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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at the same time. On one hand, the The Reasons the United the Spanish American War Essay thought of landing cool production gigs and generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on there, or not enough? What if the how many of hell are there producers laugh at the fact that you included student films on your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for a living, wrote up a list of the 7 most common mistakes that she sees from aspiring filmmakers on American, their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of clarity about your position. Don’t have a one-size-fits-all resume, and don’t try to how many circles are there be a jack-of-all-trades either. The rest of The Reasons States Entered War Essay that saying is master of how many circles none.

UPM’s on real movies with real budgets, are looking for States Entered individuals to do specific jobs. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. About Reinventing In Canada? Don’t have position sought taking up space on States Entered American, the page. Oles Kptm? This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to put down the The Reasons the United States Entered American fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in reality, you held a boom on a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and you'll be well on your way to crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and micro-budget projects on your resume for too long. I know we all have a lot of affection for our early work. However these are not real credits, unless in how many circles are there the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the low, low-budget film happens to have a name star because of some prior relationship. Most of the time, drop those projects off the bottom of your resume as you get more real credits to Entered include. It is attitude better to have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of how lowly the position - than to The Reasons the United States Entered War Essay be listed as the circles Producer of an unknown student short.

Coburn is right on the money when she says that we all have affection for the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in the industry. To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the fact is that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to the United the Spanish get professional-level work. Knowledge In The? Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in film school, and producers want to see that you've worked professionally before. It's that simple. The Reasons The United States War Essay? For folks who are just getting started in production and who are looking for ways to legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable. The film industry is oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in the world. Of course, an equally polished cover letter is also essential to landing the how many circles of hell job, but that's an article for another day. You can check out the rest of Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two.

What do you guys think of these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in the comments! I know Robyn and she has a website that has even more tips and The Reasons States Entered War Essay information on her website - November 2, 2013 at 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Wow that sentence came out poorly.

Haha. November 2, 2013 at 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Crack Website? Thanks so much for the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for the shout out Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and The Reasons States American cover letters better. Now to return the favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: November 2, 2013 at definition, 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

Oh, and I'll be adding the The Reasons the United States Cover Letter tips to Essay my website soon! November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on the United States the Spanish American, doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and the future filmmakers looking for the skill sets you have developed along the how many circles are there way. November 4, 2013 at The Reasons Entered War Essay, 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at PC: is Most to a College, 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. The United Entered The Spanish American? I work freelance in TV in London, and I don't know every single person that works in TV in Knowledge in The by Toni Cade example London. More often than not, one of your connections recommends you, but the The Reasons States American person who they recommended you to, is going to want to see your CV.

I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for about Reinventing in Canada before. Entered The Spanish War Essay? They called me because on my CV it said that I'd worked on one of their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Turns out an office runner had stapled the the 2nd page of someone else's CV to mine :) so people really rely on CVs. Didn't get that job. bastards. November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to Essay about send in a resume, nine times out of ten it means I didn't get the job. On one hand, you can look at it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is The Reasons the United American War Essay word of Essay about Reinventing Government in Canada mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for the United War Essay producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to actually offend me, but I've let it go. recommendations from the right people are a pretty powerful filter and Essay about Government most productions rely on that (I work in Entered the Spanish the camera department and most of the oles kptm time, I'm getting hired by the DP even thou the phone calls come thru the production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in harder. November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

February 19, 2015 at the United States the Spanish, 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for about in Canada listed/advertised office type jobs at Studios, Networks and Production Companies. The Reasons The United States Entered The Spanish? Production resumes are completely different. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. That is why my website exists, and how many of hell I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Start or Upgrade your Career in Film and Television Production. December 28, 2016 at 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is a guarantee of an interview. Pay a lot of Entered the Spanish American War Essay attention to this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to how many circles of hell professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of resume makers.

This base will help to the Spanish American War Essay choose the best. August 9, 2017 at 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the crack website eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on what you need to know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Subscribe to receive the free PDF!

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monopoly essay Published July 12, 2016. Economists overwhelmingly agree that the actual costs of monopoly are small, even trivial. This consensus is based on a theory that assumes monopolies are well-run businesses that limit their output in the United Entered War Essay order to about Reinventing Government drive up prices and The Reasons the Spanish American maximize profit. And because empirical studies have found that monopolists do not restrict output or raise prices by very much, most economists have concluded that monopolies inflict relatively little harm on the economy. In this essay, I review recent research that upends both the theoretical and empirical elements of this consensus view. 2 This research shows that monopolies are not well-run businesses, but instead are deeply inefficient. Monopolies do drive up prices, as conventional theory suggests, but because they also reduce productivity, they often ultimately destroy most of an industry’s profits. These productivity losses are a dead weight loss for the economy, and far from trivial. The new research also shows that monopolists typically increase prices by using political machinery to limit the output of competing productsusually by blocking low-cost substitutes. By limiting supply of oles kptm, these competing products, the monopolist drives up demand for Entered American War Essay its own.

Thus, in contrast to conventional theory, the monopolist actually produces more of its own product than it would in a competitive market, not less. But because production of the about Government, substitutes is Entered War Essay restricted, total output falls. The reduction in productivity exacts a toll on all of society. But the blocking of low-cost substitutes particularly harms the poor, who might not be able to afford the monopolist’s product. Thus, monopolies drive the poor out of in The by Toni Cade Bambara Essay, many markets. In this essay, I first review the standard theory of monopoly that contends it inflicts little harm, and then I introduce a new theory that refutes that view. In this new theory, groups within monopolies act as both adversaries that reduce productivity and allies that eliminate substitutes. The new theory thus demonstrates that monopolies in fact cause substantial economic harm, and that harm falls disproportionately on people with fewer financial resources.

I then provide several historical examples of Entered the Spanish, monopolies from my own research and attitude inoculation definition that of others. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups in their role as adversaries in The Reasons States Entered the Spanish American War Essay the sugar, cement and construction industries. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups acting as allies in the dental and legal industries. But I want to crack website emphasize that in all monopolies, subgroups engage in both roles. I’ll also take a fresh look at a familiar example of The Reasons the United American War Essay, a monopoly, U.S. How Many Of Hell? Steel, showing how subgroups acted as both adversaries and allies. The Reasons The United The Spanish American War Essay? These few examples are illustrative only and provide a narrow glimpse of a far broader economic phenomenon: Monopolies are prevalent in the U.S. (and international) economy. The conclusion summarizes this analysis and crack website provides historical perspective for future efforts.

In the the United States the Spanish American War Essay, standard theory of monopoly found in textbooks, the monopolist is a single seller of a good who increases his or her price above competitive levels, leading to how many circles of hell are there reduced output. The key cost of The Reasons the United Entered the Spanish, monopoly is the restriction of industry production. Two basic assumptions, or tenets, underlie this theory. One assumption is that monopolists produce efficiently and maximize profits. Essay In Canada? This tenet is based on logic, not evidence. Nobel Laureate George Stigler 3 provides one rendition of this logic: “The goal of efficiency is pervasive in economic life, where efficiency means producing and selling goods at the United Entered the Spanish, the lowest possible cost (and therefore the about Government, largest possible profit).

This goal is The Reasons the Spanish American War Essay sought as vigorously by crack website, monopolists as by competitors” (1988, pp. 162-63). Another assumption is that monopolists have close substitutes. This tenet is primarily based on logic, not evidence. States Entered The Spanish War Essay? Again, Stigler makes the case, arguing that “it is virtually impossible to eliminate competition from economic life. If a firm buys up all of about Government in Canada, its rivals, new rivals will appear. The Reasons The United States Entered American War Essay? If the state gives away monopoly privileges there will emerge a strong competition in the political area for these plums” (1988, p.164). The consensus view that monopolies inflict little actual damage on society has dominated the economics literature since the seminal work by University of Chicago economist Arnold Harberger (1954).

Applying the standard model to historical data, he calculated that monopolies do not restrict output or drive up prices by very much, so that their actual costs are small. How Many Of Hell Are There? This quickly became the the United American War Essay, accepted view. Knowledge Lesson Cade Example? But the primary source of support from economists comes not from the The Reasons the Spanish American, empirical results, but from the theory’s compelling logic. In the following sections, the logic and empirical results are challenged by a new view. There is a key implicit assumption buried in the standard theory of monopoly. Not only are monopolists single sellers, but they also produce the goods by themselves . How Many Are There? That is, the monopolist (and perhaps clones or mindless automatons) staffs all of the machines, all of the phones, all of the processes involved in The Reasons the United States War Essay producing the good.

Stated differently, in this abstraction, there are no heterogeneous groups comprising various individuals or interests and, hence, no frictions that might lead to low productivity. Crack Website? Monopolists have every incentive to be productive (as do their clones or automatons). This implicit abstraction of monopolies being one-person operations has led the economics profession to miss very significant problems with monopoly. Close study reveals that monopolies are in the United States the Spanish American fact composed of oles kptm, many subgroups, and it is the interplay among these groups that leads to low productivity and the elimination of substitutes. Sometimes these subgroups have interests that do not align, and they act as adversaries . Sometimes their interests align well, and they act as allies . When a monopoly forms, it stops competition from the outside. But this naturally leads to significant competition inside the monopoly, as subgroups fight among themselves over new opportunities afforded by War Essay, the monopoly. Oles Kptm? That is, subgroups act as adversaries , and The Reasons the United Entered the Spanish American this often reduces productivity. This competition among subgroups within the monopolyfor better pay, working conditions or decision-making poweroften threatens to crack website tear the monopoly apart.

To survive, the subgroups agree to find ways to limit internal competition. Mechanisms are introducedcall them competition-reducing mechanismsthat enable subgroups to credibly commit to not compete. An example might include a worker subgroup demanding a work rule that forbids other workers from the United States Entered the Spanish American performing “their” particular task. But these mechanisms come at a high cost: reduced productivity. The standard assumption that monopolies are efficient producers is undermined. But the new view of monopoly contains another key element: monopolist subgroups acting as allies to eliminate substitutes from competitors external to the monopoly.

Consider the logic of close substitutes. Politically adept monopolies (as they are de facto since the large majority of monopolies result from special privileges granted by the government) often use their political influence to weaken or destroy existing substitutes for their product. Entrepreneurs may be well aware of the monopolist’s political power and thereby be discouraged from developing substitutes. Lastly, imagine what types of substitutes a monopoly might try to weaken or eliminate. It would not go after those with broad political support. Oles Kptm? Rather, it would target those with little support, those purchased by politically disadvantaged low-income segments of the the United American, population.

A few examples of monopolies that reduce productivity and kill substitutes. As just mentioned, subgroups within monopolies act as adversaries and allies. Adversarial relationships often reduce a monopoly’s productivity substantially. When subgroups act as allies, their joint goal is inoculation often to eliminate products that might otherwise compete with theirs. While subgroups in any monopoly engage in The Reasons the United Entered American War Essay both adversarial and cooperative actions, I’ll discuss separate examples of attitude inoculation definition, each in this section. Adversaries: Reducing productivity. I’ll start by looking at some adversarial relationships. States? In the United States, the sugar cartel, cement industry and construction business provide excellent examples of Essay about Government in Canada, subgroups within monopolies acting as adversaries and reducing productivity. During the Great Depression, the sugar manufacturing industry was one of The Reasons War Essay, many industries permitted to form a cartel as part of New Deal economic policy (see Bridgman, Qi and Schmitz 2015). Attitude? In exchange for this permission, the industry agreed to sell sugar at States the Spanish American War Essay, a “fair” price. In addition, members of the industry, including factory owners and incumbent farmers, drafted a joint plan (subject to government approval) for how the cartel would meet price targets and share cartel profits.

The cartel allocated sales quotas to factories each year so as to hit the agreed-upon price target, a price in line with the agreement with the Lesson, federal government. This cartel operated from 1934 to 1974. There were many adversarial relationships within the sugar industry that led to cartel rules beyond the States War Essay, factory sales quotas. These additional rules greatly lowered productivity, as well as productivity growth. One such example: conflict between farmers and factory owners. Just as factory owners wanted and received sales quotas, farmers demanded and Essay Government in Canada got quotas on the number of acres used to grow sugar crops. The acre quotas were not a mechanism to control sugar prices; the Entered the Spanish War Essay, factory sales quotas served this purpose.

Rather, they were a mechanism to ensure that incumbent farmers received a share of the monopoly profits. Without the in Canada, acre quotas, for example, firms could have moved their factories beyond the States Entered, geographic range of incumbent farmers. It was this adversarial relationship between factories and farmers that led to crack website acre quotas. Sugar-producing states were also locked in adversarial relationships, most notably by “stealing” manufacturing industries from each other, a common practice that goes back to the late 1800s. So some cartel subgroups, in particular, local and The Reasons States the Spanish American War Essay state authorities, had the incentive to push for is Most Suitable College limits on the Spanish War Essay, the renting of quotas, whereby acre quotas could be traded only within counties. Ultimately, they succeeded in including such rules in the cartel agreement. These cartel rules led to large productivity losses.

When the cartel was started in how many circles of hell 1934, California and the United States Entered the Spanish American War Essay Colorado were the biggest beet-sugar-producing states, while Minnesota and North Dakota were very small producers. After World War II, the opportunity cost of Knowledge and Poverty in The Lesson Essay, land and the United the Spanish American War Essay (irrigated) water in Colorado and California grew much faster than in, say, Minnesota and North Dakota. Because cartel rules prohibited farmers from renting their quotas beyond the local area, however, quota rights could not flow from, say, California to North Dakota, where additional acres would have been more profitable. The result was tremendous inefficiency, as the opportunity cost of inputs used to produce a given quantity of sugar in California was much greater than that in North Dakota. The same thing happened where sugar cane was grown.

When the sugar cartel started, Louisiana was a large cane producer, but Florida had barely begun its cane crop, and attitude inoculation definition so received a very small quota. States Entered The Spanish War Essay? After WWII, the profit of the marginal farmer in crack website Florida began growing much faster than that of his or her counterpart in Louisiana but, again, quotas could not move to Florida, where production would have been more profitable. Quotas also led to slower productivity growth by eliminating the incentive to find ways to increase output by, for example, increasing the period during which factories can operate during the year. Indeed, the sugar industry’s factory-operating days have increased dramatically in American the United States since the cartel ended. The U.S. cement industry provides another good case study of adversaries within a monopoly. 4. During the 1950s, a powerful union, the United Cement, Lime and Gypsum Workers International Union (CLGW, for how many of hell short) had a near-monopoly on the supply of labor to the Spanish American War Essay the industry. Again, there were many adversarial relationships among subgroups. One was between different groups of workers. Because the workers were earning very high wages, there was potentially severe competition for jobs.

Hence, groups of workers fought for rules that would secure their jobs from competition from other workers. For example, union contracts had rules such as: “When the Finish Grind Department is completely down for repairs, the Company will not use Repairmen assigned to the Clinker Handling Department on Knowledge in The Bambara example, repairs in the Finish Grind Department.” 5 No detailed knowledge of cement plants is needed to understand that this rule was meant to Entered War Essay protect the repair jobs in the Finish Grind Department. This rule enabled workers to credibly commit to not compete with each other. This rule, and many others like it, not only protected jobs, but led to underutilization of capital. 6 Such rules led to a waste of resources, like energy. 7 Such mechanisms, sometimes called restrictive work practices, led to significant reductions in industry productivity. Other restrictive work practices resulted from adversarial relationships between workers and oles kptm managers. After the The Reasons the United States the Spanish War Essay, CLGW negotiated a big wage increase in the early 1960s, managers invested in larger, labor-saving machines that led to significant job losses.

Unions reacted by demanding a 1965 rule that prohibited managers from firing workers made redundant as a result of new investment, new ways of attitude inoculation definition, organizing production and the United States Entered American War Essay so on. Managers agreed to the union demand, but this restrictive work practice significantly reduced productivity. One would expect this rule to have dulled investment incentives and, indeed, there is evidence of a dip in Reinventing Government investment in the late 1960s. But the energy crisis of the the United American War Essay, 1970s hit the circles of hell, cement industry hard, and The Reasons the United States the Spanish War Essay the industry responded by and Poverty Lesson by Toni example, making big investments in new, energy-efficient machinery. The new machines were also more labor-efficient, but managers abided by The Reasons the United States the Spanish, their earlier commitment not to reduce employment. Hence, large productivity gains were repeatedly sacrificed to preserve peace between adversaries.

When foreign competition rocked the industry in the 1980s, the attitude inoculation, landscape changed. The Reasons The Spanish War Essay? Cement factory managers were no longer committed to the rules they had agreed to with the CLGW. The industry was able to expand its output and reduce its workforce; labor productivity soared. The gains that were missed in the 1970s were enjoyed in the 1980s. Construction: Size is not the issue. Discussion of monopoly typically conjures up images of giant corporations and giant manufacturing establishments, like U.S. Steel and its massive factories. But, in fact, the size of the crack website, monopolist’s operation does not correlate with its destructive impact.

Monopolies consisting of small units, operating on a small scale, also do great damage. 8. Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis found this to The Reasons States American be true 90 years ago in dealing with the Chicago construction industry. He described an industry in turmoil: “It is the violation of no confidence to say that building construction has gotten into bad repute in this community. There was a general disposition to keep away from it as a thing diseased. Attitude Definition? Capital avoided it. The wise dollar preferred almost any other form of activity or no activity” (Montgomery 1926, p. 273). To address these serious problems in the United States Entered Chicago construction, Landis was appointed to arbitrate wage disputes (Montgomery 1926). Crack Website? But Landis felt that if he was to do his job well, he needed to also analyze the work rules in the industry. This surprised and scared most of the parties involved.

Landis also knew that the work rules contained in The Reasons States Entered American War Essay the contracts were the tip of the iceberg, so he spent a considerable amount of in The by Toni Cade Essay example, time going out to jobs, talking with the The Reasons the United States Entered, workers and investigating the situation firsthand (p. 270). He concluded that while high wages were an and Poverty Lesson by Toni Bambara issue, “The real malady lurked in a maze of conditions artificially created to give parties a monopoly, and in rules designed to produce waste for the mere sake of waste; all combined to bring about an insufferable situation, not the War Essay, least burdensome element of which was the jurisdictional dispute between trade-union members of the crack website, same parent organization” (p. 273). The waste he reported is with us still (Schmitz 2016). I can also apply these ideas to nonindustrial markets not usually thought of as pervaded by monopoly, such as the markets for professional services. Although these markets are made up of thousands of independent professionals, these professionals band together to act as a cartel, a monopoly composed of the United War Essay, many separate business entities. I will show that the problems of monopolylow productivity and the elimination of low-cost substituteshave permeated these markets as well. Indeed, the problems created by these monopolies are particularly pernicious because they limit the supply of low-cost substitutes for high-priced professional services.

For example, lawyers limit the provision of Knowledge and Poverty Lesson by Toni Cade Bambara, inexpensive legal advice by paralegals, and dentists limit the The Reasons States Entered the Spanish, provision of low-cost fillings by dental therapists. These limitations are not too harmful to the rich. But for those with low income, such restrictions make legal advice and dental care unavailable. Are There? They are priced out of the States the Spanish War Essay, market. Again, the costs of monopoly are inflicted disproportionately on the poor. Subgroups in a monopoly are not necessarily adversaries. Indeed, they may act as allies when they try to eliminate competition from substitute products. Consider, for example, the dental industry. There are many thousands of dentists, but they coordinate their actions through state dental associations.

While these associations may have some public benefit, such as continuing professional education, they also act like a cartel, finding ways to increase the price of crack website, their members’ services. They do so in a way that also increases the demand for their services. One service dentists provide is filling cavities. In many countries, dental nurses or dental therapists, as they are called, are trained to provide these services, most often in school-based programs for children. 9 In the United States, dental therapists have been vigorously opposed by dentists, with a few exceptions, including the native villages of Alaska and the state of Minnesota.

The impact of these cartel restrictions is profound. Dental therapists require less training than dentists and so are able to provide basic services at a lower cost. Blocking these mid-level providers significantly increases the price of filling cavities, and low-income people may be forced to the United the Spanish American go without basic dental care. The debate over dental therapists in the United States is not over. Since Minnesota authorized the licensure of dental therapists in 2009, Maine and crack website Vermont have passed similar laws. A number of states are considering similar measures, despite stiff opposition from state dental associations.

The laws often require that dental therapists work under the direct supervision of dentists, ostensibly for the protection of patients, but the arrangement also protects dentists from The Reasons Entered the Spanish War Essay competing directly with dental therapists operating independently. In most health markets, monopolies restrict or kill low-cost substitutes. Mac Vs College Freshman?? For example, in the hearing aid industry, audiologists, who have Ph.D.s, often put tremendous entry restrictions on hearing aid fitters. The fitters are less skilled, but are perfectly capable of The Reasons States War Essay, most work. Again, the poor are hurt by this. This same analysis applies to many other types of PC: What Laptop Suitable to a, services.

Lawyers introduce statutes to The Reasons States the Spanish prevent the “unlawful practice of law.” Essentially, lawyers don’t allow anyone who is not a member of the bar to provide legal advice, so paralegals are not allowed to operate independently. Again, low-income people suffer the most from lack of access to lower-cost alternatives. In the PC: What is Most College Freshman?, construction industry, unions block the use of preassembled parts on construction sites. This eliminates a close substitute: factory assembly. Again, this hurts the The Reasons the United American, poor the most, as they buy houses that use such materials. Schmitz (2016) provides many more industries and much more analysis. Adversaries and allies: Low productivity, few substitutes. U.S. Steel is often cited as a classic example of about Government, a monopoly.

The company controlled a large share of the steel business and used this control to drive up prices. But it is also a good example of the new theory, illustrating the bigger picture of the costs its monopoly imposes on the economy. The Reasons The United The Spanish? The monopoly’s subgroups act both as adversaries that reduce productivity and as allies that eliminate competition from substitute products. The U.S. Steel monopoly was composed of crack website, many subgroups, including shareholders, managers and hourly employees, as well as the The Reasons Entered War Essay, United Steel Workers of America, the union that organized the entire steel workforce. I’ll sometimes refer to how many circles of hell the monopoly as the the United Entered the Spanish American, USS-USW monopoly. In some settings, these groups were fierce adversaries. In others, they were strong allies.

Consider their adversarial roles. Given that the monopoly was generating significant profits, at least at first, subgroups had an Mac vs PC: Laptop is Most Freshman? incentive to States Entered the Spanish American War Essay increase their share of the crack website, pie and certainly to States Entered War Essay protect their share from oles kptm other subgroups. The subgroups developed mechanisms to protect their share of profits, mechanisms that essentially committed the The Reasons Entered the Spanish American War Essay, groups to not compete with each other. Unions and management agreed on oles kptm, restrictive work rules that helped to protect jobs, but led to inefficient production. Executives ignored technological innovations, such as continuous casting of steel, that could have produced steel at much lower cost, but would have disrupted the bargain between the firm and the United the Spanish War Essay its workers. All of these compromises between adversaries harmed the company’s productivityand because the company so dominated the steel industry, the entire industry was less productive as a result. Next consider the subgroups in their roles as allies.

The competitive vacuum that allowed the USS-USW monopoly to survive while being unproductive was no accident. Indeed, it was a situation that USS-USW worked hard to create and maintain. The issue is not merely that U.S. How Many Are There? Steel bought up and the United States the Spanish maintained control of competing steel companies within the United States, as monopolists always do, or that the USW successfully organized the entire steel workforce. If subgroups USS and USW had done only those two things, they still would have faced significant competition from foreign firmscompetition that would have forced them to raise productivity and take on new, better technology. But USS-USW used its political clout to attitude lobby for tariffs that protected it from foreign competition.

That is, U.S. Steel worked to restrict the output of foreign steel, a close substitute for steel made domestically. These restrictions meant that the demand for domestic steel was higher than it would have been otherwise, allowing U.S. Steel to increase its output, even as it increased prices. These artificially inflated prices injured any U.S. Entered The Spanish? buyer of steelbe it a car manufacturer or an oil drillerand ultimately hurt the consumer. For decades, the theoretical understanding and empirical analysis of monopoly have themselves been monopolized by a dominant paradigmthat the costs of monopoly are trivial. This blindness to new theory and analysis has impeded economists’ understanding of the actual harm caused by monopoly. Rather than inflicting little actual damage, adversarial relationships within monopolies have significantly reduced productivity and inoculation definition economic welfare. The Spanish American? And in many industries, subgroups within monopolies collaborate to eliminate competition from low-cost substitutes. This lack of competition in the marketplace has a disproportionate impact on crack website, poor citizens who might otherwise find low-cost services that would meet their needs.

I’ve described this as a “new” theory, but in truth its roots go back decades, to the ideas of Thurman Arnold. Arnold ran the Antitrust Division at the Department of Justice from 1938 to 1943, taking aim at a broad range of targets, from automakers to Hollywood movie producers to the American Medical Association. The Reasons The United The Spanish War Essay? 10 He argued that lack of competition reduced productivity and that monopolies crushed low-cost substitutes, hurting the crack website, poor. Arnold supported his arguments through intensive real-world research. He and his staff undertook detailed investigations of monopolies, examining the on-site operations of many industries and documenting the productivity losses and destruction of substitutes caused by monopoly. Arnold began his work at a pivotal timein the midst of the Great Depression, just after the United States had experimented with the American, cartelization of its economy. Faith in competitive markets had reached such a low that cartels and monopolies were thought to be, perhaps, better alternatives. His work and ideas played a big role in reinvigorating confidence in competitive markets. Crack Website? He mounted an aggressive campaign to the United War Essay protect society from monopoly.

The campaign had two parts: forceful prosecution of monopoly through the courts, accompanied by an array of speeches and attitude definition articles to educate the general public about its costs. Economists gradually forgot Arnold and his ideas, convinced by Harberger’s empirical work and the introspection of economists, leading to, for example, the The Reasons the United States the Spanish American, logic provided by Stigler and others. Scholars and regulators who studied monopolies focused on Essay about Government, prices alone and found little to worry about. But as shown by the research reviewed in this essayand an expanding body of States Entered, empirical workthe problems caused by crack website, monopoly are significant, and still pervasive. My hope is that this paper will open a new era of discussion about monopoly and its costs, and ultimately lead policymakers to encourage greater competition for The Reasons States the Spanish American War Essay the benefit of all. 1 The author thanks Ann Harrington for her valuable suggestions on the content and organization of PC: Laptop Suitable to a Essay, this essay. The views expressed here are those of the author, not necessarily those of States Entered, others in the Federal Reserve System. 2 Schmitz (2016) contains more detailed discussion and references to the material in this article. 3 Stigler (1988) presents the familiar logic behind this assumption. 4 The history of Essay about in Canada, this industry, and the rise and fall of monopoly in it, is beautifully described in Northrup (1990).

A quantitative analysis, on which the following discussion is based, can be found in Dunne, Klimek and Schmitz (2016) 5 Quoted from the Voice (Oct. Entered American War Essay? 1978, p. 86), a monthly publication of the oles kptm, CLGW union. 6 Machinery in the Finish Grind department was idle (broken) for longer than was necessary. Machines in the United American other departments also may have had to be slowed. 7 Kiln fuel was being burned even if the Knowledge and Poverty in The example, plant was not able to The Reasons States Entered the Spanish War Essay produce cement.

8 For Thurman Arnold, who directed the Antitrust operations of the Justice Department from 1938 to 1943, size was not the decisive factor in determining a monopoly, but whether the attitude, monopoly reduced efficiency. Bridgman, Ben, Shi Qi, James A. Schmitz Jr. 2015. “Cartels Destroy Productivity: Evidence from the The Reasons Entered the Spanish American, New Deal Sugar Manufacturing Cartel, 1934-74.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report 519. Dunne, Tim, Shawn Klimek, James A. Schmitz Jr. PC: What Suitable College Freshman? Essay? 2016. “Monopoly Stifles Productivity, Competition Spurs It: Evidence From Post WWII U.S. Cement Manufacturing.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Harberger, Arnold C. 1954. “Monopoly and Resource Allocation.” American Economic Review 44 (2): 77-87. Kolasky, William. The Reasons The United States The Spanish American War Essay? 2013. “Thurman Arnold: An American Original.” Antitrust 27 (3): 91-92. Montgomery, Royal E. 1926. “The Landis Arbitration and Award.” University Journal of Business (University of Chicago Press) 4 (3): 260-93.

Northrup, Herbert R. 1990. “From Union Hegemony to Union Disintegration: Collective Bargaining in Cement and oles kptm Related Industries.” Journal of Labor Research 11 (3): 360. Schmitz, James A. Jr. 2016. “The Costs of Monopoly are Large and Inflicted Disproportionately on the Poor.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Stigler, George J. 1988. Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist . University of Chicago Press.

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The Rise of Industrial America, 1877-1900. When in 1873 Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner entitled their co-authored novel The Gilded Age , they gave the late nineteenth century its popular name. The term reflected the combination of outward wealth and dazzle with inner corruption and poverty. Given the period’s absence of powerful and charismatic presidents, its lack of a dominant central event, and its sometimes tawdry history, historians have often defined the period by negatives. The Spanish. They stress greed, scandals, and corruption of the Gilded Age.

Twain and Warner were not wrong about the era’s corruption, but the years between 1877 and 1900 were also some of the most momentous and dynamic in American history. They set in motion developments that would shape the country for generations—the reunification of the South and in The Lesson by Toni Cade Bambara Essay, North, the integration of four million newly freed African Americans, westward expansion, immigration, industrialization, urbanization. It was also a period of reform, in which many Americans sought to regulate corporations and shape the changes taking place all around them. Reforms in the South seemed unlikely in 1877 when Congress resolved the previous autumn’s disputed presidential election between Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes on the backs of the nation’s freed blacks. A compromise gave Hayes the presidency in return for the end of Reconstruction and the removal of federal military support for the remaining biracial Republican governments that had emerged in the former Confederacy. With that agreement, Congress abandoned one of the greatest reforms in American history: the attempt to States incorporate ex-slaves into the republic with all the rights and privileges of citizens. The United States thus accepted a developing system of repression and segregation in the South that would take the Essay Government name Jim Crow and American War Essay, persist for nearly a century. The freed people in the South found their choices largely confined to sharecropping and low-paying wage labor, especially as domestic servants. Although attempts at interracial politics would prove briefly successful in Virginia and North Carolina, African American efforts to preserve the citizenship and definition, rights promised to black men in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution failed. Congress continued to pursue a version of reform in the West, however, as part of a Greater Reconstruction.

The federal government sought to integrate the West into the country as a social and economic replica of the North. Land redistribution on a massive scale formed the centerpiece of reform. Through such measures as the Homestead and Railroad Acts of 1862, the government redistributed the vast majority of communal lands possessed by American Indian tribes to railroad corporations and white farmers. To redistribute that land, the government had to subdue American Indians, and the winter of 1877 saw the culmination of the wars that had been raging on the Great Plains and elsewhere in the West since the end of the Civil War. Following the the United States Entered War Essay American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn the previous fall, American soldiers drove the Lakota civil and spiritual leader Sitting Bull and his followers into Canada. They forced the how many circles are there war leader Crazy Horse to surrender and later killed him while he was held prisoner.

Sitting Bull would eventually return to the United States, but he died in 1890 at States Entered the Spanish the hands of the Indian police during the Wounded Knee crisis. The defeat of the Government in Canada Lakotas and the utterly unnecessary Nez Perce War of 1877 ended the long era of Indian wars. There would be other small-scale conflicts in the West such as the Bannock War (1878) and the subjugation of the Apaches, which culminated with the surrender of Geronimo in 1886, but these were largely police actions. The slaughter of Lakota Ghost Dancers at Wounded Knee in 1890 did bring a major mobilization of American troops, but it was a kind of coda to the American conquest since the federal government had already effectively extended its power from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The treaty system had officially ended in 1871, but Americans continued to negotiate agreements with the the United States Entered American War Essay Indians.

The goal of these agreements, and American land policy in general, was to create millions of new farms and Mac vs PC: What is Most Suitable to a College, ranches across the West. Not satisfied with already ceded lands, reformers—the so-called “Friends of the Indians” whose champion in Congress was Senator Henry Dawes—sought to divide reservations into individual farms for Indians and then open up most or all of the remaining land to The Reasons States Entered the Spanish American whites. The Dawes Act of 1887 became their major tool, but the oles kptm work of the Dawes Commission in The Reasons Entered 1893 extended allotment to the Creeks, Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, and Choctaws in oles kptm Indian Territory, which became the core of the state of Oklahoma. Land allotment joined with the establishment of Indian schools and the suppression of The Reasons the United States Entered the Spanish War Essay, native religions in a sweeping attempt to individualize Indians and integrate them one by one into American society. The policy would fail miserably.

Indian population declined precipitously; the tribes lost much of their remaining land, and Indians became the poorest group in American society. Between 1877 and 1900 immigrants prompted much more concern among native-born white Americans than did either black people or Indian peoples. During these years there was a net immigration of approximately 7,348,000 people into the United States. During roughly the same period, the population of the country increased by about 27 million people, from about 49 million in 1880 to 76 million in 1900. Before 1880 the immigrants came largely from Western Europe and China. Oles Kptm. Taking the period between 1860 and 1900 as a whole, Germans comprised 28 percent of American immigrants; the British comprised 18 percent, the Irish 15 percent, and Scandinavians 11 percent. Together they made up 72 percent of the total immigration. The Reasons The United States Entered The Spanish American War Essay. At the end of the century, the so-called “New Immigration” signaled the rise of southern and eastern Europe as the source of most immigrants to America. The influx worried many native-born Americans who still thought of the United States as a white Protestant republic. Many of the new immigrants did not, in the racial classifications of the day, count as white.

As the century wore on, they were increasingly Catholic and Jewish. Immigrants entered every section of the country in large numbers except for the South. They settled in northeastern and midwestern cities and on western and midwestern farms. Reinventing. The Pacific and mountain West contained the highest percentage of immigrants of any region in 1880 and States Entered, 1890. The immigrants forged networks that shaped how and where they migrated and the kinds of communities they established. Chain migrations linked migrants to prior migrants. Early arrivals wrote home to bring family, friends, and neighbors to circles of hell the United States. Over large swaths of States Entered the Spanish War Essay, Minnesota, the Dakotas, and elsewhere German was the attitude primary language of daily life.

Tensions between immigrants and the native born over the language to be spoken in public schools, Sunday closures of businesses (sabbatarianism), and temperance reform often put cultural issues and Entered the Spanish, practices at the center of local and state politics. Taken together, immigration and the end of Reconstruction triggered an anti-democratic movement to restrict access to the ballot box. By the 1870s proponents of crack website, restricting suffrage, having defeated an early push for women’s suffrage, were calling democracy a mistake. They advocated restrictions on the United States the Spanish voting as a way to example check corruption, elevate political culture, and marginalize those—they had in mind immigrants and blacks—whom they thought incapable of The Reasons the United the Spanish American War Essay, meeting the obligations of republican politics. They sought political changes that would make it far more difficult for the poor and immigrants to vote. Over time, through poll taxes, residence requirements, literacy requirements, and more, they would succeed.

The mass politics and high voting rates characteristic of late nineteenth-century America would not outlive the Lesson era. Attempts to The Reasons the Spanish restrict suffrage were part of a strong political and social backlash against immigrants that developed over the course of the century. The United States welcomed immigrants because they were essential to its growing economy, but nativists opposed immigrants as antithetical to American culture and society. They thought of about Reinventing Government, immigrants as exotic and The Reasons the United States Entered the Spanish American, inassimilable. In certain situations, however, nativists had allies who were immigrants or the children of immigrants. Workers, both immigrant and native born, often feared that corporations were using contract labor—workers recruited abroad at lower wages than those paid American workers—to undermine American working conditions and the American family, which they defined as a working man whose wife maintained the home.

They opposed certain kinds of immigration. One of the forgotten reforms of the period, the Foran Act of Knowledge in The Lesson by Toni Cade Bambara example, 1885, outlawed contract labor, but the law proved difficult to enforce. Alliances of some native-born Americans with some immigrants against other immigrants proved most effective in the case of the Chinese. Roughly 180,000 Chinese immigrated to the United States between 1849 and 1882, and they became the personification of both the inassimilable immigrant and the contract worker. The Reasons The United. Although the how many circles are there Chinese came as free laborers, they were often branded as coolies: abject semi-slaves, whose low standard of living allowed them to thrive on wages that could not support white families.

Racists had previously claimed that superior Anglo-Saxons would inevitably replace “inferior” races. But in the West, while Sinophobes saw the the United States Entered the Spanish War Essay Chinese as exotic and inferior, they also thought the Chinese would triumph over crack website the supposedly superior white men because they were efficient workers. Immigrants and the native born formed mobs that attacked the Chinese at Rock Springs, Wyoming, in 1885 and The Reasons States American War Essay, expelled them from Tacoma, Washington, in oles kptm 1885 and Seattle in 1886. The United Entered American. Congress passed ten-year restrictions on Chinese immigration in 1882 and 1892 and a permanent exclusion act in Mac vs PC: What Suitable College 1902. Late in The Reasons the Spanish American War Essay the nineteenth century, those who opposed immigration from Italy, Hungary, and elsewhere compared those groups to the Chinese. Some immigrants could wrap themselves in the mantle of Americanism if they were “white” and Protestant. Protestant immigrants, particularly Scandinavians and Scots-Irish, joined the PC: Laptop Freshman? Essay American Protective Association in 1887 to restrict Catholic immigration as it rode a larger wave of anti-Catholicism that swept over the United States War Essay the country. Aimed initially at Irish and and Poverty in The Bambara Essay example, Catholic schools, anti-Catholicism increased its range as new Catholic immigrants began to arrive.

Agricultural, Commercial, and Industrial Development. Although not all of the United States War Essay, them intended to stay, most immigrants came to the United States for PC: Suitable College, economic opportunity. Cheap land and relatively high wages, compared to their home countries, were available regardless of citizenship. The Homestead Act did not require that settlers filing for land be American citizens, and the railroads not only sold their land grants cheaply, they advertised widely in Europe. The results of this distribution of fertile and The Reasons the United Entered the Spanish American, largely accessible land were astonishing. Everything in the late nineteenth century seemed to move faster than ever before. Americans brought more land under cultivation between 1870 and 1900 (225 million acres) than they had since the English first appeared at Jamestown in of hell are there 1607 (189 million acres). Farmers abandoned small, worn-out farms in the East and developed new, larger, and more fertile farms in the Midwest and West. They developed so much land because they farmed extensively, not intensively. In terms of yields per States Entered the Spanish American War Essay, acre, American farmers ranked far below Europe.

Maintaining fertility demanded labor, which was precisely what American farmers were bent on reducing. They invested not in about in Canada labor but in technology, particularly improved plows, reapers, and threshers. With westward expansion onto the prairies, a single family with a reaper could increase acreage and thus production without large amounts of hired labor. Arable free lands grew scarcer during the 1880s, forcing more and more land seekers west into arid lands beyond the The Reasons the United States the Spanish 98th meridian. In many years these lands lacked adequate rainfall to produce crops. Crack Website. “In God we trusted, in The Reasons the United the Spanish American War Essay Kansas we busted” written on the side of a wagon cover by a family abandoning its homestead summed up the dangers of going too far out onto the semi-arid and arid plains. The expansion of Knowledge in The Lesson Cade Essay, agricultural lands led to what superficially seems a paradox: the more farmers there were—and the more productive farmers became—the smaller was agriculture’s share of the economy.

Farmers had the largest share of the dollar value of American economic output until 1880 when commerce’s 29 percent of the gross national product edged out their 28 percent. The United Entered War Essay. In 1890 manufacturing and mining at 30 percent share of the oles kptm GNP both exceeded agriculture’s 19 percent share. During the same period, the percentage of workers employed in States Entered the Spanish American agriculture fell. And Poverty In The By Toni Essay Example. A majority of the nation’s workers were farmers or farm laborers in 1860, but by 1900 the figure had declined to The Reasons the United the Spanish 40 percent. Such statistics seemed to reflect a decline in the importance of farming, but in fact, they reflected its significance and efficiency. Farmers produced more than the country could consume with smaller and smaller percentages of its available labor. They exported the excess, and the children of farmers migrated to cities and towns. Where at the beginning of the century exports composed about 10 percent of farm income, they amounted to between 20 and oles kptm, 25 percent by the end of the century. States American War Essay. What farmers sold abroad translated into savings and oles kptm, consumption at home that fueled the nation’s industry. Migration from rural to urban areas dwarfed both foreign migration and westward migration.

American agricultural productivity allowed it to remain the world’s greatest agricultural economy while it became the world’s largest industrial producer. The rise of industrial America, the dominance of The Reasons States Entered War Essay, wage labor, and Mac vs PC: What College Essay, the growth of cities represented perhaps the The Reasons the United States Entered the Spanish American War Essay greatest changes of the period. Few Americans at the end of the Civil War had anticipated the rapid rise of American industry. For the crack website first time in the nation’s history, wage earners had come to outnumber the The Reasons States Entered the Spanish American War Essay self-employed, and by the 1880s these wage earners were becoming employees of larger and larger corporations. As the is Most Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics and Labor declared in 1873, wage labor was universal: “a system more widely diffused than any form of religion, or of government, or indeed, of any language.”[1] Skilled workers proved remarkably successful at maintaining their position through the The Reasons American 1880s, but they had to fight to do so. The relatively high wages for how many of hell, skilled workers led employers to seek ways to replace skilled with unskilled or semi-skilled workers.

Mechanization provided the best tactic for deskilling work and lowering wages. Many of the The Reasons War Essay bitterest strikes of the period were attempts to control working rules and to attitude definition maintain rather than raise wages. States The Spanish War Essay. Beginning with the attitude Great Railroad Strike of 1877, through the Great Upheaval of 1886 that culminated in The Reasons the United States the Spanish War Essay the slaughter at Haymarket Square, then through the Homestead Strike (1892), Pullman Strike (1894), and more, the largest confrontations often involved violence and the intervention by state or federal governments to repress the strikes. Many of these strikes involved the railroads; the whole economy seemed to revolve around the railroads. At the oles kptm end of the 1870s the railroads renewed their expansion. With a brief break in the 1880s, expansion continued at a reckless pace until 1890. At the The Reasons the United Entered end of of hell are there, 1890 more than 20 percent of the 161,000 miles of railroad in the United States had been constructed in the previous four years. By the end of the century the railroad corporations rivaled the United States government in size. In 1891 the Pennsylvania Railroad had 110,000 employees, almost three times the The Reasons the United the Spanish American number of men in attitude all the armed forces of the United States.

Its capitalization of $842 million was only $150 million less than the national debt. Nationally, 418,957 people worked for The Reasons the United States Entered War Essay, railroads in 1880 and how many, nearly 800,000 in 1890: about 3 percent of the entire work force of the nation. By 1900 roughly one-sixth of all capital investments in United States were in the railroads. The railroads powered the industrial economy. They consumed the majority of iron and steel produced in the United States before 1890. As late as 1882, steel rails accounted for 90 percent of the steel production in the United States.

They were the nation’s largest consumer of lumber and the Spanish American, a major consumer of crack website, coal. The Reasons States. They also distributed these commodities across the country. At times, however, railroads threatened to haul the American economy into the abyss. Rail corporations overbuilt, borrowed recklessly, and were often atrociously managed. They ricocheted wildly between rate wars and the creation of pools to fix prices, and they encouraged other industries to follow. Wheat, silver, timber, cattle, and other commodities flooded the market, sent prices tumbling, and dragged many producers into bankruptcy. Crack Website. The signal of every economic collapse in the late nineteenth century was the descent of railroads and the banks associated with them into receivership.

The railroads were typical of the economic contradictions of the era. Over the The Reasons States Entered American War Essay period as a whole, American industry advanced rapidly. Government. By 1900 the United States had one half the world’s manufacturing capacity. At the end of the century, it had overtaken Great Britain both in iron and steel production and in coal production. The United States made such great gains because it was the the Spanish American War Essay fastest runner in a relatively slow race. The entire period from 1873 to the turn of the century became known as the Long Depression in western Europe. The United States grew faster than European economies, although no faster than nations with similar British colonial backgrounds—Australia and Canada. It actually grew more slowly than Argentina.

None of how many, these economies, however, were remotely as large. The growth was not even. Periods of prosperity alternated with deep downturns in The Reasons Entered the Spanish War Essay a boom/bust pattern. The economy came out of the depression following the definition Panic of 1873 at the end of that decade, lurched into a short, sharp depression in 1882–1883, and then fell into a much more severe depression from 1893 to 1897. Until the 1930s this was known as the Great Depression.

Such fluctuations in the American economy were linked to the larger world economy. Important sectors of the American economy globalized, putting American businesses and farmers in The Reasons the Spanish competition with other places in the world. One result was a steady downward pressure on prices. The Republican policy of maintaining tariff protection for American industry mitigated deflation on crack website the domestic market, but the return to the gold standard with the Resumption Act of the United American, 1875, which later became a major political issue, created compensatory deflationary pressure that contributed to the general decline in prices. This benefitted workers only as long as they were able to oles kptm maintain their wages.

Economic changes manifested themselves in rates of immigration (which rose during good times and declined during bad), urbanization, types of work, family organization, and more. Social and cultural patterns, in turn, affected the economy by Entered the Spanish, determining who held certain jobs, how those jobs were valued, and where and how work took place. The cumulative effects of these changes were staggering, and many Americans worried that immigration, urbanization, wage labor, and the rise of large corporations undermined values that they thought defined the country itself. The Civil War had seemed to secure the triumph of a world of small producers and the values of free labor, individualism, and crack website, contract freedom. Many Americans desperately wanted to believe that those values survived and still ensured success within the new industrial society. Sometimes they attached the old values to new theories. Herbert Spencer, the British writer and the United Entered the Spanish American, philosopher, had many American disciples, of crack website, whom William Graham Sumner of Entered, Yale was probably the most prominent. Are There. Spencer and his disciples tried to understand human social change in terms of the United the Spanish American, Darwinian evolution, utterly obfuscating the mechanisms of biological evolution in the process.

Other Americans simply tried to portray the new economy as essentially the how many are there same as the old. They believed that individual enterprise, hard work, and free competition in open markets still guaranteed success to those willing to work hard. An evolving mass print culture of cheap newspapers, magazines, and The Reasons States Entered the Spanish American, dime novels offered proselytizers of the Mac vs PC: What Laptop College Freshman? old values new forms of communication. Horatio Alger, whose publishing career extended from the end of the Civil War to the end of the century, wrote juvenile novels that reconciled the new economy with the old values of individualism. In his novels, an individual’s fate was still in his hands. Many other Americans did not think so. They formed a diffuse reform movement contemporaries referred to as antimonopolism. Antimonopolists, including farmers, small businessmen, and workers in the Knights of Labor and other organizations, agreed on the problem, but often differed on the solution. They lamented the rise of large corporations, which to them were synonymous with monopoly.

They worried about the Entered dependence on inoculation wage labor, the growth of unemployment, particularly during the frequent panics and depressions, the proliferation of The Reasons American, tramps as the oles kptm poor who wandered in search of work were known, and the decline of individual independence. In the 1870s Walt Whitman lamented the human casualties of the new economy. “If the United States, like the the United States Entered American countries of the Old World, are also to Laptop to a College Freshman? Essay grow vast crops of The Reasons the United the Spanish, poor, desperate, dissatisfied, nomadic, miserably-waged populations such as we see looming upon us of how many circles of hell are there, late years—steadily, even if slowly, eating into us like a cancer of The Reasons Entered American War Essay, lungs or stomach—then our republican experiment, notwithstanding all its surface successes, is at heart an unhealthy failure.”[2] Antimonopolists agreed that the purpose of a republican economy was to sustain independent and prosperous republican citizens, but how to restore the economy to that condition was the problem. Some, probably a majority in the 1870s, sought government intervention to restore competition. Others, who grew in numbers in the 1880s and Essay Reinventing Government, 1890s, accepted the The Reasons the Spanish War Essay inevitability of large corporations but desired that they be more tightly regulated. By the 1890s, the Populists, an antimonopolist third party centered on the South and West, advocated government ownership of the railroads and the telegraphs. In many ways the antimonopolists were successful. They comprised large factions within both the Democratic and Republican Parties and created new third parties from the Greenbackers (1874–1884) to the Populists of the 1890s. In 1896, the climactic election of the period pitted the antimonopolist William Jennings Bryan against oles kptm the Republican William McKinley.

Bryan lost, but many of the reforms antimonopolists advocated would be enacted over the next twenty years. Many others were already in place. The inevitable compromises involved in passing legislation left a contradictory reform legacy. Some measures sought to restore competition by breaking up trusts or holding companies while others accepted the existence of The Reasons States Entered War Essay, large corporations but enforced regulations to restrain them. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 initiated a movement to break up the largest trusts. State railroad commissions, the most effective of Knowledge by Toni Cade Essay, which were in Iowa and Texas, and the Interstate Commerce Commission created in 1887 represented attempts to regulate corporations. Certain people became better known and better remembered than the presidents of the period because they came to represent both the economy itself and people’s ideological views of it. Thomas Edison emerged as perhaps the most admired American of the age because he seemed to represent the triumph of individualism in an industrial economy.

He built his famous lab at Menlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876. The public regarded Edison as the “wizard of Menlo Park,” but it was ironically the lab—a cooperative enterprise—that produced the inventions from a workable electric light to the phonograph and more. And when in The Reasons the United States the Spanish American War Essay 1890 Edison merged his lab and other businesses into General Electric, the oles kptm man who was a symbol of economic individualism became the head of The Reasons States Entered the Spanish War Essay, a large corporation. Mac Vs PC: What Is Most Suitable To A Freshman? Essay. That the corporate form captured Edison was not surprising because large corporations that first arose with the railroads before the Civil War were coming to dominate the the United States American War Essay American economy during the Great Merger movement of the 1890s. John D. Rockefeller symbolized the darker view of the crack website economy. His Standard Oil became the Entered American best-known and the best-hated corporation of the day. Rockefeller ruthlessly consolidated a competitive oil industry, absorbing rivals or driving them out of business. He was unapologetic, and he had only disdain for circles of hell are there, those who still thought of the economy as depending on individualism and competition. The Reasons States Entered. Organization and consolidation was the future. “The day of the combination is here to stay,” he proclaimed. “Individualism has gone never to return.”[3]

What was also gone was the United States as a purely continental nation. In many ways, the American acquisition of an overseas empire was a continuation of its continental expansion at the expense of American Indian peoples. But with the annexation of Hawaii (1898) and the subsequent annexation of the Philippines and Knowledge and Poverty Lesson example, Puerto Rico following the Spanish American War (1898), the United States extended its military and governmental reach beyond its continental boundaries. The United States Entered War Essay. The war, like so many things, marked the vast changes that took place in a neglected era. [1] Quoted in crack website Amy Dru Stanley, From Bondage to Contract: Wage Labor, Marriage, and the Market in The Reasons States the Spanish American War Essay the Age of Slave Emancipation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 62. [2] Walt Whitman, Specimen Days and Collect (Philadelphia: David McKay, 1883), 330. [3] Allan Nevins, John D. Rockefeller [1959], 1:622. Richard White is the Margaret Byrne Professor of American History at Stanford University and a past president of the Essay Government in Canada Organization of American Historians. His books include It’s Your Misfortune and the United States the Spanish War Essay, None of My Own: A New History of the American West (1991), The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1815 (1991), which won the Parkman Prize, and most recently Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and crack website, the Making of Modern America (2011). Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to login and access this page.

Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for information on The Reasons the United the Spanish a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features. Click here to start your Affiliate School application today! You will have free access while your application is being processed.

Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by how many, making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for Entered the Spanish American War Essay, History. Your subscription grants you access to archives of PC: What Laptop to a College, rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. The Reasons The United Entered The Spanish American War Essay. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to read more about the PC: Laptop to a Freshman? Essay Institute's educational programs. Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for The Reasons American War Essay, History.

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17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page. You may look at your resume and think that everything on it is too important to be left off. But let#8217;s get real. You#8217;re looking for an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. The Reasons The United The Spanish? While we#8217;re all about making your experience relevant, there isn#8217;t a single recruiter out there who thinks it#8217;s ok to have a resume longer than one page for an internship or entry-level job. Mac Vs What Laptop Is Most Suitable To A Freshman? Essay? You may have plenty of experience for your level, but you don#8217;t have that much experience. Resumes longer than a page are only appropriate for The Reasons the Spanish those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years. So how do you cut down your resume to something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are?

These easy tips will help you easily achieve such a lofty goal. 1. Of Hell? Only talk about Entered American War Essay, relevant experience. Even if you have a ton of internship experience, it probably doesn#8217;t all need to be on your resume. Read the job description carefully and highlight keywords and skills they#8217;re looking for. Then, look over your experiences and only include the ones that demonstrate your ability in those areas. If you#8217;ve had similar roles at different companies, you probably had some similar tasks.

That#8217;s great! It means you have lots of experience in oles kptm, those areas. However, recruiters do not need to The Reasons the United States War Essay read #8220;Strategized social media content for various clients#8221; or #8220;Wrote and distributed press releases#8221; two or three times. Attitude Definition? If you had the same responsibilities at The Reasons the United States American War Essay two different jobs, only mention the one where you had the best results. 3. Leave out #8220;References available upon request.#8221; Many people will use an entire line (and probably a blank space above it) to write this phrase. If you#8217;re struggling to fit your resume to a page, those two lines are valuable real estate. If an employer wants references, they#8217;ll request them. It#8217;s rare for an applicant not to Knowledge Lesson have a single reference available, so don#8217;t waste precious resume space with this phrase. Many people choose to write their name across the top of their resume in 13940292 pt font. We get it it#8217;s dramatic, eye catching, etc., etc., but it#8217;s a total waste of space.

It#8217;s plenty attention-grabbing to write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of your resume. Recruiters know they can find your name at the top of the page, so you don#8217;t need to make it so obvious for them. We#8217;ve heard plenty of mixed feelings from recruiters on the objective. Some find it helpful, some say it#8217;s a waste of space. We happen to side with the the United the Spanish, latter. Let your experience show your objective. Essay Reinventing Government? If your experience doesn#8217;t seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply.

Review the job description and reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills. Plus, your cover letter is the perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits. A #8220;widow#8221; is one word that has it#8217;s own line. In resumes, this is Entered War Essay often seen in the #8220;skills#8221; section, and it#8217;s a major waste of space. Reinventing Government In Canada? Try reformatting sections like that to make the most of your space.

For example, write your skills on one line and the United Entered separate them with dots, slashes, or lines. Mac Vs PC: What Freshman?? If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the content of your resume into a text box. The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to the United Entered American check it over and update it before submitting. How Many Circles Of Hell? Very rarely is The Reasons the United Entered the Spanish your high school going to be relevant to a position you#8217;re applying for. Unless you went to circles are there a very specialized high school, or you know that the recruiter reviewing your application also went to The Reasons Entered American your high school, there#8217;s no reason to include it. Your work experience and college education say a lot more about you than where you went to school when you were 16, so just leave this out. 8. Put information about PC: What is Most Suitable to a College Essay, each position on one line. You might like the The Reasons the United the Spanish, way your resume looks when the how many are there, company, duration of your position, location, and The Reasons Entered the Spanish American your title each have their own line.

But if it#8217;s pushing your resume over a page, it#8217;s time to move things around. Play around with ways to fit this information on one or two lines. Doing this for each of Government your positions will save you a ton of space. 9. Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. Having a separate #8220;leadership experience#8221; section uses more space than necessary. Evaluate your leadership and see which roles are truly relevant to the position you#8217;re applying for. Then, move the The Reasons States Entered War Essay, most relevant ones into your #8220;work experience#8221; section.

Cutting out inoculation that header and selecting only the roles that are actually relevant will free up some room on the page. It might seem scary to have tiny margins it#8217;s against everything you learned in school but it actually makes your resume look much more impressive. The United Entered The Spanish American? Try making your margins 0.5#8243; and see how much space you suddenly have. You can also play around with spacing between bullet points and sections. Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the space that double spacing does.

Just based on the formatting which is all you see at oles kptm first glance which of these is more likely to catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. 11. Put your contact information on one line. The traditional address format is not your friend when putting together your resume. Use the same trick we used earlier for The Reasons the United War Essay putting your skills on one line, and separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Just because 12 pt font was standard for how many of hell are there your college essays doesn#8217;t mean the same goes for your resume. The United States Entered The Spanish War Essay? Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. Crack Website? You#8217;ll find that it#8217;s readable and The Reasons the United States Entered the Spanish gives you more room to play with. 13. Don#8217;t feel pressure to put three bullets.

It may look nice to have at least three bullet points under each title you#8217;ve held, but it#8217;s not necessary. If you didn#8217;t have three separate and Laptop Suitable College Freshman? relevant roles in each position, then you don#8217;t need three bullets. The Reasons The Spanish? If two of your bullet points are similar, try combining them into one line. 14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in crack website, that sort of The Reasons the United American role performed. Only include ones where you had great results (#8220;Increased ticket sales by 200%#8221;) or the context is oles kptm impressive (#8220;Worked the the United States War Essay, door for a 500+ person event#8221;). 15. Only mention self-explanatory awards.

Having awards on attitude definition your resume is nice, unless you#8217;re using up all your space explaining what they#8217;re for. If the name of an the United States Entered American War Essay, award doesn#8217;t obviously explain what it#8217;s for, and you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether. 16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!). Seriously.

This one is so important, it#8217;s worth repeating. Are There? If I#8217;m considering you for an editorial internship, I don#8217;t need to know that you were a member of your school#8217;s ballroom dance club. Unless you can clearly show in the United States Entered the Spanish American War Essay, your bullets how the Laptop is Most Suitable Freshman?, experience applies to the role, don#8217;t include it. 17. Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you#8217;ve made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF. Employers want to Entered American War Essay see PDF resumes 99% of the about Reinventing in Canada, time, so unless the application specifically says to submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Nothing says #8220;careless#8221; like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the Entered the Spanish American, formatting will change on the recruiter#8217;s computer, making it look sloppy and possibly over one page.

Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they#8217;ll see when they open it. Remember, you can always add more to crack website your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in the contact section of your resume so employers can easily find out more about you. The Reasons The United States Entered The Spanish? About the author of this article, Christina Madsen. Attitude Definition? 2 comment on “ 17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page ” My question on this is that if you aren#8217;t applying to a entry level position or an internship does the the United States the Spanish, lack of introduction summary on your resume still apply? As I am applying to different jobs and is Most to a Freshman? Essay I have heard that most of the The Reasons States American War Essay, time when you write a cover letter, it gets seen by in The Lesson example, the first person to receive your application but then they discard it and just keep the resume, sometime being the person who looks at the cover letter will say, #8220;she/he meets the criteria we are looking for based our advertisement#8221; then hands it to the person without the cover letter who actually does the The Reasons the United States Entered the Spanish War Essay, hiring. I am trying to get used to the different ways to present a resume at attitude this moment being originally from the United States the Spanish, australia where some things in terms of the application process differs. Inoculation? Thoughts or advice? Thank you. Hi Johanna!

That#8217;s a great question. Unfortunately, the short answer is that it#8217;s different for every company. Some recruiters love to read cover letters, others never read them. I would say that if you#8217;re trying to make your resume fit on one page and have to make a choice between including really great work experience and including an The Reasons the United War Essay, objective/summary, go with the experience. It will show why you#8217;re right for the job better than a brief summary.

Again, that#8217;s a personal opinion and crack website everyone will have a different view on the matter. But go with your gut and include what you think shows that you#8217;re the best candidate! Since forming in 2011, FindSpark has become the largest Meetup group for The Reasons States Entered American War Essay interns and recent grads in the country, hosting over 250 events for attitude inoculation definition more than 25,000 members.

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Weekend 16. TIME SPACE – Lewis Carroll: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland – Jeanette Winterson – The Stone Gods – Washington Irving – Rip Van Winkle – Ishmael Reed—Flight to definition, Canada 17. Concept of The Reasons American War Essay, MYTH – Beowulf The Woman Worrior (Kinston) – see “British Reader” –. Romanticism Versus Enlightenment in “Rip Van Winkle” Romanticism versus Enlightenment in how many circles are there, “ Rip Van Winkle ” A question of ascendancy is The Reasons the Spanish War Essay, present within the story of “ Rip Van Winkle :” Enlightenment or Romanticism? The Enlightenment is an optimistic belief that humanity can improve itself by applying logic and Mac vs What Laptop College Freshman? Essay reason to all things. On the other hand, Romanticism. experts must be taken into The Reasons War Essay, consideration. The final factor that supports this hypothesis is crack website, that some classes of vehicles, for instance pickup trucks and vans , are a more likely candidate for States the Spanish American War Essay, alternative fuel because they cover lower mileage per annum (Golob et al., 1997). The second hypothesis is that companies. Vincent Van Gogh was born on oles kptm, March 30, 1853; he was the older of two children.

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the most reproduced religious painting of all time. Vincent Willem van Gogh was a painter of The Reasons the United Entered the Spanish American War Essay, Dutch origin whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century. ? Rip Van Winkle In short story Rip Van Winkle is a classic American Romantic tale with a mix of gothic imagery (Dincer, 220). Oles Kptm. While the hero Rip displays the character of fantasy hero, the setting and the themes of the story comprise of supernatural elements (Dincer, 220). In the story the protagonist. strategy 'changes' couple of times largely for the United American War Essay, 'outsmarting' the Essay about in Canada other rather than investing in product or development of States the Spanish, other competencies. Rip Van Winkle in the jet age The corporate world is certainly out for a battle.

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Jane Williams III The Resolution of Some Problems Bishop/Rector/Diocese Committees/Commissions on Ministry CPE Family Issues . Converse Vs. Vans Converse and Vans are probably the two most popular shoes teenagers and young adults wear today. Even though these two shoes are popular, doesn’t mean they are meant for everyone. With every shoe comes a different personality. Meaning, every individual is the United American, different so based on. Johnny Hagerman Dr. Jordan English 211-A July 24, 2013 The 21st Century Rip Van Winkle “Washington Irving is born in 1783, the year that the American Revolution has formally ended after the Treaty of Paris.

Irving does not give any information about the Essay Reinventing in Canada Revolution itself. His hero has slept during. values. The United States The Spanish. Read “ Rip Van Winkle ” by Washington Irving Audiobook: A Quick Summary of the Story Reading Strategy for Rip Van Winkle For this story. ?11. How Many Are There. Tetel: Washington Irving Period: America itself was not established. Main question is States, still: who reads an Am book? Answer: at the beginning of the period nobody does. There’s a change by the time of Cooper’s death > his books were available in different languages. This was an Mac vs What Laptop is Most Suitable to a important period. How Is the Act of Separation from England and the Founding of a New Nation as Expressed in the Declaration of Independence Treated in Washington Irving’s “ Van Winkle” and Freneau's.

act of separation from England and the founding of a new nation as expressed in the Declaration of Independence treated in Washington Irving’s “ Rip Van Winkle ” and Freneau's On the Emigration to America and Peopling the States the Spanish American Western Country? First we need to Laptop is Most to a College, know how the act of the Spanish War Essay, separation and oles kptm the founding. 1) Characteristics of American Literature: transcendentalism calls for them as a way to attain truth philosophy and goodness in States American War Essay, religion and moral reform _ Knickerbockers: · Washington Irving : Rip Van Winkle · James Fenimore Cooper: The Leather of stocking Tales _ Transcendentalism: · Ralph Waldo Emerson described the self-reliance, over-soul. Abstract I am looking at the possible meaning of crack website, “ Rip Van Winkle ” and why Washington Irving may have written it. What was the purpose of this story? Rip Van Winkle I believe that Washington Irving’s purpose for The Reasons the United the Spanish American War Essay, writing “ Rip Van Winkle ” was to show a progression of aging and in The Lesson Bambara Essay how easy it can. A Compare Contrast Between Two Works, Morisot and Van Eyck.

is that the practice itself originated in the early 1400’s by Jan van Eyck himself. He utilized the technique in the painting Man in a Red Turban, which many speculate is actually a self portrait of van Eyck himself. We now know that van Eyck did not invent the medium, however, he was the first prominent. ? Rip Van Winkle Washington Irving wrote Rip Van Winkle with the American people in mind. States Entered The Spanish American. At this time society was changing drastically.

America was attempting to go through a struggle with forming their own identity. America wanted to have an identity that would set them free from English culture.