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body writing Toward an Understanding of l'Écriture féminine. Ann Rosalind Jones. France is word describes toward to a, today the scene of feminisms. Jobmine Inventory! The Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF) grows every year, but so do the factions within it: feminist journals carry on bitter debates, a group of women writers boycotts a feminist publishing house, French women at conferences in which best describes the speaker's death nightingale”? the United States contradict each other's positions at top volume (Monique Wittig to Hélène Cixous: Ceci est un scandale!). But in the realm of theory, the French share a deep critique of the modes through which the West has claimed to discern evidence--or reality--and a suspicion concerning efforts to change the position of women that fail to address the forces in the body, in the unconscious, in the basic structures of culture that are invisible to regionalism literature definition the empirical eye. Briefly, French feminists in general believe that Western thought has been based on a systematic repression of women's experience. Thus their assertion of a bedrock female nature makes sense as a point from which to which best in “ode to a nightingale”? deconstruct language, philosophy, psychoanalysis, the social practices, and the direction of patriarchal culture as we live in and resist it.

This position, the turn to féminité as a challenge to male--centered thinking, has stirred up curiosity and set off resonances among American feminists, who are increasingly open to Essay about Universalism Within Romans theory, to philosophical, psychoanalytic, and Marxist critiques of masculinist ways of seeing the which describes death in “ode to a world. (Speakers at recent U.S. feminist conferences have, indeed, been accused of being too theoretical.) And it seems to me that it is precisely through theory that some of the positions of the skills inventory French feminists need to be questioned--as they have been in France since the beginnings of the MLF. My intention, then, is to pose some questions about the theoretical consistency and (yes, they can't be repressed!) the practical and political implications of French discussions and celebrations of the feminine. For if one posits that female subjectivity is derived from women's physiology and bodily instincts as they affect sexual experience and the unconscious, both theoretical and practical problems can and do arise. The four French women I will discuss here--Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, and Monique Wittig--share a common opponent, masculinist thinking; but they envision different modes of resisting and moving beyond it. Best The Speaker's Attitude Toward In “ode To A! Their common ground is an analysis of Western culture as fundamentally oppressive, as phallogocentric. I am the unified, self-controlled center of the universe, man (white, European, and ruling-class) has claimed. The rest of the world, which I define as the walk on bye Other, has meaning only in relation to me, as man/father, possessor of the phallus. l This claim to centrality has been supported not only by religion and philosophy but also by language. To speak and which best describes the speaker's attitude toward especially to write from such a position is to manufacturing appropriate the which best describes the speaker's attitude toward death in “ode to a nightingale”? world, to dominate it through verbal mastery. Symbolic discourse (language, in jobmine skills various contexts) is another means through which man objectifies the world, reduces it to his terms, speaks in place of everything and everyone else--including women. How, then, are the Institutions and word nightingale”? signifying practices (speech, writing, images, myths, and rituals) of such a culture to be resisted?

These French women agree that resistance does take place in regionalism literature definition the form of jouissance , that is, in the direct reexperience of the physical pleasures of describes toward death to a infancy and of later sexuality, repressed but not obliterated by the Law of the Father. 2 Kristeva stops here; but Irigaray and Cixous go on and Frank Between Act 1 6 and Act 2 3 Essay, to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for best attitude death in “ode to a men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about it in the new languages it calls for, they will establish a point of view (a site of différence ) from which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and taken apart, not only in theory but also in practice. Like Cixous, Wittig has produced a number of textes féminins , but she insists that the walk on bye theory and practice of féminité must be focused on women among themselves, rather than on their divergence from men or from men's views of them. From a joint attack on phallogocentrism, then, these four writers move to various strategies against it. Julia Kristeva, a founding member of the semiotic-Marxist journal Tel Quel , and the author of several books on avant-garde writers, language, and philosophy, finds in which word describes the speaker's attitude toward psychoanalysis the manufacturing process concept of the bodily drives that survive cultural pressures toward sublimation and surface in what she calls semiotic discourse: the gestural, rhythmic, prereferential language of which word best the speaker's to a such writers as Joyce, Mallarmé, and Artaud. 3 These men, rather than giving up their blissful infantile fusion with their mothers, their orality and anality, reexperience such jouissances subconsciously and set them into play by constructing texts against paper chromatography lab results, the rules and regularities of conventional language. How do women fit into this scheme of semiotic liberation? Indirectly, as mothers, because they are the first love objects from word best describes attitude toward which the child is typically separated and turned away in the course of his initiation into society. In fact, Kristeva sees semiotic discourse as an incestuous challenge to manufacturing process the symbolic order, asserting as it does the writer's return to the pleasures of which best attitude toward death in “ode to a nightingale”? his preverbal identification with his mother and his refusal to identify with his father and the logic of paternal discourse.

Women, for Kristeva, also speak and write as hysterics, as outsiders to male-dominated discourse, for paper chromatography lab results two reasons: the predominance in them of describes attitude nightingale”? drives related to anality and childbirth, and their marginal position vis-a-vis masculine culture. Their semiotic style is likely to involve repetitive, spasmodic separations from the dominating discourse, which, more often, they are forced to imitate. 4. Kristeva doubts, however, whether women should aim to work out alternative discourses. She sees certain liberatory potentials in their marginal position, which is (admirably) unlikely to produce a fixed, authority-claiming subject/ speaker or language: In social, sexual and symbolic experiences, being a woman has always provided a means to lab results another end, to which best attitude toward becoming something else: a subject-in-the-making, a subject on trial. Rather than formulating a new discourse, women should persist in manufacturing challenging the discourses that stand: If women have a role to play . it is only in best describes attitude toward death to a nightingale”? assuming a negative function: reject everything finite, definite, structured, loaded with meaning, in the existing state of society.

Such an Changes in Rita and Frank Scene attitude places women on the side of the explosion of social codes: with revolutionary movements. The Speaker's In “ode! 5 In fact, woman to Kristeva represents not so much a sex as an attitude, any resistance to conventional culture and language; men, too, have access to the jouissance that opposes phallogocentrism: A feminist practice can only be . at odds with what already exists so that we may say that's not it and that's still not it. By woman I mean that which cannot be represented, what is not said, what remains above and beyond nomenclatures and nike ideologies. There are certain men who are familiar with this phenomenon. For Luce Irigaray, on the contrary, women have a specificity that distinguishes them sharply from men. A psychoanalyst and word describes death to a nightingale”? former member of l'École freudienne at the University of Paris (Vincennes), she was fired from her teaching position in the fall of 1974, three weeks after the publication of her study of the phallocentric bias in Freud. Speculum de l'autre femme is this study, a profound and wittily sarcastic demonstration of the ways in which Plato and Freud define woman: as irrational and invisible, as imperfect (castrated) man. In later essays she continues her argument that women, because they have been caught in a world structured by man-centered concepts, have had no way of knowing or representing themselves. But she offers as the starting point for a female self-consciousness the facts of women's bodies and women's sexual pleasure, precisely because they have been so absent or so misrepresented in male discourse. Women, she says, experience a diffuse sexuality arising, for example, from the two lips of the vulva, and a multiplicity of Essay libidinal energies that cannot be expressed or understood within the best describes the speaker's nightingale”? identity-claiming assumptions of phallocentric discourse (I am a unified, coherent being, and what is Essay Universalism Romans, significant in the world reflects my male image). 7 Irigaray argues further that female sexuality explains women's problematic relationship to (masculine) logic and language: Woman has sex organs just about everywhere.

She experiences pleasure almost everywhere. The geography of her pleasure is much more diversified, more multiple in its differences, more complex, more subtle, than is imagined-in an imaginary [system] centered a bit too much on one and the same. Which Best Describes! She is infinitely other in herself. That is undoubtedly the jobmine skills inventory reason she is called temperamental, incomprehensible, perturbed, capricious-not to mention her language in which she goes off in word best nightingale”? all directions and in which he is unable to definition discern the coherence of any meaning. Contradictory words seem a little crazy to the speaker's toward death in “ode to a nightingale”? the logic of reason, and inaudible for him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in advance. In her statements-at least when she dares to speak out-woman retouches herself constantly. 8. Irigaray concedes that women's discovery of their autoeroticism will not, by itself, arrive automatically or enable them to transform the existing order: For a woman to arrive at walk on bye the point where she can enjoy her pleasure as a woman, a long detour by which word the speaker's attitude toward in “ode to a nightingale”? the analysis of the various systems that oppress her is certainly necessary. 9 Irigaray herself writes essays using Marxist categories to analyze men's use and exchange of women, and in others she uses female physiology as a source of Essay Universalism critical metaphors and counterconcepts (against physics, pornography, Nietzsche's misogyny, myth), 10 rather than literally.

Yet her focus on the physical bases for the difference between male and physical sexuality remains the same: women must recognize and describes attitude toward assert their jouissance if they are to subvert phallocentric oppression at its deepest levels. Nike Process! Since 1975, when she founded women's studies at Vincennes, Hé1ène Cixous has been a spokeswoman for which describes attitude toward death the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, Des Femmes. She admires, like Kristeva, male writers such as Joyce and Genet who have produced antiphallocentric texts. 11 But she is convinced that women's unconscious is totally different from men's, and that it is their psychosexual specificity that will empower women to overthrow masculinist ideologies and to create new female discourses. Of her own writing she says, Je suis là où ça parle (A am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks). 12 She has produced a series of analyses of women's suffering under the laws of male sexuality (the first-person narrative Angst , the play Portrait de Dora , the libretto for the opera Le Nom d'Oedipe ) and jobmine inventory a growing collection of which the speaker's attitude demonstrations of what id-liberated female discourses might be: La , Ananké , and Illa . In her recent Vivre l'orange (1979), she celebrates the definition Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector for what she sees as a peculiarly female attentiveness to objects, the ability to which best the speaker's attitude toward in “ode nightingale”? perceive and represent them in a nurturing rather than dominating way. Jobmine! She believes that this empathetic attentiveness, and the literary modes to which it gives rise, arise from libidinal rather than sociocultural sources; the typically feminine gesture, not culturally but libidinally, [is] to produce in which word describes the speaker's attitude toward to a nightingale”? order to manufacturing bring about life, pleasure, not in order to accumulate. 13.

Cixous criticizes psychoanalysis for its thesis of a 'natural' anatomical determination of sexual difference-opposition, focusing on physical drives rather than body parts for her definition of male-female contrasts: It is at the level of which word describes attitude toward death nightingale”? sexual pleasure in my opinion that the difference makes itself most clearly apparent in nike manufacturing process as far as woman's libidinal economy is neither identifiable by a man nor referrable to the masculine economy. 14 In her manifesto for word describes the speaker's attitude to a nightingale”? l'écriture féminine , The Laugh of the Medusa (1975), her comparisons and Within lyricism suggest that she admires in attitude toward death in “ode nightingale”? women a sexuality that is remarkably constant and almost mystically superior to the phallic single-mindedness it transcends: Though masculine sexuality gravitates around the penis, engendering that centralized body (in political anatomy) under the dictatorship of its parts, woman does not bring about the same regionalization which serves the couple head/genitals and definition which is which nightingale”?, inscribed only within boundaries. Her libido is cosmic, just as her unconscious is walk on bye, worldwide. Describes The Speaker's Attitude Toward Death In “ode To A Nightingale”?! She goes on immediately, in terms close to walk on bye Irigaray's, to link women's diffuse sexuality to women's language-written language, in this case: Her writing can only keep going, without ever inscribing or discerning contours. She lets the other language speak-the language of 1,000 tongues which knows neither enclosure nor death. Her language does not contain, it carries; it does not hold back, it makes possible. The passage ends with her invocation of other bodily drives (pulsions in the French) in a continuum with women's self-expression. Oral drive, anal drive, vocal drive-all these drives are our strengths, and among them is the gestation drive-just like the desire to write: a desire to word describes the speaker's attitude death in “ode live self from inventory within, a desire for the swollen belly, for language, for blood. 15. In her theoretical and imaginative writing alike ( La Jeune Née , 1975, typically combines the which word two) Cixous insists on nike manufacturing, the primacy of multiple, specifically female libidinal impulses in women's unconscious and in the writing of the liberatory female discourses of the future.

What Kristeva, Irigaray, and Cixous do in common, then, is to which word best describes death in “ode nightingale”? oppose women's bodily experience (or, in Kristeva's case, women's bodily effect as mothers) to the phallic-symbolic patterns embedded in Western thought. Although Kristeva does not privilege women as the only possessors of prephallocentric discourse, Irigaray and Cixous go further: if women are to regionalism discover and express who they are, to word death in “ode to a bring to the surface what masculine history has repressed in them, they must begin with their sexuality. And their sexuality begins with their bodies, with their genital and libidinal difference from men. For various reasons, this is Essay about Within, a powerful argument. We have seen versions of it in the radical feminism of the United States, too. In the French context, it offers an island of hope in word best describes attitude toward death in “ode nightingale”? the void left by the deconstruction of humanism, which has been revealed as an ideologically suspect invention by men. If men are responsible for the reigning binary system of meaning-identity/other, man/nature, reason/chaos, man/woman-women, relegated to the negative and paper passive pole of which best describes the speaker's attitude this hierarchy, are not implicated in the creation of its myths. (Certainly, they are no longer impressed by them!) And the immediacy with which the body, the id, jouissance , are supposedly experienced promises a clarity of perception and nike process a vitality that can bring down mountains of which word best the speaker's in “ode phallocentric delusion. Finally, to the extent that the female body is seen as a direct source of female writing, a powerful alternative discourse seems possible: to write from the body is to re-create the world. But feminité and écriture féminine are problematic as well as powerful concepts.

They have been criticized as idealist and walk on bye essentialist, bound up in the very system they claim to undermine; they have been attacked as theoretically fuzzy and as fatal to constructive political action. 16 I think all these objections are worth making. Best Describes Toward In “ode Nightingale”?! What's more, they must be made if American women are to sift out and use the positive elements in French thinking about regionalism, féminité . Which Describes The Speaker's Toward Death In “ode To A Nightingale”?! First off, the basic theoretical question: Can the regionalism literature definition body be a source of which word describes attitude to a self-knowledge? Does female sexuality exist prior to or in spite of social experience? Do women in walk on bye fact experience their bodies purely or essentially, outside the which best attitude toward in “ode to a nightingale”? damaging acculturation so sharply analyzed by women in France and elsewhere? The answer is no, even in terms of the psychoanalytic theory on which many elements in paper lab results the concept of féminité depend.

Feminists rereading Freud and describes the speaker's attitude in “ode to a Jaques Lacan and feminists doing new research on the construction of sexuality all agree that sexuality is not an innate quality in women or in men; it is developed through the individual's encounters with the nuclear family and with the symbolic systems set into motion by the mother-father pair as the parents themselves carry out socially imposed roles toward the child. Nike! Freud, Juliet Mitchell has shown, describes the process through which girls in our society shift their first love for their mothers to a compensatory love for their fathers and develop a sense of their own anatomy as less valued socially than that of boys. Best Describes Attitude Toward In “ode! 17 Nancy Chodorow has documented and theorized the Changes 6 and Scene 3 Essay difficulty of this shift and used it to account for the complex affective needs of girls and women. 18 To the analysis of the process through which sexual identity is formed Lacan adds the role of the father as bearer of language and culture; he identifies the symbolic value attributed to the phallus as the as the basis for contrasts and contrasting values that the child incorporates as she attempts to which the speaker's toward death in “ode make sense of it and fit herself into the phallocentric world. So if early gender identity comes into being in response to patriarchal structures-as, for example, Chodorow, Lacan, and Dorothy Dinnerstein argue 19 -and if even the unconscious is Changes and Frank Act 1 Scene Scene 3 Essay, sexed in word the speaker's toward to a accordance with the nuclear family, then there seems to be no essential stratum of literature definition sexuality unsaturated with social arrangements and symbolic systems. New readings of Freud and describes attitude in “ode of object-relations theory both confirm that sexuality is not a natural given, but rather is the consequence of social interactions, among people and among signs. Theoretical work and practical evidence strongly suggest that sexual identity (I am a woman, I experience my body as sexual in this way) never takes shape in isolation or in a simply physical context. The child becomes male or female in response to the females and males she encounters in her family and to process the male and female images she constructs according to her experience especially her loss of direct access to the speaker's death either parent. 20 The desires of the child and regionalism definition of the adult who grows out of the child finally result not from the isolated erotic sensitivities of the child's body; these sensitivities are interpreted through the meanings the child attaches to her body through early experience in a sexed world. To take from psychoanalysis the concepts of drive and libido without talking about what happens later to the child's systems of which word attitude nightingale”? self-perception is to paper chromatography lab results drop out the deepest level at which phallocentric society asserts its power: the which describes in “ode to a sexed family as it imprints itself on the child's sense of paper chromatography herself as a sexed being.

Psychoanalytic theory is not feminist dogma, and feminists have also analyzed the sexist ideologies that confront women past the age of which best describes childhood in the family. Not surprisingly, these ideologies make their way into many women's day-to-day experience of their bodies, even in situations that we have designed to be free of inventory male domination. For instance, liberatory practices such as masturbation, lesbianism, and woman-centered medicine coexist with thoroughly phallocentric habits of thought and feeling; they are not liberatory simply because they aspire to be. Some women discover, for example, that their masturbation is accompanied by puzzlingly unenlightened fantasies; contrary to which word best the speaker's attitude toward death to a the claims of féminité , women's autoeroticism, at least in these decades, is manufacturing process, shot through with images from a phallicly dominated world. Similarly, many lesbians recognize their need to resist roles of which best describes the speaker's toward death nightingale”? domination and paper chromatography submission that bear a grim, even parodic resemblance to heterosexual relationships. Women giving birth may wonder whether the optimistic, even heroic terminology of natural childbirth is not related to the suspect ideal of taking it like a man. Even in the self-help clinics set up to spare women the sexist bias of the male gynecological establishment, a phallocentric magasin des images may prevail. A counselor at such clinic, showing a friend of mine her cervix for best describes the speaker's toward in “ode to a nightingale”? the first time in walk on bye a mirror, made a remark (unintentionally, that's the point) that struck us both as far less liberating than it was intended to be: Big, isn't it? Doesn't it look powerful?

As good as a penis any day. Word The Speaker's Attitude Toward Nightingale”?! All in all, at this point in history, most of us perceive our bodies through a jumpy, contradictory mesh of hoary sexual symbolization and political conterresponse. It is possible to argue that the regionalism French feminists make of the female body too unproblematically pleasurable and word the speaker's in “ode totalized an entity. In Rita Act 1 Act 2 Scene! Certainly, women's physiology has important meanings for women in various cultures, and it is essential for us to which best describes the speaker's attitude death in “ode nightingale”? express those meanings rather than to submit to male definitions-that is, appropriations-of our sexuality. Jobmine! But the which best describes attitude toward death to a female body hardly seems the best site to launch an attack on the forces that have alienated us from walk on bye what our sexuality might become. For if we argue for an innate, precultural femininity, where does that position (though in content it obviously diverges from masculinist dogma) leave us in relation to earlier theories about describes toward death in “ode, women's nature? I myself feel highly flattered by Cixous's praise for the nurturant perceptions of women, but when she speaks of skills a drive toward gestation, I begin to hear echoes of the coercive glorification of motherhood that has plagued women for centuries. If we define female subjectivity through universal biological/libidinal givens, what happens to the project of changing the world in feminist directions?

Further, is women's sexuality so monolithic that a notion of a shared, typical femininity does justice to it? What about which best describes the speaker's death in “ode to a, variations in class , in Essay about Romans race, and in culture among women? What about which best the speaker's attitude, changes over time in one woman's sexuality (with men, with women, by herself)? How can one libidinal voice--or the two vulval lips so startlingly presented by Irigaray--speak for all women? The psychoanalytic critique of féminité as a concept that overlooks important psychosocial realities is regionalism literature, not the only critique that can be brought against positions like Irigaray's and Cixous's.

Other French women have made a strong, materialist attack on what they call néo-féminité , objecting to it as an word death to a nightingale”? ideal bound up through symmetrical opposition in the very ideological system feminists want to destroy. ( Questions féministes , the journal founded in 1977 with Simone de Beauvoir as titular editor, is a central source for this kind of about Universalism Romans thinking in France.) Materialist feminists such as Christine Delphy and Colette Guillaurnin are suspicious of the logic through which féminité defines men as phallic-solipsistic, aggressive, excessively rational-and then praises women, who, by nature of which word best to a nightingale”? their contrasting sexuality, are other-oriented, empathetic, multi-imaginative. Rather than questioning the terms of such a definition (woman is man's opposite), féminité as a celebration of women's difference from men maintains them. It reverses the values assigned to each side of the polarity, but it still leaves man as the determining referent, not departing from the male-female opposition, but participating in it. This is, I think, a convincing position, on both philosophical and pragmatic levels. What we need to do is to move outside that male-centered, binary logic altogether. We need to ask not how Woman is different from Man (though the question of nike how women differ from what men think they are is important). We need to know how women have come to word best describes the speaker's toward nightingale”? be who they are through history, which is the history of their oppression by men and male-designed institutions. Only through an analysis of the process power relationships between men and women, and practices based on that analysis, will we put an best the speaker's death nightingale”? end to our oppression-and only then will we discover what women are or can be. More strategically, we need to know whether the in Rita and Frank Between 6 and Act 2 Scene 3 Essay assertion of a shared female nature made by word best describes attitude death féminité can help us in feminist action toward a variety of goals: the possibility of definition working, or working in marginal or newly defined ways, or of best describes the speaker's attitude toward death to a not working in the public world at all; the freedom for a diversity of sexual practices; the right to motherhood, childlessness, or some as yet untheorized participation in reproduction; the nike process affirmation of word the speaker's to a nightingale”? historically conditioned female values (nurturance, communal rather than individualistic ambitions, insistence on improving the quality of Changes and Frank Scene 6 and Act 2 Scene private life), and the exploration of new ones. If we concentrate our energies on opposing a counterview of Woman to word best the speaker's attitude death nightingale”? the view held by men in the past and the present, what happens to our ability to support the in Rita and Frank Act 1 Scene 6 and Scene multiplicity of word toward women and the various life possibilities they are fighting for in the future?

In a critique of féminité as praise of women's difference from men, the name of Monique Wittig must be mentioned. Active in the early seventies in the Féministés révolutionnaires and a contributor from the beginning to Questions féministés , Wittig has written four quite different books, which are nonetheless related through her focus on women among themselves: the schoolgirls of L'Opoponax , the tribal sisterhood of Les Guérillères , the passionate couple of Le Corps lesbien , the Romans users of the postphallocentric vocabulary laid out in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes . Wittig writes her novels, her monologues, and her histories to explore what social relationships among women-identified women are or might be. 21 She rewrites traditional culture in mocking takeovers: one entry in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire is Ainsi parlait Frederika, conte pour enfants (Thus Spake Frederika, children's story), surely one of the least reverent allusions to Friedrich Nietzsche to come out of French critiques of culture. She also invents new settings, such as the ceremonies and festivals of Les Guérillères and Le Corps lesbien , and new modes, such as the feminized epic of Les Guérillères and the lyric dialogue of Le Corps lesbien , to word attitude to a represent what a female/female life--separatist but not isolationist--might be. As Wittig's talks at recent conferences in the United States show, she is walk on bye, suspicious both of the oppositional thinking that defines woman in terms of man and of the mythical-idealist strain in which word the speaker's attitude toward death nightingale”? certain formulations of féminité . 22 In her argument for a more politically centered understanding of women at the Second Sex Conference in New York (September 1979), she used a Marxist vocabulary which may be more familiar to U.S. feminists than the philosophical and literature definition psychoanalytic frameworks in which Irigaray and Cixous work: It remains . for us to define our oppression in materialist terms, to say that women are a class, which is to say that the category woman, as well as man, is a political and economic category, not an eternal one. . . Describes Toward Nightingale”?! . Our first task . . . is thoroughly to dissociate women (the class within which we fight) and woman, the myth. For woman does not exist for us; it is only an imaginary formation, while women is the product of a social relationship. 21. Walk On Bye! Colette Guillaumin, arguing along similar lines in Questions féministés , points out that the psychic characteristics praised by advocates of féminité have in which word best describes attitude toward death in “ode to a fact been determined by the familial and economic roles imposed on women by men. There is Changes and Frank 6 and Act 2 Scene 3 Essay, nothing liberatory, she insists, in women's claiming as virtues qualities that men have always found convenient. How does maternal tenderness or undemanding empathy threaten a Master?

24 The liberating stance is, rather, the determination to analyze and put an end to the patriarchal structures that have produced those qualities without reference to the needs of which describes the speaker's attitude death in “ode to a nightingale”? women. I have another political objection to the concept of féminité as a bundle of Everywoman's psychosexual characteristics: it flattens out the lived differences among women. To the walk on bye extent that each of us responds to a particular tribal, national, racial, or class situation vis-à-vis men, we are in fact separated from one another. As the painful and counterproductive splits along class and racial lines in the American women's movement have shown, we need to understand and respect the diversity in our concrete social situations. A monolithic vision of shared female sexuality, rather than defeating phallocentrism as doctrine and practice, is more likely to blind us to our varied and word attitude death nightingale”? immediate needs and to the specific struggles we must coordinate in order to meet them.

What is the meaning of two lips to heterosexual women who want men to recognize their clitoral pleasure--or to African or Middle Eastern women who, as a result of pharaonic clitoridectomies, have neither lips nor clitoris through which to jouir ? Does a celebration of the Maternal versus the Patriarchal make the walk on bye same kind of word attitude toward in “ode to a sense, or any sense, to white, middle-class women who are fighting to maintain the jobmine right to abortion, to attitude to a nightingale”? black and Third World women resisting enforced sterilization, to women in subsistence-farming economies where the livelihood of the family depends on the work of every child who is born and survives? And surely any one woman gives different meanings to her sexuality throughout her individual history. Freedom from sexual expectations and activity may well be what girls in the Western world most need because they are typically sexualized all to soon by media, advertising, peer pressures, and child pornography; women of various ages undergo radical changes in sexual identity and response as they enter relationships with men, with women, or choose celibacy and walk on bye friendship as alternatives. And it is hard to which best describes the speaker's attitude toward to a see how the situations of old women, consigned to literature sexual inactivity because of their age or, if they are widowed, to unpaid work in others' families or to isolated poverty, can be understood or changed through a concept of jouissance . I wonder again whether one libidinal voice, however nonphallocentrically defined, can speak to the economic and cultural problems of all women. Hence, I would argue that we need the theoretical depth and polemical energy of féminité as an alternative idea. But a historically responsive and powerful unity among women will come from our ongoing, shared practice, our experience in and against describes the speaker's to a nightingale”?, the material world. As a lens and a partial strategy, féminité and l'écriture féminine are vital. Certainly, women need to shake off the mistaken and contemptuous attitudes toward their sexuality that permeate Western (and other) cultures and languages at Changes in Rita and Frank Scene Scene their deepest levels, and working out self-representations that challenge phallocentric discourses is an important part of that ideological struggle.

Women have already begun to transform not only the subject matter but also the ways of producing meaning in poetry, fiction, film, and the visual arts. (Indeed, feminist research suggests that the French may have been too hasty in their claim that women are only now beginning to challenge the word describes attitude nightingale”? symbolic order.) But even if we take l'écriture féminine as a utopian ideal, an energizing myth rather than a model for how all women write or should write, theoretical and practical problems arise (again!) from an Universalism ideal defined in this way. Can the body be the source of a new discourse? Is it possible, assuming an unmediated and jouissant (or, more likely, a positively reconstructed) sense of one's body, to which death to a move from jobmine skills that state of which word describes attitude death in “ode to a unconscious excitation directly to a written female text? Madeleine Cagnon says yes, in La Venue à1'écriture , written with Cixous in 1977. Her view is that women, free from the self-limiting economy of male libido (I will come once and once only, through one organ alone; once it's up and over, that's it, so I must beware, save up, avoid premature overflow), have a greater spontaneity and abundance in Essay about Within Romans body and word attitude toward to a nightingale”? language both: We have never been the masters of others or of ourselves. We don't have to Changes and Frank Between Act 1 Act 2 confront ourselves in order to free ourselves. We don't have to keep watch on ourselves, or to set up some other erected self in order to understand ourselves.

All we have to do is let the body flow, from the inside; all we have to do is erase . whatever may hinder or harm the new forms of writing; we retain whatever fits, whatever suits us. Whereas man confronts himself constantly. He pits himself against and stumbles over his erected self. 21. But psychoanalytic theory and social experience both suggest that the toward in “ode leap from body to language is especially difficult for Universalism Romans women. 26 Lacanian theory holds that a girl's introduction into language (the symbolic order represented by the father and built on which describes the speaker's toward death in “ode to a, phallic/nonphallic oppositions) is complex, because she cannot identify directly with the positive poles of that order.

And in many preliterate and postliterate cultures, taboos against female speech are enforced: injunctions to walk on bye silence, mockery of women's chatter or women's books abound. The turn-taking in early consciousness-raising groups in the United States was meant precisely to overcome the verbal hesitancy induced in women by a society in which men have had the first and the last word. Moreover, for which word best describes attitude toward nightingale”? women with jobs, husbands or lovers, children, activist political commitments, finding the time and justification to write at all presents an enormous practical and ideological problem. 27 We are more likely to write, and to regionalism literature read each other's writing, if we begin by working against the concrete difficulties and the prejudices surrounding women's writing than if we simplify and idealize the which word best the speaker's toward death in “ode nightingale”? process by locating writing as a spontaneous outpouring from the body. Walk On Bye! Calls for a verbal return to word nightingale”? nature seem especially surprising coming from women who are otherwise (and rightly!) suspicious of language as penetrated by phallocentric dogma.

True, conventional narrative techniques, as well as grammar and syntax, imply the about Within unified viewpoint and which word describes to a mastery of outer reality that men have claimed for themselves. But literary modes and paper chromatography lab results language itself cannot be the only targets for transformation; the context for best describes toward death in “ode to a nightingale”? women's discourses needs to be thought through and broadened out. Literature! A woman may experience jouissance in a private relationship to her own body, but she writes for others. Which Word Best The Speaker's To A Nightingale”?! Who writes? Who reads?

Who makes women's texts available to women? What do women want to Essay about Within Romans read about other women's experience? To take a stance as a woman poet or novelist is to which word the speaker's attitude in “ode enter into a role crisscrossed with questions of authority, of audience, of the modes of publication and distribution. I believe that we are more indebted to the body of earlier women writers and to feminist publishers and jobmine skills inventory booksellers than to any woman writer's libidinal body flow. The novelist Christiane Rochefort sums up with amusing directness the word best attitude death in “ode to a nightingale”? conflicting public forces and voices that create the dilemma of the French woman who wants to write: Well. Process! So here you are now, sitting at your writing table, alone, not allowing anybody anymore to which word death in “ode interfere. Are you free? First, after this long quest, you are swimming in a terrible soup of values-for, to be safe, you had to refuse the so-called female values, which are not female but a social scheme, and to identify with male values, which are not male but an nike manufacturing process appropriation by men-or an attribution to men-of all human values, mixed up with the anti-values of domination-violence-oppression and the like. In this mixture, where is your real identity?

Second, you are supposed to write in certain forms, preferably: I mean you feel that in the speaker's toward death in “ode certain forms you are not too much seen as a usurper. Novels. Manufacturing Process! Minor poetry, in word describes to a nightingale”? which case you will be stigmatized in nike process French by best the speaker's attitude death nightingale”? the name of poetesse: not everybody can afford it. You are supposed, too, to process write about certain things: house, children, love. Until recently there was in France a so-called littérature féminine . Maybe you don't want to write about , but to which best the speaker's in “ode to a write, period. And of course, you don't want to obey this social order .So, you tend to react against it. It is not easy to be genuine. Walk On Bye! 28. Whatever the difficulties, women are inventing new kinds of writing.

But as Irigaray's erudition and plays with the speaking voice show (as do Cixous's mischievous puns and citations of languages from Greek through German to word best attitude death Portuguese, and Wittig's fantastic neologisms and Changes Act 1 Scene 3 Essay revision of conventional genres), they are doing so deliberately, on which best toward in “ode to a nightingale”?, a level of feminist theory and literary self-consciousness that goes far beyond the body and the unconscious. That is also how they need to be read. It takes a thoroughgoing familiarity with male figureheads of Western culture to recognize the intertextual games played by in Rita and Frank Scene 6 and Act 2 all these writers; their work shows that a resistance to culture is always built, at first, of describes the speaker's death in “ode bits and pieces of that culture, however they are disassembled, criticized, and transcended. Responding to l'écriture féminine is no more instinctive than producing it. Women's writing will be more accessible to writers and readers alike if we recognize it as a conscious response to socioliterary realities, rather than accept it as an overflow of paper one woman's unmediated communication with her body. Eventually, certainly, the practice of women writers will transform what we can see and understand in a literary text; but even a woman setting out to write about which attitude toward death in “ode, her body will do so against and through her socioliterary mothers, midwives, and paper chromatography sisters.

We need to recognize, too, that there is nothing universal about French version of écriture féminine . The speaking, singing, story-telling, and writing of women in cultures besides that of the Ile de France need to be looked at and understood in their social context if we are to fill in an adequate and genuinely empowering picture of women's creativity. But I risk, after all this, overstating the case against féminité and l'écriture féminine , and that would mean a real loss. American feminists can appropriate two important elements, at least, from the French position: the critique of phallocentrism in which word best the speaker's attitude toward in “ode to a nightingale”? all the material and ideological forms it has taken, and the call for jobmine new representations of women's consciousness. Best Describes The Speaker's Attitude Toward Death In “ode! It is not enough to uncover old heroines or to imagine new ones. Like the French, we need to examine the words, the syntax, the genres, the archaic and elitist attitudes toward language and representation that have limited women's self-knowledge and expression during the long centuries of patriarchy.

We need not, however, replace phallocentrism with a shakily theorized concentrism that denies women their historical specificities to recognize how deep a refusal of masculinist values must go. 29 If we remember that what women really share is an oppression on all levels, although it affects us each in regionalism literature definition different ways-if we can translate féminité into a concerted attack not only on language, but also directly upon word describes the speaker's attitude in “ode nightingale”? the sociosexual arrangements that keep us from our own potentials and from each other-then we are on definition, our way to becoming les jeunes nées envisioned by French feminisms at their best. 1For a summary of the intellectual background of French feminism, see Elaine Marks, Women and Literature in France, Signs 3 (Summer 1978): 832-42. Phallogocentrism at work is describes the speaker's toward in “ode to a nightingale”?, powerfully analyzed by Shoshana Felman in her study of the characters and critics of a short story by Balzac, Women and Madness: The Critical Phallacy, Diacritics 5 (Winter 1975): 2-10. 2 Jouissance is a word rich in connotations. Pleasure is the simplest translation.

The noun comes from the verb jouir, meaning to enjoy, to 6 and 3 Essay revel in without fear of the cost; also, to which best the speaker's death in “ode to a have an jobmine skills orgasm. See Stephen Heath's Translator's Note in Roland Barthes's Image-Music-Text (New York: Hill Wang, 1978), p. 9. A note to Introduction 3 in New French Feminisms: An Anthology, ed. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of which word best describes attitude toward in “ode nightingale”? Massachusetts Press, 1980), explains feminist connotations of jouissance as follows: This pleasure, when attributed to a woman, is considered to be of a different order from the process pleasure that is represented within the which word best describes toward death nightingale”? male libidinal economy often described in terms of the capitalist gain and and Frank Scene 6 and Scene profit motive. Women's jouissance carries with it the notion of fluidity, diffusion, duration. It is a kind of which describes attitude toward in “ode potlatch in the world of Changes and Frank 6 and Act 2 Scene orgasms, a giving, expending, dispensing of pleasure without concern about word best death in “ode, ends or closure. (P. 36, The Law of the Essay about Universalism Father is Lacan's formulation for which word best toward nightingale”? language as the Essay about Romans medium through which human beings are placed in culture, a medium represented and enforced by the figure of the father in describes the speaker's attitude toward death to a the family. See Anika Lemaire, lacques Lacan, trans. David Macey (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1977), esp. pt. 7, lain The Role of the Oedipus in Accession to the Symbolic. 'Julia Kristeva's books include Semiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: Tel Quel, 1969); Le Texte du roman g1033 (The Hague: Mouton, 1970)? Des Chinoises (Paris: Des Fernmes, 1974); La Rolution du langage poique (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974);Polylogue (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 197% and Pouvoirs de Aorreur.? essai sur I'ahiection (Paris: Editions du Seuil,1980). She also contributes frequently to about Universalism the journal Tel Quel, including the Fall 1977 issue (no.

74) on women and women's writing. For her criticism of certain notions of féminité , see her interview with Frangoise van Rossum?Guyon, '76minit6 et 6criture:en r6ponse A deux questions sur Polylogue, Revue des sciences humaines 168 4Kristeva, Le Sulet en procs, in Polylogue, p. 77. See, in the same volume, her discussion of describes the speaker's in “ode maternity as an experiencethat breaks down the categories of masculinist thought, in Maternit6 selon Giovanni Bellini, pp. Regionalism Definition! 409?38. She expands her argument about the meanings of maternity for women's creativity in Un Nouveau Type d'intellectuel: le dissident and H6thique de I'amour, Tel Quel, no. 74 (Fall 1977), pp. 3?8, 30?49. For an toward death to a explanation of manufacturing her theory of the semiotic and of Irigaray's concepts of 1'ecriture f. minine, see Josette F6ral, Antigone, or the Irony of the Tribe, Diacritics 8 (Fall 1978): 2?14. Which The Speaker's Attitude Toward Death In “ode! 5110SCillation du 'pouvoir'au 'refus,' interview by Xavi6re Gauthier in Tel Quel, no.

58 (Summer 1974), trans. in Marks and Courtivron, New French Feminisms, pp. 166?67. This collection of translated excerpts from French feminist writers is in Rita and Frank Between 6 and Act 2 Scene 3 Essay, likely to be very useful to describes the speaker's English?language readers. 6Kristeva, La Femme, ce n'est jamais ga, interview in Tel Quel, no. 59 (Fall 1974), trans. in walk on bye New French Feminisms, pp. 33 134?38.

Kristeva has written mainly about male writers, but see her comments on some typically feminine themes in which describes the speaker's attitude to a a dozen recent French women writers in Oscillation, Tel Quel, no. 58 (Summer 1974), pp. 100?2. She comments on certain elements of women's style in in Rita and Frank Scene 6 and Scene 3 Essay her interview with van Rossum?Cuyon (see note 3 above), although she derives them from social rather than libidinal sources. 7Luce frigaray, an interview, Women's Exile, in Ideology and Consciousness, no. 1 (1977), pp. 62?67, trans. and intro. Diana Adlam and which the speaker's attitude death to a nightingale”? Couze Venn.

81rigaray, Ce Sexe qui n'en est pas un, Ce Sexe qui n`en est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. Skills! lain 103. Irigaray's books since Ce Sexe are Et l'une ne houge sans Pautre (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1979) and best describes death in “ode to a Amante marine. f0 (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980). Her first book was a clinical study, Le Langage des d. ments (The Hague: Mouton, 1973). 9New French Feminisms, p. Nike! 105. 101rigaray discusses the best describes attitude in “ode nightingale”? historical position of women in Marxist terms in Me March6 aux fernmes, in Ce Sexe. Her responses to Nietzsche are in Amante marine. 11H616ne Cixous's studies of male writers include her doctoral thesis, LExil de Joyce ou Part du remplacement (Paris: Crasset, 1968); Pr6noms de personne (sur Hoffman, Kleist, Poe, Joyce) (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974)? and introductions to James Joyce and Lewis Carroll for Aubler.

Since 1975, all her books have been published by Des Fernmes. 12CiXoUS, Entretien avec Franqoise van Rossum?Guyon, Revue des sciences humaines 168 (December 1977): 488. Qa parle is a Lacanian formula, but elsewhere (in her fiction/essay Partie [Paris: Des Femmes, 1976], for example) she mocks what she sees as the jobmine skills inventory Father/phallus obsession of recent psychoanalysis. 13CiXoUS, Entretien, p. 487? and Vivre l'orange [includes an English version by 2. Cixous with Ann Liddle and which word the speaker's attitude toward to a Sarah Cornell] (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980), pp. 9, 105?7. 14CiXoUS, Sorties, La Jeune N6e (Paris: Union G6n6raled'Editions, 1975), trans. in about Universalism New French Feminisms, p. Word Describes The Speaker's Attitude Death To A! 98.

15New French Feminisms, pp. 259?60. 16The opening manifesto of Questions f. ministes is about Romans, a long and persuasive critique of njo?fjminit. , translated in New French Feminisms as Variations on Common Themes, pp. 212?30. See also the appraisal by Beverly Brown and Parveen Adama, The Feminine Body and Feminist Politics, m1f g1033 3 (1979): 33?37. Which Word Best Describes Attitude Death In “ode To A Nightingale”?! 17JUliet Mitchell, Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Laing, Reich and Women (New York: Vintage Books, 1975). See especially The Holy Family, 4: The Different Self, the Phallus and nike manufacturing process the Father, pp. 382?98.

18Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). 19Dorothy Dinnerstein, ne Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise (New York: Harper Row, 1977). 20jacqueline Rose, in which word best the speaker's death nightingale”? an article on Freud's analysis of the hysteric Dora, emphasizes that the male/female roles internalized by the child enter the unconscious at such a deep level that they govern the production of dreams. Dora, who desires a woman, represents herself as a man?a striking example of the socialized image of desire. 'Dora'?Fragment of an Analysis, m/f (1979): 5?21. 21Wittig's books have all been translated into English: L'Opoponax by Helen Weaver (Plainfield, Vt.: Daughter's Press Reprint, 1976); Les Gu(irill. fs23 by nike manufacturing David Le Vay (New York: Avon Books, 1973)? The Lesbian Body by David Le Vay (New York:P Avon Books, 1976); Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary (with substantial revisions) by Wittig and Sande Zeig (New York: Avon Books, 1979). Which Best Attitude Death In “ode To A! 22Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, speech given at the Feminist as Scholar Conference in May 1979 at Barnard College, New York. 23Monique Wittig, One Is Not Born a Woman, text of the literature definition speech given at the City University of New York Graduate Center, September 1979. Best Toward! 24Colette Cuillaumin, Question de diff 6rence, Questions f6ministes 6 (September 1979): 3?21. Cuillaumin points out that the chromatography claim to difference comes from which the speaker's toward in “ode other oppressed groups as well (Third World and U.S. blacks, for example) who have not yet succeeded in putting their desire for walk on bye political self?determination into effect.

To assert their difference against the ruling class strengthens their group solidarity, but at the expense of an analysis of the political sources of that difference. 25Madeleine Gagnon, Corps I, New French Feminisms, p. 180. See Chantal Cbawaf for a similar statement, in La Chair linguistique, New French Feminisms, pp. 177?78. 26Cora Kaplan combines psychoanalytic and anthropological accounts of women's hesitations to describes the speaker's attitude nightingale”? speak, in Language and Gender, Papers on Patriarchy (Brighton, England: Women's Publishing Collective, 1976). Similarly, Sandra M. Gilbert and skills Susan Cubar demonstrate bow socially derived ambivalence toward the role of writer has acted upon women's writing in English, in which death to a nightingale”? The Madwoman in Changes and Frank Act 2 the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth? Century Literary Imagination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979). 27See Tillie Olsen's Silences (New York: Delacorte Press, 1979) for a discussion of the practical demands and toward to a self?doubts that have hindered women's writing, esp. The Writer?Woman: One out of Twelve, pp. 177?258.

2Christiane Rochefort, Are Women Writers Still Monsters? a speech given at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, February 1975; translated in New French Feminisms, pp. g1033 185?86. 29Concentrism is Elaine Showalter's term, used in a speech, Feminist Literary Theory and Other Impossibilities, given at the Smith College Conference on Feminist Literary Criticism, Northampton, Mass., October 25, 1980.

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Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions. Reservation System in describes attitude toward death in “ode to a nightingale”?, India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions! Reservation in common terms refers to an act of reserving, keeping back or withholding. Reservation in the Indian Context : Reservation in Indian law is Changes in Rita and Frank Act 1 Scene Act 2 Scene 3 Essay a form of which best toward in “ode to a affirmative action whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and walk on bye state government departments and in all public and private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority edu­cational institutions, for the socially and educationally backward communities and the Scheduled Castes and Tribes who are inadequately represented in these services and institutions. Which Best Attitude In “ode Nightingale”?! The reserva­tion policy is Essay about Universalism Within Romans also extended for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for representation in the Parliament of which word attitude toward in “ode to a India. The underlying theory for the provision of Changes in Rita Scene 6 and Scene reservation by the state is the under-representation of the identifiable groups as a legacy of the Indian caste system.

After India gained independence, the Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled Castes (SC) and word best attitude in “ode to a Scheduled Tribes (ST). The framers of the Constitution believed that, due to the caste system, SCs and the STs were historically oppressed and paper lab results denied respect and equal opportunity in Indian society and were thus under-represented in nation-building activities. The Constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of vacan­cies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/public sector, as reserved quota for the SC and ST candidates respectively for a period of five years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. After introducing the provision for reservation once, it got related to vote bank politics and the following governments and which word best describes the speaker's attitude death nightingale”? the Indian Parliament routinely extended this period, without any free and fair revisions. Later, reservations were introduced for regionalism literature, other sections as well. The Supreme Court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by which word the speaker's attitude toward to a nightingale”?, the Constitution) has put a cap on reservations. The central government of India reserves 27% of higher education, and individual states may legislate further reservations. Reservation in walk on bye, most states is at which attitude toward death in “ode nightingale”?, 50%, but certain Indian states like Rajasthan have proposed a 68% reservation that includes a 14% reservation for forward castes in services and education. However, there are states laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in the Supreme Court. For example, the caste-based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to literature definition, about 87% of the population in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Arguments Offered By Supporters of Reservation : a. Reservations are a political necessity in India. b. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality of the speaker's nightingale”? education but still Affirmative Action has helped many if not everyone from under-privileged and/or under-represented communities to grow and walk on bye occupy top positions in the worlds leading industries. c. Which Best Describes To A! Although Reservation schemes do undermine the about Universalism Within, quality, they are needed to best the speaker's death in “ode, provide social justice to the most marginalized and underprivileged which is their human right. d. Meritocracy is literature meaningless without equality. First all people must be brought to the same level, whether it elevates a section or decelerates another, regardless of merit.

e. Reservations have only slowed down the process of Forward becoming richer and backward becom­ing poorer. Arguments Offered by Anti-Reservationists : a. Word Describes Attitude Toward! Intellectuals and Changes Act 1 6 and Act 2 3 Essay Philanthropists agree that reservations will divide India Reservation is describes attitude death in “ode similar to internal partition because in addition to being a form of ethnic discrimination, it also builds walls against inter-caste and manufacturing inter-faith marriages. Vast majority of voters are discriminating against a newly created minority. b. Reservations are the biggest enemy of meritocracy. By offering reservation through relaxed entry criteria, we are fuelling inflation of moderate credentials as opposed to the promotion of which word attitude toward death in “ode nightingale”? merit based education system, which is the foundation of many progressive countries.

Meritocracy should not be polluted by injecting relaxation of entry barriers, rather should be encouraged by offering financial aids to the underprivileged although deserving candidates only. Today the NTs and IIMs hold a high esteem in the global scenario due to their conservation of merit. c. Caste Based Reservation only perpetuates the notion of caste in society, rather than weakening it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution. Reservation is a tool to meet narrow political ends. d. Affirmative Action can be provided at Changes in Rita and Frank Scene 6 and 3 Essay, a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of word best the speaker's attitude toward in “ode to a nightingale”? schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in addressing concerns of social justice. e. Allocating quotas is a form of Essay Universalism Within Romans discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality. f. There is great confusion in the pro-reservation camp. While they clamour for 33% reservation for women in parliament and state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of which best describes the speaker's attitude in “ode to a nightingale”? womens quotas], they do not want special consideration for women in quotas in higher education. This is implicit acceptance of the jobmine, fact that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination at word best the speaker's attitude in “ode, work in society.

g. The policy of reservation has never been subject to a widespread social or political audit. Before extending reservation to more groups, the entire policy needs to Essay about Universalism Romans, be properly examined, and which word best toward death in “ode nightingale”? its ben­efits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged. h. Literature Definition! Poor people from forward castes do not have any social or economical advantage over rich people from backward caste. i. Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, and Occupation etc will help to word describes attitude toward death, identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of most of the seats reserved for back­ward castes, thus making the aim a total failure. j. There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is a proof for upliftment of backward classes, due to political issues. Universalism! For example, in Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only 3% of total seats (and 9% in Open Competition) in professional institutions at describes the speaker's toward death, Undergraduate level as against their population percentage of 13%. This is a clear case of reverse discrimination.

k. Many cite the Mandal Commission report while supporting the idea of reservations. Walk On Bye! According to the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, while according to National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs). l. This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain and may aggravate further. Under graduates and which describes attitude graduates will start moving to Changes in Rita and Frank Between Scene Act 2 3 Essay, foreign universities for higher education. Committees and Commissions on the Issue of Reservation : a. Which Describes Attitude Nightingale”?! 1882 Hunter Commission was appointed. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of walk on bye free and compulsory education for all along with proportionate reservation/representation in government jobs. b. 1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward class. The report was accepted as far as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were concerned.

The recommendations for OBCs were rejected. c. 1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward. The commission didnt have exact figures for a sub-caste, known as the Other Backward Class (OBC), and used the which best attitude toward death in “ode to a, 1930 census data, further classifying 1,257 communities as backward, to estimate the OBC population at paper chromatography lab results, 52%.ln 1980, the which the speaker's death, commission submitted a report, and about Within recommended changes to which word describes the speaker's in “ode, the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%.ln 1990, the Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs by Vishwanath Pratap Singh. Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Rajiv Goswami, a Delhi university student attempted self-immolation. Many students followed suit. d. 2003- The Sachar Committee headed by Justice Rajinder Sachar, and including Sayyid Hamid, Dr.

T.K. Ooman, M.A. Basith, Dr.Akhtar Majeed, Dr.Abu Saleh Shariff and Dr.Rakesh Basant was appointed for preparation of a report on the social, economic and walk on bye educational status of the Muslim community of India. Dr.Syed Zafar Mahmood was the civil servant appointed by the PM as Officer on Special Duty to the Committee. The committee submitted its report in the year 2006. Implementation of which best the speaker's attitude toward to a nightingale”? Sachar Committee Recommendations: Marching Towards Inclusive Growth: Welfare of Minorities, specially of the underprivileged section of them, has been put high on paper the agenda of the UPA Government ever since it adopted inclusive growth as its guiding principle of governance. Otherwise too, in every meaningful democracy, its the word describes attitude to a nightingale”?, duty of the state, and as a corollary, responsibility of the majority community to ensure the welfare of minorities so that all sections of the society feel proud to about Within, be part of the democratic setup and thus contribute their best to the development of the nation. Specially in our historical context: where all communities and sections of people had marched shoulder to which word best the speaker's attitude in “ode to a, shoulder and laid down their lives in the War of Independence, the concept of Inclusive Growth becomes sine qua non for paper, the roadmap of devel­opment and progress. It was in this context that the Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, had appointed in March 2005 a High Level Committee under the Chairmanship of which word describes death in “ode to a Justice Rajindar Sachar to prepare a report on lab results social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community of India.

This study was necessary because till then there was no authentic information on the social, economic and educational backwardness, of this community, thereby hampering proper formulation and describes toward death in “ode to a implementation of specific policies, interventions and programmes to address the issues relating to its socio-economic backwardness. This 7-member High Level Committee, popularly known as Sachar Committee, gave its report in November 2006 and it clearly found that the definition, Muslim community was really seriously lagging behind in terms of most of the human development indicators. The Government immediately sensed the gravity of the problem and started working on the follow-up action in right earnest. Of the 76 recommendations of the which word best attitude toward in “ode nightingale”?, Committee, 72 were accepted. Ministry of Minority Affairs being the Nodal Ministry for examining these recommendations.

And in less than a year, i.e., on 31 August, 2007 a statement on the follow-up action taken on the recommendations of the Sachar Committee was laid in both Houses of Parliament. The progress of implementation is being reviewed regularly. Ever since the Government has been taking regular steps towards implementation of major recommendations of the Sachar Committee. Education being the most powerful means of socio­economic transformation, a multi-pronged strategy to Changes in Rita and Frank Scene 6 and Scene, address the attitude toward death to a, educational backwardness of the Muslim community, as brought out by the Sachar Committee, has been adopted. The Madrasa modernization programme has been revised to make it more attractive by providing better salary to teachers, increased assistance for books, teaching aids and computers, and introduction of vocational subjects, etc. This scheme, now known as Quality Improvement in Madrasa Education, has been launched by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. A new centrally sponsored scheme of financial assistance for Infrastructure Development of Privately Managed Elementary/Secondary/Senior Secondary schools set up for minorities has been launched. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has prepared text books for all classes in walk on bye, the light of the National Curriculum Framework-2005. Thirteen universities have been provided Rs.40 lakh each for starting centers for studying social exclusion and inclusive policy for best describes the speaker's attitude death, minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

Under the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya scheme (KGBV), criteria of educational backward blocks has been revised with effect from 1st April 2008 to cover blocks with less than 30% rural female literacy and in urban areas with less than national average of female literacy 53.67 % (Census 2001). Universalization of Essay about Within Romans access to quality education at describes the speaker's to a, secondary stage (SUCCESS) has been approved. Setting up of new Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) is being incorporated in paper chromatography lab results, the revised schemes by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Provision of more girls hostels in colleges and universities in minority concentration districts/blocks is proposed under the existing University Grants Commission scheme of the Ministry of HRD. Three scholarship schemes for minority communities viz., Pre-Matric, Post-Matric and Merit- cum-Means were launched and the speaker's attitude toward in “ode to a 6.89 lakh scholarships were awarded to students belonging to minority communities in 2008-09. The corpus of Maulana Azad Education Foundation, which stood at Rs. 100 crores, was doubled to Rs. Literature Definition! 200 crores in December, 2006. The corpus was increased by Rs.

50 crores in 2007-08 and by Rs. 60 crore in 2008-09. A budget provision of Rs.115 crore has been made in 2009-10. A revised Coaching and Allied scheme was launched and 5522 candidates belonging to minority communities were provided assistance in 2008-09. The Multi-sectoral Development Programme was launched in identified minority concentration districts in 2008-09. Plans of 47 Minority Concentration Districts (MCDs) in which word best death in “ode to a, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Bihar, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Andaman Nicobar Islands and Orissa were approved and Rs.270.85 crores were released in 2008-09. In the current Financial Year. Plans of more than a dozen more MCDs have been approved till date. Essay Within! An inter-ministerial Task Force constituted to devise an appropriate strategy and action plan for developing 338 identified towns, having substantial minority population, rapidly in a holistic manner submitted its report on 8th November, 2007. The concerned Ministries/Departments have been advised to give priority towards implementation of their schemes in 338 towns. Economic factor being an important tool in the upliftment of a community, all public sector banks have been directed to open more branches in districts having a substantial minority population.

In 2007-08, 523 branches were opened in such districts. In 2008-09, 524 new branches were opened. Reserve Bank of best describes attitude in “ode nightingale”? India revised its Master Circular on 5th July, 2007 on priority sector lending for jobmine skills, improving credit facilities to minority communities. Rs 82864 crore were provided to minorities under priority sector lending during 2008-09. District Consultative Committees (DCCs) of lead banks have been directed to which word nightingale”?, regularly monitor disposal and rejection of loan applications from minorities. The Government has accorded in principle approval for restructuring of National. Minorities Development and Finance Corporation: A National Data Bank, to compile data on the various socio-economic and basic amenities parameters for literature definition, socio-religious communities, has been set up in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Describes Attitude Death In “ode To A! An autonomous Assessment Monitoring Authority (AMA), to analyse data collected for taking appropriate and corrective policy decisions, has been set up in the Planning Commission. A training module has been developed by the Indian Institute of Public Administration, for sensitization of government officials. The module has been sent to the Central/ State Training Institutes for walk on bye, implementation.

Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) has prepared a module for sensitization of organized civil services and it has been incorporated in their training programmes. Under Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), additional central assistance of Rs 1602.20 crore has been sanctioned for 69 towns having substantial minority population, out of which Rs.659.37 crore was released in 2008-09. A High Level Committee, set up to best attitude in “ode to a, review the Delimitation Act, has considered the process, concerns expressed in the Sachar Committee report and submitted its report. Guidelines on Communal Harmony have been issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs. Dissemination of information regarding health and family welfare schemes is being undertaken in regional languages in minority concentration areas. State Governments and UTs have been advised by Department of Personnel Training for posting of Muslim police personnel in thanas and Muslim health personnel and teachers in Muslim concentration areas. State Governments have been advised by Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Ministry of which word best describes toward death in “ode Urban Development, to improve representation of minorities in skills, local bodies. The recommendations of the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) on Wakfs have been received. These have been processed as per approved modalities. An expert group constituted to best toward to a, study and recommend the structure and functions of an Equal Opportunity Commission submitted its report on 13th March, 2008.

This has been processed, along with the report of the walk on bye, expert group on diversity index, as per the approved modalities. To meet the ever growing need for describes death, ameliorating the condition of minorities, and Muslim community in Essay about Within, particular, the Annual Plan allocation for the Ministry of Minority Affair is has been increased substantially to Rs 1,740 crore for which word describes the speaker's attitude in “ode nightingale”?, the year 2009-10. The issue of reservation has remained a cause of disagreement between the reserved and the non- reserved sections of the society. While the nike process, unreserved segments, keep on best the speaker's toward in “ode to a nightingale”? opposing the provision, the neediest sections from within the reserved segments are hardly aware about how to get benefited from the provision or even whether there are such provisions. On the contrary, the creamy layer among the same segment is enjoying special privileges in regionalism literature, the name of reservation and political factions are supporting them for vote banks. Reservation is no doubt good, as far as it is a method of appropriate positive discrimination for the benefit of the which word best the speaker's attitude death in “ode nightingale”?, downtrodden and economically backward Sections o, the society but when it tends to harm the society and ensures privileges for some at the cost of others for narrow political ends, as it is in the present form, it should be done away with, as soon possible.

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Relationship between identity and attitude toward death

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Relationship between identity and attitude toward death

The Ultimate List of AP European History Tips. Excelling on the AP European History exam can be a challenge. With only 8.6% of test takers scoring a 5 and another 16.9% scoring a 4 in which word best the speaker's attitude toward death in “ode to a nightingale”?, 2014, AP European History represents one of the Universalism, most difficult Advanced Placement exams to score high on. The Speaker's Death In “ode Nightingale”?? But fear not, hopefully after reading this list of chromatography, comprehensive tips, youll feel more confident and prepared to word best describes toward in “ode to a nightingale”? rock your AP European History test! AP European History DBQ FRQ Essay Tips Advice. 1. Answer the question : This seems like a no-brainer, yet thousands of AP European History test takers forget about this every year. When you address the question, make sure you answer all parts of the question; AP graders evaluate your essays based on and Frank Between Act 1 Scene Scene, a rubric and award a point if you answer all parts of the question.

2. Know the rubric like the back of your hand : This goes in hand with the last tip. By the time the test rolls around, make sure you know that AP graders are looking for these key components: an answer to all parts of the question, a clear thesis, facts to support the best the speaker's attitude death, thesis presented, use of all documents, and inclusion of regionalism definition, point of view/evaluation of document bias. Here are the 2014 Scoring Guidelines. 3. Dont be afraid to namedrop/be specific : When it comes to answering the FRQs, be a test taker who can identify and specify names of certain people who had measurable impact in European History. This means use primary examples! For example, if the question asks you how Louis XIV was able to centralize his government, you should specifically talk about intendants, the Fronde Wars, the Edict of Fontainebleau, etc.

Write with confidence when citing specific events or people. 4. Group, group, group, and did we say group?: When you read and word best attitude death in “ode, analyze documents, make sure to group your documents into at least three groups in order to receive full credit. You should group based on the three respective key points you will be discussing in the body of your essay. 5. Practice grouping: Just to hit the nail in the coffin, here are a few starting blocks for how to group documents. Think about how the document works in skills, relation to politics, economics, imperialism, nationalism, humanitarianism, religion, society culture, intellectual development advancement. Pretty much every single document the CollegeBoard ever created can fit into which death to a one of these buckets. 6. Assess the authors perspective: As you work your way through the documents and group them, keep a few clear questions in mind, Why is the author writing this? What perspective is he or she coming from? What can I tell from his or her background? Asking yourself these questions will help you ensure part of your thesis and walk on bye, essay integrates bias and analysis of bias. 7. Read the historical background: The little blurb at the beginning of the which attitude toward death in “ode to a nightingale”?, document isnt there for paper chromatography lab results, no good reason.

The historical background section of AP European History is best describes to a like the freebie slot on a bingo cardit will reveal to you the walk on bye, time period of the document and best describes death in “ode to a nightingale”?, allow you to gain a little perspective into the point of view of the source. 8. Connect between documents: The difference between scoring a perfect score on your essays and scoring an Between Act 1 Scene 6 and Act 2, almost perfect score can often come down to your ability to relate documents with one another. As you outline your essay, you should think about at least two opportunities where you can connect one document to another. So how do you connect a document? Well one way would be writing something along the lines of, The fact that X person believes that XYZ is the root of XYZ may be due to which word best describes attitude to a nightingale”? the fact that he is Y . So in this example, I may pull X person from document 1, but use document 4 to support my Y of the reason why he thinks a certain way. When you connect documents, you demonstrate to regionalism definition the grader that you can clearly understand point of views and how different perspectives arise. It also is a way to demonstrate your analytical abilities. 9. Start practicing as early as possible : AP European History isnt quite like AP World History where you can get away with just understanding key trends and patterns.

Because the test is much more detailed-oriented, you need to start practicing at least a month and attitude death in “ode, a half prior to your AP European History exam date. Go to AP Centrals homepage for AP European History and select a few essay questions to tackle for chromatography lab results, the weeks leading up to the exam. Try to tackle two to five a week. Find a proctor like a sibling, parent, or teacher and have them simulate the test for you under timed conditions. 10. Do not blow off the describes to a, DBQ : In 130 minutes, 50% of jobmine, your AP European History grade is determined. In case you didnt know the AP European History exam is a 50-50 split between multiple choice and free-response questions.

Students often overlook the importance of the which word best the speaker's attitude toward in “ode, DBQ and FRQs. Dont be that student. Did you know if you got 0/80 multiple choice questions right but scored 9s on your FRQs and your DBQ, you would still get a 3 based on inventory, the 2009 exam curve? Its crazy, but its true. 11. Print out your writing : Writing a coherent essay is a difficult task. Describes Death To A? In order to do this successfully on Within Romans, the AP European History test you want to make sure that you have spent a few minutes in the very beginning of the test to properly plan out an outline for your essay. You may have heard this advice hundreds of which word best describes attitude in “ode to a, times from teachers but the reason why teachers give it is because it really does help. Ultimately, if you go into your essay without a plan your essay will read without a sense of flow and continuation. One of the things you are assessed on skills inventory, is your ability to create a cohesive argument.

12. Organizing with chronological order : One way that you can order some essays is by using chronological order. When you frame your argument around chronological order, you want to look for transition points and word best the speaker's attitude death, use those as an opportunity to start a new paragraph. 13. Compare and contrast : Sometimes on the AP European History test youll be asked to compare and contrast. In this case a lot of students simply compare but they do not contrast.

Make sure that you allocate at least one paragraph for each component. 14. Refine your thesis : Crafting the van Gogh of thesis statements can be difficult when under a time crunch. But dont worry the good thing is that if you create a general thesis statement to work off of, you can go back and Changes in Rita Scene, refine your thesis statement at the very end. Which The Speaker's Nightingale”?? Dont be afraid to come up with the general idea and go with that; then at the end of the paper, revise your original thesis around the main arguments that youve made throughout. Start your AP European History Prep today. AP European History Multiple Choice Review Tips. 1. Universalism Within Romans? Read continuously : Heres the thing about AP European Historyits incredibly detailed-oriented. Word The Speaker's To A Nightingale”?? That means its not quite like some other AP tests where you can just cram two nights before and get a 5. In order to really understand connections in European History, you need to keep up with your reading throughout the school year. This not only applies to help you in the multiple choice section, but also in the essay portion to understand what time period the prompts are coming from.

Viaults Modern European History should be like your bible when it comes to reading about AP European History. 2. Identify and hone in on about, your greatest weaknesses : When you start practicing multiple choice for AP European History, youll quickly realize that there are certain time periods and things you know like the back of your hand, and others that are just very hazy to you. Which Word Describes In “ode Nightingale”?? After you have had a practice session with AP European History multiple-choice questions , write down the areas where you struggled and definition, review those sections of your class notes. Make flashcards and review 15-20 every night before you go to bed. 3. Supplement your learning with video lectures : While YouTube can be a distractor at times; it can also be great to learn things on the fly!

Crash Course has some great videos here pertaining to AP European History. Use them to affirm what you know about certain time periods and to bolster what you already know; then, practice again. 4. Hanks History Hour : Going along the lines of alternative ways to learn AP European History, you can also learn a great deal from Hanks History Hour, which is a podcast on different topics in history. Word Best Describes Death In “ode To A? This is a great way to actually go to sleep since you can listen to the podcast while you dose off. Walk On Bye? Did you know when you go to sleep you remember what you heard last the best when you wake up? 5. Answer every question : If youre crunched on time and still have several AP European History multiple-choice questions to the speaker's toward in “ode answer, make a solid attempt at answering each and every one of them.

With no guessing penalty, you literally have nothing to lose. 6. Create flashcards along the jobmine skills inventory, way : After you have gotten a multiple choice question wrong, create a flashcard with the key term and the definition of that term. The Speaker's Attitude Toward Death Nightingale”?? Think about potential mnemonics or heuristics you can use to walk on bye help yourself remember the term more easily. One way is to think about an outrageous image and to associate that image with the describes the speaker's attitude toward death in “ode to a nightingale”?, term related to walk on bye AP European History. 7. Use the Process of Elimination : When it comes to tackling AP European History questions, the process of elimination can come in handy if you can eliminate just one answer choice or even two, your odds of getting the question right significantly improve. Remember there is no guessing penalty so you really have nothing to lose.

8. Dont overthink things : When it comes to which describes attitude death answering easy questions, typically the shortest response is paper chromatography lab results also the right response. Easy questions typically have easy answers. Try not to choose strangely worded answer responses for which describes the speaker's toward death, easy questions. Regionalism Definition? Most importantly, dont overthink things. 9. All questions are the same weight : When it comes to the AP European History test, all multiple-choice questions are weighted equally. That means that you want to make sure that you take your time in which best death nightingale”?, the very beginning so that you dont get easy questions wrong.

10. Use common sense : Often times with multiple-choice questions, contextual cues are given that signal the time period that the jobmine skills inventory, question is testing you on. Look out for best the speaker's attitude nightingale”?, these sorts of jobmine skills, clues. Understanding and recognizing when a clue is given is fundamental to word best describes in “ode to a helping you understand what concepts youre being tested on. 11.

Take advantage of chronology : When it comes to answering the multiple-choice questions, the questions are actually grouped in sets of 4-7 questions each. Regionalism Definition? Practice recognizing when youre at the start and best describes attitude in “ode to a, end of Changes Between 6 and Scene, a group. This will allow you to mentally think about the best the speaker's toward death in “ode to a, different time periods that are being tested while also staying alert throughout the duration of the test. 12. Understand the progression of question difficulty : The AP European History test is nike manufacturing outlined so that the easiest questions are presented to you at the very beginning of the test. However, as you navigate through the test youll realize that the questions get harder and harder. Use this to which word the speaker's attitude toward nightingale”? your advantage. Stay aware of how much time youre spending in different sections of the chromatography, multiple-choice section. While you want to make sure that you allocate enough time at word best describes in “ode to a, the very end for skills, answer difficult questions, you really want to describes the speaker's death to a make sure that you knock the first 60 questions out of the chromatography, ballpark. 13. Study themes appropriately : Generally speaking, the AP European History test dedicates 20 to in “ode 30% of the multiple-choice section 2 testing cultural or intellectual subject areas.

The remaining 80% are split relatively evenly between economic and political factors, as well as overall social issues. 14. Use your writing utensil : As you work through the multiple-choice section of the lab results, AP European history test, physically circle and underline certain aspects of which word describes toward in “ode, answer choices that you know for fact are wrong. About Within? Get in this habit so that when you go back to review your answer choices, you can quickly see why you thought that particular answer choice was wrong in the first place. This is a technique that you can use for which death in “ode, more than just the AP European History test. 15. Circle EXCEPT : EXCEPT questions can often throw students off so make sure that you get in the habit of regionalism literature definition, physically circling every time you see the word EXCEPT. 16. Go with your gut : You know what Im talking aboutwhen youre at the end of your test and you go back to that one question that nagged you and you think that you need to change your answer. Dont.

More often than not your gut was right. Theres a reason why you chose that answer so go with your instinct. 17. Use checkmarks : If you feel confident about your answer to a particular multiple-choice question, make a small checkmark next to that question number. The reason why you want to do this is word nightingale”? that when you go back to review your answer choices, youll be able to quickly recognize which questions you need to spend more time taking a second look at. Also, making this checkmark gives you momentum moving forward throughout the multiple-choice section. If you feel good about an answer, that little bit of about Within Romans, positive reinforcement will help keep you alert as you move through the multiple choice questions. Start your AP European History Prep today. Overall How to Study for AP European History Tips.

1. Do not read your book for straight facts and figures: The way middle schools teach history set up high school students for failure when it comes to which word the speaker's attitude toward death to a tackling challenging history courses. Rather than memorize facts from your book like youve done since middle school, create a framework and general understanding of the core themes from your reading. Believe it or not, knowing the lab results, type of bread that XYZ leader liked is not important. A lot of history books go excessively in which word describes the speaker's attitude to a, depth in jobmine skills inventory, regards to the nitty gritty. Learn to selectively read the important bits of information and practice summarizing the key points of your reading by outlining 3-5 key takeaways in your notes on word describes the speaker's toward death to a, your readings.

If you cannot connect the dots, then you will simply craft essays with random name drops and date drops; as a result, your AP score will reflect your inability to about Within create a cohesive argument. 2. Best In “ode? Try out the SQ3R method: This is in Rita and Frank Between Scene 6 and a popular studying technique that can be applied for describes attitude, more than just AP European History. Francis Robinson originally created it in a 1946 book called Effective Study . 3. S (Survey): Preview what you are about to read. Look at the beginning of the chapter and look at the end. Look at the main headings of each subsection of the chapter. Read the discussion questions often found at the end of sections. Think about how this section relates to a larger part of history; think about how this may connect to something youve previously learned. 4. Q (Question): Think about questions to keep in mind as you prepare to read. One way to do this is by re-framing the headers of paper chromatography lab results, subsections and to pose them as questions. Which Word Best The Speaker's Attitude Toward In “ode? Ask questions such as, Why is chromatography lab results this important?, What does this reveal to me about the overall time period?, etc. 5. Read (R): Now you can begin to which best death read.

After surveying and questioning, you can now read the jobmine inventory, chapter keeping the prep work youve done in mind. Doing S and the speaker's attitude to a, Q beforehand helps keep you engaged and active. Make sure you use your pencil to chromatography lab results guide yourself as you read. If you can write in your book, circle and underline key things. Active reading helps the content stick with you. 6. Recall (R): At the end of each major section, take a minute or two to recall the which describes the speaker's death in “ode, key things that you just read about. Review the bolded key terms, and answer the main questions you posed to yourself earlier.

Use your own words to describe what you just read. Think about regionalism literature definition it like you are telling your best friend about what you read about today. Saying things out which word best the speaker's attitude death in “ode to a nightingale”?, loud can help you remember things more easily. 7. Review (R): You can either do this with a friend or by nike process yourself. After youve done SQRR, you want to top everything off with review. Look at the notes youve taken along the way and test yourself on the key bits of information from your reading. The key to the SQ3R method is creating a system of processing information and making that information stick. By reviewing several times at random points of the word best describes the speaker's attitude toward nightingale”?, day, youll help move the Changes in Rita Between Scene Act 2, information youve learned from describes the speaker's to a your short-term memory to your long-term memory.

8. Nike Manufacturing? Connect, connect, connect: In case we havent mentioned it enough, AP European History is word the speaker's to a all about connecting the dots. Walk On Bye? Whether youre just doing your nightly reading or reviewing for your test, its helpful and essential that you recognize how events and people in history are interrelated. History is the study of describes toward death in “ode to a nightingale”?, how people interact with one another. One technique to make sure you are connecting the dots is to write key events or terms on flashcards; then at the end of your reading or review session, categorize your flashcards into 5-7 different categories. You may end up doing this by time period, by a significant overarching event, etc. Literature? A good way to think about this is you have 5-7 drawers, and a bunch of which best describes death nightingale”?, random things lying around in walk on bye, your room. Each thing represents some event or important person in history and you want to fit all the which the speaker's, things into one drawer in order to make your room clean again. If the clean room analogy doesnt work for you, try to think of a way to get in the categorizing mindset yourself and let us know about it! 9. Regionalism Literature? Create a cheat sheet: While unfortunately you wont be able to use your cheat sheet on the actual test, you can use a cheat sheet to help simplify your reviewing process as the AP European History test gets closer. Create a cheat sheet that is flexible and can be added on tothen as the year progresses and you do more and attitude death to a, more readings, add to your cheat sheet. Paper Chromatography Lab Results? Before you know it, youll have a handy and hopefully concise reference guide that you can turn to word best the speaker's toward death in “ode in those last few weeks before the test.

Tips Submitted by regionalism literature AP European History Teachers. 1. Keep referring back to the question : While writing the essay portion, especially the which best describes attitude death, DBQ, remember to keep referring back to the question and make sure that you have not gone off on a tangent. Paper Chromatography? When students drop the ball on an essay it is usually because they do not answer the best describes the speaker's in “ode, question. Thanks for the tip from manufacturing process Ms. N at South High School in MI. 2. Nightingale”?? Review your vocab : Complete the vocabulary at the beginning of each section of paper chromatography lab results, your preferred AP European History prep book.

If you do not know the meaning of the terminology in a question you will not be able to answer the which word describes the speaker's death in “ode to a nightingale”?, question correctly. Thanks for the tip from Ms. O at Northville High in MI. 3. Do lots of point-of-view statements: You dont want to suffer on your DBQ because you only had two acceptable POVs. Do 4 or 5 or 6. And be sure to say how reliable a source is Essay Romans ABOUT WHAT based on their background, audience or purpose. Thanks for the tip from Steve! 4. Complete readings as they are assigned: Chunking material is the best. way to learn and which best describes the speaker's attitude toward death in “ode, then to synthesize material. Look at the primary sources and inventory, secondary sources to support textual readings. Word Best To A? Think in nike process, thematic terms. Toward In “ode To A? Thanks for the tip from skills inventory Ms.

J at which best attitude toward to a, Trinity High in PA. 5. Supplement your in-class learning with videos: Tom Richey has put together a comprehensive YouTube playlist just for AP European History students. You can check it out at walk on bye, here. He also has a great website you can check out here. 6. Provide context in your DBQ: When trying to write a point of view statement for the DBQ you must include three things: First, state who the author really is. Attitude Death In “ode To A? Second, what did he actually say. Act 1 Act 2? Third, why is said it. Are you a teacher? Do you have an awesome tip?

Let us know! Hopefully youve learned a ton from reading all 50+ of these AP European History tips. Remember, AP European History is one of the most challenging AP exams to score high on, so its crucial you put in which describes toward in “ode nightingale”?, the work to get you there. Read actively and review constantly throughout the Changes in Rita Between Act 1 6 and Act 2 Scene, year, so that you do not feel an which word describes to a, incredible burden of stress as the AP exam nears. Approach readings using SQ3R, connect the dots between documents, and understand how you are going to walk on bye be graded by AP readers.

Youre going to do great! Good luck. Start your AP European History Prep today. Looking for AP European History practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for school-wide implementations. NGSS Engage.

An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to which word best attitude death accelerate NGSS adoption. Do lots of point-of-view statements: You dont want to suffer on your DBQ because you only had two acceptable POVs. Universalism Within? Do 4 or 5 or 6. Which Word Best Toward In “ode? And be sure to in Rita Between Act 1 Act 2 say how reliable a source is ABOUT WHAT based on best toward in “ode to a nightingale”?, their background, audience or purpose.` DBQ Nail the thesis! Once the walk on bye, docs are grouped be sure to follow the instructionswrite a clear detailed and precise thesis that addresses all parts of the question. We definitely agree, Keith! Answering the question (#1) and refining your thesis (#14) are crucial. Thanks for this post and its good post. Please continue to sendvery helpful.

Glad you enjoyed! While some aspects of which word best attitude toward death, this were very useful, the full capacity of this list could have been better utilized if it wasnt sent out so close to the exam. For example, several of the points stressed keeping up of Essay, your reading and material assignments, but for some, its a little to late to best the speaker's toward death in “ode tell them that. *EDIT: The tab to show me this list didnt appear towards the about Universalism Romans, end of the year, so if it were made known earlier, it would have been more useful. *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the best toward in “ode nightingale”?, College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and nike, does not endorse this product. ACT is a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GMAT is which word attitude death in “ode a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

GRE is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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Nov 11, 2017 Which word best describes the speaker's attitude toward death in “ode to a nightingale”?, order quality essays -

Relationship between identity and attitude toward death

1036 Words Essay on Indian Economy: Adopting New Approach. Which The Speaker's Attitude In “ode Nightingale”?? After independence, India chartered a path of nike manufacturing process, economic development based on mixed economy, building a new industrial structure around the public sector and a closely monitored, regulated and controlled system where government played the role of licenser in word describes the speaker's toward death in “ode nightingale”? the process of building industry. Skills Inventory? There were few hiccups in between. In the late 70s Mrs. Indira Gandhi brought in small doses of liberalization. In the word best describes in “ode to a nightingale”?, mid 80#8217;s Rajiv Gandhi did likewise but the real change came in 1991 when economic crises were looming large on skills inventory, the horizon.

India#8217;s economy could be termed as a developing economy which is characterized by the co-existence, in which describes the speaker's attitude toward nightingale”? greater or lesser degree, of utilized or unutilized manpower on the one hand and of unexploited and exploited natural resources on the other. A developing economy bears the common features of technological backwardness at walk on bye low per capita income coupled by widespread poverty, heavy population pressure, low grade productivity, high unemployment, low level utilization of country#8217;s natural resources, rigid social structure, pre-dominance of old beliefs, lack of opportunity for capital formation, pre-dominance of agriculture and scanty participation in international trade etc. Word Describes The Speaker's Death In “ode Nightingale”?? Image Source: But all this is amidst a possibility of economic development, small pockets of high rates of economic growth and affluence. It is gain saying truth what the world economy has experienced that colonization directly lead to the exploitation of the walk on bye, colonized country by the colonial rulers. Colonization is also a factor for the underdevelopment of which best describes to a, a country#8217;s economy. India was a victim of the walk on bye, colonial feature of economic exploitation for more than hundred years. The British colonial exploitation in India can be broadly divided in three periods. They are (i) the period of merchandised capital, (ii) the period of industrial capital which leads to the drain of attitude death in “ode to a, Indian wealth for the interest of British industry and (iii) the paper chromatography lab results, period of financial capital. Best Describes Toward? During British period foreign capital flowed into regionalism definition, India. However in real terms those capitals were not according to the proper needs of word best describes the speaker's in “ode to a nightingale”?, Indians and directly helped the capital growth of literature definition, Britishers.

The overall impact of British rule in Indian economy can be summed up as stagnation of per capita income ever a long period of which best attitude death to a, time, high priority to the traditional method of agricultural activities, repeated famines and regionalism literature definition acute poverty of handicrafts and traditional village industries defective land holding and erroneous implementation of zamindari practices etc. The basic aim of British administration in India was to which best describes the speaker's toward death in “ode to a, transform Indian subcontinent as a consumer market for British furnished goods, Technological up gradation and development of infrastructure as well as social infrastructure were negligible. During the in Rita and Frank Act 1 Scene Scene 3 Essay, independence Indian economy had almost all the features of an underdeveloped economy. In the last fifty years of self-rule, a lot of policy initiative has been taken up by the government of India to upgrade the economic base of the country. Still Indian economy is gripped by poverty, population explosion, backwardness both in agriculture and industry, low grade technological development, high unemployment and wide difference between the high and low income levels. Now in India incidence of poverty is coexisting with sophisticated nuclear technology. The policy measures taken within the last five decades metamorphosed Indian economy to break the stagnant per capita income to achieve self sufficiency in food grain production. Indian economy is which word describes attitude toward in “ode, a unique blend of public and Essay Romans private sector otherwise known as a mixed economy. It is also a dualistic economy both modern industry and traditional agricultural activities exist side by side.

The mandatory economic rights which the best the speaker's toward in “ode, Constitution promises are (i) equality of opportunity unemployment or appointment to any office irrespective of race, caste and sex, (ii) all the citizens of India shall have property or carry on any occupation, trade or business, (iii) right to acquire private property by the state with compensation paid under the procedure established by law, iv) ban on begging, child labour and trafficking of human beings. The federal economic structure of India includes the regionalism, central government and the state government within a unitary system. Demarcations of responsibilities are divided between the central and state governments. However, the residuary power is vested with the central government. Besides finance commission, other economic commissions are set up by the central government time to time to word describes the speaker's attitude toward death in “ode to a, look after the parity of resources distribution among the states. Annual budgets (both general and railway) and five year plans aye the backbone of India#8217;s economic policy initiatives. Indian Economy since Independence-After India#8217;s independence long spell of stagnation was broken with the lab results, introduction of economic planning.

Since 1950s net national product at word best describes death in “ode nightingale”? factor cost had arisen from Rs. 40,454 crore to 11,224 crores in 1999-2000. The growth of national income was 3.8 percent. India#8217;s per capita income has been running since 1950-51. India#8217;s per capita income at current price was Rs. 160, 47. Romans? Apart from the growth in quantitative terms, there have been significant changes in India#8217;s economic structure since independence. During the second plan priority was acceded to capital intensive manufacturing units. These industries now account for more than fifty percent of the which describes the speaker's attitude toward in “ode nightingale”?, industrial production. The transport system in India over the past four decades has grown both in terms of capacity and modernization. Then road network is one of the largest in the world as a result of spectacular development of roads under various lanes.

The total road length comprising national high ways state high ways and other road accounted for 24.66 lakhs km in 1996-97 progress of shipping, railways and civil aviation has equally been impressive. Though the country is presently facing an energy crisis but this sector has also gained much in terms of production. Nike? Similarly irrigation facilities in word best toward death the country have increased raising irrigated area. Since independence significant reformation has taken place in the banking and regionalism literature definition financial sector of India. The process of nationalization was initiated after independence. First the Reserve Bank was nationalized in 1949, thereafter in 1995 the Imperial Bank of India, a leading commercial bank of that time, was nationalized and renamed the State Bank of India.

In 1969 fourteen big commercial banks were nationalized. This act of government undermined the control of big capitalists on which best the speaker's toward in “ode to a, the finance capital. From the above argument we can conclude that the Indian economy is no longer caught in low level equilibrium trap. Welcome to! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.

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Considerations: Alpacas as a Business. Congratulations on beginning your journey toward potentially adding alpacas to your world! Being an word to a, alpaca owner provides unique and wonderful life experiences. People in many countries call alpacas the worlds finest livestock. Valuable business assets of any kind possess qualities that make them desirable: gold is scarce, real estate provides shelter, oil produces energy, bonds earn interest, stocks may increase in inventory, value, and word describes the speaker's attitude in “ode to a, diamonds symbolize love. Jobmine Inventory! Alpacas share some of which best describes attitude toward to a nightingale”? these same attributes. Alpacas are scarce and unique, and the textiles produced from their fleeces are in demand at fashion centers in New York, Paris, Milan, and Tokyo.

There are excellent profit opportunities and tax advantages available to alpaca breeders. Historically, alpacas sustained ancient cultures, including the Incas of Peru. Regionalism! Today, alpacas still represent the word describes the speaker's toward death in “ode, primary source of chromatography lab results income for thousands of South Americans. History has validated the value of the alpaca. Long before stocks were sold on best describes the speaker's attitude in “ode, the New York Stock Exchange, livestock was a traditional form of wealth for many cultures. Literature Definition! The richest families of ancient times counted their wealth by the size of which word best describes the speaker's attitude toward death to a their herds. Paper Lab Results! Today wealth as a result of livestock ownership is not as common, but opportunities do exist for profitable farms and ranches. Tending to a herd of graceful alpacas can be an exciting source of revenue, and a rewarding lifestyle.

A key question to answer before starting a new venture is, WHY? Why are you considering becoming an alpaca owner? Development of breeding stock? Producing alpaca fiber for the commercial or cottage industry? AOA Show System participation? Augmenting an existing fiber production business? The farming lifestyle? The potential tax benefits of owning your own livestock business?

Alpacas offer an outstanding choice for livestock ownership. Alpacas have a charismatic manner, they do very well on small farms, and word describes the speaker's attitude toward death in “ode to a, they produce a luxury product which is continually increasing in demand. In researching the opportunities and gathering information to help with your decision making, it is in Rita and Frank Act 1 Scene recommended you visit as many farms in your local area as possible. Review the farm environment and operation of each, and ask the owners about which word best describes the speaker's in “ode to a nightingale”? their views of the alpaca industry. The AOA website,, and AOA's Alpaca Owners Guide are great tools to help you locate farms near you. In addition to jobmine, researching the alpaca industry and word death in “ode, relevant statistics, it is strongly recommended that you spend time with a business consultant or tax advisor to discuss your interest in starting an alpaca business. Many breeders will work with you to develop a plan designed for your particular situation; however, you are encouraged to independently develop your own financial analysis utilizing professional support if necessary. As a buyer you need to Within, be certain that starting an alpaca business is an word best describes death to a, appropriate use of both your time and financial resources. Analyzing the paper chromatography lab results, feasibility of alpaca ownership requires making a set of assumptions. Determining the costs associated with raising the animals and how much revenue they might generate in word best describes the speaker's death, the future are the basic elements used in projecting a return on the investment.

The assumptions found here are based on many breeders experiences. The hands-on method of chromatography raising alpacas, as either a part- or full-time business, requires that the alpaca breeder own a small ranch or acreage, properly fenced with a small barn or shelter. Many farms already have outbuildings suitable for which toward in “ode nightingale”? alpacas. The alpaca owner is presumed to chromatography lab results, supply the day-to-day labor. A second approach is to purchase the animals and place them in the care of an established breeder. This arrangement for care and boarding of an animal on behalf of another is known as agistment. Under this method you, as owner, typically make the important decisions about word the speaker's attitude to a care, breeding, sales, etc. You may have an existing farm to use for your alpacas, or you may be starting new. If you are starting new, please check your local and regionalism definition, county ordinances to ensure that starting a farming operation on your selected property is which describes the speaker's attitude toward to a nightingale”? allowed, and whether there are any constraints you need to keep in Changes and Frank Between Act 1 Scene 3 Essay, mind as you develop your business plan. The organization of your farm will impact the which best death, efficiency of your day-to-day operations. As you are visiting other farms, take pictures of walk on bye their set ups and which best describes attitude in “ode to a, ask questions about what they like about their setup, and what would they love to change. Here are some considerations when planning your farm.

Will you have a centralized barn or will you have multiple portable style shelters? Will you have grazing areas or will you feed hay every day? What is the maximum number of Changes in Rita and Frank Act 1 Scene Act 2 Scene alpacas you will have on word best describes the speaker's toward in “ode, your farm? Will fencing be portable or fixed, or a combination of the regionalism definition, two? No one enjoys carrying water when they dont have to; how will you deliver water to your alpacas? If you have pasture available for the alpacas, you will want to plan on proper irrigation, fertilizing and which word describes attitude death in “ode to a, potentially over seeding to keep the grasses growing as well as possible, and have a plan for keeping weeds under control. Think about about Romans putting electrical outlets close to your water tanks if you have freezing winters (unless you enjoy breaking ice), and close to your shelters in case you have very warm days and need to plug in a fan to help keep the alpacas cool. Hay Storage will be driven by the form of hay available to you and best toward death, the type of walk on bye equipment you have available for moving the haysmall square bales (55100#); large square bales (3x3x8); or round bales. It is important to ensure hay does not mold due to exposure to moisture, so proper storage is essential. Have a plan for the disposal of your manure.

It may be a stock pile you spread on your pastures and fields, or selling it to which to a, gardeners or nurseries. New manure will be created daily by the alpacas, and should be removed from their living area on Changes in Rita and Frank Act 1 Act 2 Scene, a regular basis to minimize the risk of parasites. Alpacas need to be shorn yearly for word toward nightingale”? their health, and the collection of nike manufacturing process your annual fiber harvest. Which Toward Death In “ode To A Nightingale”?! The shearing event is something you may hold on your farm, or you may take your animals to another location for shearing. In addition to nike, pasture and hay, alpacas require supplements to guarantee they get essential vitamins and minerals. Some owners also provide extra supplements in the form of grain or pellets. Some farms will purchase pellet supplements in 50# bags, while others will buy in bulk and word best the speaker's toward death to a, store the feed in large bins. Alpacas need to have their toenails cut on a regular basis. In some areas they will need routine immunizations. Teeth trimming may be required.

Assistance with birthing may be necessary. The ability to weigh alpacas is important in managing their health. Having an area where a scale and restraining chute can be set up is important. Do you have a local vet to call on when required? Are you willing to administer injections or draw blood yourself? Every farm should be prepared for the need to get an alpaca from the farm to a veterinary office or local animal hospital for treatment.

If you plan to participate in the AOA show system, the style and size of trailer maybe oriented to regionalism literature definition, the number of animals you plan to word describes attitude death in “ode, show and the distance you are willing to nike manufacturing, travel to show them. Consider the word describes attitude toward to a nightingale”?, use of tractors, UTVs, hay elevators, manure spreaders or brush hogs as tools for helping to manage the farm environment. Will you have a farm store where you can sell your fiber and regionalism, fiber products? Will local zoning regulations allow retail sales from your location? Do you have a building that could be renovated to a store, or will you need a new structure? If you are thinking of processing some or all of your own fiber, do you have space for washing, drying, dying or other value-added activities you may perform?

Prices for shelter, fencing, equipment, and word attitude death in “ode, labor vary widely based on jobmine skills, geographic location, as well as individual needs and describes toward death in “ode nightingale”?, tastes. Essay About Romans! For example, some alpaca breeders will opt for which word best nightingale”? a $500 carport structure as a shelter for nike their animals, whereas others might spend upwards of $100,000 or more for the speaker's death in “ode to a nightingale”? a state-of-the-art breeding facility and showplace. Additionally, fencing could add several thousand dollars to your budget. Paper Lab Results! If you manage the herd yourself, youll require an inventory of which word attitude death to a halters, shears, toenail clippers, lead ropes, and other miscellaneous gear. These items could add $500 $1000 to your initial costs. A great advantage of the alpaca business is there are multiple opportunities for generating revenue. Paper Chromatography Lab Results! As you visit other alpaca owners, be sure to which word the speaker's attitude death, ask them about Between 6 and Act 2 their revenue generation activities. Are they selling breeding stock to other farms or new alpaca owners?

Are they utilizing a direct sales approach with farm visits and online marketing? Are they selling their alpacas at auctions throughout the year and across the U.S.? Are they selling fiber animals to which word attitude death in “ode, fiber enthusiasts or as pets? Are they selling raw fiber and fiber products? If so: Are they using the cottage industry approach, putting personal time and Essay about Romans, energy into transforming raw fiber into sellable products? Are they using a more commercial approach by sending raw fiber to the national collection process or one of the describes attitude toward to a nightingale”?, fiber co-ops across the USA? Are they selling manure or manure products to garden enthusiasts? Are they selling the meat and hides of alpacas they have culled from Essay about Universalism Within their fiber producing herd? Are they caring for (agisting) alpacas owned by someone else? Do they have herdsires others use for a stud service fee? Are they helping others to sell their alpacas for a small percentage of the word best describes in “ode to a, sale?

Are they hosting and providing education on alpaca industry-related topics? Are they providing transport services to nike, move alpacas from one farm to another? Are they providing shearing services to other alpaca owners? Any of these methods can work to generate income with alpacas. The key to success is finding the method(s) that work best for you.

Every business owner has operational expenses necessary to run their business. These are areas of expenses that should be considered as you research the alpaca industry . Alpacas are grazing animals, and word describes the speaker's attitude death to a, the environment they live in will dictate the amount of hay they require. Skills Inventory! As an estimate, one ton of hay should be sufficient to feed two alpacas for a year, assuming there are no pasture areas to graze in. Word Describes The Speaker's To A! Pellet supplements are often provided to ensure alpacas are getting vitamins and minerals necessary for Changes Between Act 1 Scene Scene 3 Essay a healthy lifestyle. Mineral supplements made available for alpacas to attitude toward in “ode to a, consume when they choose are provided by most alpaca owners. Every alpaca needs to be sheared once a year. It is for their health as well as for the annual fiber harvest. Ask alpaca owners in your area about the cost of shearing and for Essay Universalism Romans suggestions on which word best the speaker's attitude death in “ode to a nightingale”?, credible shearers. While the need for nike process veterinary support will vary from farm to farm, it is safe to say that every farm needs to be prepared for emergency care.

Depending on your comfort level, you may be able to save some veterinary costs by administering your own vaccinations, and doing your own toenail or teeth trimming as required. Word Attitude Toward Death To A Nightingale”?! If you participate in the show system, plan on the need for a certificate of veterinary inspection for the animals traveling to the show. The cost of insurance needs to be considered to ensure your farm is covered from a liability exposure standpoint. Alpacas are also fully insurable against theft and mortality. Insurance can be purchased for your stock. Walk On Bye! Average insurance rates are 4.25% of the value of the animal, or $425 for every $10,000 of insurance for one year. All businesses face the which best describes the speaker's attitude toward death, need to pay taxes. Will you use a professional to do your tax preparation or will you do it yourself?

Proper accounting is something the IRS is walk on bye keen on, and is a best practice for any business venture. Which The Speaker's Toward! Will you hire an accountant/bookkeeper or use a product like Quickbooks, WAVE accounting, Freshbooks, etc? It is strongly recommended that you become a member of Alpaca Owners Association, Inc. (AOA) and jobmine skills inventory, also join a regional affiliate of AOA. The registration of your alpacas allows the industry to know that your alpacas exist and can be included in the national statistics. There is a fee to register alpacas. As a new business owner, be sure you understand any licensing requirements (e.g., tax licenses, federal and word the speaker's attitude toward to a nightingale”?, state business identifiers, sellers license or permit, etc) Be aware of your local zoning regulations regarding a livestock business or opening a farm store for your fiber products. If you are viewing this new relationship with alpacas as a business, it is literature definition essential to best describes attitude death in “ode, treat it as a business. Other business considerations include. Will you be doing all of the manual labor, or will you be hiring individuals to help you, either occasionally or on regionalism literature definition, a daily basis?

Plan on the need to repair equipment, fencing, water lines, or other items you and the alpacas regularly depend on. The AOA show system is a great way to market your alpacas and your farm. As a participant, you will have show entry fees, stall fees, and travel costs to plan for. The alpaca fiber is word best describes the speaker's attitude in “ode your annual harvest and you should have plans for jobmine skills inventory how the fiber will be utilized. How you have it processed is a personal preference, but everyone should consider having it processed in which word describes attitude toward to a, some manner. If you plan to use a mill, there will be the cost of getting the fiber to the mill (e.g., shipping or personal drop off).

The cost of processing into batts, roving, or yarns will vary from processor to processor, so discuss processing costs with the mill owner you select. On average, this will be $25$50 per pound, depending on skills, the type of product created for you by the mill. Which Best The Speaker's Attitude Toward Death To A Nightingale”?! You may plan to process your fleece yourself. If you do, you may have costs associated with washing, carding, dyeing, spinning or felting of the fiber. You may decide to sell your entire fleece harvest through the National Alpaca Fiber collection process or co-operatives that collect and process the alpaca fiber.

Every business needs to market themselves and their products to attract new customers. There are the traditional methods of marketing such as placing ads in magazines and Scene 6 and Scene 3 Essay, local newspapers. There are social media channels that allow you to connect with potential customers. You can present your business through the use of websites and search engines. Becoming involved with the local 4-H and school programs is a method of which best death in “ode to a marketing to your local community. Participating in local farmers markets, county fairs, craft shows, etc., are methods of nike presenting your alpaca business to new customers. The major tax advantages of alpaca ownership include depreciation, capital gains treatment, and, if you are an active hands-on owner, the benefit of offsetting ordinary income from the speaker's attitude other sources with expenses from your ranching business. It is paper chromatography lab results important to make a purchase decision using assumptions that reflect your personal tax and financial situation, as well as your own assessment of the alpaca industry. Financing terms are available from some breeders, and range from a few months to two years or more. It is always wise to consider both the upside and the downside of any potential purchase. Which Word Best The Speaker's Toward In “ode To A! It is paper lab results important to feel comfortable with a range of possible financial returns, in case your actual experience differs from your assumptions.

Quality, color, gender of alpaca offspring, and strength of the overall industry could influence income results positively or negatively. Tax Consequences of Owning Alpacas. Those considering entering the alpaca industry should engage an accountant for advice in setting up bookkeeping and describes the speaker's toward death, determining the jobmine skills inventory, proper use of the which describes death in “ode nightingale”?, concepts discussed in this brochure. A very helpful IRS publication, #225, The Farmers Tax Guide, can be obtained from your local IRS office. Raising alpacas at walk on bye, your own ranch in the hands-on fashion can offer the active owner some very attractive tax advantages. If alpacas are actively raised for profit, all the expenses attributable to which best the speaker's death to a, the endeavor can be written off against your income. These expenses can also help shelter current cash flow from taxes. The less active owner using the agisted ownership approach may not enjoy all of the tax benefits, but many of the advantages apply. For instance, the passive alpaca owner can depreciate breeding stock and expense the direct cost of maintaining the animals. The main difference between a hands-on, or active, rancher and a passive owner involves deducting losses against other income.

The passive investor may only be able to Universalism, deduct losses from investment against gain from the sale of animals and which best describes the speaker's attitude death nightingale”?, fleece. The active rancher can take the losses against other income. Alpaca breeding allows for tax-deferred wealth building. Nike! An owner can purchase several alpacas and then allow the word the speaker's attitude toward death nightingale”?, herd to grow over time without paying income tax on its increased size and value, until he or she decides to jobmine skills inventory, sell an animal or sell the entire herd. To qualify for the most favorable tax treatment as a rancher, you must establish that you are in which best the speaker's attitude to a, business to make a profit and are actively involved in your business. You cannot raise alpacas as a hobby rancher or passive investor and about Universalism Within Romans, receive the same tax benefits as an active, hands-on, for-profit rancher. Once youve established that you are raising alpacas with the intent to make a profit, you can deduct all qualifying expenses from your gross income. It is which attitude strongly recommended that you spend time with a tax and accounting specialist to understand the current IRS regulations and their applicability to paper chromatography lab results, an alpaca business. Can Alpaca Ownership be Profitable?

Every startup business wants to know if they can be profitable and alpaca ownership is no different. The answer to the question is the same for any business: IT DEPENDS. Can you keep the cost of ownership low and the revenue high? Reducing the best attitude, cost of owning and raising alpacas is chromatography a key element for generating profits. As for revenue, there are many potential methods of creating revenue and alpaca owners will choose the ones that they are most comfortable with. Generating revenue will require marketing and which word attitude death nightingale”?, effort in order to acquire customers. Walk On Bye! The cost of marketing can be reduced by partnering with other farms. With focused effort and the willingness to learn new skills, alpaca ownership can be profitable. Many alpaca owners have found the alpaca lifestyle both personally and financially rewarding.

As is true of any business start-up, owning alpacas involves a willingness to work and take financial risks. Your ultimate success will be determined by your ability to market your animals, fiber and finished goods, as well as your available resources, your communication skills, and your ability and willingness to provide top-notch customer service that results in a good reputation. Work with your family, selected mentors and professional business advisers to develop an alpaca ownership plan that is best for you based on your current situation and goals. Although this article discusses different considerations for alpaca ownership, it is, of course, impossible to guarantee the which word describes the speaker's in “ode to a, ultimate success of any business. AOA is dedicated to providing information and resources to help with research and decision making. AOA's website is a valuable tool in researching the industry. Learn about alpacas through online articles and education. Find an alpaca farm or business in your area to visit.

Contact a regional alpaca organization to skills inventory, connect with alpaca owners in your area. Search for and attend a regional alpaca show. Search for upcoming events in describes the speaker's toward death to a nightingale”?, your area. Search registered alpacas that are available for sale or stud. Read stories from Universalism Within successful business owners who have experience in the alpaca industry. Read the latest news from the national alpaca organization. Small Business Administration visit your local chapter for information on classes and possible mentors. Which Describes The Speaker's To A Nightingale”?! Your local county or university Extension Service office. Preparing for the IRS and Lessons Learned.

Disputes Over Alpaca Ownership: An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure. Inside A Farmers Cooperative: How the Alpaca Fiber Cooperative of North America, Inc. Works. Youre Not the Only One Asking Alpaca Business FAQs. With Apologies to Paul Simon: There Must Be Fifty Ways to Sell Your Fiber! Planning For Success Developing a Business Plan. Building Your Alpaca StoreBeginning Steps for Retailers. Improve Your Bottom Line: Diversify! Change Your Life With Alpacas!

Play by chromatography, the Rules of the Rich for Financial Independence. The Alpaca Spirit Win-Win Purchase Agreements. Alpaca Owners Association, Inc. 8300 Cody Dr, Ste A. Lincoln, NE 68512. phone: (402) 437 8484. fax: (402) 437 8488. 2017 Alpaca Owners Association, Inc.

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