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manet-thesis-99mar - 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing. Click to edit the document details. Unformatted text preview: 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman Civilingenjorsprogrammet 1998:362 • ISSN: 1402-1617 • ISRN: LTU-EX--98/362--SE Master’s thesis in constructivist theory, Computer Science and Engineering Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Stockholm, 1998 Tony Larsson and Nicklas Hedman Lulea University of Technology Supervisor: Per Johansson Switchlab Ericsson Telecom AB Examiner: Mikael Degermark Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Division of Computer Communications, Lulea University of Technology Abstract Ad-hoc networking is a concept in computer communications, which means that users wanting to communicate with each other form a temporary network, without any form of centralized administration. Each node participating in environmental of flooding, the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore be willing to theory international relations forward packets for other nodes. For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. Upper Middle Class Homes? An ad-hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on the routing protocol. The most important characteristic is the constructivist theory international, dynamic topology, which is How the Struggle the Interstate Slave Led to, a consequence of node mobility. Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means that we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to relations topology changes. The nodes in example utilitarianism, an ad-hoc network can consist of laptops and personal digital assistants and are often very limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and constructivist relations, bandwidth.

This means that the routing protocol should try to minimize control traffic, such as periodic update messages. Instead the routing protocol should be reactive, thus only calculate routes upon receiving a specific request. The Internet Engineering Task Force currently has a working group named Mobile Ad-hoc Networks that is working on routing specifications for ad-hoc networks. This master thesis evaluates some of the protocols put forth by Borgata Hotel and Spa Campaign, the working group. This evaluation is done by means of simulation using Network simulator 2 from Berkeley.

The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when mobility increases. More conventional routing protocols like DSDV have a dramatic decrease in performance when mobility is high. Two of the proposed protocols are DSR and AODV. They perform very well when mobility is high. However, we have found that a routing protocol that entirely depends on theory messages at the IP-level will not perform well. Double And Trouble Meaning? Some sort of support from the lower layer, for instance link failure detection or neighbor discovery is constructivist theory relations, necessary for high performance. The size of the toil, network and the offered traffic load affects protocols based on source routing, like DSR, to some extent. A large network with many mobile nodes and constructivist international relations, high offered load will increase the overhead for DSR quite drastically.

In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. Preface This report is the result of our master thesis project carried out at Ericsson Telecom, Switchlab in class, Stockholm. This master thesis is also the last part of our Master of Science degree at constructivist, Lulea University of Technology. Switchlab is an applied research organization within Ericsson, working on network studies and technologies for products in the foreseeable future. This master thesis project has been a cooperation between Switchlab in Stockholm and Ericsson Mobile Data Design (ERV) in Gothenburg.

Our master thesis consisted of and the by Jean-Louis aka Jack, conducting a simulation study of proposed routing protocols in constructivist, ad-hoc networks. The thesis work done at ERV implemented one of the proposed routing protocols and tested it in a simple scenario. This has made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. We would like to Slave the Civil thank the following persons: Per Johansson for being our supervisor at Switchlab, Bartosz Mielczarek for contribution of the realistic scenarios and Mikael Degermark for being our Examiner at constructivist theory international relations, Lulea University of Technology. Also thanks to Johan Kopman and Jerry Svedlund in upper middle homes, Gothenburg for discussions and comments regarding AODV. Finally, we would also like to thank Mats Westin and Henrik Eriksson for giving us feedback on international this report. And The City Kerouac Aka Jack? Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION . 9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 BACKGROUND . 9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION . 9 RELATED WORK . International Relations? 10 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . 10 DISPOSITION . 11 ABBREVIATIONS . 11 GENERAL CONCEPTS.

12 2.1 WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS . Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? 12 2.1.1 General. 12 2.1.2 Usage. 13 2.1.3 Characteristics . 13 2.2 ROUTING . 14 2.2.1 Conventional protocols . 14 2.2.2 Link State. Constructivist Relations? 14 2.2.3 Distance Vector . 14 2.2.4 Source Routing . 14 2.2.5 Flooding . 15 2.2.6 Classification. 15 3 AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS. 16 3.1 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES . 16 3.2 MANET. 17 3.3 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR - DSDV . 17 3.3.1 Description . 17 3.3.2 Properties . 17 3.4 AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR - AODV . 18 3.4.1 Description . 18 3.4.2 Properties . 19 3.5 DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING - DSR.

20 3.5.1 Description . 20 3.5.2 Properties . 20 3.6 ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL - ZRP . 21 3.6.1 Description . 21 3.6.2 Properties . 22 3.7 TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM - TORA . Essay Hotel Recruitment Campaign? 22 3.7.1 Description . 22 3.7.2 Properties . 23 3.8 INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL - IMEP. Constructivist Theory International Relations? 24 3.8.1 Description . 24 3.8.2 Properties . 24 3.9 CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL - CBRP. 24 3.9.1 Description . 24 3.9.2 Properties . 26 3.10 COMPARISON. 26 4 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT . 28 4.1 NETWORK SIMULATOR. 28 4.2 MOBILITY EXTENSION . 29 4.2.1 Shared media. 30 4.2.2 Mobile node. 30 4.3 SIMULATION OVERVIEW . 31 4.4 MODIFICATIONS . 32 4.4.1 AODV . 32 4.4.2 DSR. 33 4.4.3 DSDV. 34 4.4.4 Flooding . 34 4.4.5 The simulator.

34 5 SIMULATION STUDY . 35 5.1 MEASUREMENTS . 35 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics . 35 5.1.2 Parameters . 35 5.1.3 Mobility . 35 5.2 SIMULATION SETUP . 38 5.3 MOBILITY SIMULATIONS . 39 5.3.1 Setup . 39 5.3.2 Fraction of example utilitarianism, received packets. 40 5.3.3 End-to-end delay . 41 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput . International? 42 5.3.5 Overhead . 43 5.3.6 Optimal path. 44 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations. 46 5.4 OFFERED LOAD SIMULATIONS . Impacts? 46 5.4.1 Setup . Constructivist? 46 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets. 47 5.4.3 End-to-end delay . 48 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput . 49 5.4.5 Overhead . 49 5.4.6 Optimal path.

51 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations . How The Struggle The Interstate Slave The Civil? 51 5.5 NETWORK SIZE SIMULATIONS. 52 5.6 REALISTIC SCENARIOS . 52 5.6.1 Setup . International Relations? 52 5.6.2 Conference. 53 5.6.3 Event coverage . Environmental Of Flooding? 55 5.6.4 Disaster area . 57 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios. 60 5.7 OBSERVATIONS . 60 5.7.1 Ability to find routes . 60 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes. Constructivist Theory Relations? 61 5.7.3 Buffers . 62 5.8 DISCUSSION. 62 5.9 CLASSIFICATION. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks . 63 5.9.2 Size of impacts of flooding, networks . 63 5.9.3 Network scenarios . 64 5.10 IMPROVEMENTS . 64 6 IMPLEMENTATION STUDY . Constructivist? 65 DESIGN. 65 6.1.1 Main . Toil Meaning? 65 6.1.2 Event queue . 66 6.1.3 Route table. Theory Relations? 66 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders . 66 6.1.5 Request buffer.

66 6.1.6 Message . 66 6.2 SETUP . 66 6.3 TESTING . 67 6.3.1 Correctness. 67 6.3.2 Performance . Example Of Rule Utilitarianism? 67 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 CONCLUSIONS. International? 69 7.1 7.2 8 PROBLEMS / LIMITATIONS . 67 IMPROVEMENTS . 68 IMPLEMENTATION CONCLUSIONS . 68 RESULTS. 69 FURTHER STUDIES . 69 REFERENCES . 71 APPENDIX A - TERMINOLOGY. 73 A.1 A.2 GENERAL TERMS . 73 AD-HOC RELATED TERMS . 74 APPENDIX B - AODV IMPLEMENTATION FOR NS. 75 B.1 MESSAGE FORMATS. And The By Kerouac Essay? 75 B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ. International Relations? 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP. 76 B.1.3 Hello . 76 B.1.4 Link failure . 76 B.2 DESIGN . 77 B.3 IMPORTANT ROUTINES.

78 B.3.1 Sending RREQ. Upper Middle Class Homes? 78 B.3.2 Receiving RREQ . 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ. International Relations? 79 B.3.4 Forwarding RREP . 79 B.3.5 Receiving RREP . Upper Middle Class Homes? 79 B.3.6 Hello handling . 80 B.3.7 Forwarding packets. 80 B.3.8 Sending Triggered RREP . 80 B.3.9 Receiving Triggered RREP. 80 APPENDIX C - SIMULATOR SCREENSHOTS . 81 C.1 C.2 NETWORK ANIMATOR . Constructivist Theory International? 81 AD-HOCKEY . 82 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. . 12 Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and How the Trade the Civil War, as router. . 13 Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for constructivist theory international relations, nodes S and class homes, D. 22 Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. 23 IMEP in the protocol stack. . Constructivist Theory? 24 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Network simulator 2. . 28 Shared media model. . 30 A mobile node. . 31 Simulation overview. 32 Example of mobility. . 37 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. . 37 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. . 40 Mobility simulations - delay. Against The Civil War? 41 Mobility simulations - throughput. . 42 Mobility simulations - overhead.

43 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. . 45 Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. . International? 47 Offered load simulations - average delay. Upper Middle Class? . 48 Offered load simulations - average throughput. . International Relations? 49 Offered load simulations - overhead. 50 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 51 Conference scenario. On Borgata Hotel And Spa Recruitment Campaign? . 54 Event coverage scenario. . 56 Disaster area scenario. . 58 Simple example scenario. . 60 Overview of AODV daemon. Theory? . 65 Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. 70 Route request format. Of Rule? . International Relations? 75 Route reply format. 76 AODV design of implementation for simulator. . 77 Screenshot – Network animator. 81 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. . 82 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. . 83 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. . 83 List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Neighbor table. . 25 Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. . 27 Constants used in of rule utilitarianism, the AODV implementation. 33 Constants used in the DSR implementation. . 33 Constants used in the DSDV implementation. . 34 Mobility variables. 36 Parameters used during mobility simulations. 39 Optimal path difference for all protocols. 45 Parameters used during offered load simulations. . 47 Parameters used during realistic simulations.

53 Parameters used during conference scenario. . 53 Conference simulation results. . International? 54 Packet drops in conference scenario. 55 Parameters used during event coverage scenario. . 55 Event coverage simulation results. . 57 Packet drops in event coverage scenario. . 57 Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Upper Middle Class Homes? 57 Disaster area simulation results. . Constructivist Relations? 59 Packet drops in Against the Interstate Slave Trade Led to War, disaster area. 59 Routing tables for constructivist international, AODV after a route discovery process. . 60 Routing caches for middle, DSR, after a route discovery process. 61 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Wireless communication between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. This due to international relations recent technological advances in laptop computers and wireless data communication devices, such as wireless modems and Essay Hotel Casino Campaign, wireless LANs. This has lead to lower prices and international, higher data rates, which are the two main reasons why mobile computing continues to enjoy rapid growth.

There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communication between two hosts. The first approach is to let the existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the problem of handoff, which tries to handle the situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one base station to another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. The second approach is to middle class form an constructivist theory international, ad-hoc network among all users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in the ad-hoc network must be willing to of rule utilitarianism forward data packets to make sure that the theory, packets are delivered from source to destination. This form of of flooding, networking is constructivist theory international, limited in range by toil, the individual nodes transmission ranges and relations, is typically smaller compared to City by Essay the range of cellular systems. This does not mean that the cellular approach is international, better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to middle homes traditional cellular systems. These advantages include: N N N On demand setup Fault tolerance Unconstrained connectivity Ad-hoc networks do not rely on any pre-established infrastructure and constructivist, can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? This is useful in disaster recovery situations and places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of a communication network is needed.

Adhoc networks can also be useful on conferences where people participating in constructivist theory international, the conference can form a temporary network without engaging the services of any pre-existing network. Because nodes are forwarding packets for How the Trade the Civil War, each other, some sort of routing protocol is necessary to constructivist theory make the meaning, routing decisions. Currently there does not exist any standard for relations, a routing protocol for environmental of flooding, ad-hoc networks, instead this is work in progress. Constructivist Relations? Many problems remain to be solved before any standard can be determined. Environmental Impacts? This thesis looks at some of these problems and tries to evaluate some of the currently proposed protocols. Theory International? 1.2 Problem description The objective for this master thesis was to evaluate proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks based on performance.

This evaluation should be done theoretically and through simulation. It was also desirable to compare the results with the results for routing protocols in a traditional wired network. At the beginning of this master thesis, no implementation of the protocols had been released, so the first main task was to upper middle implement some of the protocols. The thesis also included the goal to generate a simulation environment that could be used as a platform for theory, further studies within the area of ad-hoc networks. On Hotel And Spa Campaign? This simulation environment should if possible, be based on Network simulator 2 from Berkeley. Constructivist Theory? 9 The goal of this master thesis was to: N N N N N N Get a general understanding of The Town and the by aka Jack Essay, ad-hoc networks. Generate a simulation environment that could be used for further studies. Implement some of the proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Analyze the protocols theoretically and through simulation. Produce a classification of the protocols with respect to constructivist theory relations applicability in combinations of example utilitarianism, small/large networks, and mobile/semi-mobile nodes. Constructivist International? Recommend protocols for specific network scenarios. 1.3 Related work Many routing protocols have been proposed [2][4][6][8][10][11][12][16][19][22][26], but few comparisons between the different protocols have been made. Of the work that has been done in this field, only the work done by the Monarch1 project at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has compared some of the different proposed routing protocols and evaluated them based on meaning the same quantitative metrics. The result was presented in the article “A performance comparison of multi-hop ad hoc wireless network routing protocols” [3] that was released in the beginning of October 1998. There exist some other simulation results [13][17] that have been done on constructivist relations individual protocols. These simulations have however not used the same metrics and are therefore not comparable with each other. In parallel with our master thesis, a master thesis project in Gothenburg [28] implemented the AODV [19] protocol and tested it in double double toil and trouble meaning, a environment that consisted of 5 computers with wireless interfaces. The cooperation between our projects and constructivist theory international relations, their project made it possible to example share thoughts and ideas with each other. Constructivist Theory International Relations? 1.4 Project organization The following persons have been involved in example utilitarianism, this master thesis project: Simulation study and master thesis authors M.Sc.

Tony Larsson M.Sc. Nicklas Hedman Supervisor at constructivist theory relations, Ericsson Telecom AB, Switchlab Tekn.Lic. Per Johansson Examiner at Lulea University of Technology Ph. D. Mikael Degermark Implementation study at Ericsson Mobile data design (ERV) in Gothenburg M.Sc. Environmental Impacts? Johan Kopman M.Sc.

Jerry Svedlund Supervisor at ERV M.Sc. Christoffer Kanljung Contribution of realistic scenarios Ph.D. student at Chalmers University of Technology: Bartosz Mielczarek 1 MObile Networking ARCHitectures 10 1.5 Disposition This report consists of 8 chapters and two appendices. Chapters 1 and constructivist international, 2 explain the concept of ad-hoc networks and routing in general. Chapter 3 describes the Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack Essay, different routing protocols, analyzes and compares them. Constructivist International Relations? Chapters 4 and 5 describe the simulator and the simulations that were made. Chapter 6 describes the implementation study of AODV that was made in Gothenburg.

Chapter 7 concludes the whole report and chapter 8 is the references that we have used. The appendices contain some terminology, details about the implementation of AODV that we did for double double toil and trouble meaning, the simulator and some screenshots of the simulator. 1.6 Abbreviations AODV CBR CBRP DSDV DSR IEEE IETF LAN IP MAC MANET OLSR PDA QoS TCP TORA UDP WINET ZRP Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Constant Bit Rate Cluster Based Routing Protocol Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Local Area Network Internet Protocol Media Access Protocol Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Personal Digital Assistant Quality of Service Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm User Datagram Protocol Wireless InterNET Zone Routing Protocol 11 2 General Concepts 2.1 Wireless ad-hoc networks 2.1.1 General A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of theory international, mobile/semi-mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. Each of the nodes has a wireless interface and communicate with each other over either radio or infrared. Laptop computers and personal digital assistants that communicate directly with each other are some examples of toil and trouble meaning, nodes in an ad-hoc network.

Nodes in the adhoc network are often mobile, but can also consist of stationary nodes, such as access points to the Internet. Semi mobile nodes can be used to deploy relay points in theory relations, areas where relay points might be needed temporarily. Figure 1 shows a simple ad-hoc network with three nodes. The outermost nodes are not within transmitter range of How the Struggle Slave Trade Led to the Civil, each other. Constructivist International? However the middle node can be used to forward packets between the of rule, outermost nodes.

The middle node is constructivist international, acting as a router and the three nodes have formed an ad-hoc network. Figure 1: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. An ad-hoc network uses no centralized administration. This is to of rule utilitarianism be sure that the network wont collapse just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of transmitter range of the international relations, others. Nodes should be able to enter/leave the network as they wish. Because of the limited transmitter range of the Essay on Borgata Casino and Spa, nodes, multiple hops may be needed to reach other nodes.

Every node wishing to participate in an ad-hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus every node acts both as a host and as a router. A node can be viewed as an abstract entity consisting of constructivist international, a router and meaning, a set of affiliated mobile hosts (Figure 2). A router is an theory international relations, entity, which, among other things runs a routing protocol. The Interstate Trade The Civil? A mobile host is simply an IP-addressable host/entity in the traditional sense. Ad-hoc networks are also capable of handling topology changes and malfunctions in nodes. It is fixed through network reconfiguration. For instance, if a node leaves the network and causes link breakages, affected nodes can easily request new routes and the problem will be solved. Constructivist Theory? This will slightly increase the delay, but the network will still be operational.

12 Wireless ad-hoc networks take advantage of the nature of the wireless communication medium. In other words, in a wired network the physical cabling is done a priori restricting the connection topology of the nodes. This restriction is not present in double double meaning, the wireless domain and, provided that two nodes are within transmitter range of each other, an instantaneous link between them may form. Host Host Router Host Figure 2: Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. 2.1.2 Usage There is no clear picture of what these kinds of networks will be used for.

The suggestions vary from document sharing at constructivist theory relations, conferences to infrastructure enhancements and military applications. In areas where no infrastructure such as the Essay Hotel Recruitment, Internet is available an ad-hoc network could be used by constructivist theory international, a group of environmental of flooding, wireless mobile hosts. This can be the case in areas where a network infrastructure may be undesirable due to reasons such as cost or convenience. Examples of such situations include disaster recovery personnel or military troops in cases where the normal infrastructure is either unavailable or destroyed. Other examples include business associates wishing to share files in constructivist relations, an airport terminal, or a class of and the City by Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack Essay, students needing to constructivist interact during a lecture. If each mobile host wishing to Essay Casino and Spa Recruitment Campaign communicate is equipped with a wireless local area network interface, the constructivist relations, group of mobile hosts may form an ad-hoc network.

Access to middle class homes the Internet and access to resources in networks such as printers are features that probably also will be supported. 2.1.3 Characteristics Ad-hoc networks are often characterized by a dynamic topology due to the fact that nodes change their physical location by moving around. This favors routing protocols that dynamically discover routes over conventional routing algorithms like distant vector and link state [23]. Another characteristic is that a host/node have very limited CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth, also referred to international as a “thin client”. This means that the of rule, power usage must be limited thus leading to a limited transmitter range. The access media, the radio environment, also has special characteristics that must be considered when designing protocols for ad-hoc networks. Constructivist Theory International Relations? One example of this may be unidirectional links. These links arise when for How the Trade Led to the Civil, example two nodes have different strength on their transmitters, allowing only one of the constructivist theory, host to hear the other, but can also arise from disturbances from the surroundings.

Multihop in a radio environment may result in an overall transmit capacity gain and double meaning, power gain, due to theory international the squared relation between coverage and required output power. By using multihop, nodes can transmit the packets with a much lower output power. 13 2.2 Routing Because of the fact that it may be necessary to hop several hops (multi-hop) before a packet reaches the destination, a routing protocol is needed. The routing protocol has two main functions, selection of routes for various source-destination pairs and the delivery of messages to their correct destination. The second function is conceptually straightforward using a variety of protocols and class, data structures (routing tables). This report is focused on selecting and finding routes. Constructivist Theory? 2.2.1 Conventional protocols If a routing protocol is needed, why not use a conventional routing protocol like link state or distance vector? They are well tested and most computer communications people are familiar with them. The main problem with link-state and distance vector is that they are designed for a static topology, which means that they would have problems to converge to a steady state in an ad-hoc network with a very frequently changing topology. Link state and distance vector would probably work very well in upper middle class, an ad-hoc network with low mobility, i.e. a network where the theory relations, topology is impacts of flooding, not changing very often. The problem that still remains is that link-state and distance-vector are highly dependent on periodic control messages.

As the number of network nodes can be large, the potential number of destinations is constructivist theory international relations, also large. This requires large and Borgata Hotel Casino and Spa Campaign, frequent exchange of data among the network nodes. This is in contradiction with the fact that all updates in a wireless interconnected ad hoc network are transmitted over relations the air and thus are costly in resources such as bandwidth, battery power and CPU. The Town And The City Jean-Louis Aka Jack? Because both link-state and distance vector tries to maintain routes to all reachable destinations, it is constructivist theory, necessary to maintain these routes and this also wastes resources for the same reason as above. Another characteristic for conventional protocols are that they assume bi-directional links, e.g. Example? that the transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions. In the wireless radio environment this is not always the case. Because many of the proposed ad-hoc routing protocols have a traditional routing protocol as underlying algorithm, it is necessary to international relations understand the City Essay, basic operation for conventional protocols like distance vector, link state and source routing. Theory Relations? 2.2.2 Link State In link-state routing [23], each node maintains a view of the complete topology with a cost for each link. To keep these costs consistent; each node periodically broadcasts the link costs of its outgoing links to all other nodes using flooding. As each node receives this information, it updates its view of the network and applies a shortest path algorithm to choose the next-hop for each destination. Some link costs in a node view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned networks, etc.

Such inconsistent network topology views can lead to formation of routing-loops. These loops are however short-lived, because they disappear in the time it takes a message to traverse the diameter of the network. 2.2.3 Distance Vector In distance vector [23] each node only The Town and the by Jean-Louis, monitors the cost of its outgoing links, but instead of broadcasting this information to all nodes, it periodically broadcasts to each of its neighbors an estimate of the shortest distance to every other node in the network. The receiving nodes then use this information to recalculate the relations, routing tables, by The Town by Kerouac, using a shortest path algorithm. Compared to international relations link-state, distance vector is more computation efficient, easier to implement and environmental, requires much less storage space. Constructivist Theory International? However, it is Borgata Hotel and Spa Recruitment, well known that distance vector can cause the formation of both short-lived and long-lived routing loops. Relations? The primary cause for this is that the impacts, nodes choose their next-hops in a completely distributed manner based on information that can be stale. 2.2.4 Source Routing Source routing [23] means that each packet must carry the constructivist theory relations, complete path that the packet should take through the network. The routing decision is therefore made at the source. The advantage with this approach is that it is very easy to avoid routing loops.

The disadvantage is homes, that each packet requires a slight overhead. 14 2.2.5 Flooding Many routing protocols uses broadcast to distribute control information, that is, send the control information from an origin node to constructivist theory international all other nodes. A widely used form of broadcasting is by Jean-Louis Kerouac Essay, flooding [23] and constructivist international relations, operates as follows. The origin node sends its information to its neighbors (in the wireless case, this means all nodes that are within transmitter range). The neighbors relay it to their neighbors and so on, until the packet has reached all nodes in the network.

A node will only relay a packet once and to ensure this some sort of sequence number can be used. This sequence number is increased for each new packet a node sends. 2.2.6 Classification Routing protocols can be classified [1] into How the Against the Interstate Slave War different categories depending on their properties. N N N Centralized vs. Distributed Static vs.

Adaptive Reactive vs. Proactive One way to categorize the routing protocols is to divide them into centralized and relations, distributed algorithms. On Borgata Hotel Casino And Spa Recruitment? In centralized algorithms, all route choices are made at a central node, while in relations, distributed algorithms, the computation of Essay on, routes is shared among the network nodes. Another classification of routing protocols relates to whether they change routes in response to the traffic input patterns. In static algorithms, the route used by source-destination pairs is fixed regardless of traffic conditions. Constructivist Relations? It can only change in environmental impacts of flooding, response to a node or link failure. This type of algorithm cannot achieve high throughput under a broad variety of traffic input patterns. Most major packet networks uses some form of adaptive routing where the constructivist relations, routes used to route between source-destination pairs may change in response to congestion A third classification that is upper homes, more related to constructivist theory international ad-hoc networks is to classify the impacts of flooding, routing algorithms as either proactive or reactive. Proactive protocols attempt to continuously evaluate the routes within the network, so that when a packet needs to constructivist theory be forwarded, the route is already known and can be immediately used. The family of Distance-Vector protocols is an environmental impacts of flooding, example of a proactive scheme.

Reactive protocols, on the other hand, invoke a route determination procedure on constructivist theory relations demand only. Thus, when a route is needed, some sort of global search procedure is employed. The family of classical flooding algorithms belongs to the reactive group. Proactive schemes have the advantage that when a route is needed, the delay before actual packets can be sent is The Town and the City Kerouac aka Jack, very small. Theory International Relations? On the other side proactive schemes needs time to converge to a steady state. This can cause problems if the topology is changing frequently. 15 3 Ad-hoc routing protocols This chapter describes the different ad-hoc routing protocols that we have chosen to simulate and analyze.

3.1 Desirable properties If the conventional routing protocols do not meet our demands, we need a new routing protocol. Of Rule? The question is what properties such protocols should have? These are some of the properties [5] that are desirable: Distributed operation The protocol should of international, course be distributed. It should not be dependent on How the Trade Led to the Civil a centralized controlling node. This is the case even for stationary networks. The difference is that nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter/leave the network very easily and theory international relations, because of mobility the network can be partitioned. Loop free To improve the overall performance, we want the routing protocol to example utilitarianism guarantee that the routes supplied are loop-free. This avoids any waste of bandwidth or CPU consumption. Demand based operation To minimize the constructivist theory, control overhead in impacts of flooding, the network and thus not wasting network resources more than necessary, the protocol should be reactive. This means that the protocol should only theory international relations, react when needed and that the protocol should not periodically broadcast control information. Unidirectional link support The radio environment can cause the formation of unidirectional links.

Utilization of environmental impacts, these links and not only the bi-directional links improves the routing protocol performance. Security The radio environment is especially vulnerable to relations impersonation attacks, so to ensure the wanted behavior from the routing protocol, we need some sort of preventive security measures. Authentication and encryption is probably the way to go and on Hotel Casino and Spa Recruitment Campaign, the problem here lies within distributing keys among the nodes in the ad-hoc network. There are also discussions about using IP-sec [14] that uses tunneling to transport all packets. Power conservation The nodes in an ad-hoc network can be laptops and thin clients, such as PDAs that are very limited in constructivist theory relations, battery power and therefore uses some sort of stand-by mode to save power.

It is therefore important that the routing protocol has support for these sleep-modes. Multiple routes To reduce the number of reactions to topological changes and congestion multiple routes could be used. If one route has become invalid, it is possible that another stored route could still be valid and thus saving the routing protocol from initiating another route discovery procedure. Quality of service support Some sort of upper class, Quality of Service support is probably necessary to theory relations incorporate into the routing protocol. This has a lot to utilitarianism do with what these networks will be used for. It could for instance be real-time traffic support. None of the proposed protocols from international relations MANET have all these properties, but it is necessary to remember that the protocols are still under development and are probably extended with more functionality. The primary function is still to find a route to of rule utilitarianism the destination, not to find the constructivist theory, best/optimal/shortest-path route. The remainder of this chapter will describe the different routing protocols and analyze them theoretically.

16 3.2 MANET IETF has a working group named MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks) [15] that is working in the field of utilitarianism, adhoc networks. They are currently developing routing specifications for ad-hoc IP networks that support scaling to a couple of hundred nodes. Their goal is to be finished in the end of year 1999 and then introduce these specifications to the Internet standard tracks. Constructivist? Even if MANET currently is working on routing protocols, it also serves as a meeting place and The Town Jean-Louis Kerouac Essay, forum, so people can discuss issues concerning ad-hoc networks. Constructivist? Currently they have seven routing protocol drafts: N N N N N N N N AODV - Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector [19] ZRP - Zone Routing Protocol [8] TORA / IMEP - Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm / Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol [6][16][17] DSR - Dynamic Source Routing [12][13] CBRP - Cluster Based Routing Protocol [11] CEDAR - Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing [26] AMRoute – Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol [2] OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol [10] Of these proposed protocols we have chosen to Against the Interstate Slave War analyze AODV, DSR, ZRP, CBRP and TORA theoretically. We have also analyzed DSDV, which is a proactive approach, as opposed to the other reactive protocols. We have not analyzed AMRoute because it is a multicast routing protocol, neither CEDAR because it is primary a QoS routing protocol, nor OLSR, because it was submitted as an constructivist theory, Internet draft so late. In those cases where a protocol supports both unicast and multicast routing we have only How the Struggle Against Slave Led to the Civil War, looked at the unicast routing part.

Of the theoretically analyzed protocols we have done simulations on AODV and DSR. 3.3 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector - DSDV 3.3.1 Description DSDV [22] is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that in constructivist international relations, each node has a routing table that for all reachable destinations stores the next-hop and and the City Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack, number of hops for that destination. Like distance-vector, DSDV requires that each node periodically broadcast routing updates. The advantage with DSDV over traditional distance vector protocols is that DSDV guarantees loop-freedom. To guarantee loop-freedom DSDV uses a sequence numbers to tag each route. The sequence number shows the freshness of a route and routes with higher sequence numbers are favorable. A route R is considered more favorable than R' if R has a greater sequence number or, if the theory international relations, routes have the same sequence number but R has lower hop-count. Of Flooding? The sequence number is increased when a node A detects that a route to a destination D has broken. So the next time node A advertises its routes, it will advertise the route to D with an infinite hop-count and international, a sequence number that is larger than before. DSDV basically is distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad-hoc networks.

These adjustments consist of triggered updates that will take care of topology changes in the time between broadcasts. To reduce the amount of information in these packets there are two types of update messages defined: full and incremental dump. The full dump carries all available routing information and the incremental dump that only carries the information that has changed since the Essay Casino Campaign, last dump. Theory International Relations? 3.3.2 Properties Because DSDV is dependent on periodic broadcasts it needs some time to converge before a route can be used. This converge time can probably be considered negligible in upper class, a static wired network, where the topology is not changing so frequently. In an ad-hoc network on the other hand, where the topology is expected to theory relations be very dynamic, this converge time will probably mean a lot of dropped packets before a valid route is detected. The periodic broadcasts also add a large amount of overhead into the network. 17 3.4 Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector - AODV 3.4.1 Description The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [19] routing protocol enables multi-hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and example of rule, maintain an ad-hoc network. Theory? AODV is based upon the distance vector algorithm. Utilitarianism? The difference is that AODV is reactive, as opposed to proactive protocols like DV, i.e. AODV only requests a route when needed and does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that are not actively used in communications.

As long as the endpoints of constructivist relations, a communication connection have valid routes to each other, AODV does not play any role. Features of this protocol include loop freedom and that link breakages cause immediate notifications to be sent to the affected set of nodes, but only that set. Additionally, AODV has support for multicast routing and avoids the Bellman Ford counting to middle infinity problem [27]. The use of destination sequence numbers guarantees that a route is fresh. The algorithm uses different messages to discover and maintain links. Whenever a node wants to try and theory relations, find a route to another node, it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or a node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the route is made available by unicasting a RREP back to the source. The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to the immediate neighbors. These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the node and neighbors using routes through the broadcasting node will continue to mark the routes as valid. If hello messages stop coming from a particular node, the neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and on Casino and Spa, mark that link to the node as broken and notify the affected set of nodes by sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to that set of nodes.

AODV also has a multicast route invalidation message, but because we do not cover multicast in this report we will not discuss this any further. Route table management AODV needs to keep track of the following information for each route table entry: N N N N N N N Destination IP Address: IP address for theory, the destination node. Destination Sequence Number: Sequence number for this destination. Hop Count: Number of toil and trouble, hops to the destination. Next Hop: The neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets to the destination for this route entry. Lifetime: The time for which the theory, route is double toil and trouble, considered valid. Constructivist International? Active neighbor list: Neighbor nodes that are actively using this route entry. Request buffer: Makes sure that a request is only processed once. How The Struggle Against The Interstate The Civil? Route discovery A node broadcasts a RREQ when it needs a route to international relations a destination and does not have one available. The Interstate Slave Trade The Civil? This can happen if the international, route to the destination is unknown, or if a previously valid route expires. After broadcasting a RREQ, the node waits for a RREP.

If the reply is not received within a certain time, the node may rebroadcast the RREQ or assume that there is no route to the destination. Forwarding of environmental impacts, RREQs is done when the node receiving a RREQ does not have a route to the destination. It then rebroadcast the RREQ. The node also creates a temporary reverse route to the Source IP Address in its routing table with next hop equal to the IP address field of the neighboring node that sent the broadcast RREQ. This is done to keep track of constructivist international relations, a route back to the original node making the request, and might be used for an eventual RREP to find its way back to the requesting node. The route is temporary in the sense that it is valid for a much shorter time, than an actual route entry. And Trouble? When the theory, RREQ reaches a node that either is the destination node or a node with a valid route to the destination, a RREP is generated and unicasted back to the requesting node.

While this RREP is forwarded, a route is created to of rule the destination and theory, when the RREP reaches the source node, there exists a route from the and the City by Jean-Louis Kerouac Essay, source to the destination. 18 Route maintenance When a node detects that a route to a neighbor no longer is constructivist, valid, it will remove the routing entry and send a link failure message, a triggered route reply message to the neighbors that are actively using the route, informing them that this route no longer is valid. For this purpose AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of the on Hotel Recruitment, neighbors that are using a particular route. The nodes that receive this message will repeat this procedure. The message will eventually be received by the affected sources that can chose to either stop sending data or requesting a new route by sending out a new RREQ. 3.4.2 Properties The advantage with AODV compared to classical routing protocols like distance vector and constructivist theory relations, link-state is Borgata Hotel Casino Campaign, that AODV has greatly reduced the number of constructivist theory international, routing messages in the network. AODV achieves this by using a reactive approach. This is probably necessary in The Town and the Jean-Louis aka Jack Essay, an ad-hoc network to constructivist theory relations get reasonably performance when the topology is changing often. AODV is also routing in upper, the more traditional sense compared to international relations for instance source routing based proposals like DSR (see 3.5). The advantage with a more traditional routing protocol in an ad-hoc network is that connections from the ad-hoc network to a wired network like the Internet is most likely easier.

The sequence numbers that AODV uses represents the freshness of a route and is increased when something happens in the surrounding area. The sequence prevents loops from being formed, but can however also be the cause for new problems. Middle Class? What happens for instance when the theory, sequence numbers no longer are synchronized in the network? This can happen when the network becomes partitioned, or the sequence numbers wrap around. AODV only support one route for each destination. Double And Trouble Meaning? It should however be fairly easy to modify AODV, so that it supports several routes per destination. International Relations? Instead of Struggle Slave Led to, requesting a new route when an old route becomes invalid, the next stored route to that destination could be tried.

The probability for that route to still be valid should be rather high. Although the Triggered Route Replies are reduced in theory international relations, number by only sending the Triggered Route Replies to affected senders, they need to traverse the whole way from the failure to the senders. This distance can be quite high in numbers of hops. AODV sends one Triggered RREP for every active neighbor in Struggle Slave Trade the Civil War, the active neighbor list for all entries that have been affected of a link failure. This can mean that each active neighbor can receive several triggered RREPs informing about the same link failure, but for different destinations, if a large fraction of the constructivist theory international relations, network traffic is routed through the same node and this node goes down. An aggregated solution would be more appropriate here.

AODV uses hello messages at of rule, the IP-level. This means that AODV does not need support from the link layer to work properly. It is however questionable if this kind of protocol can operate with good performance without support from the constructivist international relations, link layer. The hello messages adds a significant overhead to upper middle class homes the protocol. AODV does not support unidirectional links.

When a node receives a RREQ, it will setup a reverse route to relations the source by using the node that forwarded the RREQ as nexthop. This means that the route reply, in most cases is unicasted back the same way as the route request used. City Kerouac? Unidirectional link support would make it possible to utilize all links and not only the theory international, bi-directional links. Upper Middle Homes? It is however questionable if unidirectional links are desirable in a real environment. The acknowledgements in the MAC protocol IEEE 802.11 would for instance not work with unidirectional links. 19 3.5 Dynamic Source Routing - DSR 3.5.1 Description Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [3][12][13] also belongs to constructivist the class of reactive protocols and allows nodes to dynamically discover a route across multiple network hops to any destination. Source routing means that each packet in its header carries the complete ordered list of nodes through which the packet must pass. DSR uses no periodic routing messages (e.g. no router advertisements), thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, conserving battery power and avoiding large routing updates throughout the ad-hoc network. Instead DSR relies on support from the double toil, MAC layer (the MAC layer should inform the international, routing protocol about impacts of flooding link failures). Theory International? The two basic modes of operation in double toil and trouble meaning, DSR are route discovery and route maintenance. Route discovery Route discovery is the mechanism whereby a node X wishing to send a packet to Y, obtains the source route to constructivist international relations Y. Node X requests a route by Struggle the Interstate Slave Trade War, broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet.

Every node receiving this RREQ searches through its route cache for a route to the requested destination. DSR stores all known routes in constructivist theory international relations, its route cache. If no route is found, it forwards the RREQ further and adds its own address to the recorded hop sequence. This request propagates through the network until either the destination or a node with a route to the destination is of rule, reached. When this happen a Route Reply (RREP) is unicasted back to the originator. Constructivist Theory Relations? This RREP packet contains the sequence of Essay Borgata Hotel Casino Recruitment Campaign, network hops through which it may reach the target. In Route Discovery, a node first sends a RREQ with the maximum propagation limit (hop limit) set to zero, prohibiting its neighbors from rebroadcasting it.

At the cost of a single broadcast packet, this mechanism allows a node to query the route caches of all its neighbors. Nodes can also operate their network interface in promiscuous mode, disabling the interface address filtering and causing the network protocol to receive all packets that the interface overhears. These packets are scanned for useful source routes or route error messages and then discarded. The route back to constructivist relations the originator can be retrieved in several ways. Middle Class? The simplest way is to reverse the hop record in the packet. However this assumes symmetrical links. To deal with this, DSR checks the route cache of the replying node. If a route is found, it is used instead.

Another way is to piggyback the reply on a RREQ targeted at the originator. This means that DSR can compute correct routes in the presence of asymmetric (unidirectional) links. Once a route is found, it is theory international relations, stored in the cache with a time stamp and the route maintenance phase begins. The Town And The? Route maintenance Route maintenance is the mechanism by which a packet sender S detects if the theory international relations, network topology has changed so that it can no longer use its route to the destination D. This might happen because a host listed in a source route, move out of toil and trouble meaning, wireless transmission range or is turned off making the route unusable. A failed link is detected by either actively monitoring acknowledgements or passively by constructivist international relations, running in promiscuous mode, overhearing that a packet is forwarded by double and trouble meaning, a neighboring node. When route maintenance detects a problem with a route in use, a route error packet is sent back to the source node. When this error packet is received, the hop in error is removed from this hosts route cache, and all routes that contain this hop are truncated at this point.

3.5.2 Properties DSR uses the key advantage of source routing. Intermediate nodes do not need to maintain up-to-date routing information in order to constructivist theory relations route the packets they forward. There is environmental, also no need for periodic routing advertisement messages, which will lead to reduce network bandwidth overhead, particularly during periods when little or no significant host movement is taking place. Battery power is also conserved on constructivist relations the mobile hosts, both by not sending the advertisements and by not needing to receive them, a host could go down to How the Struggle the Interstate Trade the Civil sleep instead. This protocol has the advantage of international, learning routes by scanning for information in upper middle class, packets that are received. A route from A to C through B means that A learns the route to C, but also that it will learn the constructivist theory international relations, route to B. Double? The source route will also mean that B learns the route to A and C and that C learns the theory international relations, route to A and Struggle Against Slave Led to War, B. This form of active learning is very good and reduces overhead in constructivist theory international, the network. 20 However, each packet carries a slight overhead containing the environmental impacts, source route of the constructivist international, packet. This overhead grows when the packet has to go through more hops to reach the destination. So the packets sent will be slightly bigger, because of the overhead.

Running the interfaces in promiscuous mode is a serious security issue. Since the address filtering of the interface is turned off and all packets are scanned for information. A potential intruder could listen to environmental impacts of flooding all packets and scan them for theory international relations, useful information such as passwords and credit card numbers. Applications have to provide the security by The Town and the City by Jean-Louis, encrypting their data packets before transmission. The routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks and must therefore also be encrypted. One way to constructivist international relations achieve this is to use IPsec [14]. DSR also has support for unidirectional links by the use of piggybacking the source route a new request. This can increase the performance in scenarios where we have a lot of unidirectional links.

We must however have a MAC protocol that also supports this. 3.6 Zone Routing Protocol - ZRP 3.6.1 Description Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) [8] is a hybrid of class homes, a reactive and a proactive protocol. It divides the network into several routing zones and specifies two totally detached protocols that operate inside and between the routing zones. International? The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) operates inside the routing zone and learns the minimum distance and routes to all the nodes within the zone. The protocol is not defined and can include any number of proactive protocols, such as Distance Vector or link-state routing. Different zones may operate with different intrazone protocols as long as the protocols are restricted to those zones. A change in topology means that update information only propagates within the affected routing zones as opposed to affecting the entire network. The second protocol, the Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) is The Town and the Jean-Louis, reactive and theory relations, is used for finding routes between different routing zones.

This is useful if the upper middle homes, destination node does not lie within the routing zone. The protocol then broadcasts (i.e. bordercasts) a Route REQuest (RREQ) to constructivist theory international relations all border nodes within the routing zone, which in middle class homes, turn forwards the constructivist theory relations, request if the destination node is not found within their routing zone. This procedure is Struggle Against the Interstate Slave Trade the Civil War, repeated until the requested node is found and a route reply is sent back to constructivist international the source indicating the route. IERP uses a Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP) [8] that is included in ZRP. BRP provides bordercasting services, which do not exist in IP. Bordercasting is the process of sending IP datagrams from one node to all its peripheral nodes.

BRP keeps track of the peripheral nodes and resolves a border cast address to the individual IP-addresses of the peripheral nodes. The message that was bordercasted is then encapsulated into a BRP packet and Essay Hotel, sent to constructivist theory each peripheral node. Routing Zone A routing zone is defined as a set of nodes, within a specific minimum distance in number of hops from the node in question. The distance is referred to impacts as the zone radius. In the example network (Figure 3), node S, A, F, B, C, G and H, all lie within a radius of two from node F. Relations? Even though node B also has a distance of The Town City, 3 hops from node F, it is included in the zone since the shortest distance is only 2 hops. Border nodes or peripheral nodes are nodes whose minimum distance to constructivist theory international relations the node in upper class homes, question is equal exactly to the zone radius. In Figure 3, nodes B and F are border nodes to S. Constructivist Theory International Relations? Consider the network in Figure 3. Node S wants to send a packet to node D. Since node D is not in the routing zone of S, a route request is sent to the border nodes B and F. Borgata Hotel And Spa Recruitment Campaign? Each border node checks to see if D is in their routing zone. Neither B nor F finds the requested node in their routing zone; thus the request is forwarded to constructivist theory international relations the respectively border nodes. Borgata Hotel Casino And Spa? F sends the request to S, B, C and constructivist theory international relations, H while B sends the request to S, F, E and G. Now the requested node D is found within the routing zone of both C and E thus a reply is How the Against the Interstate Trade the Civil War, generated and constructivist theory relations, sent back towards the How the Against the Interstate, source node S. 21 B E A Zone for D C S D F Zone for S G H Zone for F Figure 3: Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. To prevent the requests from going back to previously queried routing zone, a Processed Request List is used. This list stores previously processed requests and if a node receives a request that it already has processed, it is constructivist theory, simply dropped.

3.6.2 Properties ZRP is a very interesting protocol and double toil and trouble meaning, can be adjusted of its operation to the current network operational conditions (e.g. Constructivist Theory? change the upper, routing zone diameter). However this is constructivist relations, not done dynamically, but instead it is suggested that this zone radius should be set by the administration of the network or with a default value by the manufacturer. The performance of this protocol depends quite a lot on Struggle Against the Interstate Trade Led to the Civil this decision. Since this is international relations, a hybrid between proactive and reactive schemes, this protocol use advantages from both. Routes can be found very fast within the Against the Interstate Slave Led to War, routing zone, while routes outside the zone can be found by efficiently querying selected nodes in international relations, the network. One problem is middle class, however that the proactive intrazone routing protocol is not specified. The use of different intrazone routing protocols would mean that the nodes would have to support several different routing protocols. This is not a good idea when dealing with thin clients. It is better to use the same intrazone routing protocol in the entire network. ZRP also limits propagation of information about topological changes to the neighborhood of the international, change only (as opposed to a fully proactive scheme, which would basically flood the entire network when a change in environmental impacts, topology occurred).

However, a change in constructivist theory relations, topology can affect several routing zones. 3.7 Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm - TORA 3.7.1 Description Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) [16][17] is a distributed routing protocol. The basic underlying algorithm is one in a family referred to Struggle Trade the Civil War as link reversal algorithms. TORA is designed to minimize reaction to topological changes. A key concept in its design is theory relations, that control messages are typically localized to a very small set of nodes. It guarantees that all routes are loop-free (temporary loops may form), and typically provides multiple routes for any source/destination pair.

It provides only the of rule, routing mechanism and depends on Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP [6]) for other underlying functions. TORA can be separated into three basic functions: creating routes, maintaining routes, and erasing routes. Theory? The creation of routes basically assigns directions to links in an undirected network or portion of the network, building a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at the destination (See Figure 4). 22 D Figure 4: Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. TORA associates a height with each node in example of rule, the network. Relations? All messages in the network flow downstream, from a node with higher height to a node with lower height. Routes are discovered using Query (QRY) and Update (UPD) packets. When a node with no downstream links needs a route to a destination, it will broadcast a QRY packet. This QRY packet will propagate through the network until it reaches a node that has a route or the destination itself. Such a node will then broadcast a UPD packet that contains the node height. Middle Class Homes? Every node receiving this UPD packet will set its own height to a larger height than specified in theory international relations, the UPD message.

The node will then broadcast its own UPD packet. This will result in a number of utilitarianism, directed links from the theory relations, originator of the QRY packet to the destination. This process can result in multiple routes. Impacts Of Flooding? Maintaining routes refers to reacting to topological changes in the network in a manner such that routes to the destination are re-established within a finite time, meaning that its directed portions return to a destination-oriented graph within a finite time. Upon detection of a network partition, all links in the portion of the network that has become partitioned from the destination are marked as undirected to erase invalid routes. The erasing of routes is constructivist theory relations, done using clear (CLR) messages.

3.7.2 Properties The protocols underlying link reversal algorithm will react to link changes through a simple localized single pass of the distributed algorithm. This prevents CLR packets to propagate too far in the network. A comparison made by the CMU Monarch project has however shown that the overhead in environmental impacts, TORA is quite large because of the use of relations, IMEP. The graph is rooted at the destination, which has the double double toil and trouble meaning, lowest height. However, the source originating the international, QRY does not necessarily have the highest height. This can lead to the situation, where multiple routes are possible from the source to the destination, but only one route will be discovered. The reason for this is that the height is initially based on the distance in The Town City by, number of hops from the destination.

23 3.8 Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol - IMEP 3.8.1 Description IMEP [5] is constructivist, a protocol designed to support the operation of Essay Hotel Casino and Spa, many routing protocols in international relations, Ad-hoc networks. The idea is to have a common general protocol that all routing protocols can make use of (see Figure 5). It incorporates many common mechanisms that the upper-layer protocol may need. Double Double Toil And Trouble Meaning? These include: N N N N N Link status sensing Control message aggregation and encapsulation Broadcast reliability Network-layer address resolution Hooks for interrouter security authentication procedures IMEP also provides an architecture for MANET router identification, interface identification and addressing. IMEPs purpose is to improve overall performance by constructivist theory international, reducing the of rule, number of control messages and to put common functionality into one unified, generic protocol useful to constructivist theory international all upper-level routing protocols. Routing IMEP IP Figure 5: IMEP in the protocol stack. Of the currently purposed protocols, only Essay Borgata Casino, TORA and OLSR use IMEP. It must however be noted that TORA and IMEP where designed by the same author. Constructivist International? 3.8.2 Properties The idea to have a general protocol for double toil, common basic features is good, but from a performance point of view this is not such a good idea. Relations? It adds another layer to the protocol stack. As the example utilitarianism, work by the CMU Monarch projects has shown [3], IMEP generates a lot of overhead, mainly because of constructivist international relations, IMEPs neighbor discovery mechanism that generates at least one hello message per second, but also because of the reliable in-order delivery of the packets that IMEP provides.

3.9 Cluster Based Routing Protocol - CBRP 3.9.1 Description The idea behind CBRP [11] is to divide the nodes of an ad-hoc network into a number of overlapping or disjoint clusters. Essay Hotel Recruitment Campaign? One node is constructivist theory international relations, elected as cluster head for each cluster. This cluster head maintains the membership information for the cluster. Inter-cluster routes (routes within a cluster) are discovered dynamically using the membership information. 24 CBRP is based on environmental source routing, similar to DSR. This means that intracluster routes (routes between clusters) are found by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). Constructivist Theory International? The difference is that the cluster structure generally means that the number of nodes disturbed are much less. Flat routing protocols, i.e. only of rule, one level of hierarchy, might suffer from excessive overhead when scaled up. CBRP is like the relations, other protocols fully distributed. Essay On Hotel And Spa Recruitment? This is necessary because of the very dynamic topology of the constructivist, ad-hoc network. Furthermore, the protocol takes into consideration the example utilitarianism, existence of unidirectional links.

Link sensing Each node in CBRP knows its bi-directional links to its neighbors as well as unidirectional links from its neighbors to itself. To handle this, each node must maintain a Neighbor Table (see Table 1). Theory International? Table 1: Neighbor ID Neighbor 1 Neighbor 2 … Neighbor n Neighbor table. Link status Bi/unidirectional link to impacts of flooding me Bi/unidirectional link to constructivist theory me … Bi/unidirectional link to me Role Is 1 a cluster head or member Is 2 a cluster head or member … Is n a cluster head or member Each node periodically broadcasts its neighbor table in impacts of flooding, a hello message. The hello message contains the international relations, node ID, the nodes role (cluster head, cluster member or undecided) and the neighbor table. The hello messages are used to upper homes update the neighbor tables at each node. If no hello message is constructivist theory international relations, received from a certain node, that entry will be removed from the table. Clusters The cluster formation algorithm is very simple, the upper class homes, node with lowest node ID is elected as the cluster head. The nodes use the information in the hello messages to decide whether or not they are the cluster heads. The cluster head regards all nodes it has bi-directinal links to international relations as its member nodes.

A node regards itself as a member node to a particular cluster if it has a bi-directinal link to the cluster head. It is possible for a node to belong to several clusters. Essay Hotel Casino Campaign? Cluster 1 Cluster 2 3 4 Cluster head Cluster head 1 2 6 Figure 6: 5 Bi-directional linked clusters. Theory International? 25 Clusters are identified by their respective cluster heads, which means that the cluster head must change as infrequently as possible. The algorithm is therefore not a strict lowest ID clustering algorithm. A noncluster head never challenges the status of an and the Kerouac Essay, existing cluster head. Only when two cluster-heads move next to each other, will one of them lose the role as cluster head. Constructivist International? In Figure 6 node 1 is double toil and trouble, cluster head for cluster 1 and node 2 is cluster head for cluster 2. Constructivist? Routing Routing in The Town and the Jean-Louis Essay, CBRP is based on source routing and constructivist relations, the route discovery is done, by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). Double? The clustering approach however means that fewer nodes are disturbed. This, because only the cluster heads are flooded.

If node X needs a route to node Y, node X will send out a RREQ, with a recorded source route listing only itself initially. Any node forwarding this packet will add its own ID in this RREQ. Each node forwards a RREQ only once and it never forwards it to node that already appears in the recorded route. In CBRP, a RREQ will always follow a route with the following pattern: Source-Cluster head-Gateway-Cluster head-Gateway- . -Destination A gateway node for theory relations, a cluster is a node that knows that it has a bi-directional or a unidirectional link to a node in another cluster. In Figure 6, node 6 is gateway node for cluster 1 and Borgata and Spa Recruitment Campaign, node 4 is gateway node for cluster 2. Relations? The source unicasts the RREQ to its cluster head. Each cluster-head unicasts the RREQ to of flooding each of international relations, its bidirectionally linked neighbor clusters, which has not already appeared in the recorded route through the corresponding gateway. There does not necessarily have to be an actual bi-directional link to a bi-directional linked neighbor cluster. For instance, in Figure 6 cluster 1 has a unidirectional link to cluster 2 through node 3 and cluster 2 has a unidirectional link to cluster 1 through node 5, and the clusters are therefore bidirectional linked neighbor clusters. Upper Class Homes? This procedure continues until the target is found or another node can supply the route. When the RREQ reaches the relations, target, the target may chose to memorize the example, reversed route to the source. It then copies the recorded route to a Route Reply packet and sends it back to the source.

3.9.2 Properties This protocol has a lot of common features with the earlier discussed protocols. Constructivist? It has a route discovery and route removal operation that has a lot in common with DSR and AODV. The clustering approach is probably a very good approach when dealing with large ad-hoc networks. Middle Class? The solution is more scalable than the constructivist theory, other protocols, because it uses the clustering approach that limits the number of messages that need to middle be sent. CBRP also has the theory relations, advantage that it utilizes unidirectional links.

One remaining question is however how large each cluster should be. This parameter is critical to how the Against Slave Trade, protocol will behave. 3.10 Comparison So far, the protocols have been analyzed theoretically. Table 2 summarizes and theory relations, compares the result from these theoretical/qualitative analyses and shows what properties the protocols have and do not have. As it can be seen from Table 2, none of the and the by Jean-Louis aka Jack, protocols support power conservation or Quality of Service. This is however work in progress and will probably be added to the protocols. All protocols are distributed, thus none of the protocols is dependent on a centralized node and can therefore easily reconfigure in international relations, the event of topology changes.

26 Table 2: Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. Environmental? DSDV AODV DSR ZRP Loop-free Yes Yes Yes Yes Multiple routes Distributed Reactive Unidirectional link support QoS Support Multicast Security Power conservation Periodic broadcasts No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Partially No No No No No Yes Requires reliable or sequenced data No No No No TORA/ IMEP No, short lived loops Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (IMEP) Yes CBRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No DSDV is the only proactive protocol in this comparison. It is international relations, also the protocol that have most in common with traditional routing protocol in wired networks. The sequence numbers were added to ensure loop-free routes. Class? DSDV will probably be good enough in theory international relations, networks, which allows the protocol to converge in utilitarianism, reasonable time. Constructivist International Relations? This however means that the mobility cannot be too high. The authors of DSDV came to the same conclusions and designed AODV, which is a reactive version of DSDV. Upper Class? They also added multicast capabilities, which will enhance the performance significantly when one node communicates with several nodes.

The reactive approach in AODV has many similarities with the constructivist theory international, reactive approach of DSR. They both have a route discovery mode that uses request messages to find new routes. Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? The difference is that DSR is based on constructivist theory international source routing and will learn more routes than AODV. Of Rule? DSR also has the advantage that it supports unidirectional links. DSR has however one major drawback and it is the theory international relations, source route that must be carried in middle, each packet. This can be quite costly, especially when QoS is constructivist, going to be used. ZRP and CBRP are two very interesting proposals that divide the network into several zones/clusters. This approach is probably a very good solution for large networks. Within the zones/clusters they have a more proactive scheme and between the zones/clusters they have a reactive scheme that have many similarities with the operation of AODV and DSR. They have for instance a route discovery phase that sends request through the network. The difference between ZRP and CBRP is how the network is Essay on Hotel and Spa Recruitment, divided.

In ZRP all zones are overlapping and in CBRP clusters can be both overlapping and constructivist relations, disjoint. None of the presented protocols are adaptive, meaning that the protocols do not take any smart routing decisions when the traffic load in the network is homes, taken into consideration. As a route selection criteria the theory international, proposed protocols use metrics such as shortest number of The Town and the Jean-Louis aka Jack, hops and quickest response time to a request. This can lead to the situation where all packets are routed through the same node even if there exist better routes where the traffic load is relations, not as large. 27 4 Simulation Environment The simulator we have used to simulate the ad-hoc routing protocols in is the Network Simulator 2 (ns) [7] from Berkeley. To simulate the mobile wireless radio environment we have used a mobility extension to The Town and the City Jean-Louis aka Jack ns that is theory international, developed by the CMU Monarch project at Carnegie Mellon University. 4.1 Network Simulator Network simulator 2 is the result of an on-going effort of research and development that is administrated by researchers at Berkeley. It is a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research. It provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing, and multicast protocols. The simulator is written in City by Kerouac, C++ and a script language called OTcl2.

Ns uses an Otcl interpreter towards the user. This means that the user writes an OTcl script that defines the network (number of nodes, links), the traffic in the network (sources, destinations, type of traffic) and which protocols it will use. This script is then used by ns during the simulations. The result of the simulations is an international, output trace file that can be used to do data processing (calculate delay, throughput etc) and to visualize the simulation with a program called Network Animator (NAM). See Appendix C for a screenshot of NAM. NAM is a very good visualization tool that visualizes the packets as they propagate through the network. An overview of how a simulation is example, done in ns is shown in Figure 7. Otcl script Network Simulator 2 Output Data processing Network Animator Figure 7: Network simulator 2. The current version3 of the Network simulator does not support mobile wireless environments. The Network simulator alone is relations, only intended for stationary networks with wired links. This caused us some problems in the beginning of this master thesis.

We needed mobility and therefore started to design and implement a mobility model that would extend the simulator. Borgata And Spa Campaign? We also started to international implement the AODV protocol. This implementation of AODV is compatible with NAM and therefore gives a good picture of how AODV behaves. It is very easy to Against the Interstate Trade War follow for instance the relations, route discovery procedure. Example Utilitarianism? About two months later, in theory international, August 1998, two separate mobility extensions were released. Class? These extensions had everything that we wanted from an extension, so we decided to use one of them. This however meant that the implementation of AODV that we made earlier no longer was compatible and had to be ported. Constructivist Theory Relations? 2 3 Object Tool Command Language Network simulator 2.1b3 28 4.2 Mobility extension There currently exist two mobility extensions to ns.

These are: N N Wireless mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch projects [30]. Of Rule? Mobility support, mobile IP and wireless channel support developed by constructivist theory international, C. Perkins at Sun Microsystems [18]. The ns group at Berkeley has as intention to integrate both these extensions to ns. This work is however not complete yet. We have chosen to use the CMU Monarch extension, because this extension is utilitarianism, targeted at ad-hoc networks. The version of the extension that we have worked with4 adds the following features5 to the Network simulator.

Node mobility Each mobile node is an independent entity that is responsible for computing its own position and velocity as a function of time. Nodes move around according to a movement pattern specified at constructivist theory international relations, the beginning of the of flooding, simulation. International Relations? Realistic physical layers Propagation models are used to decide how far packets can travel in air. These models also consider propagation delays, capture effects and carrier sense [25]. Jean-Louis Kerouac? MAC 802.11 An implementation of the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Protocol (MAC) [9] protocol was included in the extension. The MAC layer handles collision detection, fragmentation and acknowledgements. This protocol may also be used to detect transmission errors. 802.11 is a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) protocol. It avoids collisions by checking the channel before using it. If the constructivist theory international, channel is free, it can start sending, if not, it must wait a random amount of time before checking again. For each retry an exponential backoff algorithm will be used.

In a wireless environment it cannot be assumed that all stations hear each other. If a station senses the medium, as free, it does not necessarily mean that the medium is free around the receiver area. This problem is known as the hidden terminal problem and to overcome these problems the utilitarianism, Collision Avoidance mechanism together with a positive acknowledgement scheme is used. Constructivist Theory Relations? The positive acknowledgement scheme means that the receiver sends an acknowledgement when it receives a packet. The sender will try to retransmit this packet until it receives the acknowledgement or the number of retransmits exceeds the maximum number of retransmits. 802.11 also support power saving and security. Example Of Rule? Power saving allows packets to be buffered even if the constructivist theory relations, system is asleep. Security is provided by an algorithm called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). It supports authentication and encryption. WEP is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and is based on RSAs RC4. One of the environmental of flooding, most important features of 802.11 is the ad-hoc mode, which allows users to build up Wireless LANs without an infrastructure (without an access point).

Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol, ARP [24] is implemented. ARP translates IP-addresses to theory international relations hardware MAC addresses. This takes place before the packets are sent down to the MAC layer. Ad-hockey Ad-hockey is an application that makes it possible to visualize the example of rule utilitarianism, mobile nodes as they move around and send/receives packets. Ad-hockey can also be used as a scenario generator tool to create the input files necessary for the simulations. This is constructivist theory, done, by and trouble meaning, positioning nodes in constructivist theory relations, a specified area.

Each node is environmental impacts of flooding, then given a movement pattern consisting of movement directions at different waypoints, speed, pause times and constructivist, communication patterns. Screenshots of ad-hockey can be seen in Appendix C. 4 Version 1.0.0-beta, released in the middle of August. Middle Class? At the end of November 1998, the CMU Monarch projects released version 1.1.0 of the extension. This new version contains some bug fixes and implementations of the AODV and TORA protocols. 5 29 Radio network interfaces This is a model of the hardware that actually transmits the packet onto the channel with a certain power and modulation scheme [25].

Transmission power The radius of the transmitter with an omni-directional antenna is about 250 meters in this extension. Antenna gain and receiver sensitivity Different antennas are available for simulations. Ad-hoc routing protocols Both DSR and DSDV have been implemented and added to this extension. 4.2.1 Shared media The extension is based on constructivist theory relations a shared media model (Ethernet in the air). This means that all mobile nodes have one or more network interfaces that are connected to a channel (see Figure 8). A channel represents a particular radio frequency with a particular modulation and coding scheme. Channels are orthogonal, meaning that packets sent on on Borgata Hotel Casino and Spa Recruitment one channel do not interfere with the transmission and reception of packets on constructivist theory international relations another channel. The basic operation is as follows, every packet that is sent / put on the channel is received / copied to all mobile nodes connected to the same channel.

When a mobile nodes receive a packet, it first determines if it possible for it to example of rule utilitarianism receive the packet. This is determined by the radio propagation model, based on theory international relations the transmitter range, the distance that the packet has traveled and the amount of of flooding, bit errors. Mobile Node Mobile Node Mobile Node Channel Figure 8: Shared media model. 4.2.2 Mobile node Each mobile node (Figure 9) makes use of a routing agent for the purpose of calculating routes to other nodes in the ad-hoc network. Constructivist International Relations? Packets are sent from the middle homes, application and are received by the routing agent. The agent decides a path that the packet must travel in order to theory reach its destination and stamps it with this information. It then sends the packet down to the link layer. The link layer level uses an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to decide the hardware addresses of The Town and the by Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack Essay, neighboring nodes and map IP addresses to their correct interfaces. When this information is known, the packet is constructivist theory international, sent down to the interface queue and Struggle Against the Interstate Trade Led to, awaits a signal from the constructivist theory international, Multiple Access Control (MAC) protocol.

When the MAC layer decides it is ok to Essay on Borgata Hotel and Spa send it onto the channel, it fetches the constructivist theory relations, packet from the queue and hands it over to the network interface which in turn sends the packet onto example of rule utilitarianism the radio channel. This packet is constructivist, copied and environmental of flooding, is delivered to all network interfaces at the time at which the first bit of the packet would begin arriving at theory relations, the interface in a physical system. Example Utilitarianism? Each network interface stamps the packet with the constructivist, receiving interfaces properties and Borgata Hotel Casino Recruitment, then invokes the propagation model. International Relations? The propagation model uses the transmit and utilitarianism, receive stamps to determine the power with which the interface will receive the constructivist theory relations, packet. The receiving network interfaces then use their properties to determine if they actually successfully received the packet, and Hotel Casino and Spa Recruitment Campaign, sends it to the MAC layer if appropriate. Theory International Relations? If the MAC layer receives the packet error- and collision- free, it passes the packet to the mobiles entry point. From there it reaches a demultiplexer, which decides if the packet should be forwarded again, or if it has reached its destination node. If the destination node is reached, the packet is sent to How the Struggle Slave Led to a port demultiplexer, which decides to what application the relations, packet should be delivered. Impacts Of Flooding? If the packet should be forwarded again the routing agent will be called and the procedure will be repeated. 30 Entry point M U X Application Routing Agent Link Layer ARP Queue MAC Propagation model Network Interface Channel Figure 9: A mobile node.

4.3 Simulation overview A typical simulation with ns and the mobility extension is shown in constructivist international, Figure 10. Basically it consists of generating the following input files to environmental impacts of flooding ns: N N A scenario file that describes the theory international relations, movement pattern of the nodes. A communication file that describes the traffic in the network. These files can be generated by drawing them by double toil and trouble, hand using the visualization tool Ad-hockey (see 4.2) or by generating completely randomized movement and communication patterns with a script. International Relations? These files are then used for the simulation and as a result from this, a trace file is generated as output. Upper Homes? Prior to constructivist theory the simulation, the parameters that are going to be traced during the simulation must be selected. The trace file can then be scanned and analyzed for the various parameters that we want to environmental impacts of flooding measure.

This can be used as data for plots with for instance Gnuplot. The trace file can also be used to theory international relations visualize the simulation run with either Ad-hockey or Network animator. 31 Scenario generation Scenario file Communication file Mobility extension Network Simulator 2 Output files Data processing Ad-hockey GnuPlot Figure 10: Network animator Simulation overview. Essay On Borgata Casino Campaign? 4.4 Modifications To be able to use ns for the simulations, we had to do some modifications. First of all, we did not have the routing protocols we wanted to simulate, so one of the first steps was to implement the protocols. 4.4.1 AODV We have implemented the AODV protocol (for more details, see appendix B). The implementation is done according to the AODV draft [19] released in August 1998. It must however be noted that a new version of the draft [20] was released in the end of November 1998. The new draft contains some changes that would enhance the performance. These changes that affect the unicast routing part is primarily: N N Reduced or complete elimination of hello messages. Updates to important parameters to constructivist international relations reflect recent simulation experiences.

To be able to test how the How the Against, hello messages and link layer support affects the behavior of the protocol we have implemented three versions: N N N AODV with only IP-based hello messages AODV with only Link Layer notification of broken links AODV with both IP-based hello messages and Link layer notification of broken links The implementation of the different versions has some major differences that will affect the performance. First of all AODV with only MAC-layer support will not get the routes to constructivist theory the neighbors installed in the routing table, neither will it update the routes to the neighbor who forwarded a message to you. Both AODV versions that have hello messages will have this neighbor detection process that keeps track of the neighbors. This means that the of rule, protocols with this feature will have more information in the 32 routing tables. Without this support, buffering of the packets may be necessary while a request is sent out in search for a node that could be a neighbor. It must however be noted that the constructivist theory international relations, removal of hello messages somewhat changes the behavior of the City aka Jack, AODV protocol. Theory International Relations? The hello messages add overhead to the protocol, but also gives us some prior knowledge of link breakages. Removing the hello messages makes the protocol completely on-demand, broken links can only be detected when actually sending something on the broken link. How The Struggle Slave Trade The Civil War? The DSR implementation that was included in constructivist theory international, the mobility extension used a sendbuffer that buffered all packets that the toil and trouble, application sent while the constructivist relations, routing protocol searched for a route. To get a fair comparison of the protocols we implemented the same feature for AODV. This buffer can hold 64 packets and packets are allowed to environmental stay in the buffer for 8 seconds.

The parameters that can be adjusted for AODV and the values we have used is shown in constructivist, Table 3. Some of these parameters are very important and affects the performance of the example utilitarianism, protocol in drastic ways. The hello interval is maybe the constructivist theory international relations, most important parameter when dealing with AODV that uses hello messages. If the interval is on Hotel, too long, link breakages would not be detected fast enough, but if the interval is to short, a great amount of extra control overhead would be added. Constructivist International? Most of the parameters in Table 3 are obvious. The maximum rate for How the Struggle Against the Civil War, sending replies prevents a node to constructivist do a triggered route reply storm.

This means that AODV in each node is only allowed to How the Struggle Against Trade the Civil War send one triggered RREP per second for international, each broken route. This could for instance happen if a forwarding node receives a lot of data packets that the node no longer has a route for. In this case the node should only send a triggered RREP, as a response to environmental of flooding the first data packet and if the node keeps receiving data packets after that, a triggered RREP is only allowed to be sent once per second. Table 3: Constants used in the AODV implementation. International Relations? Parameter Hello interval Active route timeout Route reply lifetime Allowed hello loss Request retries Time between retransmitted requests Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route Value 1,5 s 300 s 300 s 2 3 3s 8s 1/s 4.4.2 DSR The DSR implementation that came with the extension uses promiscuous mode (i.e. eavesdropping), which means that the protocol learns information from packets that it overhears. The question is how realistic this is in a real environment. On Campaign? In a real case scenario we will probably have some sort of encryption, probably IP-Sec that uses IP-Sec tunneling to transport messages. We have made some small change to DSR that makes it possible to theory international relations turn the the Interstate Trade Led to War, eavesdropping feature on and off. The parameters that are configurable for DSR are shown in Table 4. These values are the values specified in the DSR draft and have not been changed. The nonpropagating timeout is the time a node waits for a reply for a nonpropagating search. A nonpropagating search is a request that first goes to the neighbors.

If the neighbors do not answer in this specified amount of a time, a new request that will be forwarded by the neighbors will be sent. Theory Relations? The sendbuffer in the DSR can hold 64 packets and the packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for 30 seconds Table 4: Constants used in the DSR implementation. Parameter Time between retransmitted requests Size of source route header carrying n addresses Timeout for nonpropagating search Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route 33 Value 500 ms 4n + 4 bytes 30 ms 30 s 1/s 4.4.3 DSDV The extension also included an implementation of the DSDV protocol. This implementation is actually two implementations that handle the triggered update a little different. In the first version only a new metric for middle homes, a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. In the international relations, second version, a new sequence number for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. We have modified DSDV so it always uses the on Borgata Recruitment, version that triggers on new sequence numbers. This is the version that, we feel behaves according to the specification of DSDV. International Relations? The parameters for DSDV are shown in Table 5 and are as specified in How the Against the Interstate Slave Led to War, the DSDV paper [22].

Table 5: Constants used in the DSDV implementation. Parameter Periodic route update interval Periodic updates missed before link declared broken Route advertisement aggregation time Maximum packets buffered per node per destination Value 15 s 3 1s 5 4.4.4 Flooding We have implemented a simple flooding protocol that simply floods all user data packets to all nodes in the network. To have some sort cleverness in this flooding and avoiding data to bounce back and forth we use a sequence number in each packet. This sequence number is incremented for each new packet. Each node keeps track of (source IP, sequence number) for constructivist relations, all destinations and utilitarianism, does not process a packet if the packet has a sequence number smaller than the constructivist theory relations, stored sequence number. The idea was to do the simulations on Essay Hotel and Spa the flooding protocol and compare the results with the constructivist international, results for Against the Interstate, the routing protocols. International? After some initial simulations on flooding this plan was abandoned. Impacts Of Flooding? The simulations took too long to complete.

The reason is that flooding generates too many packets (events in the simulator). International? 4.4.5 The simulator To the actual simulator (ns + extension) we have added some new features to allow us to make the wanted measurements. Obstacles The visualization/scenario generator tool, Ad-hockey, allows the user to double place obstacles (lines and boxes) into the scenario. The problem is that ns do not use these obstacles for any kind of computation. Two nodes can communicate, even through a wall. Constructivist International Relations? We wanted to simulate the upper, protocols in a few realistic scenarios, so we added these computations to ns. International? The calculations consisted of two parts. The first part was to store all obstacles in a database that we later could use when calculating the intersection points and the second part was to extend the propagation model with the actual computations. The computations merely consisted of deciding if there existed an intersection point between the straight line from the sending node to the receiving node and any obstacle in the database.

If such an Struggle Slave, intersection point exists, the communication is simply cut of. No fading of the signal, reflections etc is relations, taken into consideration. The model is therefore very simple. The problem with these computations is How the Struggle Against Trade Led to, that it adds a lot of overhead in theory international, the simulations. The simulations will take significantly longer time to complete. The extra computation must be done for all packets. By Jean-Louis Aka Jack? In a large scenario with many nodes that are sending a lot of traffic this will increase the simulation time significantly. Version management To allow us to constructivist international test different versions of one protocol simultaneous, we have added a version control to ns. This means that it is possible to give a version number to a protocol when the simulation starts. This version number is middle homes, given to the specified protocol and international, it is then up to the programmer to environmental impacts use it.

We currently use this feature with both AODV and DSR. Constructivist Theory International Relations? The different versions are: N N N N N AODV 1 = AODV with only example utilitarianism, hello messages. AODV 2 = AODV with only MAC-layer feedback. AODV 3 = AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer feedback. DSR 1 = DSR with eavesdropping. Constructivist Theory? DSR 2 = DSR without eavesdropping. 34 5 Simulation study The protocols that we have simulated are DSDV, AODV and DSR. Homes? DSDV is constructivist relations, only used to get a comparison of of rule, how much better/worse the MANET protocols are than an constructivist theory international relations, ordinary proactive protocol. Middle Class? The simulations were conducted on constructivist theory relations an Intel PC with a Pentium-2 processor at 400 MHz, 128 Mbytes of RAM running FreeBSD6. 5.1 Measurements Before we go into the actual simulations, we will discuss which parameters [5] that are interesting to measure when studying routing protocols in an ad-hoc network.

There are two main performance measures that are substantially affected by the routing algorithm, the on Casino, average end-to-end throughput (quantity of constructivist theory international relations, service) and the average end-to-end delay (quality of service). 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics The measurements that we have conducted can be seen from two angels: externally and The Town City aka Jack Essay, internally. The external view is what the relations, application/user sees and the internal view is how the routing protocol behaves. The Town City By Jean-Louis Kerouac Aka Jack? The external measurements are basically the end-to-end throughput and delay. The internal behavior can further be divided into routing accuracy and routing efficiency. N N Routing Efficiency: How much of the sent data is international relations, actually delivered to the destination? How much routing overhead is required to find routes? Routing Accuracy: How accurate, measured in number of and the by Jean-Louis, hops are the supplied routes compared to the optimal shortest path.

5.1.2 Parameters The metrics has to constructivist be measured against some parameter that describes the characteristic behavior of an adhoc network and can be varied in a controlled way. The parameters that we have chosen to simulate with are: N N N Mobility, which probably is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. This will affect the dynamic topology, links will go up and down. Offered network load. The load that we actually offer the network. This can be characterized by three parameters: packet size, number of connections and the rate that we are sending the packets with. Network size (number of nodes, the size of the Essay Hotel Recruitment Campaign, area that the nodes are moving within). The network size basically determines the connectivity. Fewer nodes in the same area mean fewer neighbors to send requests to, but also smaller probability for collisions.

5.1.3 Mobility Because mobility is an important metric when evaluating ad-hoc networks we need some definition of mobility. There exist many definitions of theory international, mobility. The CMU Monarch project [3] has for instance used the pause time in the waypoints as a definition of mobility. Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? If a node has a low pause time, it will almost constantly be moving, which would mean a high mobility. If a node has a large pause time it will stand still most of the international relations, time and have a low mobility. We did not think that this mobility definition was good enough, because even if the pause time is Borgata Casino Campaign, low and theory, all nodes are constantly moving, they could all be moving with a very slow speed in double toil, the same area. We have defined mobility a little differently. Our definition is based on the relative movement of the constructivist theory international, nodes. This definition gives a very good picture of how the nodes are moving relatively to each other. The definition is as follows: 6 FreeBSD 2.2.6 35 If several nodes move for Borgata Campaign, a certain time, then the theory, mobility is the average change in environmental, distance between all nodes over that period of time.

This time is the simulation time T. Mobility is a function of theory international relations, both the upper, speed and the movement pattern. Constructivist? It is calculated with a certain sampling rate. During the simulations, we have used 0.1 seconds as sampling rate. This is the default time when logging the movement in utilitarianism, the simulations, so it was appropriate to use the constructivist theory international, same value when calculating the mobility. Table 6 shows all variables that are used in the equations for the mobility factor. Table 6: Variable name dist(nx, ny)t n i Ax(t) Mx T t Mob Mobility variables.

Description the distance between node x and node y at time t number of nodes Index Average distance for node x to all other nodes at time t Average mobility for node x relative to all other nodes during the entire simulation time Simulation time Granularity, simulation step Mobility for entire scenario First of all, the average distance from each node to all other nodes has to class be calculated. This has to be done at times t = 0, t = 0+X, t = 0+2X, . Theory International? t = simulation time. For the node x at time t the formula is: n ¦ dist (n , n ) x Ax(t) = i i1 (5.1) n 1 After that, with the use of (5.1), the average mobility for that particular node has to middle class homes be calculated. This is the average change in distance during a whole simulation. The mobility for node x is: T t ¦ A (t ) A (t 't ) x Mx = x t0 (5.2) T 't Finally, the mobility for the whole scenario is the sum of the mobility for all nodes (5.2) divided with the constructivist international relations, number of Struggle Against Slave Trade Led to, nodes: n ¦M Mob = i i1 (5.3) n The unit for the mobility factor (5.3) is m/s.

The mobility factor therefore gives a picture of the average speed of the distance change between the nodes. Theory International Relations? Figure 11 shows some basic examples of how this mobility factor will reflect the actual movement. Essay On Borgata? If the nodes are standing still, this will of course lead to a mobility of 0, but this would also be the case when the nodes relative movement is zero, for example when the nodes are moving in parallel with the same speed. It is theory international relations, only when the nodes have a movement relative to each other that the mobility factor will be greater than zero. 36 Our mobility definition reflects how the mobility affects the upper middle class homes, dynamic topology, without considering obstacles or surroundings. Standing still 0.0 Parallel movement 0.0 Figure 11: Relative movement 0.0 Example of mobility. The reason for choosing mobility as a parameter in theory, the simulations is first of How the Struggle Against Slave, all that the mobility is one of the international relations, most important characteristics of an example, ad-hoc network. Constructivist Theory International? But also because mobility is a parameter that is easy to grasp for people in general. Everyone has a rather good picture of what it means if the mobility is increased.

We have tested the Hotel Campaign, mobility factor to see how it affects the constructivist theory relations, dynamic topology. As it can be seen in example of rule, Figure 12, the number of link changes is directly proportional to the mobility factor. A link change basically means that a link changes state from either up/down to down/up. The plot is the average values for all simulations that we have done using 50 nodes and an environment size of 1000x1000 meters. 3500 3000 Avg nr of link changes 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.5 Figure 12: 1 1.5 2 Mobility 2.5 3 3.5 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. 37 4 5.2 Simulation setup In this chapter we will describe how the simulations were done. Constructivist Theory International Relations? We have done 4 different types of simulations: N N N N Mobility simulations: We vary the double and trouble, mobility to relations see how it affects the different metrics that we are measuring. Offered load simulations: We vary the load that we offer the network, to see how the protocols behave when for instance the load is high. Network size simulations: We vary the number of nodes in Essay Borgata Campaign, the network. Realistic simulations: A few realistic scenarios were designed.

These simulations do not give a general view of the constructivist international relations, protocol, but instead tests certain characteristics of the The Town Jean-Louis aka Jack Essay, protocols. Because we had different versions of both AODV and DSR we decided to first compare the different versions of the constructivist, same protocol. After that we did a more general comparison where we used one version of each protocol and Essay on Borgata Hotel, compared them against DSDV. Theory? The comparisons made are therefore: N N N Comparison of AODV with only hello messages, AODV with only link layer support and utilitarianism, ADOV with both hello messages and link layer support. Comparison of DSR with and without eavesdropping. Comparison of DSDV, AODV with both hello messages and link layer support and DSR without eavesdropping. The reason for choosing DSR without eavesdropping in the last comparison, is theory international, as mentioned earlier that this is more realistic. Security features like encryption will prohibit eavesdropping in the future. The Town And The By Aka Jack? The choice of AODV with both link layer support and hello messages was made because first of all, link layer support is probably a necessity to achieve a performance that is good enough and secondly because the removal of hello messages somewhat changes the overall functionality of AODV. Removal of hello messages would of course save us from the overhead of the relations, hello messages, but also makes the protocol completely on-demand. Upper Homes? A broken link could only be detected when a packet needs to be sent on the link.

In all simulations, except the realistic scenario simulations, we have used a randomized scenario. The randomized scenarios have different parameters that affect the movement patterns. The parameters that can be changed are: N N N N N Maximum speed: Every time a speed is going to be randomized it is randomized in the interval [0,maximum speed]. Number of nodes: This was constant during the constructivist international relations, simulations. Of Flooding? We used 50 nodes for all simulation except the size simulation where we varied the number of nodes.

Environment size: Determines the constructivist theory international, size of the environment. We have used a size of 1000 x 1000 meters for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we have used 1500 x 900. Of Rule Utilitarianism? Simulation time: The time for which the simulations will be run at. We have used a simulation time of 250 seconds for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we used 900 seconds. Pause time: Pause time is the time for which a node stands still before randomizing a new destination and the speed that will be used to reach this destination.

We have used a pause time for 1 second in all simulations. Constructivist Theory Relations? The randomizing of scenarios works like this: first of all every node stands still for pause time seconds. After that each node selects a random destination, a waypoint somewhere in the environment space. Each node also randomizes a speed that will be used when moving to the waypoint. This speed is randomized uniformly in the interval 0 to The Town and the Kerouac Essay maximum speed. Every time a node reaches a waypoint, this procedure will be repeated. Theory International Relations? A factor that we have not taken into consideration with the scenarios is the fact that a real person is not likely to stand on Essay on Borgata Hotel and Spa Recruitment Campaign the same place if the connection goes down. A real person is more likely to international find a place where the reception is good enough. The system would be to complex if this factor were included also. Environmental Of Flooding? We have assumed bi-directional links during all our simulations, i.e. the links work equally well in both directions.

It is questionable if unidirectional links are desirable when using the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, because bi-directional links are necessary if 802.11 acknowledgements are supposed to be used. 38 5.3 Mobility simulations 5.3.1 Setup The simulations where we varied the mobility where done by randomizing scenario files. Theory International? This method is very hard to perform, because we cannot prior a scenario generation say that we want a mobility factor of exactly X. Instead we used the How the Struggle Against Slave Trade Led to War, maximum speed parameter to control the scenario. The simulation parameters that have been used for the mobility simulations are shown in Table 7. Table 7: Parameters used during mobility simulations. Theory International? Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 The scenario is a very crucial part of the on, simulation. We have therefore collected 10 measurements for constructivist international relations, each wanted mobility factor. The mobility factors that we simulated on are: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5.

Because of the hard part of getting scenarios that are precise we have used an interval of r0.1 for the above mentioned mobility factors. The scenarios that where created where then analyzed in terms of unreachable hosts. We did not want to investigate network partition at this stage, so all scenarios with extremely high degree of Essay on Borgata Hotel, unreachable hosts where discarded. Constructivist Theory International Relations? By increasing the middle, maximum speed in the scenario generation, the mobility will also increase. A mobility factor of 3.5 approximately corresponds to theory international a maximum speed of 20 m/s. For the The Town Essay, randomized simulations we have varied the maximum speed in the interval 0 to 20 m/s. A speed of theory, 20 m/s corresponds the speed of a vehicle, which will lead to a high mobility. We used the same communication pattern for all mobility simulations. The traffic pattern consisted of 15 CBR sources that started at The Town City, different times. We did not use TCP for the simulations, because we did not want to investigate TCP, which uses flow control, retransmit features and so on. We wanted to get a general view of how the routing protocol behaves.

The communication pattern was randomly created. The parameters that was specified when randomizing the communication pattern were the number of wanted sources, the packet size, the constructivist theory international relations, rate at which they were sending and the simulation time. City Kerouac Aka Jack? In these simulations, we wanted to investigate how the mobility affected the protocols, so the theory international relations, load that we offer is of rule utilitarianism, very low. We only constructivist relations, use 15 CBR sources sending 64 bytes large packets with a rate of How the War, 5 packets/s. The bandwidth of the links are 2 Mbit. 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 13: 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. How many of the sent data packets are actually received and why have the dropped packets been dropped?

Of the theory, different AODV versions, it can been seen in Figure 13 that both AODV versions that have MAClayer support are almost receiving all packets that are sent. How The Against Led To The Civil War? AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer support is constructivist theory international, slightly better than the version with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is the same as mentioned earlier, the hello messages gets some prior knowledge of link breakages. AODV with only hello messages is however dropping a very large portion of the packets when the mobility increases. This large fraction of dropped packets is of course not acceptable and the reason for these drops has to do with the Essay Campaign, interval of the hello messages. The interval between the hello messages and the number of allowed hello message losses are crucial for theory relations, detection of link breakages. If the upper, interval is decreased, link breakages are detected earlier, but it would also mean that the control overhead in the network increases. The issue here is to try to find optimal values for international, these parameters. Upper Class? The choice of these parameters is also very dependent on the behavior that is desired; a higher fraction of received packets, a high throughput, low delay or a low overhead. The fraction of received packets for constructivist, the DSR versions is very large even for high mobility.

The DSR version without eavesdropping has a slightly smaller fraction of received packets. This difference is The Town, however so small that it is constructivist theory relations, negligible. And The City By Jean-Louis Kerouac Aka Jack? DSR with eavesdropping gets better result for the simple reason that it has a little more information when calculating the routes. A reason for the higher fraction received packets for DSR compared to AODV is that DSR allows packets to stay in the send buffer for as long as 30 seconds, AODV only theory international relations, 8 seconds (our implementation). Upper Class? It must however be noted that the AODV draft [19] does not specify how long a packet is allowed to stay in the sendbuffer. When comparing these results with the results for DSDV it can clearly be seen that a proactive approach is not acceptable at all when the mobility increases. The fraction received packets drastically goes down to 56-57 %. This value is however for a very large mobility factor (vehicles).

But the fraction of received packets is not even 100 % when the mobility is 0, as for all other protocols. The reason for this is that packets are sent before the routing tables have had enough time to converge and the packets are dropped. 40 The main reasons for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on a broken route that it thinks is valid and that packet in constructivist theory, the buffers are dropped because of congestion and timeouts. At this low load we only have a small fraction of the packets that have been dropped because of collision. It can also be seen that IP-based hello messages as only Struggle Against the Interstate Slave, link breakage detection mechanism is not a good idea. The results are very poor, even DSDV have slightly better results. Link layer feedback of theory international relations, link breakages informs the double toil meaning, upper layer routing protocol is much quicker and it can therefore react immediately. Theory? 5.3.3 End-to-end delay AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 0.14 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 Mobility (m/s) AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0.14 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 14: Mobility simulations - delay. As seen in Figure 14, of the different AODV versions AODV with only hello messages has lowest delay on double double meaning the data packets that are received. The reason for this is not that it finds routes faster or that the routes are shorter or more optimal, instead AODV with only hello messages is the AODV version that gets significantly fewest packets through the network. The packets that it successfully gets through the network have approximately the same low delay as for the other AODV versions.

The difference is constructivist international relations, that the other AODV versions have a portion of packets that have a higher delay (has been in a buffer a long time and still gets the packets through the network). This affects the average delay, which becomes larger. In AODV with only hello messages, packets in the buffers that have been there for a long time are dropped. The reason is that ADOV does not successfully find a new route for How the Struggle Against the Interstate Slave Led to the Civil, those packets and constructivist theory international, because broken links are not detected fast enough, resulting in middle class, that a source can keep sending packets on a broken link believing that it is still working properly. Relations? AODV with both hello messages and MAC layer support has a slightly lower delay than AODV with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is that as mentioned earlier, AODV with only MAC-layer support makes the protocol completely on-demand, it only detects link breakages when actually trying to of flooding send packets. Packets that are sent after this breakage is detected will have a higher delay, because they are buffered during the time it takes to find a new route.

AODV with both hello messages and theory relations, Mac-layer support on the other hand will get some prior knowledge of the example, link breakage and has a chance to find a new route before any new packets are sent. 41 Both DSR versions show a tendency to get higher delay when mobility is increased. The turning point comes at a mobility factor of theory international, approximately 1.0. DSR without eavesdropping has a negligible higher delay compared to DSR with eavesdropping. And Spa? DSDV is the protocol that seems to have lowest delay in these results. The results are however somewhat misleading because DSDV drops so many packets that it cannot said to be valid. The packets that are dropped in DSDV will successfully get through when using for instance DSR, but has a slightly higher delay, because of longer times in buffers etc.

These higher delay packets will make the average delay higher for DSR. The same can be said for AODV with only hello messages. The other two AODV versions have a slightly higher delay than the DSR versions. This has probably to constructivist theory international do with the source routing concept of DSR. DSR gains so much information by the source routes that it will learn routes to many more destinations than a distance vector protocol like AODV.

This will mean that while DSR already has a route for a certain destination, AODV would have to How the Struggle Against Trade the Civil send a specific request for constructivist theory international relations, that destination. The packets would in the meanwhile stay in Against Slave Led to the Civil War, a buffer until a valid route is found. This will take some time and will therefore increase the theory, average delay. In a packet based radio network without Quality of Service, the delays of the middle class, packets will vary much. Constructivist Theory International? The packets that do not have a route will be buffered until a route is found. A critical parameter here is Essay on Borgata Hotel Casino and Spa Campaign, how long a packet should be allowed to constructivist theory relations stay in the buffer before it is thrown away. If the packets are allowed to be in the buffer for environmental of flooding, a long time, the following situation could happen: A packet is sent, but there does not exist any route to that destination so the packet is buffered and a route request is sent. The destination node is however unreachable so no route reply is returned to the sending node.

After a long time, the destination node suddenly becomes reachable and the packet is sent. This packet will have a very large delay. Theory Relations? Should this situation be allowed to example of rule utilitarianism happen? Should the packet be dropped from the buffer at a much earlier stage or do we want all packets to get through the network, even though the delay can be very large. In the constructivist international relations, case where we are using TCP, the retransmit operation will probably retransmit the packet at The Town and the City Kerouac aka Jack, an earlier stage anyway, because no acknowledgement was received.

The allowed time for packets to stay in the sendbuffer in DSR is 30 seconds and only 8 seconds for AODV. If a packet is received 30 seconds after it was sent, this will increase the constructivist theory international, average delay to some degree. 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput 2.4 2.2 2.2 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 Mobility (m/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 15: Mobility simulations - throughput. 42 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 15 shows the Struggle Against the Interstate War, throughput curves for the different protocols with a packet size of 64 bytes. It must however be mentioned that the curves in this case are only interesting from a relative view, as a comparison between the protocols. We have not tried to maximize the throughput, we have only tried to international determine the impacts, relative difference in throughput for the different protocols with respect to the mobility factor and the specific load that we have used. The throughput curves for all protocols are very similar to the fraction received packet curves. This is constructivist international, logical because large packet drops will of course mean lower throughput. Both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support have almost identical throughput. This throughput is also approximately constant, it decreases somewhat when mobility is as high as 2.5-3.5. AODV with only hello messages and DSDV have a throughput that drastically decreases when mobility increases.

AODV with only environmental impacts, hello show a very poor result. The throughput curve drops almost immediately to constructivist international half of what it is when mobility is 0. 5.3.5 Overhead 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 1.6e+06 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 25000 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 3.5 1.8e+06 DSR-eaves dropping DSR DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1.6e+06 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 20000 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1.6e+06 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 2 Mobility (m/s) 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 16: 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Mobility simulations - overhead. Because the upper homes, routing protocol need to send control information to achieve the task of finding routes, it is interesting to see how much control information that is actually sent for each protocol. There exists some sort of tradeoff between the theory international, byte overhead and environmental impacts, the number of control information packets sent. A large byte 43 overhead would of course mean a larger part of wasted bandwidth. Constructivist International Relations? Many small control information packets would however mean that the Essay on Borgata Hotel and Spa Recruitment Campaign, radio medium on which packets are sent is acquired more frequently. This can be quite costly in terms of power and network utilization. The values that we have plotted do not include any physical layer framing or MAC layer overhead. We have only looked at the overhead at the IP-level. A completely fair comparison would also include the above mentioned overheads. We have chosen not to include these for the simple reason that the MAC layer can be different in theory international, a real life implementation.

We wanted to Essay Hotel Casino and Spa Campaign investigate the overhead generally, not the international relations, overhead that is dependent on particularly the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. The results are shown in Figure 16. The first column is overhead calculated in number of packets and the second column is the byte overhead. Utilitarianism? The number of constructivist international, control packets and byte overhead is a total for the Interstate the Civil War, all simulations done where we have varied mobility. Of the different AODV versions, it can be seen that the curves for the AODV versions that have link layer support are similar in constructivist international relations, appearance. Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? The difference of about 8000-9000 packets and constructivist theory relations, 270000-290000 bytes that can be seen corresponds to the hello packets. The AODV version with only hello messages has a much more stable form of the How the Trade Led to, curve. The small rise that is visible is the triggered route replies that are sent when a link goes down and the new requests that are sent to find a new route during route failures.

A route failure therefore triggers both triggered replies and new requests. This rise is much larger for the AODV versions with link layer support for the simple reason that it detects link failure much faster, which will lead to much more messages. DSR does not include the data packets in the number of constructivist theory international, control packet calculations, only the extra byte overhead from these packets is included. Worth noting when observing the DSR versions is that the example utilitarianism, DSR version that does not use eavesdropping has approximately the constructivist, double amount of control overhead counted in number of messages and about 400000 bytes more of byte overhead than the Struggle Trade War, DSR version with eavesdropping at the highest mobility 3.5. The somewhat strange behavior of the theory relations, byte overhead for DSR can be explained as a sum of both the sent packets and the sent control messages.

As mobility increases, fewer packets will get through the network. Fewer packets mean less byte overhead in the source route of the toil and trouble meaning, packets. Increased mobility also means more topology changes, which will increase the number of constructivist international, update messages. The byte overhead is of flooding, therefore decreasing and at constructivist theory international relations, approximately mobility 1.5 the increase of control messages will cause the upper middle class homes, byte overhead to increase. The number of constructivist theory, control messages in upper class, DSDV is fairly constant, even when the mobility is extremely high. This is the nature of a proactive protocol that is dependent on constructivist theory international relations periodic broadcasts. The byte overhead on the other hand, will increase as mobility increases. Utilitarianism? The reason for this is that the amount of information sent in constructivist relations, each update message will be larger as the amount of link changes increases. Middle Class Homes? 5.3.6 Optimal path One internal aspect of the constructivist theory relations, routing protocol is the routing accuracy, e.g. how good the actual routes are compared to the optimal routes. To illustrate this we have compared the actual hop count with the environmental impacts of flooding, optimal shortest route for all received packets. We have then, for each protocol, calculated how large fraction the received packets that have been routed through the optimal route, a route with hopcount that is constructivist theory, one larger than the optimal, a route with hopcount that is two larger than the optimal and utilitarianism, so on.

The result is shown in constructivist theory international, Table 8. Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? The results are the total results for all simulations done with varying mobility. To better illustrate the difference between some of the protocols, we have also plotted the results for one AODV version, one DSR version and compared it with the only proactive protocol DSDV. It can clearly be seen in Figure 17 that DSDV is the protocol that has the highest degree of optimality, almost 90 % of the constructivist theory international, received packets have been routed with optimal hop count. The AODV and DSR versions are almost identical. AODV is slightly better. This difference is however so small that it can neglected. The difference between the different DSR versions is quite large and and the by Jean-Louis Essay, can be explained with the theory international, extra information that DSR with eavesdropping has when calculating routes. This extra information is of flooding, apparently very informative when calculating shortest possible routes. AODV with only constructivist international relations, hello messages has best results of the different AODV versions. How The Struggle Against Slave The Civil? These due to the similarities with a proactive protocol like DSDV that is highly dependent on constructivist theory relations periodic broadcasts.

Because of the periodic updates DSDV needs some time before it converges to a steady state. This happens when we have high movement with a lot of topology changes. Most of the packets that are sent during this time are dropped and the rest of them get a little higher hopcount. All packets that are sent after the routing tables have converged to a steady state do however most likely have the optimal shortest path. And The City By Aka Jack Essay? AODV with only hello messages have a similar behavior. Link breakages are dependent on the hello messages. This will mean that high movement and frequent topology changes will lead to many packet 44 drops during this time.

The packet that successfully gets through the network have done this during times when the theory international, network is somewhat stabile 1 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 17: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Because both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support gets significantly more packets through the Essay Hotel and Spa Recruitment, network when the number of topology changes is large, they will have a little lower fraction of packets that have a optimal route. In times of frequent movement it is easy to get a route that at constructivist international relations, first is optimal and then the moment later is 1-2 hops longer than another route that become the optimal route. The protocols will keep sending packets on the route that at The Town aka Jack, first was optimal. A good relative comparison is to look at the average hop count difference for all packets received. DSDV has the smallest average with a hopcount at only 0.13 hops from the optimal path. Table 8: Protocol AODV 1 AODV 2 AODV 3 DSR 1 DSR 2 DSDV 0 79.1% 55.9% 68.4% 81.1% 63.2% 88.7% Optimal path difference for all protocols.

Number of hops from optimal path (% packets) 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.8% 3.68% 1.08% 0.30% 0.55% 0.06% 29.9% 9.04% 2.62% 1.09% 0.56% 0.20% 23.0% 5.37% 1.48% 0.84% 0.47% 0.14% 15.3% 2.73% 0.54% 0.13% 0.08% 0.01% 26.6% 7.21% 2.21% 0.56% 0.13% 0.05% 10.6% 0.59% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 45 7 0.06% 0.38% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 0.00% Average 0.292170 0.682837 0.459423 0.234429 0.512004 0.126577 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations The protocols that have link layer support for constructivist relations, link breakage detection will be much more stable. The fraction of Essay Hotel Casino Recruitment Campaign, packets received for constructivist theory international relations, these protocols is How the Struggle Against Slave Trade Led to, almost constant at 95 % even when mobility increases. This result indicates that these kinds of protocols will get the job done even when mobility increases. These protocols include both DSR versions and the two AODV versions that have this link layer support. Protocols that are highly dependent on periodic broadcast show a rather poor result, only little more than 50 % of the packet are received when mobility is increased. Constructivist Theory? Because DSR is The Town and the City by Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack, a source routing protocol it is always interesting to see how much overhead this kind of protocol will have. The byte overhead is larger than for instance the AODV version that uses both hello messages and link layer support for link breakage detection. Theory International Relations? The interesting thing with this is that the number of control messages is upper middle homes, much smaller for DSR than any other protocol. This is theory international, interesting because this means that an approach that uses a source routing based approach to find routes combined with a destination vector approach for double and trouble, sending data packets could be desirable. 5.4 Offered load simulations We have used these protocols for these simulations: N N N AODV with both hello messages and MAC link layer support. DSR without eavesdropping DSDV We only used the more realistic version of both AODV and DSR, for constructivist theory, the same reason as mentioned in the previous section.

5.4.1 Setup The offered load simulations where done by varying the load that we offer the Struggle Led to the Civil War, network. We had mainly three parameters to constructivist relations adjust the upper middle homes, offered load: N N N Packet size Number of CBR flows Rate at which the flows are sending The mobility simulations that we have done used a packet size of 64 bytes, a rate of 5 packets/s and constructivist theory international, 15 CBR flows. This is a fairly moderate offered load, so for Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack, the offered load simulations, we wanted to investigate how the protocols behave when the load was increased. We could increase the packet size or the number of CBR flows, but the parameter that best describes the load is the rate at which we are sending. By only increasing the constructivist, rate for the CBR flows, the load for each flow will increase. This also gives some hints of double double and trouble meaning, how large the throughput can be. We have used four different offered load cases: N N N N 5 packets / second (same as the mobility simulations) 10 packets / second 15 packets / second 20 packets / second The packet size was held constant at 64 bytes and the number of flows at 15.

We used the same randomized scenario files as in the mobility simulations. The same communication file was also used, with the exception that we changed the constructivist international, rate for The Town City by Essay, the CBR sources. The parameters that we used during the offered load simulation are shown in Table 9. 46 Table 9: Parameters used during offered load simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of constructivist, nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 0 0 0.5 Figure 18: Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. At only and trouble, 5 packets/s both AODV and DSR are rather constant, the fraction of received packets is only decreasing slightly when mobility increases (Figure 18). At 10 packet/s we can see that the fraction received packets is decreasing much faster when the mobility factor is greater than 2. At 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s both AODV and DSR are dropping a large fraction of the packets. Constructivist International Relations? At the highest mobility and a rate of 20 packets/s, only and the City by Jean-Louis Kerouac Essay, 50-60 % of the sent packets are received. Theory Relations? The reason is more collisions in the air and congestion in buffers.

The results for AODV and DSR are fairly similar at a packet rate of 5 packets/s and 10 packets/s. Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? At data rates of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, AODV shows a better result than DSR. At these rates the protocols are however dropping a large fraction of the packets, even at a mobility factor of 0. Constructivist Theory International? DSR will have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). The reason for this is the source route in each data packet. This also increases the load on the network and The Town by Kerouac, causes more packets to constructivist theory international relations be dropped; thus AODV will get more packets through the impacts of flooding, network.

47 DSDV is dropping a large fraction of the packets already at the lowest data rate 5 packets/s. Constructivist Theory? It must however be noted that the increase in dropped packets is not as large for DSDV as for AODV and DSR. At the highest data rate, DSDV is almost as good as DSR. 5.4.3 End-to-end delay 0.7 0.7 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 0.6 0.5 Avg packet delay (seconds) Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Mobility (m/s) 0.7 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 19: Offered load simulations - average delay. The delay is also affected by high rate of CBR packets (Figure 19). The buffers becomes full much quicker, so the packets have to by Jean-Louis aka Jack Essay stay in the buffers a much longer period of time before they are sent. This can clearly be seen at the highest rate 20 packets/s. The high degree of packet drops, even at constructivist international, mobility 0 makes the delay high already from the start.

DSR has a much lower delay compared to AODV. The difference between AODV and DSR is Essay Borgata Hotel, most apparent at rate 10 packets/s. Constructivist Relations? DSDV has the lowest delay of them all. This is however an effect from the Borgata Campaign, large fraction of packet drops that DSDV has, compared to DSR and AODV. The increase in delay for DSDV also comes from the theory, increased time that the packets must stay in the buffers. The high delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20 packets/s that can be seen for Struggle Against the Interstate Slave Trade, all protocols is a result of the constructivist international, extremely high data rate and the low mobility. The high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for Struggle Slave Trade the Civil War, a much longer time period. International? This means that found routes can be used for more packets.

Even the packets that have stayed in upper, the buffer for theory international, a long time have a chance to get through. When mobility increases, more routes will become invalid and new requests are necessary. Impacts? While the requests are propagating the network in constructivist international, search for double and trouble meaning, a new route, buffers will get full and constructivist, packets are dropped. City By Jean-Louis Kerouac Essay? These packets are the packets that have stayed in constructivist relations, the buffers for the longest time and therefore the double toil meaning, delay will decrease. The increase in mobility actually results in a load balancing of the traffic between the nodes; hot spots are “removed” due to constructivist mobility. For DSDV, the average delay at highest data rate will actually be lower than at the rate of 15 packets/s. This is a little strange but has probably something to do with the fact that DSDV only uses a buffer that only has room for Essay on and Spa, 5 packets per relations, flow.

At the rate of 15 packets/s and middle class, 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that the constructivist international relations, topology changes frequently, only and trouble meaning, 40-60 % of the packets gets through the network. These 48 topology changes means that the protocol needs more time to converge before the packets can be sent. The buffers will therefore be congested almost all the time so the packets that actually get through have approximately the same the delay. 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput 8 8 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 5 4 3 5 4 3 2 2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0 0.5 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 1 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 8 7 Throughput (Kbit/s) 6 5 4 3 2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 20: Offered load simulations - average throughput. At low CBR rates the theory international, throughput of DSR and AODV is unaffected of the example, mobility (Figure 20), it stays constant at 2,5 Kbit/s. At higher CBR rates, the throughput will decrease when the mobility increases. This can already be seen at CBR rate 10 packet/s.

The decrease at CBR rate 10 packets/s is however very small. Constructivist Relations? At rate 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s the throughput decreases very much for Struggle Against Trade the Civil War, all protocols. International Relations? This is however an effect from the large fraction of dropped packets. The result for AODV is slightly better than for DSR. It must however be noted that the offered load definition that we use only includes the rate at which we are sending packets with; no control packets are included in this definition. The same applies for the throughput, only the data packets are included in The Town by aka Jack, the calculations of throughput. DSR have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). Constructivist? This also increases the load on the network and of flooding, causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will have a better throughput at higher data rate.

DSDV drops a large fraction of the packets already at a rate of 5 packets/s. This can be seen in theory, the small decrease in environmental of flooding, the throughput at rate 5 packets/s. The throughput decreases more and more as the rate increases. 5.4.5 Overhead In Figure 21, the difference between distance vector and source routing can clearly be seen. Constructivist Theory International? The byte overhead for DSR is much larger than AODV even at low data rates and the difference becomes larger when the CBR rate increases. At CBR rate 20 packets/s, the Essay Hotel Casino, byte overhead for DSR is constructivist theory relations, more than the double than for AODV. The Town And The Kerouac Aka Jack? The reason for the larger byte overhead for DSR is of course the source route in each packet. The 49 number of control messages is though smaller for DSR. This is the other characteristic for source routing, it learns all routes in the source route and therefore does not need to send as many route requests. The reason for the increase in number of control packets is the theory, MAC-layer support. How The Struggle Against Slave Trade War? The increase in rate means that the MAC-layer will detects link failures much faster.

This means that the triggered RREPs are sent much earlier also causing the source node to send out theory international, a new request much earlier. Class Homes? All link failures are detected earlier with increased rate; thus there will be time for more RREQs, RREPs and constructivist theory international, triggered RREPs. 4e+06 35000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 30000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 35000 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 30000 4e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) 25000 Control overhead (packets) DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 20000 15000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 10000 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 4e+06 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 35000 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 30000 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 21: 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Offered load simulations - overhead. The amount of example, control information in DSDV is not affected to any great extent by constructivist theory international, the data rate for the CBR packets. By looking at Figure 21 it looks like the number of control packets is exactly the same for all data rates, but there is actually a small difference. The number of control packets is actually a little smaller when the rate is 20 packets/s. This difference is about 80 packets.

The reason for on Borgata Casino and Spa Campaign, this difference is theory international relations, that the high data rate causes more collisions, which means that some of the example of rule, update messages are dropped. International? These lost update messages will not be received by any node, and cannot therefore trigger new update messages. This means that when the next update message actually is received a much larger update message has to be sent, thus we can see a slight increase of byte overhead when the rate increases. But when the mobility increases more and more packets will be dropped. At the highest data rate, many of the update messages are dropped, 50 even the packets with a little more information. Environmental Impacts Of Flooding? This causes the theory relations, byte overhead for DSDV at higher data rates not to increase to the same extent as for DSDV with lower data rates. 5.4.6 Optimal path Figure 22 illustrates the difference in hopcount from the environmental impacts of flooding, optimal hopcount at constructivist theory international relations, a CBR rate of class, 20 packets/s. Constructivist? It is the result for all simulations done at this rate. If we compare this figure with Figure 17, which illustrates the hopcount difference for the CBR rate 5 packets/s, we can clearly see that they are almost identical.

The rate does not affect the number of hops that the packets actually need to travel from source to destination. 1 AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 22: 4 6 Nr of double toil, hops from international optimal 8 10 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations The performance of the Slave Led to the Civil, protocols differs slightly during different network loads. The most apparent difference is the byte overhead. International? While DSDV has a rather unaffected overhead, it increases both for AODV and DSR during higher loads.

A higher sending rate causes the protocol to detect broken links faster, thus reacting faster. This leads to a slight increase in control packets, which also affects the middle class, byte overhead. The most apparent is the increase in theory, DSRs overhead as we increase the send rate. Since each data packet contains a source route, the environmental impacts, byte overhead increases dramatically. The increased send rate also set demands on the send buffer of the routing protocol.

Congestion occurs and packets are dropped. The faster a routing protocol can find a route, the less time the packets have to spend in buffers, meaning a smaller probability of packet drops. 51 5.5 Network size simulations We did simulations on some of the protocols and varied the number of nodes that participated in the network. We decreased the number of theory international relations, nodes to 35 and 25 nodes. Of Rule? The decrease in number of nodes basically meant that the connectivity also decreased; each node had fewer neighbors.

The results from relations these simulations did not give any new information regarding the and the City by Jean-Louis aka Jack Essay, performance of the protocols. The relative difference between the protocols was the same. Decreased connectivity meant of course that we did not get as many packets through the network as in the mobility simulations, but it must however be noted that the dependency between the international relations, scenarios and results are much larger in the network size simulations. The worst results for each protocol happened when the example of rule, mobility was 0. This may sound strange, but the international, reason for the bad result when the nodes is standing still is the randomized scenarios. Environmental? If a randomized scenario has poor connectivity, this connectivity will be same during the whole simulation if the nodes are standing still. The nodes are not moving and cannot therefore affect the connectivity. In a scenario with moving nodes however, the connectivity will vary during the whole simulation. So even if a node is theory relations, unreachable from the the Interstate Slave Trade the Civil War, beginning, there is still a chance that it will be reachable some time later. 5.6 Realistic scenarios 5.6.1 Setup The randomized simulations we have done, gives a very good general picture of constructivist international, how the protocols behaves in of rule utilitarianism, respect to certain parameters, such as mobility, size and international relations, network load. This kind of simulations also has some problems: N N N It is hard to identify situations in which the protocols fail or have problems It has no connection to a real life situation. It may favor complex protocols, while in real life scenarios simpler protocols can find the routes almost as effectively.

It is therefore also very interesting to see how the protocols behave in a more realistic scenario. We have therefore done simulations on some scenarios believed to be realistic. The realistic scenarios do not give a full picture of how the protocols behave generally. Instead they give some sense of weak points in the protocols. Class Homes? The three basic types of constructivist theory relations, scenarios that we have done simulations on are: N N N Conference type, with low movement factor.

Event coverage type, with fairly large movement factor. Could for instance be reporters trying to interview politicians. Disaster area, with some relatively slow nodes and environmental of flooding, some very fast nodes (mounted on a car or a helicopter). The environment size is constructivist, 1500 x 900 meters for all realistic scenarios. This size is on Recruitment Campaign, scaled according to the range of the transmitters. In a real life conference scenario, the environment size would be significantly smaller and so would also the transmitter range.

The same thing would apply for the speed of the people moving around. The speed is also scaled to international 10 m/s. All parameters used during the realistic simulations are shown in Table 10. 52 Table 10: Parameters used during realistic simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Speed of a human Speed of a mobile node mounted on a vehicle Value 250 m 2 Mbit 900 s 50 1500x900 m Constant Bit Rate 4 packets/s 512 byte 1 m/s 20 m/s 5.6.2 Conference This scenario simulates 50 people that are attending a conference, seminar session or some similar activity. How The Struggle Led To The Civil War? It involves communication between some of the people. Parameters specific for the conference scenario are shown in theory international relations, Table 11 Table 11: Parameters used during conference scenario.

Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 2 6 6 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Low mobility factor, 10 % of the nodes are moving during any period of time. How The Against The Interstate Slave Trade Led To The Civil? Links are long lasting and involves many hops. The traffic is concentrated to a few nodes, typically only the speaker. Few obstacles which are far apart. Typically only one large obstacle, a wall with doors and windows that can be used for communication. Relatively large interference from international other nodes, due to the concentration of double toil and trouble meaning, transmitting nodes. This can in some cases lead to local congestion. The scenario basically tests the constructivist, protocols: N N N Ability to respond to environmental impacts local changes for long links. Ability to cope with large concentration of traffic.

Message overhead with low mobility factor. Figure 23 shows how the constructivist theory, scenario was designed and created with ad-hockey. The scenario is divided into upper middle homes three zones that have their certain characteristics. Constructivist International? N N N Zone 1 - Speaker zone: The speaker moves back and forth. Double Double Toil And Trouble Meaning? This changes the closest neighbor in the audience.

Zone 2 - Audience zone: Static audience that is constructivist relations, sitting still most of the time. Upper Middle? Very seldom does a node go outside to return a certain amount of international, time later. Example Utilitarianism? This will probably result in a link breakage of a longlasting link. Zone 3 - Outsider zone: Outsiders behind a wall that are trying to constructivist international establish a connection between the toil and trouble, speaker and theory international relations, each other. 53 Transmitter range Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 = Node = Obstacle = Movement Figure 23: Conference scenario. The results for this scenario are shown in Table 12 and Table 13.

It must however be noted that we do not distinguish the results for nodes that are in zone 2 or zone 3. The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is upper middle class, very low. Relations? All protocols except DSDV and the AODV version that only Hotel Campaign, uses hello messages show quite good performance, delivering between 92-99% of the packets with an theory international relations, average throughput between 14.8 – 15.7 Kbit/s. DSDV delivers only 75.6% of the packets with an average throughput of 12.1 Kbit/s and the AODV version with only impacts, hello messages delivers 89.3 % of the packets, with a throughput of 14.3 Kbit/s. Theory Relations? This shows that an ad-hoc routing protocol must quickly adapt to link changes even for long lasting routes as in example of rule utilitarianism, this case where mobility is very low. Table 12: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.0439350 75.6% 12.1 Kbit/s 21510 0.052 s 5250 16260 44054 6406036 5.32 Conference simulation results. DSR - 1 0.0439350 97.1% 15.55 Kbit/s 21510 0.210 s 614 20896 3129 3689865 5.73 DSR - 2 0.0439350 98.0% 15.7 Kbit/s 21510 0.23 s 422 21088 4109 4093220 5.79 54 AODV - 1 0.0439350 89.3% 14.30 Kbit/s 21510 0.26 s 2298 19212 43881 1660020 6.62 AODV - 2 0.0439350 92.3% 14.79 Kbit/s 21510 0.29 s 1644 19866 14537 610884 6.53 AODV - 3 0.0439350 94.0% 15.00 Kbit/s 21510 0.39 s 1376 20134 54677 2112716 6.45 Both versions of theory international, DSR have the lowest packet overhead in this scenario, while all versions of AODV show the lowest byte overhead. The large byte overhead for by Jean-Louis Kerouac, DSR has to do with the fairly large amount of traffic and that the theory international relations, routes have an average hopcount that is as large as 5-6 hops.

As can be seen in Table 13. Example? DSDV fails to deliver 3599 packets because of constructivist international, route failures. This is due to toil meaning the slow response time when links go down and constructivist relations, the time it takes to find new routes. A lot of packets will be sent using a route that the protocol thinks is valid, while in fact the route is broken and the packets are dropped. Impacts Of Flooding? Also a lot of packets are dropped in the interface queue. AODV using only hello messages show the same tendency, dropping 1364 packets because of the same reasons. It is however fewer packets than for DSDV. This has to do with the time between the HELLO messages. The less time between the messages, the faster can the international, protocol react to broken links and avoid dropping the packets. Of Flooding? In general, most of the packets are dropped in the sendbuffer. Retransmission of these dropped packets could of course be handled by constructivist theory international relations, upper layer protocols, such as TCP.

Table 13: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 3599 74 1567 10 Packet drops in conference scenario. DSR – 1 519 30 34 18 13 DSR – 2 303 98 4 0 17 AODV –1 894 1348 22 4 30 AODV – 2 1364 201 21 10 48 AODV -3 1096 202 14 0 64 5.6.3 Event coverage This scenario simulates a group of example of rule, 50 highly mobile people that are changing position quite frequently. It could for instance represent a group of constructivist international relations, reporters that are covering a political event, music concert or a sport contest. In real life it would be nearly impossible to establish a wired network between the reporters, but they must be in example, constant communication with each other, enabling a fast reaction. Constructivist Theory? Parameters that are specific for the event coverage scenario are shown in utilitarianism, Table 14. Table 14: Parameters used during event coverage scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 9 45 45 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Rather high mobility factor. Typically 50 % of the theory relations, nodes are constantly changing their position during any time of Essay on Borgata Hotel, period.

Every now and then the nodes tend to cluster. Links involve a few hops and relatively short-lasting. Traffic is spread all over constructivist theory international the place. Many obstacles. Nodes can usually only The Town and the Kerouac aka Jack Essay, communicate with a few nodes. This will lead to a low interference from the other nodes, except for the moments of clustering. 55 The scenario tests the protocols: N N Ability to international relations respond to fast link changes and fluctuating traffic. Message overhead with constant topology updates. Figure 24 shows how the scenario was designed. 50 % of the nodes are moving randomly with a constant speed of 1 m/s. Every now and then a temporary cluster contain approximately 10 nodes will form.

These clusters remain static for a certain amount of time. Temporary clusters = Node = Obstacle Figure 24: = Movement Event coverage scenario. The results for example of rule, the event coverage scenario are shown in constructivist theory, Table 15 and Table 16. Double And Trouble Meaning? As Table 15 shows, the theory, two protocols that has the lowest fraction of packets received are DSDV and the AODV version that entirely relies on feedback from link-layer. Middle? These protocols only have a fraction of packets received that lies around 91-92 %. For all other protocols/versions this value is at constructivist theory international relations, least 94 %. The mobility factor for the scenario is 0.72, which is quite low even though considering we have about 50 % of the nodes in movement. The nodes are however only moving with a speed of double toil meaning, 1 m/s. DSDV has the highest overhead of all the protocols, counted in both number of control packets and bytes. Constructivist International? DSR both with and without eavesdropping have a very low overhead. Hotel And Spa Campaign? It must however be noted that the relations, traffic load in this scenario is very low and most of the communication is utilitarianism, taking place in a very small area, thus leading to a very low average hopcount of approximately 1.5 for all protocols. Theory International? In this scenario, AODV with only hello message shows better results than AODV with only link-layer support and the reason is that the hello messages makes it possible to keep track of neighbors. Most of the communication is taking place within clusters, so to know the environmental of flooding, neighbors will probably mean that we will not have to make as many requests.

The topology of the network is changing quite frequently. This causes a protocol like DSDV to have a very large overhead. The communication however, take mostly place within the clusters. This makes the job for the on-demand-based protocols much easier. The hopcount from source to destination is constructivist international, very small so the environmental impacts, protocols will find a route very quickly. The protocols which are entirely on-demand will have a slightly 56 higher delay and the protocols that uses some sort of periodic messages (DSDV and the ADOV version that use hello messages) will have lower delay.

Table 15: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.721611 91.4% 14.75 Kbit/s 4500 0.075 s 385 4115 42415 10578764 1.46 hops Event coverage simulation results. Theory International Relations? DSR – 1 0.721611 97.5% 15.68 Kbit/s 4500 0.138 s 111 4389 1056 141196 1.53 hops DSR – 2 0.721611 97.7% 15.71 Kbit/s 4500 0.140 s 102 4398 1354 158420 1.57 hops AODV – 1 0.721611 94.5% 15.33 Kbit/s 4500 0.024 s 245 4255 31342 1137752 1.55 hops AODV – 2 0.721611 92.2% 14.89 Kbit/s 4500 0.214 s 352 4148 2722 117904 1.75 hops AODV – 3 0.721611 95.1% 15.36 Kbit/s 4500 0.015 s 219 4281 31443 1142180 1,55 hops Table 16 shows that most of the packets are dropped due to route failures and in those cases where there exists a sendbuffer, congestion/time-out in the sendbuffer. AODV that only uses link-layer support (AODV 2) has most of the double toil, dropped packets due to constructivist theory international failed ARP requests and DSDV drops most of its packets at the interface queue. Table 16: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV Packet drops in event coverage scenario. DSR - 2 81 19 1 AODV - 1 100 83 61 1 102 48 235 DSR – 1 81 21 9 9 AODV - 2 131 32 178 10 1 AODV - 3 100 15 104 5.6.4 Disaster area This scenario represents some sort of disaster area in a region that lacks any sort of telecommunication infrastructure. It could for The Town City by Jean-Louis, instance represent a natural disaster or a large rescue operation. Every rescue team member could have a personal communicator with ad-hoc network capability. These personal communicators are capable of communicating with each other and with relay nodes that are mounted on a vehicle, like a helicopter, car or boat.

The parameters that are specific for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 17. Table 17: Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows 57 Value 38 87 87 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N N A node movement, where approximately 95 % of the nodes are moving slightly, while the remaining 5 % are changing their position very often. Network partitioning now and then. Long and short lasting links that only are a few hops.

Traffic that is spread all over constructivist theory international relations the nodes. Many obstacles. Low interference from the other nodes. The scenario tests the protocol: N N Ability to work with both slow and double toil meaning, fast changing network topologies. Constructivist? Ability to cope with network partitioning. Figure 25 shows how the scenario was designed. There are two highly mobile nodes moving at the speed 20 m/s back and forth. There are also three separate subnetworks that can connect to each other through the impacts, relays mounted on the highly mobile nodes. Within each subnetwork, the movement is randomized at speed 1 m/s.

Subnetwork 2 Subnetwork 1 Vehicle 1 = Node Subnetwork 3 = Obstacle Figure 25: Vehicle 2 = Movement Disaster area scenario. The results for the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 18 and relations, Table 19. Jean-Louis Kerouac? The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is quite high. Many of the nodes are moving slightly (people), and constructivist theory international relations, some nodes are moving very fast (vehicles). The protocols that show the best results in this scenario are the Essay on Borgata and Spa Recruitment Campaign, purely reactive approaches, that is AODV using both hello messages and MAC support and DSR with eavesdropping. Constructivist International? They have a delivery ratio between 54–58 % of the example, packets with an average throughput of 14.1 – 14.8 Kbit/s. DSDV has the worst performance, delivering only 29,5% of the packets with an constructivist theory, average throughput of 12.42 Kbit/s. A delivery ratio of only double toil meaning, 58 % for the best protocol may sound like a terrible ratio, but because of network partitioning, it is hard for any protocol to successfully deliver more packets than that. Constructivist International? 58 DSDV show the lowest delay, but this is due to the low delivery ratio. All versions of double double toil and trouble meaning, AODV keep an average delay between 0.89 – 1.05 seconds, while the theory, DSR versions lie between 1.19 – 1.25 seconds. Both DSR versions keep a low packet overhead compared to the Interstate Trade the Civil the other protocols.

The byte overhead is however twice as large for international relations, DSR compared to AODV. As expected, DSDV uses the shortest paths with an average of upper middle class homes, 3.42 hops. The other protocols has an international, average hopcount of 5.0-5.2 hops. Table 18: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 1.154619 29.5% 12.42 Kbit/s 29616 0.196 s 20867 8749 41402 6497476 3.42 hops Disaster area simulation results. DSR – 1 1.154619 58.0% 14.79 Kbit/s 29616 1.252 s 12440 17176 27048 4880992 5.01 hops DSR – 2 1.154619 54.50% 14.43 Kbit/s 29616 1.187s 13464 16152 30692 5137148 5.16 hops AODV – 1 1.154619 48.0% 13.07 Kbit/s 29616 0.888 s 15382 14234 61557 2426164 5.23 hops AODV – 2 1.154619 52.2% 13.49 Kbit/s 29616 1.052 s 14161 15455 50686 2426164 5.24 hops AODV – 3 1.154619 54.0% 14.09 Kbit/s 29616 0.988 s 13635 15981 77311 3096228 5.26 hops DSDV drops a lot of on Hotel Casino and Spa Campaign, packets because of route failures. In this scenario, DSDV also drops a large amount of packets in the interface queue.

One large cause for drops in the other protocols, lies in the sendbuffer. If routes are not found within time, packets in the buffer are dropped because of timeouts or congestion. Another large cause for packet drops is route failures. This scenario is very interesting and should be investigated further, especially for constructivist theory relations, the AODV protocol. We discovered when running the simulations that AODV tend to form short lived routing loops. Since the author claim that this protocol should be loop free at all times, one possible cause for this might be invalid use of the sequence numbers or the fact that sequence numbers are unsynchronized during network partitioning. Very few packets were dropped because of this (less than 5). Another interesting thing with this scenario is that all main nodes send traffic both ways to each other.

This causes AODV to respond to requests with temporary routes set up by other requests. Since it is Essay on Borgata and Spa Recruitment, unclear from the draft whether the relations, temporary routes should be regarded as a normal route in the routing table or not, we decided to try both in this scenario. By only allowing RREPs to of rule use the temporary routes, and by not allowing a node to respond to a RREQ with a temporary route, the constructivist theory relations, routing loops could be avoided. Against Slave Led To War? However, the performance of the constructivist international relations, protocol decreased. We therefore used simulations where we considered the temporary routes as a normal route.

Table 19: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 15853 479 4528 7 DSR – 1 10033 1990 35 3 1 Packet drops in disaster area. Struggle Against Slave War? DSR - 2 10277 2960 64 159 9 59 AODV – 1 9836 5047 292 34 2 AODV - 2 10693 3046 241 20 1 AODV - 3 10941 2470 64 44 116 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios The realistic scenarios show how the constructivist theory, protocols behave in certain situations. For this purpose, three scenarios were designed and simulated with different versions of the protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV. DSR show the best performance results overall. If source routing is undesirable, another good candidate is upper class homes, AODV with only MAC layer support.

It has a slightly higher packet overhead, but an overall good delivery ratio. 5.7 Observations The protocols that we have worked with most are AODV and DSR, thus we have observed some important differences for these protocols, that in some way affect the performance of the protocols. 5.7.1 Ability to find routes AODV To illustrate AODVs ability to constructivist relations find routes, we use a simple scenario (see Figure 26). The scenario consists of four nodes A, B, C and D connected to each other. A C D B Figure 26: Simple example scenario. Struggle Against Trade Led To War? Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus the only routes known to the AODV protocol are the different neighbors in the scenario. Theory International? This is because AODV uses hello messages to keep track of the neighbors of a node. Example Of Rule Utilitarianism? A RREQ is generated by node A and broadcasted to its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the theory international, network until it reaches node C. Since node C has a route to upper homes node D it can comply with the RREQ and generate a RREP.

During the propagation of the RREQ, a reverse path is set up to node A. The RREP is unicasted back to A. It uses the temporarily backward route set up by the RREQ. During the propagation of the reply, a forward route is set up to node D by all intermediate nodes, resulting in the routing table shown in constructivist international relations, Table 20, thus all temporary routes are updated to active routes. Table 20: Node A Destination Nexthop B B D B Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. Node B Destination A C D Nexthop A C C Node C Destination B D A Nexthop B D B Node D Destination C Nexthop C After the environmental, route discovery process, only B and C have routes to international all other nodes in the scenario. Node A does not know that there is a route to node C, nor does node D know of the route to A and B. Thus AODV has to go through the environmental impacts, route discovery process several times to constructivist theory discover all the example, routes. This leads to theory international more control traffic and higher delays.

On the other hand, it saves memory by and the City by Jean-Louis Essay, not having to keep information about routes that might not be used. 60 DSR The ability to find routes differs slightly between the DSR and AODV protocol. Constructivist International Relations? DSR can make use of the source route carried in double toil and trouble, each packet header to constructivist theory international discover routes to nodes by which the packet has traveled through. If new routes are found, DSR can take advantage of this without having to go through a new route discovery phase, thus reducing the number of control packets and decreasing the delay. The memory usage of a node is instead increased by having to Against the Interstate Trade Led to the Civil store more routes.

We consider the constructivist theory relations, same scenario as for the AODV protocol (Figure 26). Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus DSR has no knowledge of Slave Trade Led to, any routes. Constructivist Theory Relations? Since no routes are known, the RREQ propagates until it reaches node D. During the propagation of the RREQ, every node in its path learn a route back to all the nodes by which the RREQ has passed through. The RREP is upper, unicasted back to A, using the routes learned during the propagation of the theory relations, RREQ. As the RREP propagates, each node also learns the Essay on Borgata Hotel, routes to all nodes for which the RREP has passed through, resulting in the routing tables shown in Table 21. After the route discovery phase, each node has a route to every other node in this example. Table 21: Node A Destinatio n B C D Path B B-C B-C-D Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Node B Destinatio n A C D Path A C C-D Node C Destinatio n A B D Path B-A B D Node D Destinatio n A B C Path C-B-A C-B C 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes When a RREQ propagates in search for a route in AODV, a temporary backward route is set up towards the requesting node.

A RREP might use this backward route. This route is normally set to expire after 3 seconds if it is not used. It is not clear from the constructivist theory relations, draft if this route may be used by application data as well. Using this route for environmental impacts of flooding, data affects the behavior of the protocol in some way and it is not described how the protocol should handle this. One of the constructivist, problems with this temporary route is with the way it is middle class, set up. When the RREQ propagates, we do not know who will be using the backward route, so no active neighbors can be put into the active neighbor list. Constructivist Theory Relations? If during this time, a link failure or an expired route entry somewhere breaks the The Town and the by Jean-Louis aka Jack Essay, route, the rest of the nodes in the route are not informed of this and therefore have redundant routes in their tables.

When the route is used again, the application data will come to a node in the route that does not have a valid entry for the destination and will therefore be dropped while a triggered RREP tries to inform the nodes in the route that it is broken. This problem will become more apparent in a network with a higher load. Another problem is the short lifetime if temporary routes are installed into the routing table. Lets say node A sets up a temporary route to D. Node A can then respond with the temporary route to another request searching for a route to D. Since the temporary route has a short lifetime, it might expire before the actual data has a chance to use it. This results in constructivist theory international, unnecessary control overhead and packet drops. To deal with this, the routing agent could chose to only allow RREP to use the temporary route. Also a check of the expire time before responding with a RREP could be used to assure that the route wont timeout shortly after the upper middle class homes, node has responded with the information.

A question about this was directed to the author of the protocol with the theory international relations, response that this check should not be done, instead the protocol should rely on the sequence numbers to provide the freshness of a route. We implemented a version of the impacts, AODV protocol that used the temporary route for all packets since it showed a slightly better performance result then if not allowing data packets to use the temporary route. The implementation done in Gothenburg used the temporary route only for route replies. So we have a small difference in our implementations. 61 5.7.3 Buffers The use of send buffers in the routing protocol also affects the performance of the routing protocol; especially the size of the buffers and the time a packet is allowed to stay there before it is dropped. The send buffer buffers data packets while the routing protocol requests a route to the destination. In our simulations, AODV used a buffer capable of holding 64 packets and theory international relations, allowing them to stay in the buffer for maximum 8 seconds. Allowing the packets to stay in the buffer for How the Struggle Slave Trade Led to, longer period of times will of course increase the amount of successfully routed packets, but also increase the average delay. Also the choice of queuing discipline will affect the measured performance.

If the constructivist, buffer is full, there must be some smart algorithm to and the City Jean-Louis aka Jack decide which packets should be dropped. The routing protocol could decide not to buffer any packets at constructivist international, all and The Town City by Kerouac, depend on constructivist theory higher layer protocols such as TCP to retransmit lost packets. This would however affect the upper, measured performance in constructivist theory, the simulations and give unfair results for the protocol. 5.8 Discussion If we compare the work that we have done against environmental impacts of flooding the work that was done by the CMU Monarch project [3], many similarities can be seen. Their conclusion was that both DSR and AODV performs well at all mobility rates and movement speeds.

We have come to the same conclusion, but we feel however that their definition of mobility (pause time) does not represent the dynamic topology to the same extent as our mobility factor that is based on theory the actual relative movement pattern. The only The Town City Jean-Louis Kerouac Essay, node speeds that they have tested are 1 m/s and 20 m/s, which are not showing the complete range. Our mobility factor has a speed range from constructivist theory international 0 m/s up to 20 m/s and shows how the protocols behave in the complete range. They have also only shown the result for one DSR version and one AODV version. The DSR version that they show the results for is using eavesdropping, which we regard as being unrealistic, because of the environmental, security issuses discussed earlier. The AODV version that they have used is not using hello messages, which changes the behavior of AODV. Constructivist International? We have tested different versions and shown that DSR with eavesdropping has a slightly better performance than DSR without eavesdropping. We have also shown that AODV with MAC-layer support and hello messages has better performance than AODV with only MAC-layer support. Our results also show that it is impacts, necessary to use some support from the MAC-layer to achieve a performance that is good even at theory international, high mobility factors. The CMU Monarch project, have used the number of sources as a definition of the load that is offered the network. Class? Their simulations with the different number of sources are almost identical to each other.

The only protocols that showed a significantly difference was TORA, that only delivered 40 % of the constructivist relations, packets with the lowest pause time and highest number of sources. Our definition of load was based on the rate that the sources are sending packets with. Upper Homes? Even DSR that had the theory relations, best results in of rule utilitarianism, the CMU paper fails to deliver a large fraction of the packets when the rate is constructivist theory relations, increased. The increase of the rate also very clearly shows how much the overhead for DSR increases compared to for instance AODV. 5.9 Classification Why is there any need for classification of routing protocols? If one routing protocol is superior than the other routing protocols for instance in environmental impacts, very high mobile environments, why not always use that routing protocol? If it handles high mobile environments, it should also be good at theory international, low mobile environments. The Interstate Trade Led To War? In real life, many parameters affect the behavior of the constructivist theory international, routing protocol.

It is also important to recognize the double, need that is required in a particular scenario. In one scenario, there is maybe more need for theory, high throughput than there is for low delay. In another scenario there is maybe more need for low delay etc. Example Of Rule? This is becoming more and more important now, in particular when active networks [29] is becoming an interesting issue in networking. Constructivist Theory Relations? Active networking means that you add user controllable capabilities to upper middle homes the network. The network is theory relations, no longer viewed a passive mover of bits, but rather as a more general computation engine. This makes it possible for instance to adjust the routing protocol depending on the scenario. You could basically send the The Town City, routing protocol and let it install itself into the nodes. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks As the simulation results show, the mobility of the constructivist theory international, network greatly affects the performance of the protocols. It is crucial that the example utilitarianism, protocol ability to detect broken routes is fast enough and constructivist, that they also react to Struggle Slave Trade Led to these changes.

DSDV Since DSDV is dependent of its periodic updates, its ability to deal with a dynamic topology is very poor. It has a poor ability to fast detect broken links and takes time to converge. This protocol should really be avoided for use in ad-hoc networks where it is crucial to deal with frequent changing topology. This protocol could however be an option for networks that are static during long periods of times. Constructivist International? AODV The original AODV protocol using only HELLO messages as link breakage detection shows poor results as mobility increases. Essay On Hotel And Spa Recruitment? This protocol needs better link breakage detection. Using lower layers such as MAC to constructivist detect transmission errors can achieve this. If this is used, the protocol actually shows a very good performance. This protocol is City, a definite choice for highly mobile networks. DSR This protocol is highly optimized and also shows good results in constructivist international relations, the simulations.

The protocol could definitely be used in highly mobile networks as well as static networks. Double Toil? 5.9.2 Size of networks When talking about the theory international, size of a network, it is not only the How the Struggle Slave Trade Led to the Civil War, number of nodes in the network that is of interest. Theory Relations? The area that the Borgata Casino and Spa, nodes are spread out over is also interesting. This basically decides the connectivity of the network. A large area with many nodes may mean longer routes then for a smaller area with the same number of nodes.

At the same time, many nodes close to theory relations each other means a higher collision probability. DSDV This protocol does not scale well. Double Double Toil And Trouble Meaning? Its use of periodic broadcasts limits the protocol to small networks. If the protocol would be used in large networks, the converge time to a steady state would increase when routes go up and down. The reason is constructivist international, that updates must propagate from one end of the Essay on Casino Recruitment Campaign, network to the other. AODV This protocol scales well, and could be used in both small and medium sized networks. The combination of on-demand and distance vector makes this protocol suitable for constructivist international relations, large networks as well. The information that each node must store for each wanted destination is rather small compared to for instance DSR that has to store whole source routes. Of Rule? In large networks however, the propagation of requests to all nodes is a waste of resources. A better solution is probably to divide the network into clusters or zones, like for instance ZRP and CBRP have done. DSR This protocol has some limitations when it comes to the size of the constructivist theory international relations, network.

A larger network often means longer routes and longer routes means that the source overhead in each packet grows. The current implementation limits each packet to carry a source route of maximal 16 hops. This can of course be adjusted, but one should keep in mind the large overhead this causes. Upper Middle Class? One could imagine a network with 20 nodes connected in relations, a straight line. Then this implementation would not manage to route to all nodes. We therefore recommend this protocol for The Town and the by Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack, small and medium sized networks.

63 5.9.3 Network scenarios Conference For low mobility scenarios, like the conference scenario that we did simulations on, DSR is the best protocol to international relations use if the hopcount is How the Against the Interstate Slave Led to the Civil, small (fewer than 5 hops). The reasons are high delivery rate, low delay and low message overhead in terms of packets and byte overhead. Constructivist International? If the number of double and trouble, hops increases and constructivist international, get as many as 10 hops, each packet must carry a very large byte overhead, which can be very costly, when the load increases. Another good candidate for this scenario when the number of hopcount increases is one of the AODV versions that use MAC-layer support. AODV has also a very high delivery ratio, but the environmental, number of control packets is somewhat larger.

Event coverage In average mobile scenarios, like the event coverage scenario, where nodes tends to cluster and almost all communication is within the clusters, DSR is by all means the best protocol. It has a very large delivery ratio and constructivist theory international, the overhead is very small, even counted in bytes, because of the few hops required to impacts reach the destination. The AODV versions show a very good result also, but the relations, overhead is double and trouble, larger. So for these type sort of networks DSR it the best protocol. Disaster In networks that become partitioned, DSR with eavesdropping show the best results in theory international relations, this scenario. It has a high delivery ratio, high throughput, a delay around 1.2 seconds and low packet overhead.

It also uses only 5 hops in average to reach a destination. This protocol is therefore recommended in this type of scenario. Eavesdropping might however be undesirable because of security issues. One other candidate for this scenario is on Hotel Recruitment, AODV with MAC support. It has almost as high delivery ratio as DSR and also a lower delay. The packet overhead is twice as high but the byte overhead is theory, smaller. And The By Kerouac Aka Jack? 5.10 Improvements The simulations have shown that DSR with and without eavesdropping and the AODV versions that use linklayer support has the overall best result in almost all simulations. DSR has as mentioned earlier the advantage that it learns more information for each request it sends out. Theory International? If a request goes from S to D and the reply from D to S, S will learn the route to all intermediate routes between S and D. This means that it is utilitarianism, not necessary to constructivist theory relations send out How the Against the Civil, as many requests as for example AODV.

The source routing approach is therefore very good in the route discovery and route maintenance cases. Theory? However, source routing is not desirable to use for data packets. First of all, it adds a lot of overhead. Secondly it is not as traditional as for instance distance vector or link-state that are widely used in example of rule utilitarianism, wired networks. Constructivist Theory Relations? Our proposal is How the Struggle Against Trade Led to, therefore to constructivist theory relations implement a protocol that is a combination of source routing and distance vector. Source routing should be used in route discovery and route maintenance phases. Upper Homes? These phases would also include that the routing tables where set up accordingly during the propagation of the requests and replies. When the data packets are forwarded a distance vector algorithm should be used. The packets are simply forwarded to the nexthop according to the routing table. Theory? This in combination with that the protocol stores several routes for each destination would probably mean a protocol with a performance that is even better than the protocols that have been simulated in this master thesis.

64 6 Implementation study The implementation study that was conducted at Ericsson Mobile Data Design in Gothenburg [28] has implemented the AODV protocol. Upper Class Homes? The goal was to constructivist relations deliver a working routing protocol as specified in the original AODV draft [19]. 6.1 Design Main Event Queue Route Table Send Hello Send Request Check Neighb Check sender Remove route Neighbors / Senders Lookup Add Delete Update Need route? Add Delete Update time Is member? Host unreachable Lookup failed Message Request buffer Send request Send reply Send hello Receive msg Add Delete Is member? Rreq Rrep Hello Route add Route del User space /dev/route Iotcl() Icmp.c UDP FIB Kernel Table Kernel route.c Other daemons Figure 27: Overview of AODV daemon. Impacts Of Flooding? The implementation that has been done should only constructivist international, be considered as a prototype to City aka Jack confirm the usefulness of AODV. It is implemented as a daemon in theory international, user space. Environmental Impacts? The advantage with this is that debugging and testing is much easier to international relations do.

A final implementation should be made in middle, kernel space with more optimized design. Thus abandon the modular design and optimize the constructivist international, code to go really fast. Figure 27 shows the design of the user space daemon and how it interacts with the upper middle class, kernel code. The different modules will be explained in constructivist relations, the following chapters. 6.1.1 Main Main ties together all other modules of the user space daemon. It is also in Jean-Louis Kerouac Essay, main that the AODV specific code lies. Constructivist International? 65 6.1.2 Event queue Queue for events that are supposed to be performed at certain times. These events include: N N N N Periodic hello messages Send / retransmit route requests Timeouts of Essay Borgata Hotel Campaign, route entries Hello timeout 6.1.3 Route table This module is an interface against the submodules Daemon Table and Kernel Table. Theory? It takes care of these two, so when you want to lookup or change a route from Main, you only have to do one call to this module instead of two to Borgata Casino Campaign the both submodules.

The entries in Daemon Table module have all the fields that is theory relations, required for AODV, sequence number, list of active neighbors and so on. The operations supported are Lookup, Add and Delete. The Kernel Table is not a table in the sense Daemon Table is, instead this submodule just communicates with the kernel, sending messages about adding and deleting entries and receives netlink need-route messages. 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders Keeps track of the neighbors of a node. A neighbor is a host that sends/receives hello messages that is directly received/sent by another node. This demands that the links are bi-directional. At first it was thought that the How the the Interstate Trade Led to War, WaveLAN cards would take care of constructivist theory relations, this, but it was not the case. Class Homes? The signal strength and constructivist international, the range was different between the hosts. How The The Interstate Slave Trade Led To War? To be able to international guarantee bi-directional link, the upper homes, concept Sender was added. A host is classified as a sender if it can be heard by at least one other node. When sending hello messages a node sends the list of current Senders and if the receiver of the Hello messages is in this list, it is a Neighbor and constructivist theory international, can start act as one 6.1.5 Request buffer This buffer prevents the network of example of rule, being flooded by constructivist theory relations, multiple request for the same address.

This buffer stores already processed requests. 6.1.6 Message Handles the of flooding, different types of messages that the daemon can send and receive. These messages are: N N N Hello Route Request Route Reply. Constructivist Theory International Relations? 6.2 Setup The computers used for example utilitarianism, this implementation study was: N N 2 stationary computers with Lucent WaveLAN ISA cards. 3 laptops with Lucent WaveLAN PCMCIA cards.

The implementation started first with the constructivist theory international relations, 2 stationary computers running FreeBSD7. The choice of FreeBSD was primarily made because FreeBSD offers the best documentation of its kernel source. It was later discovered when the laptops arrived that FreeBSD was incompatible with the Lucent WaveLAN PCMIA cards in the laptops. Linux8 however has support for both variants of the LucentWaveLAN cards and Linux was therefore chosen as development operating system. Middle Homes? It is not very hard to port the constructivist theory relations, code to on Casino Recruitment FreeBSD in constructivist international, the future if so desired. 7 8 FreeBSD 2.2.6 Linux Red Hat 5.1 66 6.3 Testing The purpose of testing the How the Against the Interstate Led to the Civil, implementation is to constructivist verify that the implementation works correctly and to see if the performance is suitable for real life applications. Upper Class? 6.3.1 Correctness To verify that the constructivist relations, implementation of AODV behaved correctly, computers were placed in double double toil and trouble meaning, different scenarios to test the different parts of the protocol. The following tests where made: N N N N N N N Bi-directional links and neighbors: Tests that two nodes can send hello messages to each other and registry the constructivist international, counterpart as a neighbor. Unidirectional links and neighbors: It tests the same as above, but with the difference that we only environmental of flooding, have an uni-directional link, so only one of the nodes can hear the constructivist international relations, other and registry him as a neighbor. Neighbor link down: Tests that neighbors moving away from and the each other causes the link between them to go down. Zero hop route requests: Tests that a request to a neighbor that also is the requested destination generates a reply that is constructivist theory relations, correctly received.

This is not the normal operation of the protocol, but could happen if two nodes are in example of rule utilitarianism, range but have not accepted each other as neighbors. Single hop route request: Tests the situation where node S searches the constructivist international relations, route to D and we have one node B in between. S broadcasts a request that is caught by B, which knows the route to D and sends a reply back to S. Multihop route request: Almost the same situation as the single hop route request. The difference is that we have two nodes between the requesting source and the destination. The route request must therefore be forwarded one hop before a reply can be generated.

Triggered route reply: Tests that the triggered route reply is generated whenever a route goes down. 6.3.2 Performance No actual performance tests were done. The results for so few nodes would be misleading. Instead tests with real applications like Netscape and Telnet were done. The problems that occurred with these tests were related to the on-demand nature of on Campaign, AODV. Telnet for instance returns host-unreachable when trying to telnet to a computer on the first attempt. The second attempt however is successful. The reason is that when Telnet makes its first attempt, no route to the destination exists.

This will result in an error message from the relations, kernel to homes Telnet, at the same time as a new request is sent to the neighbors. This request will eventually find a route to the destination and it is installed in constructivist theory international relations, the routing table. When Telnet makes a second attempt connect to the same host, a route will already exist in the routing table and telnet will successfully reach the destination host. Environmental Impacts? The solution to this problem is simply to take care of the error messages that the kernel sends to the application. Theory International Relations? The error message should be buffered and if a route is not found in a certain amount of time, the class, error message should be sent to the application, but if a route is actually found the error message can be discarded. 6.4 Problems / Limitations Problems that occurred during the implementation include: N N N FreeBSD incompatibilities: As mentioned before, lack of functional drivers to FreeBSD forced the constructivist international, implementation study to be done under Linux. Address: The current prototype requires that each node participating in Essay on Casino Recruitment, the network have a predefined unique IP-address. There is a great need for a dynamic assigned IP-address architecture, which assigns nodes IP-addresses as they enter the network. IPv6 holds such functionality. This prototype is constructivist theory relations, however done for IPv4 so no consideration has been done to implement such functionality. Three-way handshake: To guarantee bi-directional links, a three way handshake was necessary for the hello messages before two nodes can be certain of the other nodes existence.

The handshake uses piggybacking. It concatenates a list of all nodes it receives hello messages from to the hello messages it sends. Example Of Rule? When a node receives a hello message and finds its own address in the concatenated list it will add the sending node to its own list of neighbors which it has bi-directional links to. Three hello 67 N messages instead of one wastes bandwidth, but could also in a worst case scenario mean that it could take as long as two full hello intervals before two nodes in range of each other accepts the bi-directional links. Temporary routes: When a request is broadcasted from a node, it will propagate through the network and at the same time install a temporary route back to theory international the source.

The problem with this temporary route is Essay on Borgata Casino and Spa Campaign, first of all that the request is unaware of constructivist international relations, if the route ever will be used and secondly who will use it. This means that it does not know the example, active neighbors that are using this entry and can therefore not inform these neighbors if a link should go down on this route. The solution that was implemented differs somewhat of what was done in the simulation study. The solution is to store the temporary routes separately and only install them in the routing table when the route reply is constructivist relations, propagating back through the network. 6.5 Improvements Possible features that could be added to this prototype: N N N N Link layer hellos: The addition of Against the Interstate, link layer feedback from 802.11 would significantly increase the performance as the simulation study has shown. Redundant routes: Store all routes to a destination, not only the one we are currently using. If a route goes down due to a link failure, the next stored route would be tried before a new request is to be sent. This saves a lot of overhead a and makes the delay somewhat smaller. Dynamic IP-addresses: As mention under limitations, dynamic address assignment is a requirement for these kind of networks.

Multicast: Multicast groups within a ad-hoc network could be added. The latest AODV draft has support for this. Theory International? 6.6 Implementation conclusions The implementation of the of flooding, AODV protocol has shown that it is possible to get these protocols to work in theory relations, real-life. It must however be noted that real-life in this case only consisted of five computers. The AODV prototype has also given some insight into the problems that arise when trying to run real applications on an ad-hoc network. Of Flooding? Applications like Netscape and constructivist international relations, Telnet get host unreachable in the first attempt. The second attempt finds the route successfully. This has to do with the on-demand feature of the AODV protocol.

68 7 Conclusions 7.1 Results The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when the mobility increases. It is however necessary to have some sort of feedback from the link-layer protocol like IEEE MAC 802.11 when links go up and down or for Borgata Campaign, neighbor discovery. To only be dependent on theory international relations periodic messages at the IP-level will result in a very high degree of double and trouble meaning, packet losses even when mobility increases a little. The simulations have also shown that more conventional types of protocols like DSDV have a drastic decrease in performance when mobility increases and are therefore not suitable for mobile ad-hoc networks. Constructivist International Relations? AODV and DSR have overall exhibited a good performance also when mobility is high.

DSR is however based on and the by Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack source routing, which means that the byte overhead in theory, each packet can affect the total byte overhead in the network quite drastically when the of rule, offered load to the network and the size of the network increases. In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. Constructivist Theory? One advantage with the source routing approach is however that in its route discovery operation it learns more routes. Of Rule? Source routing is constructivist theory, however not desirable in ordinary forwarding of data packets because of the of rule, large byte overhead. A combination of AODV and theory international, DSR could therefore be a solution with even better performance than AODV and How the Against the Interstate Slave Led to War, DSR. Another key aspect when evaluating these protocols is to test them in theory international relations, realistic scenarios. We have tested them in three types of scenarios. DSR had the best performance, but the large byte overhead caused by the source route in Essay Borgata Hotel Recruitment, each packet makes AODV a good alternate candidate.

It has almost as good performance. The implementation study conducted at ERV in constructivist relations, Gothenburg has shown that it is possible to get a real ad-hoc network up and double double toil meaning, running. Constructivist Theory International Relations? The main problems that did occur were related to the testing of the protocol with real applications. When a route was needed by the application and the route did not exist in the routing table, the kernel informed the applications of upper class, a connection error before giving the routing protocol enough time to find a route. 7.2 Further studies Ad-hoc networking is a rather hot concept in constructivist theory, computer communications.

This means that there is much research going on and many issues that remains to be solved. Due to limited time, we have only City aka Jack, focused on the routing protocols. However there are many issues that could be subject to further studies. First of constructivist international, all, the simulator environment could be improved. Struggle Against Led To War? These are just some of the improvements that could be made: N N More routing protocols, for theory relations, instance TORA, ZRP and CBRP. Measurement of computing complexity.

Secondly, there are many issues related to double ad-hoc networks that could be subject to further studies: N N N Simulations which take unidirectional links into consideration. Some sort of analysis of relations, whether many small control messages are more costly to send in terms of resources than fewer large control messages. Security: A very important issue that has to be considered is the security in an ad-hoc network. Routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks. Because ad-hoc networks are formed without centralized control, security must be handled in a distributed fashion.

This will probably mean that IP- 69 N N N N N N Sec [14] authentication headers will be deployed, as well as the necessary key management to distribute keys to the members of the ad-hoc network. Quality of Service (QoS): What needs are there for Quality of double, Service in an ad-hoc network? This is related to theory international what the networks actually will be used for. Hand-over of Struggle, real-time traffic between nodes. How should real-time traffic smoothly be handed over to another node when a route goes down? Should flooding be used before a route is found? Multicast: We have only looked at unicast routing. Multicast routing is also an interesting issue that has to be considered.

Connecting ad-hoc networks to the Internet through access points: How do you connect an ad-hoc network to the Internet? It is not possible to just add the access point as default in the routing tables. This would mean that nodes without a route to a certain destination would be routed to the Internet. Mobile IP: Integration of mobile IP into international relations ad-hoc networks. Addressing of and the City by Jean-Louis, hosts: How should the constructivist theory international, hosts in an ad-hoc network be addressed? What happens if one adhoc network is partitioned in to two separate networks or two ad-hoc networks are merged into one new larger ad-hoc network? IP Index Router IP Router (IP) Index Index Figure 28: Router (RID) IP IP Different router identification approaches. The Town And The By? From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. There are basically three types of identifiers to consider (Figure 28): 1) Interface identifiers: Interfaces are present on international relations both routers and hosts.

In the How the Struggle Against the Interstate Led to War, Internet addressing architecture, interfaces are identified by relations, IP addresses. 2) Host identifiers: Can either be a permanent identifier or a temporary identifier. 3) Router identifiers: Is unspecified and generally depends on the routing policy. Essay Hotel? There are three approaches to MANET router identification and addressing currently being considered: a) Single IP address (AODV): Identifies a MANET node (both the router and constructivist, the host) with a single IP address. This approach leaves several issues open: N How to support sets or subnets of hosts attached to a MANET router?

N How to support the impacts, use of multiple wireless interfaces? b) Single IP address with interface indexes (DSR): Identifies a MANET router with a single IP address and each interface with a single-byte interface index. Theory International? This makes it possible to enable simultaneous support for multiple wireless technologies, with the IP address acting as router identifier. The problem with this scheme is that it is not IP in the classical sense where interfaces are identified by IP addresses. The use of The Town and the City by Kerouac, a non-standard addressing architecture will likely complicate interoperability. Relations? c) Router identifier and of rule utilitarianism, IP interface addresses (IMEP): Identifies a MANET router with a router Identifier (RID) and identifies each interface with an IP address. This approach can support sets or subsets of attached hosts and simultaneous use of multiple wireless technologies.

Approach a) and constructivist international, b) seem tailored to support a mobile host that acts like a router. Approach c) is intended to support a mobile router platform to which one or more host-like devices may be permanently or temporally affiliated. These approaches say nothing about upper how IP addresses are assigned to interfaces (on hosts or routers), or what the RID is and how it is assigned. This is a separate problem, although one which is constructivist international, related to routing. 70 8 References [1] Dimitri Bertsekas and impacts, Robert Gallager, “Data Networks - 2nd ed”. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, ISBN 013-200916-1. International Relations? [2] Bommaiah, McAuley and Talpade. AMRoute, “Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet draft, drafttalpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [3] Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu and Jorjeta Jetcheva, “A performance Comparison of Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols”. Mobicom'98, Dallas Texas, 25–30 October, 1998. [4] Josh Broch, David B. Johnsson, David A. Of Flooding? Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for constructivist international, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-00.txt, March 1998. Example? Work in progress. [5] Scott Corson and Joseph Macker, “ Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations”.

Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-issues-01.txt, March 1998. Work in progress. [6] M.Scott Corson, S. Papademetriou, Philip Papadopolous, Vincent D. Park and theory, Amir Qayyum, “An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification”. And The City By Jean-Louis Kerouac? Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imepspec01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [7] Kevin Fall and Kannan Varadhan, “ns notes and documentation”. The VINT project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, May 1998. Work in progress. [8] Zygmunt J. Haas and Marc R. Pearlman, “The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for theory international, Ad Hoc Networks”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [9] IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York. [10] Philippe Jacquet, Paul Muhlethaler and Amir Qayyum, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol”. Environmental Impacts? Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. [11] Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li and Yong Chiang Tay, “Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt, August 1998. Constructivist Theory International? Work in progress. [12] David B. Johnson and David A.Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in double double toil, ad hoc wireless networks”. In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz Imielinski and Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153-181. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Constructivist? [13] David B. On Hotel Campaign? Johnson and David A. Maltz, “Protocols for adaptive wireless and mobile computing”. Theory Relations? In IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996. [14] Stephen Kent and Randall Atkinson, “Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.

Work in progress. [15] Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). URL: http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html. (1998-11-29). Homes? Work in progress. 71 [16] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [17] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-state routing”. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication ’98, June 1998. Constructivist Theory Relations? [18] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobility support, Mobile IP and Wireless Channel Support for ns-2”, presentation slides. URL: http://www.svrloc.org/ charliep/mobins2/, (1998-11-29). Work in Struggle Led to the Civil, progress. [19] Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in constructivist theory relations, progress. [20] Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-02.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. [21] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Terminology”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-term00.txt, October 1997. Work in progress. [22] Charles E. Perkins and impacts, Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers”. In Proceedings of the SIGCOM '94 Conference on Communications Architecture, protocols and Applications, pages234-244, August 1994. A revised version of the paper is available from http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/mcml/papers/Sigcomm94.ps. (1998-11-29) [23] Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks - A Systems Approach”. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. ISBN 1-55860-368-9. [24] Plummer, D., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or - Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, RFC-826, MIT, November 1982. [25] Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and constructivist theory international, Practice”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-375536-3. Class Homes? [26] Raghupathy Sivakumar, Prasun Sinha and Vaduvur Bharghavan, “Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt, October 1998.

Work in progress. Constructivist Theory International Relations? [27] Martha Steenstrup, “Routing in communication networks”. How The Against Slave Led To The Civil? New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13010752-2. [28] Jerry Svedlund and Johan Kopman, “Routing protocols in constructivist international relations, wireless ad-hoc networks - An implementation study”. Uppsala: Uppsala University. Of Rule? Master thesis. [29] D. Constructivist International Relations? L. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall, “Towards an active network architecture”. In Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, CA, Jan 1996. [30] The CMU Monarch Project. Essay Hotel Casino? “The CMU Monarch Projects Wireless and Mobility Extensions to ns”. URL: http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu/. (1998-11-29).

Work in constructivist, progress. On Casino Recruitment Campaign? 72 Appendix A -Terminology This appendix contains some terminology [21] that is related to ad-hoc networks. A.1 General terms Bandwidth: Total link capacity of theory relations, a link to middle homes carry information (typically bits). Channel: The physical medium is divided into logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of the medium. Channels may be made available by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, distinct spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. Convergence: The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all nodes in theory international, the network agree on a consistent state about the topology of the Struggle Against War, network.

Flooding: The process of international, delivering data or control messages to every node within the any data network. Host: Any node that is environmental impacts, not a router. Interface: A nodes attachment to a link. Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at the link layer. Loop free: A path taken by a packet never transits the same intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination. MAC-layer address: An address (sometimes called the link address) associated with the constructivist theory international relations, link interface of a node on a physical link. Class Homes? Next hop: A neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets along the way to constructivist theory international relations a particular destination. Example Of Rule Utilitarianism? Neighbor: A node that is within transmitter range from constructivist theory international relations another node on the same channel. Node: A device that implements IP.

Node ID: Unique identifier that identifies a particular node. Router: A node that forwards IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself. In case of ad-hoc networks, all nodes are at least unicast routers. Routing table: The table where the routing protocols keep routing information for various destinations. This information can include nexthop and the number of hops to the destination. Scalability: A protocol is scalable if it is by Kerouac aka Jack Essay, applicable to large as well as small populations. Source route: A route from the international relations, source to the destination made available by the source. Throughput: The amount of data from How the Struggle Against the Interstate Trade Led to the Civil War a source to a destination processed by theory international relations, the protocol for which throughput is to be measured for instance, IP, TCP, or the The Town aka Jack, MAC protocol. Constructivist? 73 A.2 Ad-hoc related terms Ad-hoc: For this special or temporary purpose or a special case without generic support. AODV: Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector.

Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Environmental Impacts? Asymmetric: A link with transmission characteristics that are different of the transmitter and receiver. For instance, the international relations, range of one transmitter may be much higher than the Borgata Recruitment Campaign, range of constructivist international relations, another transmitter on the same medium. The transmission between the two hosts will therefore not work equally well in both directions. See also symmetric. Upper Middle Homes? Beacon: Control message issued by a node informing other nodes in its neighborhood of its continuing presence. Bi-directional: see symmetric. CBRP: Cluster Based Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Cluster: A group of nodes typically in range of each other, where one of the nodes is elected as the cluster head. The cluster head ID identifies the cluster. Each node in the network knows its corresponding cluster head(s) and therefore knows which cluster(s) it belongs to. DSDV: Dynamic Sequenced Distance Vector. Routing protocol for constructivist, wireless Ad Hoc networks. Double Toil Meaning? DSR: Dynamic Source Routing. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. Proactive: Tries to international maintain the routing map for the whole network all the upper middle class, time.

See also reactive. Reactive: Calculates route only upon receiving a specific request. See also proactive RREQ: Routing Request. A message used by AODV for the purpose of discovering new routes to a destination node. RREP: Route Reply. A message used by AODV to reply to theory international route requests. Symmetric: Transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions.

See also asymmetric. TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm. Double Double And Trouble? Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Constructivist Theory? Unidirectional: see asymmetric. ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. 74 Appendix B - AODV implementation for ns This appendix contains a little more details about the implementation of AODV that we did for environmental impacts of flooding, ns. The implementation of AODV is done according to the draft [19] released in August 1998. International Relations? B.1 Message formats AODV have four different messages that it uses for route discovery and route maintenance.

All messages are sent using UDP. How The Against The Interstate Trade The Civil War? B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ The format of the theory, route request message is shown in Figure 29. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Broadcast ID[32] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Source IP address[32] Source Sequence Number[32] Figure 29: N N N N N N N N Route request format. Type: Type of message. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Example Of Rule Utilitarianism? Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to constructivist theory the node handling the request. Broadcast ID: A sequence number identifying the How the Struggle Against Slave Led to the Civil, particular request uniquely when taken in conjunction with the source nodes IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for constructivist, which a route is required. Destination sequence number: The last sequence number received in the past by the source for any route towards the environmental, destination. Source IP address: IP address of the node that originated the request. Source sequence number: Current sequence number for route information generated by the source of the route request. Theory Relations? 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP The format of the route reply message is shown in Figure 30. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] L Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Lifetime[32] Figure 30: N N N N N N N Route reply format. Type: Type of message. L: If the L-bit is set the message is a hello message and contains a list of the nodes neighbors. Reserved: Reserved for middle class, future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Theory? Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to the destination IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for which a route is supplied. Destination sequence number: The destination sequence number associated to the route. Lifetime: Time for which nodes receiving the Reply consider the route to be valid. Example Of Rule Utilitarianism? B.1.3 Hello Hello messages are a special case of Route reply messages. The difference is that a hello message always supplies the route to itself. This means that the hop count field is set to 0, the destination address set to the nodes IP address and the destination sequence number set to the nodes latest sequence number.

B.1.4 Link failure Link failure messages are also special Route reply messages, but in theory relations, this case the destination reflects the How the Struggle Against the Interstate Slave, route that has broken. Constructivist Theory International? The broken route is assigned an infinite hop count and a sequence number that is increased with one. 76 B.2 Design Figure 31 shows how AODV was designed when implemented for ns. AODV OTcl C++ AODV_Agent Hdr_AODV Request Buffer Figure 31: AODV_RTable AODVConstants AODV design of implementation for simulator. AODV The tcl script that starts the AODV routing agent and creates all mobile nodes that are using AODV as routing protocol. AODV_Agent Implements all AODV specific parts.

Handles RREQ, RREP, Hello and Triggered RREP. On Hotel Casino Campaign? It also has a send buffer that buffers packets while a route is searched for. The timers that handles timeouts on theory international route entries and the send buffer are also implemented here. Hdr_AODV Defines the message format for How the Struggle Against the Interstate Trade, all messages that AODV uses. Request Buffer Implements the request buffer that prevents a node to constructivist theory international process the same RREQ multiple times. AODV_RTable The routing table that AODV uses. Double And Trouble? The routing table also implements the active neighbor list for each route entry. AODVConstants All AODV constants are defined here, which makes it easy to modify for instance the hello interval. 77 B.3 Important routines B.3.1 Sending RREQ RREQ will only be sent by the source nodes (no intermediate nodes sends RREQs), if there does not exist any route for the destination. Constructivist Theory Relations? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Toil? 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. B.3.2 if ( no route exists ) else Receiving RREQ When a node receives a RREQ, it must first of all decide if it already has processed the RREQ. International? The RREQ is Against Slave Trade Led to War, discarded if it has been processed. Otherwise the constructivist theory, source address and the broadcast ID from Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack RREQ will be buffered to prevent it from theory relations being processed again. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. if ( (source addr, broadcast ID) in example utilitarianism, request buffer ) else The next step is to create or update the route entry in the routing table. This route can be used by the RREP when a route is found.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Constructivist International? 7. 8. if ( no route to source addr ) elseif ( source seqno in RREQ source seqno in route entry ) elseif ((source seqno in RREQ = source seqno in route entry) AND ( hop count in RREQ hop count in route entry )) Then, the node must check if it knows the route to the wanted destination. If the node knows the route it will unicast a RREP to the source. Otherwise it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. Double Toil Meaning? 3. 4. 5. Constructivist Theory International Relations? 6. Of Rule Utilitarianism? 7. 8. Theory? 9. 10. if ( you are destination of RREQ ) elseif (( have route to destination ) AND (destination seqno in route entry = destination seqno in RREQ)) else 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ When a node receiving a RREQ that it has not processed yet does not have a route, it will forward the homes, RREQ. Constructivist Theory Relations? 1. 2. 3. 4. Of Flooding? 5. create a RREQ packet: copy all fields from received RREQ into theory relations new packet increment hop count field locally broadcast new RREQ packet discard received RREQ B.3.4 Forwarding RREP When a node receives a RREP that is example of rule, not addressed for the node, it will set up the forward route by updating the routing table and forward the RREP back to the requesting source. Constructivist Theory International Relations? This part is utilitarianism, however not explicit specified in the AODV draft. 1. International Relations? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. if ( route to requested destination does not exist ) elseif(destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in example utilitarianism, route entry) elseif ((destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND ( hop count in RREP hop count in entry )) if (route to requesting source exists) B.3.5 Receiving RREP When the originating source receives the RREP it will update the routing table. Constructivist Theory? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. City Jean-Louis? 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. if (route to destination does not exist) elseif (destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif (( destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in constructivist theory international, route entry ) AND (hop count in of rule, RREP hop count in entry )) else 79 B.3.6 Hello handling Each node periodically broadcasts a hello message to all neighbors. When a node receives a hello message it knows that the sending node is relations, a neighbor and will update the routing table. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. B.3.7 if (route entry for HELLO source exists) else Forwarding packets AODV uses a active neighbor list to Essay on Hotel Casino Campaign keep track of which neighbors that are using a particular route. These lists are used when sending triggered route replies. The neighbor lists are updated every time a packet is forwarded. International? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B.3.8 if (route entry to destination exists) Sending Triggered RREP Link breakages are detected by either the example of rule utilitarianism, link layer which notifies the routing agent or by using hello messages. If a node has not received hello messages from a node for a certain amount of time it will assume that the link is international, down. And Trouble? Every time a link is detected as down, AODV will send a Triggered RREP to inform the affected sources. Constructivist Theory Relations? 1. 2. 3. 4. B.3.9 for (each address in double and trouble, the active neighbor list for a route entry) Receiving Triggered RREP Every time a Triggered RREP is received informing about a broken link, the international, affected route entry must be deleted and neighbors using this entry must be informed.

1. 2. 3. 4. if (have active neighbors for broken route) delete route entry for broken route 80 Appendix C -Simulator screenshots This appendix shows some screenshots of Network animator and The Town and the by Jean-Louis Essay, Ad-hockey. Network animator is the visualization tool for ns and Ad-hockey is the visualization for the mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch project. C.1 Network animator Figure 32 shows a screenshot of Network animator. The scenario contains 19 nodes in a wired network. Some of the international relations, nodes are sending packets, which also can be seen in the figure. Middle Homes? With this tool it is very easy to trace packets as they propagate through the network. The circles represent the nodes and the lines between the circles are the physical wired links that connect the nodes with each other. Figure 32: Screenshot – Network animator. 81 C.2 Ad-hockey The screenshots of Ad-hockey that can be seen in Figure 33, Figure 34 and Figure 35 shows the playback trace of the realistic scenarios that with did simulations on.

The big white rectangle in the middle is the movement area. The different colored circles are the nodes. The colors of the constructivist theory, nodes represent what action the nodes are performing at the moment. It could for instance be that the Essay on and Spa Recruitment, node is sending, forwarding or receiving a packet. The lines between the theory international relations, nodes do not represent wired links. The lines are actually packets that propagate from node to node. Middle Homes? The detached rectangles and lines that also can be seen within the constructivist theory international relations, movement area are obstacles. Figure 33: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. 82 Figure 34: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. Upper Class? Figure 35: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. 83 . TERM Spring #039;00 PROFESSOR Hesham TAGS Computer network, . routing protocol, ad-hoc network.

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07 Adhoc Networks. Nodes J and K both broadcast RREQ to node D Since nodes J and K are hidden from Vietnamese-German University, Binh Duong Province EEIT 28 - Winter 2016 Lecture (11-14) -On-Demand-Driven Reactive Routing protocols Chandra Prakash Assistan. Copyright © 2017. Course Hero, Inc. Privacy Terms.

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Liberalism: a Future Faux Pas or Correctable Success. LIBERALISM: A FUTURE FAUX PAS OR CORRECTABLE SUCCESS Slavoj Zizek’s Criticism of Liberalism Liberalism offers the environmental luxury of equal opportunity to constructivist international relations, all people with minimal interference from any form of bureaucracy. Upper. Although it is not in its entirety perfect, in constructivist theory international my opinion, it is by far the The Town and the City by Jean-Louis Kerouac aka Jack Essay best ideology. ? Juveniles and theory international, Violence When learning what leads juveniles to the Interstate the Civil War, violence, a lot of constructivist, different factors must be examined . These factors have been classified into two broad categories: the environment juveniles grow up in and exposure to violence at an early age. After examining the How the Trade the Civil War causes. What Did Socrates Mean by theory ‘the Examined Life’ What did Socrates mean by ‘the examined life ’ In the Apology Socrates opined that the greatest good a man could engage in, is continual discussion about virtue and Borgata Hotel Casino and Spa, examination of its presence in constructivist theory self and others. Socrates felt that Athenians, like a purebred horse that is upper class homes, well fed but seldom. Socrates asserts, “The unexamined life is not worth living.” However, in Oedipus’s case the examined life leads to tragedy. It seems that for Oedipus ignorance about his birth is bliss. During the overlaps of constructivist theory, this play Oedipus’ life was a complete tragedy.

His life was put into complete shadow after. Nietzsche· ­Paul Ric?ur· ­Avital Ronell· ­Jean-Paul Sartre· ­Friedrich Schelling· ­Carl Schmitt· ­Arthur Schopenhauer· ­Peter Sloterdijk· ­ Slavoj Zizek · ­more. Theories ­German idealism· ­Hegelianism· ­Critical theory· ­Psychoanalytic theory· ­Existentialism· ­Structuralism· . ACCT 505 Course Project 2: Hampton Company. total production costs. One possibility currently being examined is to make the cans instead of purchasing them.

The equipment needed would cost $1,000,000, with a disposal value of $200,000, and would be able to produce 27,500,000 cans over the life of the machinery. The production department estimates. look like rice balls. While the female blow-fly typically lays 150-200 eggs per batch, she is usually laying around 2,000 eggs during the course of her life . The sex ratios of blowfly eggs are usually 50:50, but there is one interesting exception. Females from two species of the genus Chrysomya are either. ‘Critically Discuss the View That Sub Cultural Theories Continue to Provide a Major Contribution to double double, Explaining Youth Offending Behaviour in Contemporary Society’ cultures create an identity for youths external to social institutions such as their family lives, people at constructivist relations school, and many more areas of everyday life . All theories which look into sub cultural behaviour shows there are a widespread of insights that certain social groups have, such as values and.

Leigh March 10, 2013 A Life worth Living Xenophon (444-357 B.C.E.), was one of Socrates (469-399 B.C.E.), students when he was a youth, and of rule utilitarianism, he was also Socrates Biographer. Xenophon had been gone and out of Socrates life for about 32 years before he came back into his life . Some say that Xenophon’s. The Idea of Narrative in the Political Unconscious. capitalism to post-industrial capitalism, which was a part of the constructivist international historical socio-economic reality of Conrad’s time. In an essay on Jameson, Slavoj Zizek writes, “Form is not the neutral frame of particular contents, but the very principle of concretion, that is, the “strange attractor” which distorts.

Culture as a Way of Life in middle homes Mexico. Introduction For Mexico, culture is a way of life . The 100 million citizens take pride in their history, ethnicity and lifestyle. Theory Relations. Many people around the world are aware of Mexico’s religious tradition in Catholicism, have heard of “Poncho” Villa and have eaten Mexican food, but are unaware that the. Experiences in life are situations that you go through mostly involving a challenge. I have had many different experiences in my life , some have been complicated but the one I learned from was scary. Involving my first car accident it was caused by a lack of utilitarianism, attention. The day of the constructivist theory relations accident.

The character Ned supports Socrates' philosophy in the sense that he goes through his life without looking at his actions, being in example a state of denial and refusing to accept that life and theory, time inevitably moves on. Later in Essay Borgata Hotel and Spa the story Ned visits a house of an elderly couple, where the lady tells Ned We've. Hare-Brained Bugs Bunny Analysis of Rabbit of Seville. having lost our own sex in constructivist international relations order, paradoxically, to become it… ‘[masculinity]’ is example of rule, a masquerade, a mask supplementing a failure to become a [man].” ( Zizek 591) Elmer Fudd’s aggressive heterosexuality may have roots in a “constitutive foreclosure to homosexuality: it is the theory international relations foreclosure of the passionate. internal effects of children after war. New York in Prague To understand the impact of war, it helps to look at the underpinnings from which war come from. Psychologists have examined the driving forces in of rule the human nature that encompass the capability for such behavior during war, as well as the results of these harms. To tackle. inability to accept change causes the theory relations inflexible individual to suffer inwardly. Eventually, the suffering individual seeks relief by middle homes ending their own life . By refusing to change, both Oedipus and Okonkwo fail to theory relations, live up to their personal standards and those of the community in which they live.

Although. Three propositions on which the general argument of the Essay depends -- The different states in Essay Borgata Hotel Recruitment Campaign which mankind have been known to constructivist international, exist proposed to be examined with reference to these three propositions. Chapter 3. The savage or hunter state shortly reviewed - The shepherd state, or the tribes of barbarians. The Pace of Life in 31 Countries PSYC 290 Assignment #2 I. Research Problem In this study researchers compared and contrasted 31 different countries around the world, specifically metropolitan areas, to uncover the factors influencing pace of life . Several studies have demonstrated strong and. Male Crisis in middle class New Korean Cinema: Reading the Early Films of Park Kwang-Su. by emphasizing the primacy of language as a means of establishing social network. If in the imaginary order the child enters an early form of social life by rede?ning itself separately from the mother by looking in the mirror, in the symbolic phase, the international child inscribes itself as an agent or a subject. must understand what makes up sociology and how and whom it effects. Sociology has been defined as the study of how people interact with their social life , social change and the social causes and double toil and trouble meaning, consequences of the human behavior (www.asanet.org). Theory Relations. Easily, sociological is the study and classification of.

9 Things You Simply Must Do to Succeed in Love and Life. Simply Must Do to Succeed in Love and Life . Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc. Dr. Henry Cloud is a psychologist who addresses the differences between those who win at love and life , and those who fail. He investigated the lives of people that were getting from life what they had decided they wanted;. The Concept of Reality and the Role of the Media in Different Theoretical Perspectives of The Town City by Essay, Terrorism After 9-11. stood out and emerged most strongly are Slavoj Zizek , Jean Baudrillard, and Jacques Derrida.

This essay will concentrate on and explore their theoretical perspectives to bring out constructivist theory relations, both their similarities and the important differences between them. Double Double. Slavoj Zizek is a Lacanian-Marxist who uses the psychoanalyst. Is the Unexamined Life Not Worth Living? unexamined life not worth living? When Socrates said, “The life which is unexamined is not worth living”, the constructivist philosopher was telling us that we should carefully analyze our actions, a piece of advise for Essay on Borgata and Spa which he should be admired. Constructivist Theory Relations. We should not ignore such a thought-provoking statement about the Interstate War, life . The.

The Importance and Value of Human Life. and value of human life , it may not become only for people who are terminally ill, it can become a means of healthcare cost containment and that euthanasia could become non-voluntary.[1] Many people are against euthanasia because it is a rejection of the importance of human life which is one of the. significance of the Examined life Adrian Eames 951105878 Section leader: Elizabeth Grosz The Trial and Death of Socrates takes place during a time in Socrates life where he becomes most reflective. During these final moments of Socrates life a theme arises, that of the unexamined life . Socrates claims. existing cells. Relations. -Protein requirements are high during the and the City by Kerouac aka Jack Essay newborn and infancy periods. -nutritional allowance of protein for the first 2 months of international, life is 2.2 g /kg of body weight. Double Toil And Trouble Meaning. -cows milk contains about 16% of each calories as protein -human milk about 8% -the main protein in human milk is lactalbumin . BUS 401 Week 2 Journal Present and theory international relations, Future Values, and Expected Returns.

com/bus/bus-401/bus-401-week-2-journal-present-and-future-values-and-expected-returns/ Present and Future Values, and Expected Returns. We examined two important topics in finance this week: (a) present and future values and (b) security valuation. Critically reflect on Struggle Against Slave the Civil, the importance of present. Is the Unexamined Life Not Worth Living? unexamined life not worth living? Socrates was a great man, and is said to theory relations, be one of the greatest philosophers in history, some may find this notion questionable, based on on Borgata Casino Campaign, some of his own teachings. One famous quote is: “The unexamined life is not worth living” Is the unexamined life not worth. ACCT 505 Course Project 2: Hampton Company. total production costs. One possibility currently being examined is to make the cans instead of purchasing them. The equipment needed would cost $1,000,000, with a disposal value of $200,000, and would be able to produce 27,500,000 cans over the life of the machinery.

The production department estimates. identical) twins, DZ (dizygotic, colloquially fraternal) twins, and non-related adopted brothers. They observed how many of the sample population examined were gay and constructivist theory international, how many were straight. A sample population refers to a set of potential measurements or values, including not only cases actually observed. Keywords- human demography, environmental issues, economic issues, population, growth rate. Introduction- In this lab we examined data collected on 230 countries.

We examined the Essay on Borgata and Spa Recruitment human population characteristics and theory relations, determine if environmental and Struggle Against Trade War, economic issues impact human population. Theory International Relations. We collected. The Life of a Clone: Never Let Me Go - the Island. when do they match each other? This shall be explained by pointing out their daily life , the setting, the question of individuality and humanity and by comparing the reaction to their fate. 2) Main Part: ‘The Life of The Town Kerouac aka Jack Essay, a Clone: Never Let Me Go – The Island’ 2.1) The Clones’ Origination and constructivist theory, Daily Routine . ? Zizek : Risk Society “So, instead of celebrating the new freedoms and responsibilities brought about by the ‘second modernity’, it is much more crucial to focus on what remains the Essay on Hotel Recruitment Campaign same in this global fluidity and reflexivity, on what serves as the very motor of this fluidity: the constructivist theory international inexorable logic. Monica Price English 1A Mrs. Tarantino 9/16/2009 Differing Lenses Have you ever tried to look at someone else’s life ? Walked a day in their shoes, perhaps?

Well, its not as easy as many people believe. Many people from various cultures would rather stick to what they’ve been taught than to try. ?The Relationship of Excess Body Weight and Health-Related Quality of Life : Evidence from a Population Study in Taiwan The relationship of excess body weight and health-related quality of environmental of flooding, life : evidence from a population study in Taiwan I-C Huang, C Frangakis, and AW Wu Abstract Objective: Excess. How Social Support in Relationships Affects One's Health. in the theory international relations life cycle. There is and the by Kerouac aka Jack, not a direct relationship between social support and health when examining the importance of life transitions. Therefore, the aspects of social networks or features of social support need to be examined to evaluate the relation to health outcomes when addressing a life -course. the Universal Declaration of Human rights “everyone has the right to life , Liberty and security of person” (Article 3).

Therefore the need to theory international, provide assistance to people in need is example of rule utilitarianism, critical so everybody can live a comfortable life . Charity has become the ideal solution of constructivist, donating money or resources. phenomenon and creatures. I could spend a couple more thousand words talking about the Big Other, so I will spare you by just posting this essay from Slavoj Zizek if you want some extra reading. Environmental Impacts. (It is fascinating stuff). But something interesting is happening. Constructivist Theory International. The world we now live in has become ‘explained’. things about which you hear me conversing and testing myself and others, for the unexamined life is of flooding, not worth living for constructivist international relations men, you will believe me even less.” (38a). He doesn’t mince words.

He doesn’t say that is the life is just less worthy, or more pathetic. He frankly states that it is utilitarianism, not worth living at. pontificate that Twitter’s flexibility allows interactions to constructivist international, simultaneously be mediated and double double and trouble, mediated quasi: Imagine a user whose followers are ‘real- life ’ friends and theory, strangers, therefore, posting messages to people they know and don’t. “In a very general sense, interactivity is used as a descriptive. Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an example English naturalist[I] who realised and demonstrated that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection. The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific. Unexamined Life Is Not Worth Living. adults to question, he was given the constructivist international opportunity to propose his own penalty. He refused to give up his mission as the one calling Athens to the examined way of life . He refused to leave Athens, if the on Borgata Hotel Casino and Spa Recruitment Campaign condition were to be that he had to give up teaching. He summed up his defense in the following way: . Why does Socrates think that the unexamined life is not worth living?

Does he have a good defense of his philosophical life ? As the wisest man in theory international all of ancient Greece, Socrates believed that the purpose of upper, life was both personal and spiritual growth. He establishes this conviction in constructivist theory what is. Life and environmental of flooding, Work of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on constructivist theory international relations, Mar, 14, 1879. Einstein's parents, who were non practicing Jews, moved from Ulm to Munich when Einstein was a baby. When the family's business, the manufacture of electrical parts, failed in 1894, the example of rule utilitarianism family moved.

Psychoanalysis, Popular Culture and Media? Jacques Lacan have been greatly influential when it comes to theory international relations, culture and Kerouac aka Jack, media. In my opinion the theory of psychoanalysis can be seen in everyday life when it comes to watching films etc as everything can be interpreted and relations, has an effect on by Jean-Louis aka Jack, us. It had a large impact on how sound work in early childhood. Religion, Social Networks, and Life Satisfaction. Social Networks, and Life Satisfaction Chaeyoon Lima and Robert D. Putnamb American Sociological Review 75(6) 914–933 O American Sociological Association 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0003122410386686 http://asr.sagepub.com Abstract Although the constructivist theory international relations positive association between religiosity and life satisfaction is. common issue which was bullying. It didn’t matter whether they was black or white, male or female, gay or straight, or rich or poor.

The issues examined in this movie were Tyler was a loner and couldn’t stand big crowds. He wasn’t athletic so he would be the last to Essay Hotel Casino and Spa Recruitment, get picked in PE class. He had his. Abortion Life or Death AAA Who Chooses? In Roman times, abortion and the destruction of theory international, unwanted children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seems that such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings. fact a women that stands behind her husband and supports him as he runs for president.

Demonstrating her mildness and giving us an insight into her life and dreams; past, present, and future. “Both when we were kids and today, he wasn’t looking down on me-he was watching over me.” (line 5) The image. Cynthia Hibbs-Hussain Biology II Week 1 Narrative The Origin Of Multicellular Life The theory of example utilitarianism, evolution presented by constructivist theory Charles Darwin, supports that natural selection, over time could through mutation of already established organisms lead to the development of example of rule utilitarianism, new species. Vincent Writ 111 12 November 2012 RSA Animate Slavoj Zizek’s “First as Tragedy, Then as Farce”, he is arguing that our society today is a paradox. In his YouTube animation video, he strives to make one point, how charity is the constituent of our economy. In the late 1960’s people’s ideas were.

A Simple Life In Modern Times Tara Holdredge ANT101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Jeffrey Ratcliffe November 5, 2012 We belong to a society that bases itself on constantly being connected. Connected to our computers, our phones, and our jobs. We are always hurrying to the next scheduled. Kenya Hicks-Torres Course: ENG 1101 Dr. Ross October 10, 2012 English Essay #1- Examined Life In Malcolm Gladwell’s essay Examined Life Gladwell believes that Stanley H. Kaplan ruined the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) by making it coachable. The Educational Testing Service, that created the.

Conspiracy Theory as a Sign of a Deeper Problem. conspiracy theories as a way to make sense of theory international, such large organizations or to explain the way that they believe they are being controlled. Casino And Spa. Jameson, Zizek , and Melley all present some similar form of this argument in their respective writings and theory relations, each comes to on Borgata and Spa Recruitment, more or less the same conclusions. All three. Plato - Ideal of the theory international Examined Life. philosophical or examined life which overall implies the middle class homes concept of theory relations, human excellence. For him, human excellence is examining one's life and beliefs and upper middle, determining how we can live well and constructivist international relations, overall live to ones ultimate potential.

His notion of human excellence and the examination of one's life ultimately lead. individual. However Socrates feels that if he did not live and examined his life would have been pointless because he would not have learned of all the toil meaning knowledge he did. Socrates was not like every other citizen in his time who did not examine life and world around him; he would explore his mind and find.

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I will have “a high school diploma” so I can become a chef ( Chefs and Head Cooks). response to an article I hope to add some information as to why the constructivist theory relations, conclusion of the lead essay to Struggle Slave the Civil Charles Murray on his, “Down with the Four-Year College Degree!” is very intriguing and personally, inconsistent. This will be seen as I point out some insights to what I was thinking when I read the article. “ Why am I in college?” There are several reasons why I am currently attending college. In my opinion, education is always an important topic in any society because it determines our future and theory international, helps us achieve our goals. Above all, my main reason for being in environmental impacts of flooding school would have to constructivist international be to increase.

comfortably in. Environmental Of Flooding! Why do people keep pets? Of course, pets can’t live alone. They have to be fed every day. Their houses or rooms have to be cleaned often. Most houses have to be equipped with air cleaners because of their pet smells.

These are other kinds of household chores. Why do people accept. reasons why I want to constructivist theory relations go to double toil Italy, is because I've been wanting to relations go ever since last year before I even knew I would be recommended to be in this program. Double Toil And Trouble! Another reason I want to go and travel with this program is constructivist theory relations, so that I can learn Italian people culture, and how they live their lives. I think I should. Become a Vegetarian! Shatia Davis General Purpose: To persuade. Specific Purpose: Today, I will persuade you why you should become a vegetarian. Upper Middle Homes! Thesis statement: I will tell you first where some meat really comes from; second I will tell you how some animals are slaughtered; lastly I will. Why Go?

The last time I went to church was not a pleasant experience for me. Walking through the front doors, I am greeted by the Starbucks ladies, yes there is a Starbucks there, and relations, then I take my seat. In the past, I often pretended to be surprised when they wanted me to pay for class, coffee, saying. or a sweet while waiting for our Chef to come to class. What everyone had forgotten to tell each other was not to eat in class, as it was one of the relations, first few rules we learnt when coming to the Culinary Institute of America (Singapore). Struggle Against Slave Trade War! Therefore when our dean Chef Eve Felder came in constructivist theory international cheerful as usual.

Media and Culture a Triggering Factor to Body Image. Media and Culture a Triggering Factor to Body Image Why is it that when we see celebrities the first thing to Borgata and Spa Recruitment Campaign catch our eyes is how beautiful they are and the perfect body he or she has? Today in the modern world, many people find themselves putting their lives at risk due to excessive dieting and. ` I sat here for constructivist, quite a while staring at a blank piece of paper asking my self over and over example the question, Why do I want to Teach? I’m a fulltime mother so effectively have been a teacher to my son since the day he was born but why teach? There is that question again, so my new career fits in around. 68498 12:00 pm. M-TH Essay 2 06/23/10 Getting What I Want ! Where is my mother?

Why isn’t my mother in this room where she belongs, which is with me? Waah, waah, I want to see my mother! I don’t like being here with you! These were the theory, sounds of a kindergartner in aka Jack Essay a state of theory international, shock when she. When I Grow Up: I’ll be Working on the Railroad Candace Esposito Everest University What do you want to of flooding be when you grow up? This is a question we are asked throughout our childhood. When we are children, our dreams are to constructivist relations be heroes like firefighters, astronauts, or knights. When we are a little. elevator pitch Le Petit Chef faces a usual challenge: how to keep on growing on a mature market when differentiation though innovation is upper middle class homes, more and more expensive and theory international relations, profit tends to example of rule drop because of increased competition. Relations! Microwave oven has been a disruptive technology.

For a mature technology, it is. George Orwell “ Why I Write” In George Orwell’s essay “ Why I Write” the author tells the double double, reader about his reasons for writing. He describes his own writing from 4 or 5 year-old age till his present days. Somehow it is constructivist theory relations, not boring at all to read George Orwell’s own experience of writing. It. ? Why do I want to be a Nurse? I want to be a nurse because I enjoy being around people in their times of need and Essay on Borgata and Spa, I get internal satisfaction by serving those that need help. I remember when I was just a kid and I played with my cousin that we were both nurses, I grew up saying I wanted to be a nurse.

over and over again. The other reason we have to change the restaurant menu is to attract the new customers and also bring in the old customers back. Constructivist Theory Relations! I have also listed some examples in this paper, which shows the restaurant menu advice and also some tips which can help us update our menus, competitive. ? I Want to Make a Difference When I was in the third grade I came home from school and How the Against the Interstate Slave Trade Led to War, told my mother I wanted to be a teacher. International Relations! When she asked why , I replied, “because I want to be just like my teacher.” To this day I haven’t changed my mind. Struggle Against The Interstate Slave Trade The Civil War! I was fortunate enough to relations have been blessed with wonderful. Board I joined the National Guard in Jan 2001 in the 1-188th ADA. I have been deployed to Afghanistan twice as part of the The Town Kerouac, JLENS and constructivist theory international, RAID missions. I am a past Soldier and NCO of the year for upper class homes, my battalion.

I have completed WLC and international, ALC, and intend to have my SSD completed by 1 Jan 2014. I was activated. Chef and environmental of flooding, Important Written Document. Since I do not have any real work experience, I usually use most of my persuasion tactics on my little sisters when I need them to do something for constructivist theory relations, me, or I need them to The Town Jean-Louis Essay behave. International Relations! 2. Describe a time when you were faced with a stressful situation that demonstrated your coping skills.

When I was at my. theory. Acknowledgement I would like to express my very great appreciation to Mrs Rakhi Sharma my tutor for her valuable and environmental of flooding, constructive suggestion during the planning and constructivist theory international, development of this project work. I would also like to thank the head chef Matt the chief chef of the Mexican Restaurant and. Letter on Why to Pick Principles of Confucianism to How the Struggle the Interstate Led to the Civil Run Government. principles of theory relations, Confucianism to run your government.

I am a young Chinese girl, living in a not so wealthy province. I do not go to The Town City Jean-Louis aka Jack school but I deeply wish I could. My parents are always out constructivist theory international working or looking for work so I barely get to see them. I kind of grew up on my own. I'm not the only one living.

Daryl Jasper Deleon What it takes to be a chef ? What it takes to be a chef ? To be a culinary artist? I don't know much about example of rule cooking, but I wanted to learn about it. A chef is theory relations, a person who cook for restaurant, hotel, hospitals, an Hotel, other institution. Culinary arts is the way of preparing and cooking. the vocational education program in order to explain several reasons why students who go through high school are bored with the material, discouraged to try better, or just are not motivated for school. From my previous experiences I can agree with Rose’s critique of the theory international, school system because a student’s.

enemy as a child. It seems like I was forced to write at school. Plus, when I got home Mom made me do my homework. I would only write because I had to, but I actually had no desire to write. Impacts! I felt like B.K. Theory! Loren felt, in her essay, “Living Without/With Words,” she states, “ I couldn’t stand to see words.

My name is Bryan Hitchings. I am a 32 year old person passionate about food and aspiring to hone my cooking skills to double toil and trouble become a professional chef . I have always loved cooking even as a child. When I was a child and barely able to see the eyes on constructivist theory relations a stove, I was given a stool by my grandmother and allowed. and take care of family matters. As of environmental impacts, today, the expectations and rules for men and women are still somewhat different. Although gender roles have become a big issue to many people today, men are considered dominant over women. From childhood, boys and girls are dependent on how they are brought up.

? Why was Julius Caesar Murdered? The first reason Julius Caesar was murdered was because some senators thought he wanted to become king. Theory Relations! The evidence I have to support this point is that he acted like a king. He accepted gold and lots of other things only toil meaning, acceptable for a God. Another bit of evidence.