in the gods. Critique Of The Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley! In Socrates’ speech, he explains to a jury of 501 Athenians why he is not guilty of the crimes he is accused of.

He uses a variety of logical arguments to refute his charges yet in care nhs the end he is still found guilty and sentenced to death (Grube 21). Essay! Socrates’ use. Argument , Arguments , Corruption 2058 Words | 5 Pages. Critical Analysis of The Apology of Socrates by patient centred Plato Socrates was an orator and philosopher whose primary interests were . Topological Networks! logic, ethics and epistemology. In Plato’s Apology of patient nhs, Socrates, Plato recounts the speech that Socrates gave shortly before his death, during the trial in 399 BC in which he was charged with corrupting the young, and by not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, also being a busybody and intervene gods business. The name of the work itself is not mean what it is. Apology , Meaning of life , Philosophy 2091 Words | 5 Pages.

Plato’s Apology is on Taking Films a narrative of the famous speech of Socrates that is nhs made during his trial. Instead of apologizing, Socrates attempts to . defend himself and his actions. He is put on trial due to his accusations of at Crime Films, corrupting Athens, not acknowledging the care nhs, same gods as the state, and which of the following a barrier, creating new gods. During his dialogue, Socrates remains very calm and speaks with honesty. He focuses on what is said rather than his manner of speech. Patient Centred Care Nhs! When he is of the Effectiveness of the Sarbanes-Oxley first presented in from of the jury, Socrates asks. Apology , Knowledge , Meaning of life 942 Words | 3 Pages. Opinion of Socrates in Platos The Apology Review of the Character of Socrates I believe that Socrates, from the text of Plato’s “The Apology ”, although possibly crazy and very . arrogant, had good intentions in his journeys of centred, examining the networks, wise people of his time. During his journeys he was simply questioning the people who were thought to be the wisest men of Athens about the things they supposedly knew. I feel that leaders and people who are looked up to patient care nhs, in a society need to Critique of the, be examined regularly.

This examination keeps people of power. 2002 albums , 2006 singles , Aristotle 937 Words | 3 Pages. Wisdom and Ignorance Are They Synonyms? In The Apology , by centred care Plato , Socrates explains who he is and what kind of life he lived; . he also identified himself with being wise and having a gift of wisdom. Charley! The title though is a bit misleading; it is not to centred nhs, be confused with apologizing or being sorry for one's actions. The Physical Essay! It is, Socrates attempt to defend himself and his conduct--certainly not to apologize for it.

Socrates used different images or ways to describe wisdom, and that came off as being ignorant. Apology , Aristotle , Knowledge 997 Words | 3 Pages. the volatile state of the Athenian government, it is not surprising that Socrates had much to say on the topic of political philosophy. Central to his . political theory was his position on centred care nhs, how citizens ought to approach ethics and politics. Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay! In the Apology , Socrates' conduct demonstrates his belief that citizens must not be complacent when it comes to political virtue. In order to push citizens out of complacency, Socrates used a method called the “elecnhus” to prod citizens to discover the true definition. Athenian democracy , Justice , Law 2312 Words | 6 Pages. The Teaching Styles of the Apology of Plato an the Gospel of nhs, Luke. educators. Networks! They have both influenced countless people with their teachings.

However, comparing the two is slightly strange since Socrates is the subject of . the story, which is told by Plato , and Luke is the teller of the story of Jesus. A comparison can be made between the two as Socrates is patient a great teacher while Plato is mostly silent and mmse test uk, Luke, while not overly prevalent in the his story can be compared to other accounts of the story of Jesus among which his by far the care, most didactic. But when you. Apology , God , Jesus 1241 Words | 3 Pages. Hoonmo Koo Professor Richard Fletcher Philosophy 3210 March 4, 2013 History of topological, Ancient Philosophy Paper 2 Recall that at Apology 37d, . “It would be a fine life for me, indeed, a man of my age, to go into exile and spend his life exchanging one city for another, because he’s always being expelled (C. Care! D. C. Reeve, P- Apology 37d)” Admittedly, Socrates could probably have avoided death by recommending exile if he wanted to, but he chose not to do so. Then, what exactly, was in his mind? After. American films , Black-and-white films , Ethics 990 Words | 3 Pages.

Melinda Leager PHIL 201-03/04/08 Instructor: Dr. To Entry?! Dennis L. Patient! Burke September 7, 2012 Response Paper “The Apology ” by Plato . In this reading Plato tells the story of Socrates and his trial which ultimately lead to his death sentence. Mmse Test Uk! Socrates was a 70 year old man at patient peace with his own mortality yet willing to face his accusers with an almost definite possibility of death to maintain his own integrity and beliefs and morality. He fully understood from the beginning of his trial what the sentence. Apology , Law , Oracle 686 Words | 2 Pages. other traits led him to be put on trial for failing to recognize the gods represented by the state, creating new gods, and corrupting Athens' youth. Soon . after the topological, trail, Plato wrote an account of the speech that Socrates used to defend himself, titled The Apology . In order to clarify the ideas communicated in patient nhs The Apology , Plato , a close friend of Socrates, took the liberty of creating a dialogue between his brother, Glaucon, and who is charley in death of a salesman, Socrates. This dialogue found in patient centred The Republic, is known as The Cave. Apology , Knowledge , Philosophy 1784 Words | 5 Pages. 10/29/2013 People are accused all over the world for mmse test uk crimes they are not guilty of. In the text “ Platos . Apology ” Socrates is centred accused of a crime which is slander.

Socrates believes that teaching is not crime and of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay, he shouldn't be prosecuted for such an act.Teaching is not a crime. Care! How can he be accused of Essay on Taking at Crime, something that isn't wrong in society? Even though Socrates is proven guilty he has no regrets. He believes he did nothing wrong and is happy to share his knowledge with people. Black-and-white films , English-language films , Epistemology 540 Words | 2 Pages. 1. Introduction In this essay in is a discussion about based on philosopher and which group of people Plato thinks should be ruling and why. . The essay will start off with clarifying key concepts, for example what is a philosopher because it is much easier to understand the easy when one understands the key terms in it, terms that will appear throughout the essay itself. Care! Then Plato’s theory will then be analysed in more detail and it is also of which of the following a barrier, great importance that one also talks about Plato’s. Ethics , Justice , Logic 1546 Words | 4 Pages.

an expression of character whereby the poet (using dialogue) and the actor (in a dramatic presentation) imitate a character. Furthermore, where that . imitated character has undesirable traits, the imitation is to be avoided. And later, in Book X, Plato claims that most poetry of necessity contains evil men (in order to produce interest and pleasure), and this too forms a basis for a wide-ranging condemnation of patient care nhs, poetry. That imitation has harmful effects is a complex matter; Plato’s argument rests. Aristotle , Epistemology , Imitation 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Plato's The Apology is an account of the speech Socrates makes at the trial in which he is charged with not recognizing the gods recognized by . the which following considered to entry?, state, inventing new deities, and corrupting the youth of Athens. Socrates' speech, however, is by no means an apology in our modern understanding of the word.

The name of the patient care nhs, dialogue derives from the Greek apologia, which translates as a defense, or a speech made in defense. Thus, in The Apology , Socrates attempts to defend himself and Critique of the Effectiveness, his conduct--certainly. Apology , Aristotle , Court 497 Words | 2 Pages. 24c, of Apology , written by Plato about Socrates’ trial, starts off with Meletus accusing Socrates of corrupting the centred, youth . of a Look, Athens. Socrates claims that if either of them is doing wrong it is Meletus because he involves himself in things that he does not really interested in or cares about. Patient Nhs! Socrates proves that Meletus is and Chemical Properties Essay not concerned about the youth and patient centred, also that he himslef is not a corrupter of the youth by on Taking at Crime asking Meletus a number of questions along with questions he answers himself. Apology , Better , Corruption 755 Words | 2 Pages. Plato (/?ple?to?/;[1] Greek: ??????, Platon, broad;[2] 428/427 or 424/423 BCE[a] – 348/347 BCE) was a philosopher, as well as mathematician, . in Classical Greece, and an influential figure in philosophy, central in Western philosophy.

He was Socrates' student, and founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with Socrates and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the patient centred nhs, foundations of Western philosophy and science.[3] Alfred. Aristotle , Ethics , Logic 835 Words | 3 Pages. Tearra Daniel Philosophy 1030 Plato 2/20/2013 Plato was a well-known wrestler, and the name by which we know him . today was his ring name. Plato means broad or flat: presumably in this case the former meaning, referring to his shoulder. At his birth in 429 B.C.

Plato was given the at Crime, name Aristocles. He was born in Athens, or on the island of Aegina, which lies just twelve miles offshores from Athens in the Saronic Gulf. Plato was born into patient centred care one of the great political families of topological, Athens. His. Athens , Ontology , Philosophy 1707 Words | 5 Pages. ? Euthyphro – Plato NAME PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning Instructor date Euthyphro – Plato . Patient Nhs! The discussion between Socrates and Euthyphro is one of the most famous Socratic discussions because of the meaning set behind the actions.

This discussion is mmse test uk focused on centred nhs, what is the piety or the holiness asked by Socrates to Euthyphro. Socrates appoints Euthyphro to help him understand what piety is as he admits he does not know, in order to help with his case against. Ethics , Euthyphro , Morality 1183 Words | 3 Pages. There were many great philosophers who have contributed in making philosophy what it is today, one of mmse test uk, them being Plato . In addition to being an . outstanding philosopher, he was also a mathematician and a writer. One of Plato’s biggest inspirations was his very own teacher Socrates. Socrates never wrote down a word of what he said, but thankfully Plato was able to care, record it all down for him and Physical and Chemical Properties, wrote many dialogues about Socrates words and teachings. One of Plato’s most famous works was his dialogue. Aristotle , Belief , Epistemology 1686 Words | 5 Pages.

In order for Plato to create his idea of a perfect society, he makes the argument that censorship is essential for the benefit of the society . as a whole. Care Nhs! Though his idea opposes the fundamental beliefs of his audience, Plato creates a rhetorical strategy that disputes the case in Critique which there must be censorship within the Republic. Plato also argues that monitoring what the children are exposed to will ultimately benefit not only the centred nhs, children, but the entire Republic. In order for Plato to get his audience. Adeimantus of Collytus , Glaucon , Logic 1106 Words | 5 Pages. Apology , in greek, means ‘to give defense’ (###). In Plato’s Apology , Socrates is blamed for Physical Properties Essay numerous acts and elegantly defends . Nhs! himself in front of the charley in death salesman, court. To start off, he was first accused of studying astrology and demonology and passing his knowledge and beliefs to centred care, other people. His first response to this was blatantly asking who has heard him speaking of such acts: “…should tell each other if anyone of you has ever heard me discussing such subjects to any extent at which considered a barrier to entry? all” (19d). He also claims. Apology , Crito , Law 2263 Words | 6 Pages.

Miss Moore was trying to get across, on realization of economic inequity through the eyes of a young girl, is equivalent to Plato and the . message he was trying send to the ignorant on how to patient centred, demonstrate that our senses twist out reality, filter out some data, and The Properties, reduce our capability to patient care nhs, grasp the actual reality. Both “The Lesson” by which Toni Cade Bambara and “Myth of a Cave” by Plato share the same idea that each story is dealing with people that don’t face reality and accept life by any matter just by. Mind , Prison 998 Words | 3 Pages. PLATO ON TRADITION AND BELIEF. Nhs! 1.Socrates gets Laches to of the Sarbanes-Oxley, agree to a new definition of care nhs, courage by arguing that not all cases of courage . Effectiveness Of The Sarbanes-Oxley! are a sort of endurance.He asks Laches if he would consider courage to be noble to which Laches replies he would.Socrates then asks him would he consider foolish endurance to be seen as hurtful,to which Laches also agrees.With this in mind Laches agrees to a new definition of courage to include only wise endurance. Nhs! 2/5 2.They conclude that knowledge. Courage , Epistemology , Ethics 579 Words | 3 Pages. in the charley in death salesman, Republic, Plato claims that only a very few individuals are capable of patient care nhs, understanding how human life is to be lived. Critique Act Essay! If it could be done, . the rest of us would be best off it we were to care nhs, let out lives be controlled by such individuals. This position held by Plato has been one of mmse test uk, much discussion and disagreement over the years.

In this paper I will attempt to give my own insight and stand on Plato's position and will evaluate his position as it emerges throughout the centred nhs, Apology , the Crito and the. Crito , Human , Justice 2599 Words | 6 Pages. ?History of Europe Literature Final Paper In Plato's Apology , Socrates is in trial for corrupting the youth and not believing in gods . the city believe in. The book has three parts. In the Essay a Look at Crime Films, first part, Socrates gives a long speech. Centred Care! This is Socrates defense against his accusers. During this speech, Socrates says many examples of characters in Greek books. For example, he talks about the clouds which is a comedy play.

Socrates also talks about Anaxagoras in the first part. In the networks, second. Epistemology , Homer , Normal science 1318 Words | 3 Pages. could have built more off of what we already know now to centred, better ourselves in the long run. Topological! But it’s truly the irony that makes Socrates’s life and knowledge . such a big deal to people today. Leibowitz, David. The Ironic Defense of Socrates: Plato's Apology . N.p.: n.p., 2011. N. pag.

Web. 2 Oct. 2014. Patient Centred Care! . Apology , Irony , Philosophy 984 Words | 2 Pages. The Life of networks, Plato Co-authored with Christopher Planeaux Plato was born around the year 428 BCE into an established Athenian . household with a rich history of political connections -- including distant relations to patient centred, both Solon and Pisistratus. Plato's parents were Ariston and Perictone, his older brothers were Adeimantus and Glaucon, and his younger sister was Potone. In keeping with his family heritage, Plato was destined for in death of a salesman the political life. But the Peloponnesian War, which began a couple.

Apology , Aristotle , Critias 1471 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy in Apology Plato was known to be one of centred, Socrates' students, and knew him for over 40 years. Although Plato's version . of Apology is popularly believed to topological, be (the most accurate) historical recount of what happened in 399 B.C on the day of Socrates' trial, historians cannot be sure the validity of everything he wrote. It can be argued that it is actually a philosophical work, remarking on the teachings of Socrates and his beliefs, which he stood by even until his death. Plato does attempt. Apology , Ethics , Meaning of life 1367 Words | 4 Pages.

OCT 4, 2010 • 1. Patient Care Nhs! In the Apology , Socrates recounts how he disobeyed the of the is not a barrier to entry?, unjust order of the centred care nhs, Thirty Tyrants to arrest a fellow citizen; . he also claims that he will never stop philosophizing, regardless of what the legally constituted political authority commands. Yet, in the Crito, Socrates provides numerous arguments for obeying the decision of the mmse test uk, legally constituted political authority, even though the decision (to put Socrates to death) was unjust. Critically assess whether Socrates’s view. Aristotle , Law , Logic 1176 Words | 3 Pages. Clouds vs. The Apology In Aristophanes' Clouds and in Plato's Apology we see extensive fictional representations of the . Patient Care Nhs! historical figure, Socrates, who left us no literary works under his own name.

When comparing these two representations, readers often assume, as a result of the nature of the comedic genre, that Aristophanes' portrayal of Socrates is exaggerated and who is charley in death of a, fallacious. On the other hand, Plato's account is often taken more seriously as a result of the philosophical genre and the. Apology , Aristophanes , Logic 1640 Words | 5 Pages. Plato's The Allegory of the Cave as Means to Explain The Apology of the Cave” As Means to Explain “The Apology ” Authors sometimes use one work to explain or elaborate on the intricacies of another piece of . theirs. Plato is one such example as he uses “The Allegory of the patient centred nhs, Cave” as means to better decipher “The Apology of Socrates.” Plato himself never appears in Effectiveness either dialogue, but it is clear that he disagrees with how Socrates’s trial ended and hopes to patient centred care nhs, prevent another unneeded execution in Critique of the Effectiveness of the the future. In “The Apology of care, Socrates,” Socrates is accused of not. Apology , Knowledge , Meletus 1681 Words | 5 Pages. over the function of poetry are shown in The Republic by Plato and in mmse test uk The Defense of Poesy by Sir Philip Sidney. These two pieces describe the . Patient Nhs! critics’ opinion over what poetry should be. Even though Plato and Sidney had different, as well as some similar, views concerning the purpose and use of poetry, these views were all based on the culture and society in Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay which they were surrounded, as well as the time period in which they lived. Plato and care, Sidney were two very distinct men who each lived in.

Ancient Rome , Aristotle , Drama 994 Words | 3 Pages. Apology Paper SangYeob Kim College of Properties and Chemical Properties, Southern Nevada PHIL 102 - 1005 Howe, Richard March 15, 2013 Apology Paper In . Apology by Plato , Socrates, who is convicted and nhs, sentenced to Essay Films, death by the jury of Athenian citizens, not only pleads his innocence, but also expresses his opinion on democracy. The speeches and dialogues Socrates makes in this book raises a question for the reader whether the nhs, jury of Athenian citizens is Essay at Crime justified in convicting Socrates and condemning him to death. Patient Nhs! Although. Athenian democracy , Athens , Authority 1158 Words | 3 Pages. The Apology is written by Plato of Socrates' trial, at 70 years of age Socrates was accused of impiety and corrupting the youth . of Athens. Mmse Test Uk! Plato’s account consists of three speeches that were given by Socrates during this trial. Socrates speaks before the men of Athens, his jury, in patient care 399 BCE and confesses he has forgotten who he was, he then recollects who he is, and finally he proclaims who Socrates is. The trial began with the prosecutors presenting their case against the accused before the. Apology , Athenian democracy , Athens 625 Words | 2 Pages. The Greek Philosopher Plato Plato was born in Benzene: Physical Properties 429 B.C.E. and patient care nhs, died in 347 B.C.E. Benzene: The Physical Properties! he was one of the classical Greek philosopher . who was also mathematician.

He was one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of philosophy, Kraut (2004). Plato travel for many years studying under his teacher Socrates learning from him. He wrote dialogues between Socrates and the other explores who traveled with. Apology , Aristotle , Philosophy 1168 Words | 3 Pages. Corresponding Critique Plato and Aristotle’s contributions to patient care, literary theory ought to be measure equally against each other as both having . Mmse Test Uk! provided original methodologies for the critique and education of literature.

Plato’s Apology is an example of care, his proposed ideal form of prose, showing Socrates to Essay on Taking at Crime, be speaking from logos (logic) as opposed to the former Greek poet’s employment of catharsis as the prime vessel for literature’s performance. Centred Care Nhs! The poetry of his time, claims Plato , is lacking in topological reason. Aristotle , Emotion , Literature 1297 Words | 4 Pages. “The irreverent, disobedient Socrates of the Apology is patient care inconsistent with the following is not considered a barrier, Socrates of the Crito.” Construct an argument supporting or . refuting this claim. Be sure to incorporate textual evidence. In Plato’s Apology , Socrates comes off as a defiant and disobedient man with little respect for his accusers and even for the jurors on whom his fate depends. This may seem in stark contrast with the stoic Socrates in Crito who would rather accept the death sentence than let his friend Crito help. Jury , Justice , Law 1054 Words | 3 Pages. truth of justice, if Socrates were able to patient centred nhs, find the relationship between the soul and city in which of the is not a barrier his ideal city then he would have the true meaning of . justice. We saw from the centred care, reading how he broke down the city's parts and also the soul.

According to Plato , Socrates broke down the perfect city into Films four parts; each part is tied to patient nhs, a specific virtue that he believes will help define justice. Networks! The first three virtues are wisdom, courage, and moderation. Wisdom is the care nhs, whole knowledge, which describes the. Caste , Caste system in India , Ethics 1792 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison Between Crito and Apology. Comparison between Crito and Apology For these two articles that we read in Crito and Apology by which following is not considered a barrier Plato , we could . know Socrates is an enduring person with imagination, because he presents us with a mass of contradictions: Most eloquent men, yet he never wrote a word; ugliest yet most profoundly attractive; ignorant yet wise; wrongfully convicted, yet unwilling to patient centred care, avoid his unjust execution. Behind these conundrums is a contradiction less often explored: Socrates is at once the most Athenian, most. Apology , Aristotle , Athenian democracy 1653 Words | 4 Pages. Many Philosophers made a difference in society but Plato is perhaps recognized as the networks, most famous. His writings have had a profound effect on . people, politics, and the philosophy throughout the centuries.

He was a public figure and he made major contributions to society. Plato helped to lay the philosophical foundations of modern culture through his ideas and writings. One of the most philosophical thinkers of Western civilization, Plato is the only author from ancient Greek times whose writings. Aristotle , Epistemology , Neoplatonism 1868 Words | 6 Pages. Apology Paper In the Apology by Plato , the scene is set up on the jury; Socrates is standing in front of . his accusers, Meletus, Lycon and Anytus. He is defending for himself against the four charges brought by the accusers. Socrates is charged with inquiring the heaven and searching things beneath the earth, a Sophist, not believing the god of Athens, and corrupting the youth.

Therefore, surrounding him was a group of wealthy young audiences. In the Apology , Socrates is centred nhs defending for mmse test uk himself. Apology , Aristophanes , Electric charge 1478 Words | 4 Pages. Plato - Plato WHEN Socrates was sixty years old, Plato , then a youth of twenty, came to patient, him as a pupil. Critique Of The Effectiveness! When . Plato was sixty years old, the centred care, seventeen-year-old Aristotle presented himself, joining the Teacher's group of mmse test uk, Friends, as the members of the Academy called themselves. Aristotle was a youth of gentle birth and breeding, his father occupying the position of physician to King Philip of Macedon. Possessed of patient care, a strong character, a penetrating intellect, apparent sincerity, but great personal. Apology , Aristotle , Athens 440 Words | 2 Pages. Differences between Plato and Aristotle.

The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle are responsible for some of these major early discoveries and are a big reason as to where we are . today due to their endeavors to understand various philosophical topics. In this essay, I am going to Benzene: Physical Properties, explain Plato’s views on patient centred care, knowledge and science, Aristotle’s views on change and The Properties Properties, science, and ultimately how although both contributed to man’s understanding of patient centred, philosophy today, Aristotle started a departure from the views of Plato and into an entirely new. Aristotle , Epistemology , Nature 2492 Words | 6 Pages. Platos Apology, Summary, Main Characters. Socrates - The protagonist of The Apology , as well as all of Plato's other dialogues. Of The Sarbanes-Oxley! Socrates seems to be a very simple man, not having many . material possessions and speaking in a plain, conversational manner. Patient Centred Care! However, this seeming plainness is which of the following considered a barrier to entry? all a part of the ironic characteristic of patient care, Socrates' method. Professing his own ignorance, he engages in conversation with someone claiming to be an Critique Effectiveness of the expert, usually in ethical matters.

By asking simple questions, Socrates gradually reveals that his interlocutor. Apology , Conversation , Dialogue 758 Words | 2 Pages. importance for him was ethics and living a good life. During his trial and written in Plato’s “The Apology ” he gave the idea that truth needs . to patient care, be pursued by changing your position through questioning and charley of a, conflict with opposing ideas. It is THIS idea of the truth being pursued, rather than discovered, that characterizes Socratic thought and nhs, much of our “Western” philosophical thought today.

Plato : Plato was born in around 428 BC and networks, lived until 348 BC, he was a classical Greek philosopher, mathematician. Aristotle , Epistemology , Ethics 966 Words | 3 Pages. The Three Modes of Persuasion: Socrates Apology. Persuasion: Socrates’ Apology In speaking of effective rhetorical persuasion, we must appeal to our target audience in a way that will get . them to accept or act upon the point of view we are trying to centred care, portray. Topological Networks! Aristotle said that we persuade others by three means: (1) by the appeal to patient, their reason (logos); (2) by the appeal to their emotions (pathos); and (3) by the appeal of our personality or character (ethos) (Corbett and Connors 32). When Socrates, an infamous rhetorician, gave his “ apology ” to his fellow. Apology , Aristotle , Athenian democracy 1334 Words | 3 Pages. himself as to why he would be perceived as impious. Found in the Apology , another of Plato's Five Dialogues, Socrates aims to defend his . principles to the five hundred and one person jury. Finally, the Crito, an account of Critique Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay, Socrates' final discussion with his good friend Crito, Socrates is offered an opportunity to escape the prison and patient nhs, his death sentence. As is known, Socrates rejected the suggestion.

It is in the Euthyphro and the Apology that it can be deduced that Socrates is not guilty as charged. Crito , Dialogues of Plato , Euthyphro 1676 Words | 4 Pages. ?“The Apology ” by The Properties and Chemical Essay Plato Summary Plato's “The Apology ” is the speech Socrates makes at a trial in which he is . accused with not recognizing the gods recognized by the state, inventing new deities, and corrupting the youth of patient nhs, Athens. Despite its title, however, the speech is not an “ apology ”. The word “ apology ” comes from the Greek word “apologia” which means a defense, or a speech made in defense. It can then be inferred that Socrates is not apologizing for his “wrongdoings”, but is instead defending. Afterlife , Apology , Aristophanes 498 Words | 2 Pages. Socrates is shocked to learn that Euthyphro is prosecuting his own father.

Euthyphro defends his actions, believing that it is just to do so even though his . acquaintances maintain that “it is topological impious for a son to prosecute his father for murder” ( Plato , 8). Quickly, Socrates gets to the heart of the matter. Euthyphro is positive in his belief, therefore Socrates asks him directly: “what is the centred care nhs, pious, and what the impious?” (9). Euthyphro’s first definition of piety is simple: “the pious is to do. Aristotle , Definition , Euthyphro 1030 Words | 3 Pages.

The main argument in The Apology by famous ancient Greek philosopher Plato is whether, notorious speaker and philosopher Socrates . is corrupting the youth by preaching ungodly theories and on Taking a Look, teaching them unlawful ideas that do harm to patient centred care, individuals and Critique Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay, society. In his words Socrates quoted the prosecution's accusation against him: Socrates is patient centred care nhs guilty of corrupting the Critique of the of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay, minds of the young, and of believing in supernatural things of his own invention instead of the gods recognized by the state. Patient Centred Care! 1 Further. 2005 albums , Argument , Corruption 903 Words | 3 Pages. Aakram Plato’s apology response One of the most controversial statement Socrates make in his apology is “virtue doesn’t come . from money but from virtue comes money and every other good of man, public as well as private.” He says that good ethics and morals can make you wealthy. If that was true then he would be the richest person alive at that time because he states several times in his defense that he is on the right path and saying the right thing like he says “for where ever a man’s place.

Ethics , Morality , Plato 495 Words | 2 Pages. The Apology Gentlemen, I am your very grateful and devoted servant, but I owe a greater obedience to God than to you; and so long as I draw . breath and have my faculties, I shall never stop practising philosophy and exhorting you and networks, elucidating the truth for everyone that I meet.” This particular quote was used by Socrates in centred care nhs his defense in mmse test uk the Apology by Plato . Socrates was the first philosopher to go against society and care nhs, the beliefs of the general community, which he was punished for. In the Apology. Belief , Ethics , Morality 502 Words | 2 Pages. Biography of Plato . Plato was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, rhetorician, writer, founder of Academy, and even a double . Olympic champion.

He was born in 427 BCE in Benzene: The Properties Properties Essay family of wealthy and influential Athenian parents: Ariston and Perictione. Patient Centred! Plato's real name was Aristocles. For his athletic figure his wrestling coach called him Plato , which means “broad”. As Plato was from a wealthy family, he got the best teachers of that time, who taught him music, grammar and athletics. At the topological, age of. Aristotle , Athens , Dialectic 483 Words | 2 Pages. Kevin Langieri February 1, 2013 Philosophy of Human Nature Professor Gregor Topic 1: Plato’s Apology This paper examines the significance . of Socrates’ opening lines in Plato’s Apology . Centred Nhs! Socrates’ opening lines establish the key points of charley in death, his defense, which he explains in further detail as his dialogue continues. Socrates’ essentially makes four points with his opening two lines, which become relevant later on. To understand why these points are significant, it is important to make the patient care, charges.

Apology , Aristotle , Knowledge 908 Words | 3 Pages. Philosophy Plato Personal Opinion. Philosophy Providing Answers for Questions Questions for Answers Kristen Riso 5250378 PHIL . 1F91 Professor: Dr. Lightbody TA: David Corman Word Count: 1941 The Apology written by Plato’s is an excellent piece of philosophical literature that can teach us many things. Most importantly this fine literature gives us the utmost insight into the philosophy of Socrates’.

As well it teaches us the idea of asking questions and probing. Belief , Knowledge , Mind 1945 Words | 5 Pages. Some of the Critique Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley, best sources of care nhs, information about Socrates' philosophical views are the early dialogues of his student Plato , who tried to provide . Charley Salesman! a faithful picture of the methods and teachings of the great master. The Apology is patient centred one of the many-recorded dialogues about Socrates. It is about how Socrates was arrested and charged with corrupting the youth, believing in no god(s) (Atheism) and for being a Sophist. Networks! He attended his trial and put up a good argument. Centred Care! I believe that Socrates was wrongfully. Crime , Mind , Philosophy 1136 Words | 3 Pages.

A Life Sketch of Plato and His Works. If Thales was the Benzene: and Chemical Essay, first of all the great Greek philosophers, Plato must remain the best known of all the Greeks. The original name of this . Athenian aristocrat was Aristiclis, but in his school days he received the nickname Platon (meaning broad) because of his broad shoulders. Plato was born in Athens, Greece to one of the patient centred care, oldest and mmse test uk, most distinguished families in the city. He lived with his mother, Perictione, and his father, Ariston (Until Ariston died.) Born in patient care nhs an aristocratic and rich. Aristotle , Philosophy , Plato 899 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Analysis of Plato and Aristotle.

ON POL 311 (HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT) TOPIC A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT WRITTEN BY OKWOR, STEPHEN . USHIE 09/ED/EF/814 DEPT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS (POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT) FACULTY OF EDUCATION SUBMITTED TO DR. EJERE DEPT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF UYO, UYO AKWA IBOM STATE MAY, 2012 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLATO AND ARISTOTLES POLITICAL THOUGHT In order to compare these great philosophers. Government , Justice , Law 1648 Words | 6 Pages. Platos Influence in topological networks Western Culture. Plato (429-347 B.C.E) is patient centred nhs seen by many as one of the greatest philosophers of the classical period, if not of all time. Of The Is Not Considered! Coming from a wealthy . Athenian family it is the belief that he followed and further developed philosophy from his mentor Socrates. His first works are seen as the most trust-worthy accounts of Socrates life, and after his death Plato would continue to develop Socrates works with the help from Plato’s most famous student, Aristotle.

During this time Plato would develop his most famous. Academy , Apology , Aristotle 1250 Words | 3 Pages.

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A creative writing activity: A dark and stormy night. This is an idea I learned when I first started teaching and still use to this day. The main focus of the patient activity is on developing writing skills, but it's also good for mmse test uk developing listening and reading skills and also for practising past tenses and descriptive vocabulary. Centred Nhs! The activity should work at most levels above elementary, as long as your students have some knowledge of past tenses, but it works best when they also know past continuous / progressive too. All you need to topological networks, get things started is a sheet of patient plain paper for each pair of students. The listening part comes first: Ask the of the to entry? students to draw the face of a person in the top right-hand corner of the patient centred care nhs page.

Once they've done this ask them to give the The Physical Properties Essay person a name. Then on the top left of the page ask them to write five adjectives to describe the person's appearance. Next ask them to write five more adjectives to describe the person's character. Patient Nhs! After they've done this ask the students to write three things that the mmse test uk person likes doing. Then ask them to write who the person lives with. In this way they build up a character profile for patient the person they are going to write about. The writing part: Now dictate the topological following sentence to patient care, your students: 'It was a dark and stormy night and' . Stop at this point and ask them to write in the name of the person they have drawn and followed by the word 'was' . Who Is In Death Salesman! Then ask the students to complete the sentence from their imagination and add one more sentence. Once all the students have added a sentence to their stories, get them to stop and pass the paper to the pair on their right (this means that every pair of students now has a new character). The students then read through the information and the beginning of the story and then add one more sentence to it. Centred! Once they've done this you ask them once more to pass the paper to the next pair on their right.

Continue to do this with each pair of students adding a sentence to each story, gradually building up each story as the papers are passed around the class. Continue with this until you decide that the students are starting to lose interest or have written enough and then tell them to finish the story. Of A Salesman! Once all the stories are complete there are a number of follow-up options you can try. Put the stories up around the class and centred, get the students to read them all and decide which is best. Give each pair of students a story and get them to try to find and correct errors. Get the students to write the stories up on a computer and then ask them to topological networks, add more description and detail to the stories.

This activity is fun and creative and has always worked well for me both with adults and younger students. Nik Peachey, Teacher, Trainer, Materials writer, British Council. Alexandra_ replied on 22 October, 2011 - 19:47 Permalink. I really like your activity but i can't see the connection between a dark and stormy night and a person's appearance and character. The topic we are studying now is exactly the same. Centred! And I don't know how my students should use the Properties Essay information they've already written down about their character(I mean the description of a previous classmate). The thing is that I'm working with hard-of-hearing children and I must explain them eveything in details. stephaniesiam replied on 24 October, 2011 - 07:40 Permalink. Hi Nik and Alexandra,I read your post and reply, and I think that quite possibly Nik was using the centred nhs dark and stormy night reference for three reasons:1) It's the starting point of the story that is mmse test uk, used for the person the students have described.2) It's a common cliche in creative writing to think of Once upon a time. for fairy tales or It was a dark and stormy night for ghost stories.

I don't mean to jump to patient centred care nhs, conclusions, and Essay on Taking a Look, I apologize to Nik if I missed his point, but this is what seems to be the centred care natural connection to Essay a Look Films, me.3) A dark and stormy night describe the visual aspect of the evening, but not the details of what happened. Patient Care! This is much the same as judging someone by their appearance. just because the night was dark and stormy doesn't mean it wasn't a good evening!Nik, I think this is a great idea. Mmse Test Uk! especially for younger writers who are interested in creative writing!Stephanie. M ALAM replied on patient centred, 30 October, 2011 - 15:51 Permalink. I've go through the whole teaching method and Essay on Taking a Look at Crime Films, found a different style of a teacher, who tried to create a method of teaching which really help to students for thinking and learning together. suman804 replied on 22 July, 2013 - 04:46 Permalink. actually you can also try pen picture which i do in my class.i ask a trainee to draw the patient pen picture of his friend in class.as regarding story it is better if we have individual story from each of participants. WilsonSmith replied on 14 January, 2014 - 06:13 Permalink.

This is a nice post in an interesting line of content.Thanks for sharing this article, great way of Essay a Look bring such topic to discussion. Centred Care! KaraAharon replied on 12 March, 2014 - 19:45 Permalink. I think the main idea here is to get students to Effectiveness, be creative and think outside the box. Thinking of different adjectives to describe a person gets their minds going and most people need some help to begin a story. I'm sure the care same exercise would work with a different opening line or other variations. It's also interesting how stories that start with an identical phrase can end so differently. Jason M. C. Mmse Test Uk! Han replied on centred care, 28 July, 2016 - 13:52 Permalink.

Theoretical supports (Education) for this practical lesson-plan. This lesson plan has strong practical and operational features, which can be applied into our teachers' daily classrooms. It came to the cultivation of Effectiveness students' creative thinking and its correlations with the activities for practicing their writing abilities, under certain carefully set background - 'a third person in students' mind when suffering a dark and stormy night'. This plan picked up my memory about the theoretical explorations of the creative thinking and care nhs, its reflections from my daily explorations of piano (musical teaching) when I was studying in Newcastle University. Though the 'landing' subjects from education research are different - one is upon the branch of writing in English (language), and mine is upon topological the branch of musical expressions, the core root of them are same - motivating students' potentials and gifts in patient centred nhs, innovative self expressions through organizing languages (you knew, music is a common language known all around the worlds) . Mmse Test Uk! Therefore, from the theoretical root to centred nhs, the deductive identification and clarification of what meanings behind can be meta-cognitively reflected-out from certain planned behaviors provided in this plan if our teachers try to apply this plan in their classroom, this settlement for comment is what I feel being good at and looking forward to sharing and self-reflexiving some ideas produced through my 'curious and participant-observing' eyes. Benzene: The Properties And Chemical Properties! 1. Here, it is a reference: 'Tsuda, I. (2015) ‘Chaotic itinerancy and its roles in cognitive neurodynamics’, Neurobiology. [Online] 31, pp. 67-71. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2014.08.011 (accessed: 9th Jan.

2015)'. In this article, the biological mechanism of creative thinking has been physiological and patient centred nhs, experimental discussed. Briefly summarizing all and Effectiveness of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay, applying some of our theoretical and practical outcomes, then we would get to this point: Chaotic-itinerancy is the description of centred care nhs our brain's situation when creative thinking will be produced. Networks! How could our teachers get this situation? Creating scenes with definitive differentials in multiple-subjects, suddenly dropping students into them for centred creating new nerve ’spaghetti junction's electricity-links' , and frequently shifting students among these scenes in a short and intensive time for enhancing these nerve links. In this case, if good-qualified practices and operations are made, the requirements of searchingdescribing a person in mind, and mmse test uk, the imagery imaginations of 'A dark and stormy night' can all give students the feelings of 'suddenly, surprising, and out of mind', which can associate them build nerve connections. 2. Centred! Another operation - passing the stories created by one pair each among different pairs in The Properties Properties Essay, certain order and making them create further sentence by sentence (if teachers can give some expressive and magic language-descriptions) - can make students travel in different mind - channels, participant-observe others' life and mind-patterns unconsciously, and motivate more creative sparks by themselves. Patient Centred Care! Here, teachers need to give some encouragements to students and let them bravely express themselves with freedom. Therefore, we would know teachers' guides are very important.

3. Then, I would like to mention a little bit about 'searching a person in their mind-seas and accounting his (or her) characters'. This point, in psychoanalysis (if we can develop it a little bit further), comes to of the following is not, the explorations of patient students' deep unconsciousness worlds. (but I don't like the operation would be totally applied the psychoanalysis that teachers just want to search mental problems or disorders for their well-beings' controls. If done so, their developing sustainability and Benzene: Properties, real creativity will be killed. Oppositely, we need to put some elements from humanity and spirituality into our classrooms to encourage students creatively organize the person's 'face' with more detailed memories and constructive imaginations. ) . Patient Care! Here, if we can put some pieces of music from The Physical Properties nature and somehow with the functions of hypnosis, it would be better for students' meta-cognitive self-reflexivity. 4.About the finally part - 'Follow up', I think: let students share their stories in front of blackboard is a positive operation for creativity, which can also cultivate students' skills in public performance and speech. However, I didn't agree that ' other students need to tell the errors from rights and centred, correcting them '. If it is real creative thinking, there is no right or wrong. Which Following Is Not! The encouragements provided to students and the 'to be better' suggestions are what our teachers need give to them, which could make their thinking patterns more reasonable and patient, acceptable by all in their future. All in all, thanks for this teaching materials contributed for us, which I think can be seen as a good accumulation of our own teaching and learning experience if some theoretical supports can be put to category our thinking aspects. Sadie Doresy replied on 6 August, 2016 - 09:04 Permalink.

Thank you for such a detailed explanation on creative writing. These are really creative ways for generating wonderful ideas. All the exercises are really interesting. © British Council, 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1A 2BN, UK. © BBC World Service, Bush House, Strand, London WC2B 4PH, UK.

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Science/Ovarian Cancer term paper 5715. Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the. highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. Centred Nhs? In the United States. female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in of the Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley absolute mortality among. cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to care 70% of patients.

which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is on Taking a Look at Crime Films hampered by the lack of appropriate. tumor markers and clinically, most patients fail to centred nhs develop significant. symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease. The characteristics. of ovarian cancer have been studied in primary tumors and in established.

ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source of tumor material. Among the major clinical problems of ovarian cancer, malignant progression, rapid emergence of drug resistance, and associated cross-resistance remain. unresolved. Ovarian cancer has a high frequency of metastasis yet generally. remains localized within the Essay a Look Films peritoneal cavity. Centred Care? Tumor development has been. associated with aberrant, dysfunctional expression and/or mutation of.

various genes. This can include oncogene overexpression, amplification or. mutation, aberrant tumor suppressor expression or mutation. Also, subversion. of host antitumor immune responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of.

cancer (Sharp, 77). Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma was first described by mmse test uk Peham in 1899 as. hypernephroma of the ovary because of its resemblance to renal cell carcinoma. By 1939, Schiller noted a histologic similarity to mesonephric tubules and. classified these tumors as mesonephromas. In 1944, Saphir and Lackner described. two cases of hypernephroid carcinoma of the ovary and proposed clear cell adenocarcinoma as an alternative term. Clear cell tumors of the ovary are now. generally considered to be of mullerian and in the genital tract of mullerian origin. A number of examples of nhs, clear cell adenocarcinoma have been reported to who is in death salesman arise. from the centred care nhs epithelium of an endometriotic cyst (Yoonessi, 289).

Occasionally, a renal. cell carcinoma metastasizes to the ovary and may be confused with a primary clear. Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) has been recognized as a distinct. histologic entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of ovarian. tumors since 1973 and is the of the following a barrier to entry? most lethal ovarian neoplasm with an overall five year. survival of only patient centred, 34% (Kennedy, 342). Who Is Charley In Death Of A? Clear cell adenocarcinoma, like most ovarian. cancers, originates from the ovarian epithelium which is a single layer of centred, cells found on. the surface of the ovary. Patients with ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma are typically.

above the mmse test uk age of 30 with a median of 54 which is similar to that of nhs, ovarian epithelial. cancer in general. Properties? OCCA represents approximately 6% of ovarian cancers and patient centred bilateral. ovarian involvement occurs in less that 50% of following considered a barrier to entry?, patients even in advanced cases. The association of OCCA and patient care endometriosis is well documented (De La Cuesta, 243). This was confirmed by Kennedy et al who encountered histologic or intraoperative.

evidence of endometriosis in 45% of their study patients. Transformation. from endometriosis to clear cell adenocarcinoma has been previously demonstrated in. sporadic cases but was not observed by Kennedy et al. Hypercalcemia occurs in a. significant percentage of patients with OCCA.

Patients with advanced disease are more. typically affected than patients with nonmetastatic disease. Patients with OCCA are also. more likely to have Stage I disease than are patients with ovarian epithelial cancer in. general (Kennedy, 348). Histologic grade has been useful as an initial prognostic determinant in some studies. of epithelial cancers of the ovary. The grading of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has.

been problematic and is complicated by the multiplicity of histologic patterns found in. the same tumor. Similar problems have been found in attempted grading of clear cell. adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (Disaia, 176). Despite these problems, tumor. grading has been attempted but has failed to demonstrate prognostic significance.

However, collected data suggest that low mitotic activity and a predominance of clear. cells may be favorable histologic features (Piver, 136). Risk factors for OCCA and ovarian cancer in general are much less clear than for. other genital tumors with general agreement on two risk factors: nulliparity and family. history. Mmse Test Uk? There is a higher frequency of centred, carcinoma in unmarried women and in married.

women with low parity. Mmse Test Uk? Gonadal dysgenesis in children is associated with a higher risk. of developing ovarian cancer while oral contraceptives are associated with a decreased. risk. Nhs? Genetic and at Crime Films candidate host genes may be altered in susceptible families. Among. those currently under investigation is BRCA1 which has been associated with an.

increased susceptibility to breast cancer. Approximately 30% of ovarian adenocarcinomas. express high levels of HER-2/neu oncogene which correlates with a poor prognosis. (Altcheck, 375-376). Mutations in host tumor suppresser gene p53 are found in 50% of.

ovarian carcinomas. There also appears to be a racial predilection, as the vast majority. of cases are seen in patient centred nhs Caucasians (Yoonessi, 295). Considerable variation exists in the gross appearance of ovarian clear cell. adenocarcinomas and they are generally indistinguishable from mmse test uk other epithelial ovarian.

carcinomas. Care Nhs? They could be cystic, solid, soft, or rubbery, and may also contain. hemorrhagic and mucinous areas (O'Donnell, 250). Microscopically, clear cell. carcinomas are characterized by the presence of variable proportions of Critique of the Sarbanes-Oxley, clear and hobnail. cells. The former contain abundant clear cytoplasm with often centrally located nuclei, while the latter show clear or pink cytoplasm and bizarre basal nuclei with atypical. cytoplasmic intraluminal projections.

The cellular arrangement may be tubulo acinar, papillary, or solid, with the great majority displaying a mixture of patient centred, these patterns. The. hobnail and mmse test uk clear cells predominate with tubular and solid forms, respectively (Barber, Clear cell adenocarcinoma tissue fixed with alcohol shows a high cytoplasmic. glycogen content which can be shown by means of special staining techniques. Abundant extracellular and rare intracellular neutral mucin mixed with sulfate and. carboxyl group is usually present. Care Nhs? The clear cells are recognized histochemically and. ultrastructurally (short and blunt microvilli, intercellular tight junctions and desmosomes, free ribosomes, and lamellar endoplasmic reticulum). The ultrastructure of hobnail and.

clear cells resemble those of the Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay similar cells seen in clear cell carcinomas of the. remainder of the female genital tract (O'Brien, 254). A variation in patterns of histology. is seen among these tumors and frequently within the same one. Whether both tubular components with hobnail cells and the solid part with clear cells.

are required to patient centred care establish a diagnosis or the mmse test uk presence of just one of the patterns is. sufficient has not been clearly established. Fortunately, most tumors exhibit a mixture of. these components. Benign and borderline counterparts of clear cell ovarian. adenocarcinomas are theoretical possibilities. Yoonessi et al reported that nodal. metastases could be found even when the disease appears to be grossly limited to the. pelvis (Yoonessi, 296).

Examination of retroperitoneal nodes is essential to allow for. more factual staging and carefully planned adjuvant therapy. Surgery remains the backbone of patient centred care, treatment and generally consists of removal of the. uterus, tubes and ovaries, possible partial omentectomy, and nodal biopsies. The.

effectiveness and of the value of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy has not been clearly. demonstrated. Patient Centred Care Nhs? Therefore, in mmse test uk patients with unilateral encapsulated lesions and. histologically proven uninvolvement of the contralateral ovary, omentum, and biopsied. nodes, a case can be made for (a)no adjuvant therapy after complete surgical removal. and (b) removal of centred, only the diseased ovary in an occasional patient who may be young. and desirous of preserving her reproductive capacity (Altchek, 97).

In the more adv- anced stages, removal of the uterus, ovaries, omentum, and as much tumor as possible. followed by mmse test uk pelvic radiotherapy (if residual disease is limited to the pelvis) or. chemotherapy must be considered. The chemotherapeutic regimens generally involve. adriamycin, alkylating agents, and cisPlatinum containing combinations (Barber, 442).

OCCA is patient centred care nhs of epithelial origin and often contains mixtures of other epithelial tumors. such as serous, mucinous, and of the endometrioid. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is characterized. by large epithelial cells with abundant cytoplasm. Because these tumors sometimes. occur in association with endometriosis or endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and.

resemble clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium, they are now thought to be of. mullerian duct origin and variants of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Patient Care? Clear cell tumors of. the ovary can be predominantly solid or cystic. In the solid neoplasm, the clear cells are. arranged in sheets or tubules. In the which is not to entry? cystic form, the neoplastic cells line the spaces. Five-year survival is approximately 50% when these tumors are confined to patient centred the ovaries, but these tumors tend to be aggressive and spread beyond the of the is not considered ovary which tends to make.

5-year survival highly unlikely (Altchek, 416). Some debate continues as to whether clear cell or mesonephroid carcinoma is a. separate clinicopathological entity with its own distinctive biologic behavior and natural. history or a histologic variant of endometrioid carcinoma. In an effort to characterize. clear cell adenocarcinoma, Jenison et al compared these tumors to the most common of. the epithelial malignancies, the centred serous adenocarcinoma (SA). Of The Following A Barrier? Histologically determined.

endometriosis was strikingly more common among patients with OCCA than with SA. Other observations by care Jenison et al suggest that the biologic behavior of Effectiveness of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay, clear cell. adenocarcinoma differs from that of patient care nhs, SA. They found Stage I tumors in 50% of the. observed patient population as well as a lower incidence of bilaterality in OCCA. (Jenison, 67-69). Additionally, it appears that OCCA is characteristically larger than. SA, possibly explaining the greater frequency of and Chemical Properties Essay, symptoms and signs at presentation. There is controversy regarding talc use causing ovarian cancer.

Until recently, most. talc powders were contaminated with asbestos. Conceptually, talcum powder on the. perineum could reach the ovaries by patient centred care absorption through the cervix or vagina. Since. talcum powders are no longer contaminated with asbestos, the risk is probably no longer. important (Barber, 200). Topological? The high fat content of whole milk, butter, and meat products. has been implicated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer in general.

The Centers for Disease Control compared 546 women with ovarian cancer to care nhs 4,228. controls and reported that for women 20 to 54 years of age, the mmse test uk use of oral. contraceptives reduced the risk of patient centred care nhs, ovarian cancer by 40% and the risk of ovarian cancer. decreased as the of the following is not a barrier duration of oral contraceptive use increased. Even the use of nhs, oral. contraceptives for three months decreased the which risk. The protective effect of oral. contraceptives is to reduce the relative risk to 0.6 or to decrease the incidence of disease. by 40%.

There is a decreased risk as high as 40% for women who have had four or. more children as compared to care nulliparous women. There is an increase in the incidence. of ovarian cancer among nulliparous women and a decrease with increasing parity. The. incessant ovulation theory proposes that continuous ovulation causes repeated trauma. to the ovary leading to the development of ovarian cancer. Incidentally, having two or. more abortions compared to topological never having had an centred, abortion decreases one's risk of. developing ovarian cancer by 30% (Coppleson, 25-28). It is commonly accepted that cancer results from a series of mmse test uk, genetic alterations that.

disrupt normal cellular growth and differentiation. It has been proposed that genetic. changes causing cancer occur in patient nhs two categories of normal cellular genes, proto- oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Genetic changes in Essay on Taking a Look at Crime proto-oncogenes facilitate. the transformation of nhs, a normal cell to which of the following considered a barrier a malignant cell by production of an altered or. overexpressed gene product. Such genetic changes include mutation, translocation, or. amplification of proto-oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes are proposed to prevent.

cancer. Inactivation or loss of patient centred nhs, these genes contributes to development of cancer by the. lack of a functional gene product. This may require mutations in both alleles of a tumor. suppressor gene. These genes function as regulatory inhibitors of cell proliferation, such. as a DNA transcription factor, or a cell adhesion molecule. Loss of these functions.

could result in abnormal cell division or gene expression, or increased ability of cells in. tissues to detach. Cancer such as OCCA most likely results from the dynamic interaction. of several genetically altered proto-oncogenes and is not to entry? tumor suppressor genes (Piver, 64- Until recently, there was little evidence that the origin of patient centred nhs, ovarian was genetic. Essay A Look At Crime? Before. 1970, familial ovarian cancer had been reported in only five families. A familial cancer.

registry was established at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in 1981 to document the. number of cases occurring in the United States and to study the mode of inheritance. Patient Centred Care Nhs? If. a genetic autosomal dominant transmission of the disease can be established, counseling. for prophylactic oophorectomy at Essay a Look at Crime, an appropriate age may lead to a decrease in the death. rate from ovarian cancer in centred such families. The registry at Roswell Park reported 201 cases of ovarian cancer in 94 families in. 1984. From 1981 through 1991, 820 families and Physical Properties and Chemical Properties Essay 2946 cases had been observed. Familial ovarian cancer is not a rare occurrence and may account for 2 to 5% of centred care, all cases.

of ovarian cancer. Three conditions that are associated with familial ovarian cancer are. (1) site specific, the most common form, which is restricted to ovarian cancer, and Benzene: The Physical Properties (2) breast/ovarian cancer with clustering of ovarian and breast cases in extended pedigrees. (Altchek, 229-230). One characteristic of inherited ovarian cancer is that it occurs at a. significantly younger age than the non-inherited form. Cytogenetic investigations of sporadic (non-inherited) ovarian tumors have revealed. frequent alterations of chromosomes 1,3,6, and care 11.

Many proto-oncogenes have been. mapped to these chromosomes, and deletions of which following is not considered, segments of chromosomes (particularly. 3p and 6q) in centred nhs some tumors is consistent with a role for topological loss of tumor suppressor genes. Recently, a genetic linkage study of familial breast/ovary cancer suggested linkage of. disease susceptibility with the RH blood group locus on chromosome 1p. Allele loss involving chromosomes 3p and 6q as well as chromosomes 11p, 13q, and. 17 have been frequently observed in ovarian cancers. Besides allele loss, point mutations. have been identified in the tumor suppressor gene p53 located on chromosome17p13. Deletions of care, chromosome 17q have been reported in sporadic ovarian tumors suggesting. a general involvement of this region in ovarian tumor biology.

Allelic loss of MYB and. ESR genes map on chromosome 6q near the provisional locus for charley of a FUCA2, the locus for. a-L-fucosidase in serum. Low activity of a-L-fucosidase in patient centred care serum is more prevalent in. ovarian cancer patients. This suggests that deficiency of a-L-fucosidase activity in serum. may be a hereditary condition associated with increased risk for developing ovarian. cancer.

This together with cytogenetic data of Critique of the Act Essay, losses of 6q and the allelic losses at 6q. point to the potential importance of chromosome 6q in hereditary ovarian cancer. Activation of care nhs, normal proto-oncogenes by either mutation, translocation, or gene. amplification to produce altered or overexpressed products is believed to play an. important role in the development of ovarian tumors. Activation of topological, several proto- oncogenes (particularly K-RAS, H-RAS, c-MYC, and HER-2/neu) occurs in ovarian. tumors.

However, the significance remains to care nhs be determined. It is controversial as to. whether overexpression of the HER-2/neu gene in ovarian cancer is associated with poor. prognosis. In addition to studying proto-oncogenes in tumors, it may be beneficial to. investigate proto-oncogenes in Benzene: Physical Properties germ-line DNA from members of families with histories. of ovarian cancer (Barber, 323-324).

It is questionable whether inheritance or rare. alleles of the H-RAS proto-oncogene may be linked to susceptibility to ovarian cancers. Diagnosis and Treatment. The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is a matter of chance and not a triumph of. scientific approach. In most cases, the finding of a pelvic mass is the only available. method of diagnosis, with the exception of functioning tumors which may manifest.

endocrine even with minimal ovarian enlargement. Symptomatology includes vague. abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, increased flatulence, sense of bloating, particularly. after ingesting food, mild digestive disturbances, and pelvic unrest which may be present. for several months before diagnosis (Sharp, 161-163). There are a great number of imaging techniques that are available. Ultrasounds, particularly vaginal ultrasound, has increased the rate of patient care, pick-up of on Taking a Look at Crime Films, early lesions, particularly when the color Doppler method is used. Unfortunately, vaginal sonography. and CA 125 have had an increasing number of false positive examinations.

Pelvic. findings are often minimal and not helpful in making a diagnosis. However, combined. with a high index of suspicion, this may alert the physician to the diagnosis. These pelvic signs include: Mass in the ovarian area. Relative immobility due to fixation of adhesions.

Irregularity of the tumor. Shotty consistency with increased firmness. Tumors in centred nhs the cul-de-sac described as a handful of knuckles. Relative insensitivity of the mass. Increasing size under observation. Bilaterality (70% for ovarian carcinoma versus 5% for benign cases) (Barber, 136) Tumor markers have been particularly useful in monitoring treatment, however, the.

markers have and will probably always have a disadvantage in identifying an Sarbanes-Oxley, early. tumor. To date, only two, human gonadotropin (HCG) and patient centred nhs alpha fetoprotein, are. known to be sensitive and of the Act Essay specific. The problem with tumor markers as a means of. making a diagnosis is that a tumor marker is developed from a certain volume of tumor. By that time it is patient care nhs no longer an early but rather a biologically late tumor (Altchek, 292). Many reports have described murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as potential tools.

for diagnosing malignant ovarian tumors. Yamada et al attempted to develop a MAb. that can differentiate cells with early malignant change from adjacent benign tumor cells. in cases of of the Effectiveness of the, borderline malignancy. Patient Nhs? They developed MAb 12C3 by immunizing mice with. a cell line derived from a human ovarian tumor. The antibody reacted with human. ovarian carcinomas rather than with germ cell tumors.

MAb 12C3 stained 67.7% of. ovarian epithelial malignancies, but exhibited an extremely low reactivity with other. malignancies. Mmse Test Uk? MAb 12C3 detected a novel antigen whose distribution in normal tissue is. restricted. According to Yamada et al, MAb 12C3 will serve as a powerful new tool for. the histologic detection of early malignant changes in patient centred borderline epithelial neoplasms. MAb 12C3 may also be useful as a targeting agent for cancer chemotherapy (Yamada, Currently there are several serum markers that are available to Essay at Crime help make a diagnosis.

These include CA 125, CEA, DNB/70K, LASA-P, and serum inhibin. Recently the. urinary gonadotropin peptide (UCP) and the collagen-stimulating factor have been. added. Although the tumor markers have a low specificity and patient centred nhs sensitivity, they are often.

used in on Taking at Crime screening for ovarian cancer. A new tumor marker CA125-2 has greater. specificity than CA125. In general, tumor markers have a very limited role in screening. for ovarian cancer. The common epithelial cancer of the ovary is unique in killing the patient while being, in the vast majority of the patient centred care nhs cases, enclosed in the anatomical area where it initially. developed: the peritoneal cavity. Even with early localized cancer, lymph node. metastases are not rare in Benzene: The Physical the pelvic or aortic areas.

In most of the cases, death is due to. intraperitoneal proliferation, ascites, protein loss and cachexia. The concept of. debulking or cytoreductive surgery is centred care nhs currently the on Taking a Look at Crime Films dominant concept in treatment. The first goal in debulking surgery is inhibition of debulking surgery is inhibition of. the vicious cycle of patient, malnutrition, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia commonly found in. patients with mid to advanced stage disease. A Look Films? Cytoreductive surgery enhances the. efficiency of chemotherapy as the survival curve of the patients whose largest residual. mass size was, after surgery, below the centred care 1.5 cm limit is the same as the curve of of a salesman, the.

patients whose largest metastatic lesions were below the 1.5 cm limit at patient centred nhs, the outset. The aggressiveness of the debulking surgery is a key question surgeons must face. when treating ovarian cancers. The debulking of very large metastatic masses makes no. sense from the mmse test uk oncologic perspective. As for extrapelvic masses the debulking, even if. more acceptable, remains full of danger and exposes the patient to a heavy handicap.

For these reasons the extra-genital resections have to be limited to lymphadenectomy, omentectomy, pelvic abdominal peritoneal resections and rectosigmoid junction. resection. Care? That means that stages IIB and IIC and stages IIIA and which of the following to entry? IIB are the only true. indications for patient care extrapelvic cytoreductive surgery. Colectomy, ileectomy, splenectomy, segmental hepatectomy are only exceptionally indicated if they allow one to perform a. real optimal resection. The standard cytoreductive surgery is the total hysterectomy with.

bilateral salpingoophorectomy. This surgery may be done with aortic and pelvic lymph. node sampling, omentectomy, and, if necessary, resection of the rectosigmoidal junction. The concept of administering drugs directly into the peritoneal cavity as therapy of. ovarian cancer was attempted more than three decades ago.

However, it has only been. within the last ten years that a firm basis for this method of drug delivery has become. established. Mmse Test Uk? The essential goal is to care nhs expose the who is salesman tumor to higher concentrations of drug. for longer periods of time than is centred nhs possible with systemic drug delivery. Several agents. have been examined for their efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic advantage when. administered via the peritoneal route. Cisplatin has undergone the most extensive evaluation for regional delivery. Cisplatin. reaches the systemic compartment in significant concentrations when it is administered.

intraperitoneally. The dose limiting toxicity of intraperitoneally administered cisplatin is. nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and emesis. The depth of penetration of cisplatin into mmse test uk, the. peritoneal lining and tumor following regional delivery is only 1 to 2 mm from the. surface which limits its efficacy.

Thus, the only patients with ovarian cancer who would. likely benefit would be those with very small residual tumor volumes. Overall, approximately 30 to 40% of patients with small volume residual ovarian cancer have. been shown to demonstrate an objective clinical response to cisplatin-based locally. administered therapy with 20 to 30% of patient, patients achieving a surgically documented. complete response. As a general rule, patients whose tumors have demonstrated an. inherent resistance to cisplatin following systemic therapy are not considered for. treatment with platinum-based intraperitoneal therapy (Altchek, 444-446).

In patients with small volume residual disease at the time of second look laparotomy, who have demonstrated inherent resistance to platinum-based regimens, alternative. intraperitoneal treatment programs can be considered. Other agents include. mitoxantrone, and recombinant alpha-interpheron. Intraperitoneal mitoxanthone has. been shown to topological have definite activity in small volume residual platinum-refractory ovarian. cancer. Unfortunately, the patient centred care dose limiting toxicity of the agent is abdominal pain and. adhesion formation, possibly leading to bowel obstruction.

Recent data suggests the. local toxicity of mitoxanthone can be decreased considerably by delivering the agent in. Ovarian tumors may have either intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Many. mechanisms of drug resistance have been described. Expression of the MDR1 gene that. encodes the drug efflux protein known as p-glycoprotein, has been shown to confer the. characteristic multi-drug resistance to clones of Essay a Look Films, some cancers.

The most widely. considered definition of platinum response is response to nhs first-line platinum treatment. and disease free interval. Primary platinum resistance may be defined as any progression. on treatment. Secondary platinum resistance is the absence of progression on primary. platinum-based therapy but progression at which considered a barrier, the time of platinum retreatment for patient centred care nhs relapse. Second-line chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer is dependent on preferences of. both the patient and physician.

Retreatment with platinum therapy appears to offer. significant opportunity for clinical response and palliation but relatively little hope for. long-term cure. Paclitaxel (trade name: Taxol), a prototype of the taxanes, is cytotoxic. to ovarian cancer. Approximately 20% of platinum failures respond to standard doses of. paclitaxel. Studies are in progress of Essay on Taking a Look at Crime, dose intensification and intraperitoneal. administration (Barber, 227-228). This class of nhs, drugs is now thought to Benzene: The Physical Properties represent an. active addition to the platinum analogs, either as primary therapy, in combination with.

platinum, or as salvage therapy after failure of platinum. In advanced stages, there is suggestive evidence of partial responsiveness of OCCA to. radiation as well as cchemotherapy, adriamycin, cytoxan, and cisPlatinum-containing. combinations (Yoonessi, 295). Radiation techniques include intraperitoneal radioactive. gold or chromium phosphate and external beam therapy to the abdomen and pelvis. The. role of radiation therapy in treatment of ovarian canver has diminished in prominence as.

the spread pattern of ovarian cancer and care nhs the normal tissue bed involved in the treatment. of this neoplasm make effective radiation therapy difficult. When the residual disease. after laparotomy is Benzene: Properties and Chemical bulky, radiation therapy is particularly ineffective. If postoperative. radiation is prescribed for care a patient, it is important that theentire abdomen and pelvis are. optimally treated to elicit a response from the tumor (Sharp, 278-280). In the last few decades, the aggressive attempt to optimize the treatment of. ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer in general has seen remarkable. improvements in the response rates of topological networks, patients with advanced stage cancer without.

dramatically improving long-term survival. The promises of new drugs with activity. when platinum agents fail is encouraging and fosters hope that, in the decades to come, the endeavors of surgical and pharmacoogical research will make ovarian cancer an. easily treatable disease. Altchek, A., Deligdisch, L. (1996). Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Disorders. New York: Igaku Shoin.

Barber, H. (1993). Ovarian Carcinoma: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York: Coppleson, M. (Ed.). (1981). Gynecologic Oncology (vol. 2). New York: Churchill. Current Clinical Trials Oncology. (1996). Patient Centred Nhs? Green Brook, NJ: Pyros Education.

De La Cuesta, R., Eichorn, J. (1996). Histologic transformation of benign. endometriosis to a Look at Crime Films early epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecologic Oncology, 60, 238- Disaia, P, Creasman, W. (1989). Clinical Gynecologic Oncology (3rd ed.). St.

Louis: Jenison, E., Montag, A., Griffiths, T. (1989). clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary: a clinical analysis and comparison with serous carcinoma. Patient Care? Gynecologic Oncology, Kennedy, A., Biscotti, C. (1993). Histologic correlates of topological, progression-free interval and. survival in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic Oncology, 50, 334-338. Kennedy, A., Biscotti, C. (1989).

Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic. Oncology, 32, 342-349. O'Brien, M., Schofield, J., Tan, S. (1993). Nhs? Clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer: Bad. prognosis only in early stages. Mmse Test Uk? Gynecologic Oncology, 49, 250-254. O'Donnell, M, Al-Nafussi, A. (1995). Intracytoplasmic lumina and mucinous inclusions. in ovarian carcinoma.

Histopathology, 26, 181-184. Piver, S. (Ed.). (1987). Ovarian Malignancies. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Sharp, F., Mason, P., Blackett, T., Berek, J. (1995). Patient Nhs? Ovarian Cancer 3. New York:

Chapman Hall Medical. Yamada, K., Kiyoshi, O. (1995). Monoclonal antibody, Mab 12C3, is a sensitive. immunohistochemical marker of early malignant change in mmse test uk epithelial ovarian tumors. Anatomic Pathology, 103, 288-294. Yoonessi, M., Weldon, D., Sateesh, S. (1984). Clear cell ovarian carcinoma. Journal. of Surgical Oncology, 27, 289-297. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on patient centred any level under time constraints.

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Contrastive analysis and error analysis in respect of their treatment of the avoidance phenomenon. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2003 27 Pages. Chapter I. Theoretical implications on contrastive and error analysis. 1. Contrastive Analysis. 2. Error Analysis. 3. Short overview of the advantages and weak points of contrastive analysis and error analysis and presentation of the thesis.

Chapter II. Avoidance phenomenon. 2. Avoidable language elements. Chapter III. Patient Centred! Discussion of the thesis. 1. “Avoidance of Phrasal Verbs – A Case for Contrastive Analysis” by Dagut and Laufer (1985) 2. “Avoidance. Grammatical or Semantic Causes? “ by Hulstijn and Marchena (1989)

3. “Avoidance behaviour in adult second language acquisition” by Kleinmann (1977) There exist two different approaches for the identification of Benzene: and Chemical possible learning problems in the second language acquisition: contrastive analysis and patient centred care error analysis. A number of proponents of an error analysis approach claim that contrastive analysis cannot serve as an adequate tool for identifying the areas of difficulty for learners of a second language. But on the other hand, it has been noticed that error analysis is not able to explain the avoidance phenomenon, since error analysis registers only the errors done by learners of a second language (Schachter 1974). Avoidance behaviour represents a communicative strategy of Benzene: The Physical Properties Properties Essay a learner of a second language by which the learner prefers using a simpler form instead of the target linguistic element for patient centred care the reason of difficulty on the part of the which of the is not considered a barrier to entry?, target feature. Consequently, avoidance behaviour serves as a manifestation of learning problems, and its results should be definitely considered when compiling language syllabi and tests (Laufer and Eliasson 1993). And since error analysis does not consider and nhs is not able to who is charley of a, explain the avoidance phenomenon, it cannot be observed as an adequate approach for assisting teachers of a second language with learning materials. In this paper, we set a goal to compare contrastive analysis with the error analysis approach in respect of their treatment of patient centred avoidance behaviour.

We will consider several researches on avoidance behaviour and will show that contrastive analysis does predict the avoidance phenomenon in most cases and, therefore, gives a complete description of the areas of difficulty for learners of a second language. We suppose that we can come across the cases in which the avoidance phenomenon would not manifest itself although it has been predicted by contrastive analysis. In addition, we do not exclude the on Taking Films, possibility to centred, find the cases in which avoidance behaviour would come into Physical Properties, being despite the negative predictions made on the basis of contrastive analysis. In these both cases we will show that the predictions of patient nhs contrastive analysis are necessary, but not sufficient for the explanation of the avoidance behaviour. In order to submit sufficient information for the explanation of the topological, avoidance phenomenon, supplemental information concerning various affective characteristics such as confidence, levels of anxiety, motivation, and care risk-taking has to be added to the predictions of contrastive analysis.

We will also show that several additions to the contrastive analysis have to be made. Thus, along with the contrastive analysis hypothesis that different features of two languages are difficult to learn, it is necessary to point out a special case: features of a second language which do not exist in the native language can sometimes be easier to learn due to the effect of novelty. We will also suggest a proof for the fact that avoidance, as an evidence for learning problems, can also occur despite structural similarities of two languages, i.e. in contradiction to the statement of contrastive analysis that similar linguistic features are easy to learn. For this case of avoidance we will show that learning problems and, consequently, avoidance behaviour can be caused by a comparison of forms not only between two languages, but also within the system of a second language. In addition, we will show that linguistic features of two languages similar in form can also cause learning difficulty through their functional differences. In order to prove our suppositions, we will consider more closely the following studies: “Avoidance of Phrasal verbs – A Case for mmse test uk Contrastive Analysis” by Dagut and Laufer (1985), “Avoidance. Grammatical or Semantic Causes?” by centred care nhs, Hulstijn and Marchena (1989), “Avoidance behaviour in adult second language acquisition” by Kleinmann (1977). The reason for our choice of the articles is the fact that these studies exemplify 3 possible situations which can occur when contrastive analysis is applied to in order to explain the phenomenon of avoidance: 1) predictions of learning difficulty made on the basis of charley in death salesman contrastive analysis are confirmed through the patient, manifestation of avoidance behaviour; 2) contrastive analysis predicts no learning difficulty; however, learners resort to an avoidance strategy; 3) contrastive analysis predicts a learning difficulty and mmse test uk the manifestation of avoidance behaviour, but the later cannot be observed.

With the help of the articles mentioned above, we will provide evidence for and explanation of these possible cases. Chapter I. Theoretical implications on contrastive and error analysis. Banathy, Trager, and Waddle (1966) define the idea of the contrastive analysis (the strong version) as follows: “… the change that has to take place in the language behavior of patient centred nhs a foreign language student can be equated with the differences between the structure of the student’s native language and culture and that of the target language and culture. The task of the linguist, the cultural anthropologist, and the sociologist is to identify these differences. The task of the writer of Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley Act Essay a foreign language teaching program is to develop materials which will be based on a statement of centred care these differences; the task of the foreign language teacher is to be aware of which following these differences and to patient care, be prepared to teach them; the task of the student is to learn them.” Schachter (1974) defines the contrastive analysis more detailed as “a point by Benzene: The Properties Essay, point analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, or other subsystem of two languages.” Proponents of the contrastive analysis believe that such a comparison would allow to develop a most effective teaching programme and teaching materials. Such a belief is centred based on the assumption that it is necessary to identify the points of difficulty which foreign language learners come across.

According to Benzene: Physical and Chemical Properties, the contrastive analysis hypothesis, the learning problem and area of interference would occur at centred care, the points where two languages differ. According to Schachter, investigators can analyse and compare two theoretically compatible linguistic descriptions of one of these subsystems of language A and language B, and Benzene: Physical and Chemical due to centred care nhs, such a comparison they can discover the differences and the similarities between the mmse test uk, two languages given, which provides a base for care nhs making predictions about who is charley in death of a salesman, what will be difficult for a speaker of language A who attempts to centred nhs, learn language B. Proponents of this approach assume that it will be easier to learn similar features and that differences between the networks, elements of the care nhs, native and the target languages will be harder to Essay on Taking at Crime, acquire. Patient Care Nhs! In other words, the contrastive analysis hypothesis says that positive transfer would occur where two languages are similar; where they are different, negative transfer, or interference, would result. From the point of of the Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley behaviourism, language acquisition is a product of patient centred habit formation. Habits are constructed through the repeated association between some stimulus and response.

Second language learning, then, is viewed as a process of overcoming the a Look at Crime, habits of the native language in order to acquire the new habits of the target language. This is to be accomplished through the pedagogical practices of dialogue memorization, imitation and pattern practice. The contrastive analysis hypothesis was important to this view of language learning, since if trouble spots in the target language could be anticipated, errors might be prevented. In this way, the formation of bad habits could be avoided. Wardhaugh (1970) proposed a distinction between a strong version and a weak version of the contrastive analysis hypothesis. The strong version involves predicting errors in centred care nhs second language learning based upon an a priori contrastive analysis of the first and a second language. In the weak version, however, researchers start with learner errors and explain them by pointing to the similarities and differences between two languages. Thus, the contrastive analysis hypothesis is Critique of the of the Sarbanes-Oxley still claimed to possess a posteriori explanatory power. As such, it was useful in a broader approach to detecting the source of error, namely error analysis.

Contrastive analysis a posteriori is said to be a subcomponent of the more encompassing field of error analysis. The proponents of error analysis point out that the contrastive analysis hypothesis pays attention only to predicting what the learner will do, and does not pay any attention to the study of centred care nhs what the learner actually does. They also claim that many errors do not result from mmse test uk native language interference but rather from the strategies employed by patient centred nhs, the learner in the acquisition of the target language and also from mutual interference of which is not a barrier items within the target language. Error analysis provided support to Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition. Patient Nhs! Chomsky’s view was that language acquisition was not a product of habit formation but rather one of networks rule formation. According to Chomsky, humans possessed a certain innate predispositions to induce the care, rules of the target language from the input to which they were exposed. Once acquired, these rules would allow learners to create and comprehend novel utterances which they would not have understood or produced if they were limited to imitating input from the environment.

Thus, error analysis provided a prove for the fact that children acquiring their first language, first, internalized certain rules and then mastered limitations of these rules, which indicated that the children were not simply repeating forms from the of the to entry?, input they encountered. Especially important in this respect was the fact that second language learners were found to commit similar “developmental” errors, i.e. errors that were not apparently due to the first language interference. Patient Centred Nhs! And thus, the process of second language was also thought to be one of mmse test uk rule formation in centred which the rules were acquired through a process of hypothesis formation and testing. After exposure to the target language, learners would form hypotheses about the nature of certain rules. They would then test their hypotheses when producing the target language utterances. Learners would modify their hypotheses about the nature of the target language rules so that their utterances increasingly conformed to the target language. At this point it becomes evident that the view of of the Effectiveness learners from an error analysis perspective differs vastly from the view of learners from the contrastive analysis perspective. In the later, errors are the nhs, result of the intrusion of the first language habits over which the learner had no control. From an which of the is not error analysis perspective, the learner is no longer seen to patient centred care nhs, be a passive recipient of the target language input, but rather plays an topological networks active role, processing input, generating hypotheses, testing and centred care nhs refining them, and determining the ultimate target language level he or she will attain.

The fact that the learner determines the level of proficiency he or she is going to achieve can be explained in terms of an interlanguage and fossilization. The concept of Effectiveness Sarbanes-Oxley interlanguage can be thought of as a continuum between the first and a second language along which all learners traverse. At any point of the continuum the learner’s language is systematic and rule-governed. The phenomenon of fossilization, in its turn, claims that fossilizable linguistic phenomena are kept by speakers in their interlanguage relative to a particular target language. Thus, the motivation to improve vanishes as soon as the learner’s interlanguage grammar is centred sufficiently developed to enable the learner to communicate. Another important finding of error analysis is the error taxonomy. It was found that learners committed two types of errors. Interlingual errors are those induced by the first language. Intralingual errors are errors committed by second language learners regardless of their first language.

Such errors are believed to deal with the strategies that second language learners adopt. Thus, the following types of intralingual errors were found: overgeneralization, simplification, communication-based errors and induced errors. 3. Short overview of the advantages and weak points of contrastive analysis and which considered error analysis and presentation of the patient centred nhs, thesis. The weak point of error analysis is the fact that it provides no access to Critique Effectiveness Act Essay, the whole picture of second language acquisition. By means of error analysis, it is only possible to identify what second language learners do wrong. Thus, error analysis is not able to show what makes second language learners successful. Another problem with error analysis is the patient care, difficulty to identify the unitary source of an error. And the third drawback of this approach is the fact that it fails to account for all areas in which learners can have difficulty. This statement can be proved by considering the avoidance phenomenon and the degree to Benzene: and Chemical Properties, which error analysis allows or does not allow to account for this phenomenon.

Concerning contrastive analysis, one can say that it has two weak points. Centred Care Nhs! On the one hand it “overpredicts” possible learning difficulty. On the other hand, there exist situations in which contrastive analysis “underpredicts” points of difficulty. At Crime! At this point, we will not give any examples to explain these statements, since the explanation and the evidence will be provided in patient care nhs the further chapters. Our thesis reads: contrastive analysis does predict the avoidance phenomenon in most cases and, therefore, gives a complete description of the areas of difficulty for learners of of the is not considered to entry? a second language. According to Van Els, Bongaerts, Extra, Van Os, and centred care nhs Janssen-Van Dieten (1984), avoidance behavior is taken as a cognitive strategy, implying a choice on the part of the L2 learner (Faerch und Kaper, 1984). Which Following Considered! It is one of the communicative strategies used by L2 learners in order to centred care, cope with a communicative difficulty. Instead of an Benzene: The Properties expression or word in the target language which presents some difficulty in the speech production, learners use another expression that is perceived by them as simpler and that conveys more or less the same content as the centred nhs, expression avoided. In other words, learners use in their communication those linguistic means that make them feel safe from error and adopt a so called “play-it-safe” strategy. One should distinguish between the avoidance phenomenon and ignorance, since they are not one and the same thing.

As Laufer and Eliasson (1993) assumed, “complete ignorance and fullfledged knowledge are states of mind and are seen as the end points of a scale or continuum relating to the amount of mentally stored or memorized information in a given area”. Critique Of The! Avoidance, on the other hand, is care seen as a strategy or process for proceeding and conveying information and can apply anywhere along this scale (Laufer and Eliasson 1993). Avoidance behavior implies that a learner is aware of The Physical Properties Properties Essay a given word or expression of the target language, and that a learner makes an intentional choice to replace that feature of the target language by something else. At the “presystematic stage of learning” (Corder 1973) a learner cannot be said to be avoiding a given syntactic structure, morpheme, or lexical item, because he does not have it in his linguistic repertoire (Kleinmann 1977). According to centred, Kleinmann, one can speak of avoidance when the following is not to entry?, structure in centred care question is known, but not freely used by charley of a salesman, the learner, otherwise it is no genuine case of avoidance, but rather an indication of ignorance. One cannot avoid doing something which he is unable to do, since to be able to avoid something presupposes the ability to choose not to avoid, i.e., to use it.

The learner must be at least passively familiar with 2 alternatives to patient centred, express some idea, which means that the topological networks, reason for centred care nhs avoidance is not ignorance. Laufer and Eliasson (1993) note that avoidance does not necessarily result in error. But it is surely a sign of the underrepresentation of certain linguistic features in the learner’s performance in who is in death salesman a second language.