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book report lord jim Jim is a young man with a vivid, romantic imagination, who decides to become a sailor after reading sea stories. He loves picturing himself as a hero, but he misses his chance when it comes. As a student on a training ship, he hangs back from a rescue mission during a storm because the leadership, storm frightens him so. Later, Jim signs on as first mate of the Patna, a rusty old ship that's been hired to take 800 Muslims on french a pilgrimage. One calm night the ship is damaged at sea, and the other white members of the crew- the obese German captain and leadership the three engineers- decide to flee in one of the lifeboats. Jim is Health and Medical Care Essay, horrified: They're responsible for 800 other lives. But considering the wal mart, damage, the Patna seems certain to sink any moment. Adlestrop Poem Analysis! At the last minute, Jim leaps overboard and into the escaping lifeboat.

The five men are soon rescued, and they report the sinking of the Patna. But later it turns out that the Patna hasn't sunk: A French gunboat discovered it and towed it into port. Jim and his mates look like cowards to the rest of the wal mart leadership, world. Health And Medical Of Infants Essay! An inquiry is wal mart leadership, held, though Jim is the only one of the runaways who actually attends. The German captain has fled; the first and adlestrop poem analysis second engineers are hospitalized; the wal mart, third engineer died during the escape. Narrative Writing! At the end, the court revokes Jim's license to serve as a ship's officer. During the course of the inquiry Jim meets Captain Marlow, who's twenty years his senior. Marlow becomes interested in Jim's story and invites Jim back to his hotel; Jim, relieved to have a sympathetic ear, supplies all the wal mart, painful details. Women! Though there's no excusing Jim, it's also clear that he's not as great a scoundrel as the other crew members. Marlow develops some compassion for the young man. Wal Mart Leadership! (It's Marlow who narrates most of the novel.) One of the judges at the inquiry is a highly successful and extremely conceited captain named Montague Brierly. Health Care Of Infants! The inquiry disturbs him, and he tries to leadership talk Marlow into bribing Jim to run away.

Brierly is so anguished by the potential for human cowardice that Jim has demonstrated that he kills himself at adlestrop analysis sea a short time later. Wal Mart! After the inquiry, Marlow comes to Jim's aid by recommending him to the notion is founded a friend who owns a rice mill. Jim does well there, but when the second engineer of the Patna shows up looking for work, Jim leaves. He can't stand being reminded of his humiliation. For the leadership, next several years he drifts from port to port, working as a water clerk for suppliers of provisions to ships.

As soon as he's recognized, he leaves. But eventually he becomes so well-known that there's almost no place left for him to hide. At this point Marlow seeks advice and in uk help from his old friend Stein, a wealthy German merchant whose chief interest is collecting butterflies and beetles. Stein hires Jim as a trade representative in the remote district of Patusan. The district is tyrannized by its ruler, the Rajah Allang. The Rajah's main rival is old Doramin, who leads a settlement of leadership, Muslim immigrants and is, incidentally, an old friend of Stein's.

A third political force is Sherif Ali, a cult leader who has terrorized the countryside. The Rajah takes Jim prisoner as soon as he arrives. But Jim escapes and seeks out is prostitution legal in uk Doramin, who protects him for the sake of his old friendship with Stein. Jim hatches a plot to leadership rout Sherif Ali, and with the help of Doramin's son, Dain Waris, they drive him out of Patusan. Jim rises to a position of leadership in the community, and the Rajah's power is curbed.

But the person who hates Jim most isn't the Rajah but Cornelius, the man Jim replaced as Stein's representative. Cornelius' dead wife bore a daughter by is prostitution legal in uk, another man, and Jim falls in love with this daughter. He calls her Jewel. Wal Mart Leadership! Jewel loves Jim fiercely, but she's terrified he'll abandon her as her father abandoned her mother. Under Jim's leadership, life for the villagers becomes stable and secure. But that changes when a malicious British pirate named Gentleman Brown invades Patusan, bent on plunder. Care Of Infants! Jim is away when Brown's men sail up the river, but Dain Waris leads the defense, cornering Brown and his men on a hill. When Jim gets back, he negotiates with Brown, who agrees to leave quietly. Jim's decision to let him go without a fight is controversial, but Jim thinks it's best to leadership avoid bloodshed.

But Brown wants revenge, and Cornelius is ready to help him. He knows that Dain Waris is camped downstream with a group of the notion disobedience principle, men who are guarding the river, and he leads Brown and his men up behind the camp, where they stage a sneak attack. Dain Waris and a number of others are killed. Jim's servant, Tamb' Itam, witnesses the massacre, and he manages to kill Cornelius before speeding to wal mart leadership the village with the terrible news. Jim and Jewel know that Doramin is going to want revenge for the death of his son. Jewel begs Jim to either put up a fight or escape with her; but Jim refuses. Proving once and for all that, no matter what happened on the Patna, he's not afraid of Writing Essay example, death, he goes to face Doramin. The angry old man shoots him through the chest, and Jim falls dead. Conrad's title character is a complex intellectual puzzle, and it is very difficult to judge him. In deserting 800 pilgrims aboard the leadership, Patna, Jim commits an action that's utterly inexcusable.

But Conrad provides facts that soften the Health of Infants, crime in every possible way. Jim genuinely believes that the ship is about to sink, and that he can't do anybody any good by staying aboard. Besides, his escape owes far more to an impulse- an inexplicable impulse- than to any conscious decision. Moreover, Jim has so many admirable qualities (which he demonstrates amply in wal mart, the second half of the novel) that it seems unfair to adlestrop poem remember him as the man who jumped off the wal mart leadership, Patna. And yet that's how people do remember Jim- even his friend and champion Marlow and, from what Marlow can gather, Jim himself.

According to Marlow, Jim is finally not clear to him. Products! So it's no wonder that the readers have reached no consensus about wal mart, Jim, either. The second half of the novel remains particularly controversial. Some readers believe that Jim's accomplishments in Patusan make up for his cowardice aboard the Patna. Others are equally certain that his final blunder of judgment, a blunder that costs many lives, is legal, intimately linked with his behavior on the Patna. (A deeper question arises: Is there a scale on which you can balance a person's good acts against wal mart his bad acts?) Considering this moral ambiguity surrounding Jim, it's fitting that the image he's most often associated with is mist. Marlow complains that he can never get a clear picture of him, because Jim always appears, metaphorically speaking, in a fog or mist.

Occasionally the mist parts, allowing Marlow (and the reader) a deeper glimpse into Jim's inner workings. But the mist always closes again. This image undergoes a metamorphosis in legal, the last part of the novel, where Jim repeatedly appears under a cloud. Cloud retains the leadership, associations of mist, suggesting that it's difficult to see beyond the surface of Jim's actions into his motives. But the phrase also carries its usual implication of vs. Descriptive Essay, a damaged reputation. Jim dies under a cloud in that he leaves so many people both in Patusan and in wal mart leadership, the wider world thinking that he deserves to be condemned. But the wording also suggests that those who condemn Jim don't see or understand him clearly. Surely, for example, Doramin is wrong to think Jim is guilty of is prostitution, any kind of treachery toward Dain Waris.

Jim is the wal mart leadership, victim of his own vivid imagination. He tends to freeze in difficult situations because he's so adept at adlestrop picturing the worst possible outcomes. He's also a romantic idealist- that is, he thinks perfection is really within his grasp, and so he's doubly hard on himself when he fails to be perfect. He may not live up to his vision of himself, but he's no hypocrite, either- he strives to live up to it. He's naive, even immature, to have so little perspective on his ideals. But if he's naive he's also admirable. After all, he does manage to impose his vision of order and justice, at least for a while, on troubled Patusan. Jim's naive idealism isn't his only boyish trait. Leadership! He has a youthful exuberance that borders on impulsiveness, and The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment doesn't always serve him well. Wal Mart Leadership! His response to The Internet of Entertainment Products an insult is either to blush or to fight. And he occasionally stammers like a tongue-tied boy.

Marlow frequently notes this inarticulate quality but admits that it doesn't keep Jim from being wonderfully expressive. He has a sulky side, which comes to the fore when he's criticized, combined with a stiff-upper-lip British pride that makes him want to hide his feelings. Thus, in Chapter Six he tries to pick a fight after he hears someone call a dog that wretched cur and leadership mistakes the words for french an insult directed at him. But what humiliates him most deeply is having his wounds exposed: Until then he had faced his loss of reputation with a public air of indifference that was a long way from his true feelings. Jim's judgment may (or may not) be unsound, but he does at least prove by the end of the novel that he's not afraid of death. Wal Mart! He arrives in french revolution women, Patusan, knowing the danger, with an unloaded gun. Leadership! He leads the assault on Sherif Ali at great risk to of civil is founded his own life. He regularly demonstrates his fearlessness by drinking the wal mart leadership, Rajah's coffee, which he has good reason to believe may be poisoned. And finally he goes to confront Doramin knowing that he will almost certainly die. Whatever Jim's faults, he rebuts the vs. Descriptive, charge of wal mart leadership, cowardice in the face of death. Those faults may have to do with his egoism, a characteristic to adlestrop which Marlow refers again and again.

Jim is ultimately obsessed with himself, his image of himself and his own behavior. He isn't very concerned with the rest of the wal mart, world (which is revolution, not to say he's selfish). His good deeds in Patusan satisfy a test he's set for himself- fine as he is, he doesn't go there out of wal mart, charity. He takes great satisfaction in being loved and trusted and revered, and in knowing that nobody in Patusan would call him a coward. Poem Analysis! But in the end he places his own ideals, and his own needs, far above Jewel's or the community's- whose interests aren't served by his death. Jewel is wal mart, left widowed and alone; the community loses a leader who's brought peace and curbed the tyranny of the Rajah. In fact, the only interest served is an adlestrop, abstract one: Jim's egoism, his personal ideal of bravery, at the cost of his own life.

Although Marlow, the ship's captain who tells most of Jim's story, plays only a small part in the action of Lord Jim, he's as important to the novel as the title character. Almost everything that happens is filtered through Marlow's consciousness via his narration. As a thinker, Jim is leadership, rather dull. His ideas are simple and boy-scout naive. What gives the novel its verve and its complexity is Marlow's wide-ranging observation and analysis. Marlow is a practiced observer- the The Internet and Ratings Essay, very opposite of the egoistical Jim. While Jim is obsessed with himself, it's other people (particularly Jim) who fascinate Marlow.

He complains about the wal mart, way men and women constantly seek him out to spill their innermost thoughts, but you can see why they do: His interest and Narrative Writing example compassion, his need to understand, make him a natural confessor. Conrad had already used Marlow as a narrator, in the short story Youth (1898) and the short novel Heart of Darkness (1899). But in those works Marlow was little more than a fictional stand-in for the author; his attitudes, perceptions, judgments were Conrad's. In fact, their only major difference was their birthplaces- Britain for wal mart Marlow, Poland for is prostitution in uk Conrad. But in Lord Jim the relationship has altered. Marlow is no longer simply a stand-in, though his moral and ethical judgments still resemble Conrad's. Now Marlow allows his affection for Jim to wal mart soften his judgment. Deep down, he wants to find a way to excuse him.

Conrad, in contrast, presents the evidence with rigorous objectivity. Disobedience Is Founded On What Principle! For example, in wal mart, his talk with the French lieutenant (Chapters Twelve and Thirteen), Marlow wants to think that the adlestrop poem, lieutenant's sympathy and understanding of human fear will lead to his pardoning Jim. Conrad lets Marlow build this house of wal mart leadership, cards out of his hopes- then has the lieutenant topple it with a few words about a topic Marlow has been avoiding: honor. Jim's emotions are essentially simple because he views the poem, world in simple, even naive terms. Leadership! Marlow, on the other hand, is endlessly complex in his responses to adlestrop events and his analyses of them.

He's exasperated by Jim's immaturity, though he's also drawn to the way Jim has held on wal mart to his youthful illusions. But though Marlow may have lost his own illusions, he's anything but a cynic. In fact, he's the vs. Descriptive, opposite- a moralist. Marlow is concerned with the essential goodness or badness of people, their butterfly or beetle natures. (See the Note in Chapter Twenty.) He readily condemns the Patna's captain and engineers, or Cornelius and Brown; and he doesn't hesitate to heap praise on characters like Stein and Dain Waris. What disturbs him about wal mart, Jim's case is the ethical problem. Marlow is an adept enough judge of character to recognize that Jim is a far cry from the adlestrop poem analysis, scoundrel he would have expected in wal mart leadership, a first mate who deserted his ship. In fact, his confidence in Jim goes so far that he's willing to make himself unreservedly responsible for Jim's behavior by recommending him for employment in The Internet and Ratings, terms you would use only for a close friend.

So Marlow faces the moral puzzle: how could a genuinely good man behave like a very bad one? Philosopher though he is, he balks at wal mart the one answer that might let Jim off. He's unwilling to concede that the fixed standard of Health Care of Infants, conduct, the code of ethics by which we behave, isn't grounded or fixed in any cosmic sense as, for example, the law of leadership, gravity is fixed. He refuses to believe it's an arbitrary standard, fixed only for our own convenience but dispensable in certain situations. For Captain Marlow the good sailor, a ship's officer doesn't abandon the passengers under any circumstances- period. Women! But Jim seems no more villainous, really, for his action. This moral puzzle is part of what draws Marlow to Jim. In addition, of course, he likes him.

And he feels a certain responsibility, recognizing that nobody will help the young man if he doesn't, and that without help Jim is probably bound for a future of alcoholic ruin. And yet for all his kindness Marlow is so reserved that he seems cold. He seems to have difficulty handling affection. Whenever Jim tries to express friendship or gratitude, Marlow dodges with a joke or a gruff reply. Wal Mart Leadership! He actively avoids moments of what he calls real and profound intimacy, preferring for such intimacy to be understood rather than expressed.

Marlow's formality keeps the prose from turning mushy. Marlow is an admirable man, but he doesn't like to claim his own virtues; he'd rather come across as bad-tempered and and Ratings gruff. Jim's captain, a vulgar, obese German by way of wal mart leadership, Australia, is everything a captain shouldn't be: irresponsible, corrupt, and women contemptuous of his passengers (he calls them cattle). Wal Mart! When his ship is of Entertainment Products Essay, damaged at sea, he wastes no time trying to save the wal mart, passengers, and abandons it without a second thought. Later, before the inquiry, he vanishes- apparently having (unlike Jim) some place to go, some connections who will take him in. Conrad has a good deal of fun at his expense, ridiculing his vulgarity, his bad English, and his grotesque bulk. The chief engineer is a cohort of the captain's, and just as corrupt. They're a team of embezzlers.

Physically they look grotesquely like Laurel and Hardy: the captain revoltingly fat, the chief engineer bone-thin, with sunken cheeks, sunken temples, and sunken eyes. It's the chief engineer who, once the Patna has been deserted, has the illusion of seeing it sink. His illusions continue back on shore, where he succumbs to hallucinations after three days of adlestrop poem, heavy drinking. He claims to have a clear conscience about abandoning the ship (I could look at sinking ships and smoke my pipe all day long), but his drinking suggests he's trying to forget. The toad visions seem to wal mart be displaced guilt: His deranged mind has transformed the abandoned pilgrims into vengeful toads.

His distress suggests that breaking the fixed standard of conduct carries heavier personal consequences than Marlow first thought. The second engineer is a nasty, obnoxious little man who talks too much. The Notion Of Civil Disobedience On What! He's as corrupt as the wal mart leadership, captain and the chief engineer, but he does at least show a little spirit during the Patna crisis by running to the engine room, at of Infants Essay great risk and in great pain from a broken arm, to wal mart leadership fetch a hammer. Months after the inquiry, he turns up destitute at Mr. And Ratings Of Entertainment Products Essay! Denver's rice mill, where Jim has found work with particularly good prospects. His offensive familiarity eventually drives Jim away. There's a hint in wal mart, his fawning that he intends to blackmail Jim. Poor George surfaces just long enough to die of heart failure during the Writing Essay, Patna crisis. He's in bed when the ship is damaged, and the other officers rouse him.

Jim notes the irony of his death: If he had been a little braver and not exhausted his heart trying to get off the ship, he would have survived. Wal Mart! When Jim leaps into the lifeboat, the revolution women, other officers mistake him for George in the darkness, not realizing that George has died. Big Brierly is a highly successful and conceited sea captain who serves as one of the nautical assessors, or judges, at wal mart the court of inquiry into the Patna incident. He seems like a man who's enjoyed every possible stroke of good fortune. And yet he kills himself shortly after he hears the case. From what Marlow gathers, Brierly's suicide seems directly related to his high opinion of himself.

Brierly perceives that few sailors ever have to confront the kind of moral test Jim has faced (and failed) aboard the in uk, Patna. Apparently he becomes obsessed with the anxiety that he would behave the same way. After all, Brierly's life has consisted of one piece of luck after another. Wal Mart Leadership! What would happen if his luck ran out? Brierly, it would seem, has never thought about poem, that question, but once he starts thinking about it he can't stop. He kills himself out of fear of his own cowardice. He has based his opinion of himself solely on externals- all the awards and wal mart leadership honors and praise he's received. He has no fundamental belief in himself, nothing internal. When he starts questioning his worth, he has no internal confidence with which to fight off doubts and the doubts soon overwhelm him.

Jones is Brierly's chief mate at Narrative vs. Descriptive example the time of his suicide. He detests Brierly so much that he can hardly stand being civil to wal mart leadership him. After Brierly's death, though, he develops such reverence for his former captain that he comes close to weeping when he talks about him. His change of heart owes much to Brierly's having recommended him as his successor in a letter written just before he jumped overboard. Poem! Jones doesn't get the wal mart, promotion, but by the time Marlow speaks to him, some two years later, he's taken charge of some other nautical wreck. More than three years after the Health and Medical Care Essay, fact, Marlow encounters an wal mart leadership, elderly lieutenant of the French gunboat that towed the Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing, Patna to port (Chapters Twelve and Thirteen). The lieutenant fills Marlow in on what happened to the Patna after its officers abandoned her. He's a model of military courage and efficiency. The scars on his hand and wal mart leadership his temple attest to the action he's seen. He condemns actions on Health Care of Infants Essay the Patna. Fear may be understandable, but cowardice isn't defensible.

The lieutenant's highest value is honor. He would never have the slightest doubts about the fixed standard of conduct. Chester is an Australian adventurer who accosts Marlow after Jim's trial with a job offer for Jim (Chapter Fourteen). He has a crackpot scheme for hauling guano (sea bird manure, for fertilizer) off a waterless Pacific island, and he wants to engage Jim as overseer for 40 coolies there. Though he derides Jim for taking his punishment to heart so, he also knows Jim doesn't have any other prospects. Wal Mart Leadership! Chester prides himself on seeing things exactly as they are, but in fact he's a gross cynic without the least conception of of civil disobedience is founded on what principle, personal honor. His cynicism is the reverse of Jim's idealism; he forms a beetle to Jim's butterfly (see the note to Chapter Twenty). The Chester episode demonstrates to Marlow how vulnerable Jim will be to unscrupulous adventurers, making Marlow feel his responsibility as Jim's only real friend.

Chester does eventually set sail for his guano island, but the whole enterprise disappears in a hurricane at wal mart leadership sea (Chapter Sixteen). Health Care! After Jim's trial, Marlow sends him to work for leadership Mr. Denver, a wealthy friend who owns a rice mill (Chapter Eighteen). Mr. Denver is an and Medical of Infants, elderly bachelor who's spent his life distrusting people, but he's so charmed by Jim that Jim has a good chance of becoming his heir. Leadership! When the Health Essay, obnoxious second engineer of the Patna turns up, Jim runs away, leaving Mr. Wal Mart Leadership! Denver wounded and bitter. Stein was born in Germany, as his thick accent and mangled syntax attest. He is a wealthy merchant operating out of Java. As a young man, he was a partisan in the region's bitter power struggles, and his exceptional courage led him through one adventure after another. He married, but both his wife and daughter are long dead.

The old man's main interest now is his remarkable collection of analysis, butterflies and beetles- Conrad's symbols for the two poles of human nature. You will hear more about these later. Stein's appearance in wal mart leadership, Chapter Nineteen heralds a shift in the basic assumptions of the novel. The early chapters are grimly realistic, with heavy emphasis on the futility of illusions. In the adlestrop analysis, first half, Jim's idealism is viewed as commendable, perhaps, but obviously impractical and even dishonest in leadership, the distance between Jim's fantasies of himself and the notion of civil on what his behavior on the Patna. Stein expresses this point of view even as he contradicts it. He explains that the leadership, distance between your dreams and accomplishments is necessarily a source of pain.

But all the of Entertainment Essay, same, he advises, In the destructive element immerse- that is, keep following your dreams even though you can't attain them. The reason Stein partly undercuts his own advice is that he seems to have attained all his own dreams. Of course, as he explains to Marlow, a casual observer can't see his failures, his lost dreams. Still, he seems like exactly the kind of leadership, romantic dreamer that Jim was criticized for being- and exactly the kind of man Jim would like to be. Stein plays a small part in the plot of the novel, sending Jim to Patusan as his trade representative. But his position in the center of the book lends great weight to his words. In fact, the novel ends with Stein and his butterflies. Of Civil Disobedience On What! Mohammed Bonso is Stein's princely ally in the regional power struggles, assassinated when peace was at hand. Stein married his sister, the princess.

Both she and their small daughter, Emma, later died of an infectious fever (Chapter Twenty). The nominal ruler of Patusan is the retarded Sultan (Chapter Twenty-two), but the real power is his corrupt old uncle, the Rajah Allang. The rajah is a dirty, wrinkled opium addict, and he's a tyrant. Any peasant who violates his trade monopoly by doing commerce with someone else faces a death sentence. The rajah takes Jim prisoner when he first arrives in Patusan.

Later, after Jim has risen to leadership power, the rajah can't afford to and Medical Essay kill him (though he'd like to) because Jim protects him from the wrath of Doramin's followers, who would very much like his head. Jim regularly demonstrates his fearlessness by accepting the rajah's coffee, which he has good reason to wal mart think may be poisoned. When Patusan is invaded by Gentleman Brown and his small army of pirates, the rajah, through his representative Kassim, carries on negotiations with the the notion of civil is founded on what principle, invaders. Wal Mart Leadership! This cynical diplomacy comes to nothing, but the outcome of events- the deaths of is prostitution in uk, Jim and wal mart Dain Waris- seems likely to restore the old tyrant's former power. Kassim, the rajah's right-hand man, is a cunning diplomat who greets Jim on his arrival in Patusan (Chapter Twenty-four) and later negotiates in the rajah's name with Gentleman Brown. Like the rajah, he hates Jim and Care Doramin.

Doramin is the leader of the wal mart leadership, Patusan Bugis, a group of some 60 Muslim families, from the neighboring island of Celebes, who form the faction opposed to the rajah. The old man is immensely fat, but his weight isn't comical; each pound seems to add to his mountainlike dignity. Doramin protects Jim for the sake of Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Essay, his old friendship with Stein. He is, in general, wise and leadership wily; but he ultimately lets his love for his son Dain Waris overrule his good judgment. Thus, he forestalls an attack on is prostitution the invaders in Jim's absence, fearing that his son will be harmed in the battle. Later, after Brown's men have killed Dain Waris, Doramin takes revenge by wal mart leadership, shooting Jim. Not only is his vengeance an irrational act, but it's a highly foolish and irresponsible one that will bring great harm to the Bugis he leads, since Jim is their main protection against the tyranny of the Rajah Allang. Dain Waris, Doramin's son, is a stock figure of adventure fiction: handsome, intelligent, daring, respectful of his parents, and so forth.

Marlow sings his praises by listing the Writing example, ways in which he's like a white man (Chapter Twenty-six)- a racist way of implying that Malays who aren't like white men are inferior. Because Doramin is ambitious for his son to wal mart leadership become ruler of Patusan, he's not entirely comfortable with Jim's power- especially after Marlow assures him that Jim is never going to leave even though Jim and Dain Waris are best friends. Dain Waris dies through the treachery of Brown and Cornelius, but Doramin's rankling resentment leads him to women avenge his son by shooting Jim. Sherif Ali, an Arab half-breed and leadership religious fanatic, has incited the and Ratings Essay, tribes in the interior to rise and terrorize the wal mart leadership, countryside. He's built a stronghold on Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Essay one of the twin hills overlooking the village. Both the rajah and Doramin are wary of him. Jim makes his name by leading Doramin's men into Sherif Ali's supposedly impregnable camp and driving him out of Patusan.

Jim's faithful servant, silent and wal mart leadership dour, is another stock character of is prostitution legal, escapist fiction. This name means black clerk in Malay. Like Jim, he's an outsider (a Malay from the north) whom the rajah took prisoner on his arrival in Patusan, and who escaped to the Bugis. He witnesses the massacre of Dain Waris' men, and he executes the treacherous Cornelius on the spot. Much of Marlow's information about wal mart leadership, Jim's last days comes from Tamb' Itam, who has escaped with Jewel to The Internet Essay Stein's home in Samarang. Jewel isn't her real name (which Marlow never discloses), but the English translation of Jim's affectionate Malay nickname for her. She, too, is wal mart, something of a stock figure- romantic and tragic- but with slightly more depth of character than the other Malays.

Jewel's father abandoned her mother, who then married Cornelius. Now the mother is dead, and Cornelius has transferred his long bitterness to poor Jewel, whom he browbeats constantly. She leads a miserable life until Jim arrives and falls in love with her. But she's terrified that Jim will leave her, as her father left her mother. When, at the end, he marches off to die, her fierce love turns into bitterness. In Uk! Essentially she goes from one false picture of wal mart, Jim to another. During his lifetime, she won't believe anything bad of him; after his death, she won't forgive him because, she insists, he has abandoned her. Though Jewel is fairly helpless in her dependency first on Cornelius, then on Jim, she's nonetheless spirited and resourceful. She saves Jim from Sherif Ali's assassins. Later, when Brown's men invade and Jim is legal, away, she proves herself a natural leader of the community.

But her judicious call for strong action against the invaders is thwarted by Doramin's over-cautiousness. Wal Mart! Cornelius, a Malayan-born Portuguese, lives in Patusan as Stein's thoroughly incompetent trade representative before Jim is is prostitution legal in uk, appointed to the post. He got the job only through Stein's regard for his wife, who was pregnant by another man and needed a refuge. Wal Mart! Cornelius never forgives his wife, and he never forgives her daughter, Jewel. Marlow dislikes Cornelius so much that his descriptions are almost funny in their disgust. One scathing adjective follows another. Cornelius even moves like some kind of vermin, skulking or slinking or sidling. Adlestrop! The only thing that keeps him from being really dangerous is his cowardice. It takes Brown to give Cornelius' malice some teeth. Leadership! Cornelius despises Jim, presumably because Jim has replaced him. But there's something deeper in his hatred- the natural animosity (like Brown's) of a low creature for a superior one.

He assists Sherif Ali's plot to assassinate Jim, but doesn't get punished for revolution it. (Jim spares him out of deference to his position as Jewel's father.) He ingratiates himself with Brown's men, he pleads with Brown to kill Jim, and he leads the wal mart leadership, invaders to Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Essay example the position from which they stage their sneak attack on leadership Dain Waris and his men. Tamb' Itam stabs him to death in retaliation for his part in the massacre, and in uk so he never has the satisfaction of seeing his treachery lead to Jim's ruin. Leadership! Marlow's spoken account ends at Chapter Thirty-five. Legal! Chapters Thirty-six through Forty-five comprise a written addendum that Marlow sends, more than two years later, to one of his original listeners. This privileged man (privileged because he's the only member of that audience to learn the rest of Jim's story) is never named. He seems to wal mart be elderly (his wandering days were over), and vs. Descriptive Writing Essay the city he lives in forms a geographical contrast to the remote village he'll be reading about. The privileged man's outlook is leadership, racist, in that he has criticized Jim for deserting his own culture to live among a people he likens to brutes. Gentleman Brown is called Gentleman because he's supposed to be the son of a baronet, but in fact he's the lowest kind of pirate. He has virtually no morals.

His only display of Health Essay, feeling is reported in wal mart leadership, a tale about adlestrop, his weeping over the corpse of wal mart, a woman he'd stolen from Care of Infants her missionary husband. Brown and his men invade Patusan because they need food and money, and the village looks prosperous and vulnerable on a map. But it proves to wal mart leadership be difficult prey. Brown's men are soon surrounded on a hill in what looks like a hopeless position- until the rajah, via Kassim, opens negotiations. It's then that he hears about Jim. Brown is such a low creature that he can't imagine Jim as anything other than a plunderer like himself. But when they meet, and he perceives his error, his hatred is immediate and absolute.

Later, as the dying Brown relates his story to Marlow, it's clear that his hatred is instinctive: it's like the is prostitution, natural enmity of, say, a cobra for a mongoose. But Jim is too innocent to wal mart feel this kind of enmity. He lets Brown escape with his life, never dreaming that Brown could be so despicable as to stage a sneak attack on the notion of civil disobedience is founded on what principle innocent men- exactly what he does as he's leaving Patusan. Most of the action of Lord Jim takes place in and around Singapore and the Malay Archipelago, a chain of islands extending from southeast Asia to just north of leadership, Australia, including Indonesia and the Philippines. Analysis! Conrad was familiar with the area from leadership three visits he had made, during his sailing years, between 1883 and 1888. Marlow never names the city in which the Patna inquiry is held, but his description of the harbor office, the hospital, the hotel, and so on- suggest that it's Singapore. The city is a port situated on the small island of Singapore, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. In Conrad's day Singapore had already long been under British rule. (It became independent in 1959.) For a stretch midway through the adlestrop poem analysis, novel, Jim works as a water-carrier in various ports, notably Bangkok, Siam (present-day Thailand) and Samarang, Java (present-day Indonesia), which is where Stein lives as well.

After that, the action shifts to the fictional district of wal mart, Patusan. Conrad appears to have based Jim's refuge on a settlement on the Berau River, on the island of Borneo (mostly part of present- day Indonesia) that he had visited himself. Although Conrad spent only a brief time there, the locale proved to be a fertile starting point for his imagination; he had used a similar setting for his earlier novels Almayer's Folly (1895) and An Outcast of the Islands (1896). But since he was only women, loosely acquainted with the settlement, he probably supplemented his knowledge with various books about the wal mart leadership, area. The shift from a bustling port city to adlestrop poem a remote island village signals a shift in the novel as well.

After Jim arrives in Patusan, the wal mart leadership, fantasy element grows stronger. Women! The novel becomes much more like escapist fiction, with less emphasis on the troubling moral questions that dominate the first half. Remote villages are much more the stuff of romance than cities are. The shift to such a picturesque setting probably has much to do with the change in tone, especially since the protagonist, Jim, is so given to fantasies to start with. The following are major themes of Lord Jim. Twenty years before Lord Jim, Dostoyevsky suggested in his masterpiece, The Brothers Karamazov, that if there is no God, then everything is permitted. The agnostic Conrad doesn't mention God, but the great underlying theme of Lord Jim is related to this dictum.

Does a fixed standard of conduct exist- or is everything permitted? The behavior of the leadership, Patna officers, and and Medical Care the fact that at leadership least some of them escape punishment, lead Marlow to wonder whether the women, standard of conduct isn't really artificial, fixed for our own convenience but without any basis in truth. Jim's case disturbs Marlow even more deeply, because it raises the question, are there circumstances under which the fixed standard may be violated? If there are, then the standard isn't fixed at all, but movable. If it's movable, then what kind of wal mart leadership, truth could it rest on?

Are these questions answered in Lord Jim? After you have violated the standard of on what principle, conduct, what kind of second chance can you expect? Many readers put this question in wal mart, terms of salvation or redemption. Some argue that no matter what kind of glory Jim attains in Patusan, he isn't redeemed. Others say he does achieve salvation. Women! Still others claim that these terms are all wrong for Lord Jim because Conrad isn't the kind of religious writer for whom they would have any meaning: Jim may not be redeemed, but he's certainly rehabilitated. Leadership! The only person who seems unable to forgive Jim is Narrative Essay example, Jim- the Patna scandal keeps gnawing at his memory. Several times Conrad pictures Jim's second chance as a veiled opportunity, an image that culminates in opportunity removing its veil at Jim's death. Leadership! If in adlestrop poem analysis, fact Jim's second chance comes only when he looks death in the face and doesn't turn away, proving once and for wal mart leadership all he's not a coward, but at is prostitution the cost of his life- if that's Conrad's meaning (but it's a big if)- then the ending is very bleak indeed. Leadership! Jim is so hard on himself after the Patna disgrace because he's spent much of his life fantasizing about being a hero.

Marlow criticizes this aspect of Jim in the first half of the novel. Jim's illusions seem useless and, in view of is founded principle, his cowardice, even hypocritical. But at wal mart the same time Marlow is drawn to Jim's naive ideals, because they remind him of Care of Infants, his own youthful dreams. With Stein's pronouncements in Chapter Twenty, Jim's ideals become a much more positive character trait. You may not be able to accomplish all your dreams, Stein advises, but you should keep following them all the same. Jim's stupendous success in Patusan seems to justify Stein's words. Is there a difference between ideals and illusions? Stein is a naturalist who collects butterflies and beetles, and these two insect types crystallize another theme, the two poles of human nature. Jim may be fascinating because his behavior is ambiguous (more so in the first half than in the second), but the wal mart leadership, other characters fall pretty clearly into two groups. The butterflies are the The Internet Products Essay, idealists, the romantic dreamers, the people who aren't corrupted by the dirt that surrounds them.

The beetles are the cynics, like Chester and Brown, and wal mart the cowards, like Cornelius and Jim's fellow Patna officers. Vs. Descriptive Writing Example! Whatever Marlow's doubts about the fixed standard, he's confident enough that morality is based on leadership some kind of truth that he isn't afraid to pass judgment on the behavior of others. The Notion Is Founded! Are his judgments accurate? Friendship is a subtle theme that runs like a thread through the novel. Marlow immediately feels his kinship with Jim, and keeps referring to him as one of us (see the note to Chapter Five). He also sees in Jim a reflection of his younger, more naive self. Marlow doesn't sermonize about the rewards of friendship. But he goes out of his way to help Jim, and wal mart leadership he expends a lot of energy thinking and talking about him. Because Marlow tends to be unsentimental, even gruff, and because his affection for Jim is Writing example, sometimes obscured by the relationship of narrator to subject, this theme stays a little below the surface.

It's still the leadership, novel's basic plot mechanism. Without the friendship, there wouldn't be a novel. Conrad wrote in legal, a famous statement that his task as an artist was by the power of the written word to make you hear, to wal mart make you feel- it is, before all, to of Infants Essay make you see. To achieve this goal, he fills his pages with one image after another. Conrad's prose is rich, complicated, and sensual. It frequently verges on excess. His reputation as an impressionist novelist stems from his dependence on sense impressions to create his images and make his points. Such a dependency is fitting for an agnostic novelist: someone who doubts that there are general truths you can depend on- who isn't sure whether there's a God or not- will be likely to rely on wal mart leadership what he can perceive directly with his senses rather than on abstract ideas. Conrad employs a wide-ranging vocabulary, much of it drawn from sea life or from the exotic eastern regions that form the setting of the novel.

A big vocabulary is typical of Victorian novelists, but Conrad doubtless took special pride in his command of English, since it wasn't his first language. Health And Medical Care! By the time he was writing Lord Jim, he had achieved such fluency that he could enjoy playing with the language- as he does, for wal mart example, in of civil on what, the various non-English accents (like Stein's) that find their way into the book, or in the public-school slang (bally this and bally that) that Jim is prone to use. It would be exhausting to attempt to point out every noteworthy image. Many of the images- for leadership example, the is prostitution legal in uk, moon over Patusan- have a deeper symbolic significance. But much of the pleasure you'll get out of Lord Jim will come simply from the hundreds of lovely or strange or shocking word pictures, and you should keep yourself open to this remarkable beauty as you read. The first four chapters of leadership, Lord Jim are written in the voice of an The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay, omniscient narrator- that is, a narrator who has the ability to pry into a character's thoughts, in this case, Jim's. Wal Mart Leadership! Conrad thus lets you get to know Jim quickly, and what soon becomes obvious is that Jim is a dreamer whose heroic fantasies are a long way from Care Essay reality.

With Chapter Five, Marlow takes over the narrative; from wal mart leadership that point on, you're allowed to know only as much about Jim as Marlow knows. But aside from the fact that you no longer get to listen in on Jim's thoughts, this shift in the notion of civil on what, point of view isn't as significant as you might expect. The main advantage the impersonal narrator gets from his omniscience is wal mart leadership, a thorough knowledge of Jim's fantasies- something Marlow understands after speaking with Jim for only a few hours. French Women! This omniscient narrator doesn't enjoy certain other advantages that the typical omniscient narrator has at hand. Leadership! For example, when the Patna strikes whatever it is she strikes at sea, he doesn't fill you in by saying, It was an old shipwreck. This surmise, in fact, comes later, from and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay Marlow, and it's only a guess. Conrad is a skeptical novelist, skeptical about the kinds of information that are available to human beings. Just as Conrad the agnostic doubts the existence of wal mart, general certainties, Conrad the novelist believes that what a narrator (or anybody) can know is french, what he can see, hear, taste, touch, and smell- and deduce from that evidence.

So he limits the wal mart, novel to Marlow's point of view. Health And Medical! (The narrator of the first four chapters resembles Marlow in every aspect but his omniscience.) Marlow could be Conrad's double as far as general character traits and outlook go, so using him allows Conrad to speak, more or less, in leadership, his own voice (but without the Polish accent). However, limiting Jim's story to Marlow's point of view requires some structural gymnastics on Conrad's part, since Marlow has to have contact with everybody who has important information about Jim. Is Prostitution Legal In Uk! When Jim is leadership, leaving one job after another, Marlow has to Essay trail around getting his employers' side of the story. For Marlow to relate in full the events leading to Jim's death, Conrad has to arrange an wal mart leadership, interview between him and Gentleman Brown. This interview, with Brown on his deathbed, is vividly described, but it's one of the less convincing sections of the novel. Adlestrop Poem! Instead of narrating events in a strict time sequence, Marlow jumps back and forth among the events of Jim's life, as well as events in his own life (like meeting the leadership, French lieutenant) that have a bearing on Narrative Essay example Jim. Consider, for wal mart leadership example, the events in Chapters Twenty-six through Twenty-eight. This is how they occur chronologically: Jim and Jewel fall in love.

Jim leads the assault on Sherif Ali. Marlow, approaching Patusan, hears a rumor about adlestrop analysis, Jim owning a precious Jewel. Marlow, visiting Patusan, talks with Jim (a) and Doramin (b). But these four events are described in this order: 2-4a-2-4b-1-3. This fracturing of chronology was one of Conrad's most important contributions to the development of the novel, though he didn't take it as far as later writers such as William Faulkner. In fact, the novel overall has a conventional chronological structure, beginning with Jim's early days and moving on from the Patna incident to Jim's stint as a water clerk in various ports, then to his eventual success in Patusan and, finally, to his death. This overall chronology stays intact, even though within chapters, or groups of chapters, the time sequence is leadership, radically rearranged. Structurally, the novel breaks into two parts that might be called Patna and Patusan, with Chapters Eighteen through Twenty forming a rough transitional link. Adlestrop! Conrad admitted that the halving was a plague spot in the novel. There's nothing inherently wrong with a two-part structure.

But many have argued that the Patna and Patusan episodes of Lord Jim are so different in tone and in their basic assumptions about dreams and heroics that they make it difficult to see the novel as a unified whole. Wal Mart Leadership! Do you agree? Copyright 1985 by Barron's Educational Series, Inc. Electronically Enhanced Text Copyright 1993, World Library, Inc. French Women! Further distribution without the written consent of PinkMonkey.com, Inc. is prohibited. All Contents Copyright © 1997-2004 PinkMonkey.com.

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How to Write the leadership Cornell University Application Essays 2017-2018. Cornell University, both the youngest and largest member of the prestigious Ivy League, is home to seven undergraduate colleges and nearly 80 majors. Established in 1865 by Ezra Cornell, the Ithaca, New York institution has certainly lived up to The Internet of Entertainment Essay, its founder’s motto: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.” The wide range of opportunities at Cornell drew a record-breaking number of applicants this past admission cycle. 47,038 students applied for entry into leadership the class of 2021, with an acceptance rate of only 12.5%, the lowest in the university’s history. Of Civil! The increasingly difficult nature of the admissions game requires increasingly stronger essays — with nearly 50,000 applications to review, having a supplement that stands out from the pack is essential. Before submitting the Common Application or the Universal College Application, both of wal mart leadership, which are accepted by Cornell, students are required to adlestrop, select which of the seven undergraduate colleges they wish to be accepted into. In addition to a personal statement, a supplemental essay (maximum of wal mart, 650 words) is required for each college.

Below, we’ll go in adlestrop analysis depth into each of the prompts and help you craft an essay that’s sure to leadership, impress the Cornell admissions committee! Cornell University Application Essay Prompts. The primary focus of your college interest essay should be what you intend to study at Cornell. In the is prostitution in uk online Common Application Writing Supplement, please respond to the essay question below (maximum of 650 words) that corresponds to the undergraduate college or school to which you are applying. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Why are you drawn to studying the major you have selected? Please discuss how your interests and related experiences have influenced your choice. Specifically, how will an education from the College of Agriculture and wal mart leadership, Life Sciences (CALS) and Cornell University help you achieve your academic goals? The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) is the second largest undergraduate college at Cornell University. And Ratings Of Entertainment! While the initial mission of the school when it was founded in 1874 was to educate students in leadership the areas of agriculture and life sciences, the in uk offer of majors at CALS has since become very diverse. Students can choose to wal mart leadership, study traditional CALS topics like agricultural sciences, plant sciences, and biology society, or they can venture into areas such as information science, communication, and landscape architecture, just to name a few.

The three most important things to make sure you have in a supplement for the College of The Internet Essay, Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) are answers to the three questions posed by the prompt: Why are you drawn to studying the major you have selected? How did your interests and related experiences influence your choice in major? How will an education from CALS and Cornell help you achieve your academic goals? In the first two questions, Cornell wants to see that you can connect your major with your experiences throughout high school (and ideally the rest of your life). If you want to wal mart leadership, major in biology, you can explain how your AP Biology class was transformative because it taught you how complex life is and inspired a research project into the origins of, say, neurological diseases. You could be applying as a communications major and write about how you were always afraid of public speaking until you came out of your shell on your school’s debate team. At the is prostitution in uk same time, you don’t have to write about school-related experiences if you became enamored with the subject matter of your major through some other way.

Try to put your desired major at wal mart leadership the forefront of the essay — it’s totally okay if you aren’t interested in agriculture or life sciences, as long as your passion for your particular major shows through. Don’t make the mistake of applying as an information sciences major and writing about the summer you spent on a farm; even though working on a farm has everything to do with agriculture, it has almost nothing to do with information sciences. To tackle to Health and Medical Care Essay, final component of the prompt, you also need to leadership, explain how the resources and opportunities at CALS will allow you to pursue your passion (the major which you just finished writing about). Do some research on The Internet of Entertainment, Cornell’s website. Find a minor, concentration, club, or course that you can tie back to leadership, your major. Instead of simply name dropping an organization, try to find something that excites you and write about it such that it becomes evident to the reader. After all, the admissions staff wants to see that you’ve put in the time to Narrative Essay example, learn more about CALS — they don’t want to accept someone that won’t bother to understand the ins and outs of the programs they offer! College of Architecture, Art, and Planning. Describe two or three of wal mart, your intellectual interests and why you are excited to pursue them within your chosen major in AAP. What personal experiences, background, or future goals will you bring to your scholarly and artistic pursuits at analysis Cornell?

The College of Architecture, Art, and Planning (AAP) contains three distinct departments: Architecture, Art, and wal mart, City Regional Planning. In this supplement, the Health Care admissions office is looking for you to wal mart, explain both your passion for your chosen department/major, as well as what you believe Cornell has to french women, gain by wal mart admitting you as a student. The Internet Products! As the leadership smallest college at the notion disobedience principle Cornell, AAP is particularly interested in how you can serve to wal mart, enrich the school, in addition to how the school can serve to enrich you. Since the programs at AAP are incredibly specialized, you should have some previous experience in french women your chosen department, exhibited through extracurriculars, internships, and portfolios. Wal Mart! These are the “intellectual interests” that you should be writing about in the supplement — be sure to poem analysis, use as much detail as possible in describing your experiences.

At the same time, use those details to wal mart, further your argument of why Cornell will benefit from your admission. Also, don’t write about the two departments that you aren’t applying to. Adlestrop Poem! Even though it might seem like this would show your well-roundedness, AAP is looking for applicants that have clear interest for their selected field. One strategy to show passion is to wal mart, select one or two pieces from is prostitution in uk your portfolio that are especially meaningful to you and elaborate on their importance. Maybe you have a blueprint of your bedroom, which you used to personally plot out the changes that were made in a recent home renovation. It could be a series of leadership, photos, taken at adlestrop the same place and time every day for a year, showing the natural change in seasons.

All competitive applicants will have excellent portfolios, but the wal mart leadership students that are able to best explain the personal significance of their portfolio components have the best chance at acceptance. Describe two or three of your current intellectual interests and why they are exciting to adlestrop, you. Why will Cornell’s College of Arts and Sciences be the right environment in which to pursue your interests? The College of Arts and Sciences (AS) is the largest of Cornell’s undergraduate colleges, and also contains the widest range of majors, from Africana Studies to Statistical Science to Philosophy to Astronomy. Unlike the other colleges at wal mart leadership Cornell, there’s no common thread running through AS. For that reason, it’s especially important that your supplement be as detailed and specific as possible to Care of Infants, the field of study you wish to pursue. Bring in examples of how your experiences throughout high school led you to your desired major.

For example, if you want to major in computer science, try writing the wal mart leadership essay about the and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay apps you’ve developed or the meticulous manner in wal mart which you organize sections of code. When explaining your interest in government, don’t try to connect your experiences in model congress to something completely unrelated, like art history — maximize your message by focusing specifically on what’s relevant to the field of study. If you aren’t yet positive about a major, take advantage of the opportunity to explain what you’re considering through your “intellectual interests.” In transitioning between the two parts of the prompt, illustrate why specifically you chose the The Internet Products major you did. This provides a logical pathway from your interests to why you wish to study at Cornell. Try to isolate a specific moment in your life, or a series of moments, that made you absolutely certain that you wanted to devote your education and career to leadership, this particular course of study.

An uncommon example could be: You went on a trip to the Middle East, participated in an archeological dig, and discovered a piece of ancient Roman pottery that was determined to have been used by Constantine in the fourth century. Ever since, you’ve strived to pursue a career in archaeology, so you can continue making connections with lost civilizations. Don’t feel intimidated if you haven’t done anything “crazy,” either. As long as the experience is important to revolution women, you — that’s all that matters. The ultimate goal is to humanize yourself in the eyes of the admissions staff.

The second part of the prompt asks, “Why Arts and Sciences?” Make sure to wal mart, provide concrete examples of courses, concentrations, clubs, and/or research opportunities that have drawn you to AS. That being said, be careful not to appear as though you’re just quoting the website: elaborate on how each of the examples you provide will be meaningful to you and help you advance your academic interests and goals! Also, try to avoid dropping names of professors, unless you’ve had personal contact with them. Instead, refer to the course they teach or the research they’re doing. Cornell S.C. Legal In Uk! Johnson College of Business – Charles H. Leadership! Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management. How have your interests and experiences influenced your decision to study Applied Economics and Management? Describe how you would take advantage of the Dyson School’s unique opportunities, for example, its affiliation with both the Cornell SC Johnson College of Business and the College of Agriculture and Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing, Life Sciences. The Dyson School of wal mart leadership, Applied Economics and Management (Dyson/AEM) is a member of both the S.C. Johnson College of Business and the College of Agriculture and adlestrop analysis, Life Sciences. This is the first year that Dyson has its own essay prompt—previously, it resided solely in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

The new prompt affords AEM applicants the unique opportunity of writing about wal mart two different colleges at Cornell, in addition to the Applied Economics and is prostitution legal, Management major. The first part of the leadership prompt is asking students to elaborate on specific high school and is prostitution in uk, life experiences (that were most likely briefly mentioned in their application) and connect them to economics and management. If you participated in any sort of leadership, business organization or held leadership in any organization, you should explain how those experiences led you to apply to Dyson. You can even write about a job that you may have held, and show what you learned by working for a firm. Regardless of whether or not you dealt with the financial aspects of the firm, you can take a management approach—maybe you had a boss that was a great leader (or an awful one). Always make sure to tie back and intertwine the idea with specific aspects of AEM. The second part of the prompt could be a bit more difficult. While there are many resources online about CALS, there’s very little regarding the S.C.

Johnson College of Business. Is Prostitution Legal! Focus more on how you can take advantage of the opportunities available in CALS by relating them back to applied economics and management. Maybe you’re interested in pursuing a research project about the economics of family farming vs. factory farming, or taking on a minor in environmental and sustainability sciences and examining the ways to make renewable energy more profitable. Leadership! For this example, you would explain that by applying the business principles you learn in Dyson, you can better analyze market trends and in turn increase sales of home solar panels. Whatever you choose, make sure you bring in topics from outside of Dyson. Don't Worry — We'll edit your admissions essay in a few hours. Submit your essay and we’ll get it back to you with helpful edits. Cornell S.C. Johnson College of Business – School of Hotel Administration. The global hospitality industry includes hotel and food service management, real estate, finance, entrepreneurship, marketing, technology, and law. Describe what has influenced your decision to study business through the lens of hospitality.

What personal qualities make you a good fit for SHA? The School of Hotel Administration (SHA) is legal in uk, widely considered one of the best hotel management programs in the world. Typically, more than 80% of enrolling freshmen in the Hotel School have work experience in wal mart leadership the hospitality industry prior to applying. For those that do, this essay shouldn’t be too difficult. Provided that you’ve had some professional exposure to the hospitality industry (be it through a paid job, internships, or shadowing), the focus of your essay should be on what you learned about the industry through your exposure.

Make sure to explain not only why you are passionate about hospitality, but also about business. For those that don’t have any professional exposure to the hospitality industry, try to poem analysis, pull as much as possible from your high school extracurriculars and think outside the box. Wal Mart Leadership! Even if something may not seem like it connects to Narrative example, hospitality, find a way of connecting it in your essay. Volunteering at leadership the local soup kitchen and interning at a regional hospital may seem to have little to do with a massive field that connects hotels, restaurants, and transportation, but a soup kitchen can just as easily be compared to a restaurant as a hospital can be compared to a hotel — by being creative, you’ll be able to find more than enough to write about. In addition to the work experience, many applicants to SHA have a passion for hospitality that has been a core component of their life for many years. This passion typically manifests itself through strong leadership skills, undying compassion and empathy, and a love for travel. Find a way of showing your passion in your essay (personal anecdotes are usually the best way to revolution, go). Leadership! Since the french Hotel School has such a specific program, it’s incredibly important that your supplement provide the admissions committee with a full understanding of why you belong in the field of hospitality. Cornell Engineering celebrates innovative problem-solving that helps people, communities… the world. Consider your ideas and aspirations and describe how a Cornell Engineering education would allow you to leverage technological problem-solving to improve the world we live in. The prompt for wal mart, the College of Engineering (EN) provides you with a wide range of Health Care of Infants Essay, acceptable topics, provided that they’re in some way related to wal mart leadership, engineering.

The first step in crafting this essay would be to find out what you’re specifically interested in studying. In a way, this prompt is somewhat easier than most, as it asks you to look towards your future, and not explain your past (through extracurriculars and The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay, life experiences). Leadership! Even if you’ve had minimal experience with engineering throughout high school, you can still craft an excellent response to adlestrop, the prompt. The best way to tackle this essay, once you’ve decided what you wish to study at Cornell, is by leadership finding a problem in the world. The problem could be anything that interests you and relates to engineering. Brainstorm a list of problems that you would be interested in solving, and reformat all of them into questions, like this: How do we make highways cheaper and easier to build in remote locations? What’s the best way to provide renewable energy for Care of Infants, the whole planet? How can we use genetic engineering to leadership, solve the hunger crisis? From your list, decide which problem fits best into your selected major. Now, you’ll just need to explain how being a student at Cornell University will provide you with the tools and knowledge you need to go out and fix your problem.

Look into what previous graduates have accomplished, the courses that are offered, and the opportunities for french revolution, research. You should try to come up with a plan of wal mart, action to solve your problem (which cites the the notion of civil disobedience principle research you’ve done about the wal mart leadership school). Demonstrating what you would actually do to problem-solve can be impressive to readers. For example, in order to build a lightweight sustainable vehicle, it would be crucial to describe the steps you would take to: design crash tests, research into fuel availability, draft blueprints of the physical model, recruit drivers, and consult engineering professors about the feasibility of manufacturing. By displaying this high level of revolution women, analytical thinking about how you would solve a real problem, the admissions team will be sure to wal mart leadership, recognize your interest in and fit for the College of is prostitution legal, Engineering. How have your experiences influenced you to apply to the College of wal mart, Human Ecology?

How will your choice of major impact your goals and plans for the future? The prompt for the College of The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay, Human Ecology (Humec/HE) has two distinct components: the wal mart past and disobedience is founded, the future. It first asks you to explain what in your past led you to apply to Humec, and leadership, then asks you to elaborate on Health of Infants Essay, what your life plans are after you graduate from Humec. In tackling the wal mart first half of the essay, you’ll need to decide which of the seven HE majors you are applying for. If you’re interested in legal in uk Fiber Science and Apparel Design, you should write about your background in fashion, not about your interest in microbiology. Wal Mart Leadership! Likewise, if you plan on majoring in Nutritional Sciences, you could explain how you changed your family’s eating habits by Health Care Essay creating a weekly menu plan. This isn’t necessarily the place or time to write about a trip to Africa in which you experienced firsthand the devastating effects of malaria — even though that’s really interesting, it’s far more suited to an essay for the Global and Public Health Sciences major. Make sure to be as specific as possible to your desired major, and let your excitement about the wal mart subject shine through to the admissions committee. The second part of the prompt shouldn’t be too difficult, provided that you’re able to Narrative vs. Descriptive, link in your future goals and aspirations to your previous experiences (that you wrote about in wal mart the first part of the essay). Once again, make sure that your passion for your selected major is evident, and don’t just write in the general sense. If you’re hoping to go to medical school after college, definitely mention that — explain how what you study at Humec will influence your life in Care of Infants Essay the medical world and guide you through your career.

School of wal mart, Industrial and poem analysis, Labor Relations. Tell us about your intellectual interests, how they sprung from your course, service, work or life experiences, and what makes them exciting to wal mart leadership, you. Describe how ILR is the right school for you to pursue these interests. The School of Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) is all about people. Your essay, similarly, should be all about the notion of civil is founded people. Students in ILR learn about the relationships between employees and leadership, employers in the workplace — including the french women history of labor, labor law, organizational behavior and leadership, and economics. An interest in these fields can typically be shown through strong public speaking and communication skills, a passion for debate, and an ability to settle almost any dispute amicably. Wal Mart Leadership! In your essay, you could explain how you’ve mastered those personality traits throughout your life, citing experiences that emphasize your strengths. Just as much as this prompt is asking about you, it’s also asking, “Why ILR?” Make sure to insert some information about the school, be it courses you find interesting, a minor/concentration you wish to pursue, or research being done by professors. Find a way of linking your past experiences to the new ones you hope to have at Cornell.

Hopefully the The Internet and Ratings Products Essay analysis of leadership, each supplemental essay prompt has helped you to fine-tune your plans for your Cornell University supplement! Best of poem, luck with your application, and wal mart leadership, GO BIG RED! Interested in more personal application and essay help? Learn about our College Apps Program and Essay Editing Program. Want us to is prostitution, quickly edit your college essay? Submit it to our Rapid Review Program, and leadership, we’ll get it back to adlestrop poem, you quickly with comments from our expert team. From school list creation to putting together a solid admissions narrative and helping you write competitive essays , we’ll help you every step of the way. We'll send them straight to your inbox. Latest posts by CollegeVine College Essay Team (see all)

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college essay spoof Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is wal mart, under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is revolution, meant to assist, not intimidate.

Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the wal mart, term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for in uk more detailed discussion.). PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the wal mart leadership, hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in Products Essay which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. Leadership! For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing, word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to the hard palate. PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is leadership, a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. Legal! It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it.

PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. Wal Mart Leadership! It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in The Internet Essay English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on. However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Leadership! Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and vs. Descriptive Essay example, Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!

Sex at noon taxes. Wal Mart Leadership! Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is legal, sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. H. Auden) Stop Syrian! I start at rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in leadership Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in and Medical Care circles by night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by wal mart, Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Narrative Writing Essay example, Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74).

PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of wal mart a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Usually this is meant to The Internet of Entertainment apologize or counterbalance earlier material. The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in wal mart leadership which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and love poetry.

The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to french revolution women dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of sexual love for wal mart that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in the notion on what which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and leadership, Criseyde . At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to and Ratings Essay write a retraction for all his secular literature. See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for leadership Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. Of Entertainment Products Essay! summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes.

Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr. Wal Mart Leadership! Pangloss is adlestrop poem analysis, a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the leadership, doctrine that all is for the best, and The Internet Products, that we live in leadership the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the adlestrop analysis, world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities.

PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to leadership exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the is prostitution legal, Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to leadership all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is and Medical Care Essay, situated on top of the Acropolis in wal mart Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is and Ratings of Entertainment Essay, a poem of leadership no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in french revolution the sense that the second and fourth lines of leadership each stanza become the first and third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. Narrative Vs. Descriptive Essay Example! (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the wal mart leadership, genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse.

Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in which the Essay, chorus would remove their masks and step forward to address the audience directly in leadership speech rather than song. Legal! The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of leadership God is and Medical Care Essay, like . . . . Leadership! Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the wal mart leadership, speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. Adlestrop! For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. Leadership! fable , allegory , and poem, symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the wal mart leadership, start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in french women Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. Leadership! For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas. PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage.

PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of revolution women grammatical structure and wal mart leadership, length. For instance, King Alfred tried to poem make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the leadership, following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and is prostitution in uk, were equitable. If the leadership, writer uses two parallel structures, the result is adlestrop poem, isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the leadership, harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Essay, people, by the people, and for wal mart leadership the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to french revolution women perplex the dubious, and to startle the leadership, complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Essay strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of wal mart clauses as opposed to is prostitution legal hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is leadership, asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is of Entertainment Essay, praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for wal mart leadership this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. The Notion Of Civil Disobedience! Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the leadership, gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the book, and editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. Disobedience Principle! That Persian student is later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the wal mart, author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery. If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on legal in uk the theme of intolerance. All of wal mart these external cues, however, are not actually in the narrative itself we are reading.

Thus, they are paratextual. Revolution Women! A New Critic from the wal mart, 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to adlestrop poem sweep them away. PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is wal mart leadership, usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the hide of Health Care of Infants young calves.

As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the wal mart leadership, process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of the notion of civil is founded lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. Leadership! they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to of civil disobedience is founded principle size. Wal Mart! Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of skin pused. Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in The Internet Products the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of penitence and wal mart leadership, alleviating the sinner's punishment while in women purgatory . Leadership! The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to and Medical Care Essay a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to wal mart leadership avoid common misconceptions and distortions.

The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the disobedience is founded on what, church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. Leadership! By the fourteenth century, the the notion of civil on what principle, practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for wal mart leadership financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an poem indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for wal mart leadership papal indulgences. Adlestrop Poem! See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the leadership, chorus. Analysis! Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play. PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and leadership, characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by Health Care Essay, magnifying and wal mart leadership, calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of Essay example a genre rather than one particular work or author.

Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the wal mart leadership, first creation of theatrical parody. Health Care Of Infants Essay! Aristophanes makes use of parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of wal mart Euripides and Aeschylus). French! Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by Alexander Pope and W. W. Wal Mart Leadership! Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and legal in uk, Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into wal mart leadership, a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and the notion of civil disobedience, false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to wal mart list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Health Essay! Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to wal mart as a pun. Is Prostitution! See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the actor portrays or pretends to leadership be. The Notion Of Civil On What Principle! The term comes from Renaissance drama. Wal Mart Leadership! Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140).

The term role , synonymous with part, is is prostitution legal in uk, similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and leadership, be compatible with the methods and Health and Medical Care of Infants, goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in wal mart leadership art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories.

In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the legal, children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child. While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the leadership, common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in revolution women the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and wal mart, Frankish tribes of and Ratings France and Germany.

This practice is leadership, behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the adlestrop, much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to wal mart leadership refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is Health of Infants, each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to leadership create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and Health, serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in wal mart leadership Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the The Internet of Entertainment Products Essay, Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and leadership, dances. Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and analysis, Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). Wal Mart! See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world.

J. And Medical Care Of Infants Essay! A. Wal Mart Leadership! Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an the notion disobedience is founded 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the leadership, last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can. For Ruskin, only the The Internet Products, greatest of wal mart leadership poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is poem, a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about wal mart rhetorical uses for french revolution women pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to wal mart leadership evoke the Narrative, feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in wal mart a reader or viewer.

PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. Adlestrop Analysis! The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to wal mart download a PDF handout that puts these periods in is prostitution in uk chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship.

The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the wal mart leadership, patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts. Is Prostitution Legal In Uk! This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for students seeking to leadership understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of french revolution women indices and an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the leadership, PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in disobedience on what pagination. Wal Mart Leadership! The PL is being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an women old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an wal mart expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to the indices, and from there work one's way backward.

If any readers find a library that is about to women throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at kwheeler@cn.edu. I would like to leadership have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of is prostitution legal giving financial or political support to an artist. Wal Mart Leadership! A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the is prostitution legal, Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the leadership, deliberate goal of in uk rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime.

Patronage was also a common way for wal mart aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for and Medical of Infants instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters. In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in his career. Wal Mart! Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of poem analysis sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. Leadership! In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an of civil is founded important noble or royal family member as a patron, for wal mart leadership actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Health And Medical Care Essay! Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. Leadership! For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the the notion of civil is founded, name was changed to the King's Men in wal mart 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an the notion is founded enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of wal mart leadership characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the example, Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to wal mart John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention.

The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of is prostitution legal debt. They also lynched a number of wal mart leadership competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for their economic woes. Poem! According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an wal mart leadership aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the Products Essay, time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and wal mart, clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by legal, college students.

Most are published two to four times a year. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and wal mart leadership, check the revolution, article's claims and wal mart leadership, facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and is prostitution, (theoretically) free from leadership distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in Narrative which no official structure is consistently available to wal mart ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the Health of Infants Essay, typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and wal mart, Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of analysis advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for wal mart leadership scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival. Often libraries do have these journals available in Narrative Essay electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian.

Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. Wal Mart Leadership! For instance, the french, word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to wal mart leadership priests. It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the Health of Infants, only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite wal mart of pejoration is amelioration , in disobedience is founded on what which a word gains increasingly positive connotation.

Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and leadership, pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the is prostitution legal, pen name James Tiptree, Junior. Leadership! C.S.

Lewis used the pen name N.W. Essay! (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on. Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for wal mart westerns and another name for women science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of leadership these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of legal in uk crime, adventure, violence, or horror. Leadership! The term is an English archaism referring to the notion on what principle cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost.

English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. Wal Mart! See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of revolution writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the wal mart leadership, Russian authorities dissolved the is prostitution, group in 1932 and forced its members to merge with the leadership, Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80). PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the french revolution women, term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy.

In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in wal mart the morning and the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to women use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the wal mart leadership, last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from adlestrop gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of wal mart a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of The Internet of Entertainment intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of leadership her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for and Medical Essay periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to leadership avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for is prostitution legal birds in a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the leadership, fault is called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home. A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from analysis current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and education of the wal mart, gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in revolution women more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times.

The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. Leadership! This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and of civil is founded principle, publication customs of the modern world. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and leadership, the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the final portion of the Health Care, sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities.

For example, For the queen, the wal mart, lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at is founded the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is wal mart, clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to. The periodic sentence is more exotic and Writing Essay example, arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in leadership synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on vs. Descriptive Writing example the order of words).

In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers. Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the wal mart, very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the of Entertainment Products, sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in wal mart comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of poem analysis historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of wal mart literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the early 1800s on french one shelf, and all the books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and wal mart leadership, all the twentieth-century books on revolution the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . Wal Mart Leadership! If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to the notion disobedience is founded principle genre . Wal Mart Leadership! (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is women, not always clear. A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for wal mart leadership instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point.

Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for thinking about the french, zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and wal mart, contrast the writing, poetry, and drama produced in Narrative Writing Essay example different ages, to wal mart more easily trace chains of influence from one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the Health Care of Infants, connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and wal mart, Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions. For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Health of Infants, Renaissance into the Elizabethan and leadership, Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for Care of Infants Essay a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of leadership fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is poem, often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the wal mart leadership, protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.

The word was particularly common in and Medical Essay older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for leadership his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and and Ratings of Entertainment Products, applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of wal mart leadership oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. Care Of Infants! One of the most famous personae is wal mart leadership, that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of adlestrop poem economic advancement. Wal Mart Leadership! Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in Health Care Essay The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and wal mart leadership, somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay, poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and wal mart, grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the is prostitution, subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is wal mart leadership, particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the disobedience on what principle, ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones.

A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an wal mart inanimate object is revolution, given the ability of human speech. Apostrophe (not to be confused with the wal mart leadership, punctuation mark) is a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is of civil disobedience on what, not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the wal mart leadership, Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and revolution women, recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to wal mart the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to legal in uk goddesses, and wal mart leadership, so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at the home of M. B. And Medical Care Of Infants! Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and leadership, the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287).

In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the members of the group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by of Entertainment, Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the wal mart leadership, Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and revolution, the gates of hell will not prevail against it. To you I will give the keys to leadership the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on The Internet earth shall be bound in leadership heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of and Ratings Essay Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter.

Thus, the wal mart leadership, Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the poem analysis, whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and the East argued about this, but that was the sum of the dispute for several centuries. Wal Mart Leadership! The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by The Internet Essay, the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol. See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37).

See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and wal mart, pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by and Medical of Infants, or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the leadership, transition to and from of Entertainment Products Essay ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. Leadership! It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the vs. Descriptive Essay, relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and leadership, unwieldy field eventually split apart and the notion disobedience on what principle, become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in wal mart the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of and Ratings of Entertainment what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about X is . . . or My attitude toward X is . . . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of wal mart negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear).

If the is prostitution, audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in wal mart a play, or feel fear at the notion is founded on what principle his downfall, the play failed in its purpose. See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of leadership a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Care! Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and wal mart leadership, morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in Health of Infants the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and wal mart, run . Though the women, u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and wal mart, thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to and Medical Care indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word). Wal Mart! When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the spoken form of the word or the written form of the word.

Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the of civil disobedience principle, two sections. Wal Mart! An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the The Internet of Entertainment Products Essay, sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in leadership the caesura, though the effect is not limited to Health Essay alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of leadership sound in spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to legal represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player). PHONOLOGY : According to leadership Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of The Internet Essay vocal expression (329).

More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and wal mart, the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Products, escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. Leadership! The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into disobedience is founded on what principle, mischief. The picaresque novel is leadership, usually episodic in nature and realistic in french women its presentation of the seamier aspects of leadership society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works. The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594).

Probably the The Internet and Ratings Products, most famous example of the genre is wal mart, French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for revolution women the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. Wal Mart Leadership! The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the poem analysis, divine), but the wal mart leadership, Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the notion of civil disobedience is founded principle the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and wal mart leadership, patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility.

In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place. The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and and Ratings Products, Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. Wal Mart! John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and french women, colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the wal mart leadership, most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the stage.

The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In Uk! In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in wal mart leadership some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Essay a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an leadership original idea, phrase, or section of of Infants Essay writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the wal mart leadership, source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is Care Essay, attracted to each other for wal mart leadership mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Health Essay, Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world.

For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms. Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the leadership, unenlightened do not realize is of civil disobedience on what, that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and leadership, taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the Health and Medical Care Essay, mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on leadership medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of the notion of civil Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the wal mart leadership, Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of revolution women Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an wal mart imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the and Ratings Products, character they portray.

See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in wal mart leadership which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town. Narrative Vs. Descriptive Writing Essay Example! Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. Wal Mart! I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of example Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8). Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and events in a work of fiction.

In order for a plot to wal mart leadership begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of events in of civil disobedience principle the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at leadership how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects. Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to begin the story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in many of Shakespeare's plays).

PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. And Medical Care Essay! In this game, one child trades blows on leadership the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Is Prostitution Legal! Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to wal mart any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and The Internet, the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. Leadership! This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and The Internet of Entertainment Products, Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to wal mart trade strikes with another; in the case of Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech. The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and wal mart leadership, unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of wal mart his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets.

Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. Is Prostitution! These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for their time--because it is wal mart, different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of women The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for leadership fish and the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown.

The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech. POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and Health and Medical of Infants, punishments proportionately to the virtues and wal mart leadership, villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications. POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the historical author of the poem. Analysis! For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Wal Mart! Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties.

However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the Care, voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the author. In the same way, the speaker of the leadership, poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of french murdering a wife who displeases him--but the leadership, author of the Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing example, poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the wal mart, words in women a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is leadership, a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and disobedience is founded on what principle, dream vision , above. POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of wal mart leadership patterns of vs. Descriptive meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in wal mart leadership each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements.

The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. Revolution! However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the mind. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the wal mart, character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and legal, (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and who tells it. It is the leadership, method of narration that determines the position, or angle of Health and Medical Care of Infants Essay vision, from which the leadership, story unfolds. In Uk! Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to wal mart leadership be someone standing outside the story who refers to revolution all the characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on).

When the narrator reports speech and wal mart leadership, action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. Health And Medical Care! The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and events in the story, and wal mart leadership, is free to move at will in time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing, a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to wal mart a careful reader). French Women! Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the leadership, character through whom the The Internet of Entertainment, reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on every government action. Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers.

Others were dictatorships in leadership which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Essay, Sparta. They eventually rose to leadership power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Disobedience Is Founded! Athens was famous for its culture and art and leadership, intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). The Notion Is Founded On What! Circumstances such as the lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to wal mart pyramid designs by default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and is founded, Silverhand in Celtic stories). Leadership! Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in of civil is founded the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of wal mart experience. Health Essay! However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working. In the wal mart, same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of legal myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in leadership cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Adlestrop! Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance.

This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in leadership different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and math and music and physics and The Internet and Ratings Essay, sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed. It is wal mart leadership, the opposite of asyndeton . The Notion Disobedience! Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. Wal Mart! For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the the notion of civil disobedience is founded, idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession.

Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from wal mart leadership one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and revolution women, literary changes and tendencies after the wal mart, 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. Poem Analysis! We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and leadership, poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of Narrative Writing Essay example postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in leadership modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of is prostitution history, culture and superstition.

Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. Wal Mart Leadership! It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on is founded on what principle solipsism. While modernism mourned the wal mart, passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for its demise in the ruined heap of women civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the leadership, fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is is prostitution, often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to wal mart leadership literature that developed during and after the 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout.

POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. Adlestrop Poem! By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives. POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the leadership, structuralist movement in is prostitution in uk linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the audience is already familiar. Leadership! Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the revolution women, Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in wal mart leadership 1848 as a protest against conventional art and Health Care of Infants, literature. Wal Mart Leadership! A band of young London artists, poets, and is prostitution, intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the wal mart, Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and legal, urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. Wal Mart! The movement later grew to poem include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the wal mart leadership, poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and The Internet Products Essay, writer; the author Swinburne, and leadership, Burne-Jones the artist. Is Prostitution Legal! In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Wal Mart! Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to is prostitution in uk sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in leadership expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for is prostitution legal in uk further details. PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of wal mart people tend to french revolution use language. Wal Mart! Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at Health and Medical Care of Infants a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run.

Greenblatt notes they usually result from wal mart corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and legal, the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Wal Mart Leadership! Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in the minority argue that portions of the Health of Infants Essay, material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the wal mart leadership, time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to is prostitution in uk retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of wal mart Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into french revolution women, the Hebrew Bible thereafter. Wal Mart Leadership! This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the vs. Descriptive Writing Essay, 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and leadership, Aramaic Dictionary. The Internet Of Entertainment Essay! Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary.

Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the leadership, latest additions to the Genesis account. The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to the notion of civil disobedience is founded on what us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on wal mart leadership ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the tabernacle--appear to Narrative Essay have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Finally, the P text is marked the prominence it gives to wal mart leadership Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of The Internet Leviticus and leadership, Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Of Civil Disobedience Is Founded! Students should also. To understand the leadership, difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and is founded, it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in wal mart leadership King Henry V's claim to the French throne in in uk Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays.

In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood. Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and leadership, Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Health And Medical Care Of Infants! Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and wal mart leadership, other countries.

William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in the notion disobedience English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster. Wal Mart! He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over revolution, the business after Caxton's death and leadership, published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to legal in uk the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and wal mart leadership, mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in Writing literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in wal mart the context of one specific story or poem.

Examples of private symbols include the french revolution, elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. Wal Mart! (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to of civil principle his or her society at wal mart leadership large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the legal, author considers false values in a capitalistic society. Wal Mart! (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to is prostitution a group of wal mart Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Care Essay Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and wal mart, All's Well That Ends Well . Is Prostitution! These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level. Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the wal mart leadership, standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and Writing example, then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum.

Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of wal mart revision to meet the requirement of the the notion is founded principle, Profanity Act, such as omissions of wal mart leadership obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of The Internet Products Essay a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the leadership, moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is found at the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). Adlestrop Poem Analysis! This group established specific educational materials to wal mart leadership be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Essay example help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative.

When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in leadership Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Is this propaganda? Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an Health and Medical Care of Infants Essay argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles.

Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by leadership, adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the Care Essay, word climature by adding the end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12). The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the wal mart, vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of is prostitution several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar.

For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on stage apart from costumes and the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to wal mart leadership help characterize the is prostitution legal in uk, actors holding or wearing them, or to wal mart leadership provide visual objects for the notion disobedience on what practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the wal mart, curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose. PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. Women! The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and leadership, the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the adlestrop poem analysis, [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the wal mart, mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. Vs. Descriptive Writing Example! This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an wal mart inanimate object gains the ability to speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective.

Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the vs. Descriptive Writing Essay, tree, and so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to wal mart the beginning of a word for french revolution poetic effect. Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic.

Too many students are all afrightened by the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an wal mart example of a rhetorical scheme. Women! It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Leadership! Click here for more information. PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over is founded, the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf.

Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. Wal Mart Leadership! A knight who has prys is Writing Essay, loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual. Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in the General Prologue of leadership The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the french women, revelation of wal mart characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and the notion of civil is founded on what principle, others. Wal Mart! Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the soliloquy . Adlestrop! However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. Wal Mart Leadership! After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay, a thorny issue.

Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. Leadership! The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the is prostitution in uk, invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the wal mart, difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into vs. Descriptive Writing Essay example, the realm of the dead. Such a character often appears in the motif of the leadership, descent into the underworld . Examples of Narrative a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in wal mart Greek mythology, or the characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the the notion of civil disobedience is founded, penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available.

PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in wal mart leadership meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed). Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and revolution women, his lover's desire (her will ) in leadership the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Is Prostitution Legal In Uk! Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of wal mart humor. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings.

For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of poem analysis pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from wal mart leadership a noun referring to noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the Narrative Essay example, wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in wal mart various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the french, Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Wal Mart! Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to Essay purge): Donald Logan writes: The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to leadership hell, but would rather spend an is founded indeterminate period in a spiritual place of leadership temporal punishment.

The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the the notion is founded, church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the leadership, practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. Of Entertainment! It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and wal mart leadership, the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church. In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the adlestrop, Waldensians, and wal mart, the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of and Medical Care Purgatory in leadership the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the adlestrop poem analysis, breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in leadership which all children who die in the womb, in is prostitution in uk childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to term the wal mart leadership, Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of french purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and wal mart leadership, imagery of purgatory is the notion disobedience principle, especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the wal mart leadership, focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and adlestrop poem analysis, does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on wal mart leadership earth) on french revolution women some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the wal mart leadership, Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the poem, Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the leadership, idea is something of the notion disobedience is founded on what a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in wal mart the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. Narrative Vs. Descriptive Writing Essay! (That sort of religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in wal mart leadership the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the legal, word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to wal mart leadership H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and of Infants Essay, The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in wal mart leadership Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and those years in Narrative Essay example which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance.

It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy. Wal Mart Leadership! Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and french revolution women, his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is leadership, a colorful but irrelevant insertion into disobedience is founded, a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in wal mart leadership English verse, and Health Care of Infants Essay, most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable.

Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable. See meter for more information.

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essay on theseus Greek hero, especially national hero of Athens; slayer of the wal mart leadership, Minotaur. It was by lifting a boulder that Theseus, grandson of the king of Troezen, first proved himself a hero. Theseus was sixteen at the time. He had been raised by his grandfather and his mother, Princess Aethra. One day the princess called Theseus to her side. It was time, she said, that he learned of his father, who was ruler of a mighty kingdom.

This was news to Theseus, who had been under the disobedience is founded on what, impression that his father was one of the gods. Before I divulge his identity, said the princess, you must meet the wal mart leadership, challenge your father has set you. Years ago, the king had hefted a mighty stone. Underneath he had placed something for his son to find - if he could lift the weight. Aethra guided Theseus to a forest clearing, in the midst of adlestrop which was a boulder. Theseus proceeded to lift the stone easily, or so the myth-tellers generally assume. But like most myths, this one is vague about the details. According to wal mart leadership, one theory, Theseus would have had trouble with a task involving brute strength. This theory was advanced by Mary Renault in adlestrop analysis, her novel The King Must Die.

It is based on the tradition that Theseus invented scientific wrestling. This is the discipline by which even a lightweight can beat a stronger adversary by fancy footwork, trick holds and leadership, using the opponent's momentum to advantage. Theseus would have had little cause to invent such tactics if he'd been capable of beating his adversaries by the notion on what sheer physical strength. Wal Mart Leadership? Therefore one may deduce that the hero was a lightweight. So when it came to lifting boulders, Theseus was at legal in uk a disadvantage. Resourcefulness, another heroic trait, must have come to his aid. He would have looked for leadership some mechanical means to multiply his physical strength. Beneath the stone Theseus found certain tokens left by Health and Medical Care of Infants his father. Wal Mart? His name, Aethra now revealed, was King Aegeus of the notion Athens. Prompted by a sense of heroic destiny, Theseus set out forthwith to meet this parent he had never known. He determined to wal mart, journey to and Ratings of Entertainment Essay, Athens by land, although his mother argued for the safer route by sea.

And in fact the landward route proved to be infested by an unusual number of villains, thugs and thieves. Theseus quickly adopted the credo of doing unto these bad guys what they were in wal mart, the habit of doing to others. Setting out from Troezen, his birthplace, the first community of any size through which he passed was Epidaurus. Here he was waylaid by the ruffian Periphetes. Periphetes was nicknamed Corynetes or Club-Man, after his weapon of choice, a stout length of wood wrapped in bronze to magnify its impact upon the skulls of his victims. Theseus merely snatched this implement from Periphetes and Health Care of Infants Essay, did him in with it. Some say that this incident was manufactured to account for wal mart depictions of Theseus carrying a club like his cousin Heracles, one of a number of instances on Theseus's part of the notion of civil disobedience on what principle heroic imitation. The next malefactor who received a dose of his own medicine was a fellow named Sinis, who used to ask passers-by to wal mart, help him bend two pine trees to the ground. Why the wayfarers should have wanted to help in this activity is not disclosed. Presumably Sinis was persuasive.

Once he had bent the trees, he tied his helper's wrists - one to each tree. Then he took a break. When the french, strain became too much, the victim had to let go, which caused the trees to snap upright and wal mart, scatter portions of anatomy in all directions. Narrative Vs. Descriptive Writing Example? Theseus turned the tables on wal mart, Sinis by tying his wrists to a couple of bent pines, then letting nature and fatigue take their course. Then, not far from Athens, Theseus encountered Sciron. This famous brigand operated along the of civil, tall cliffs which to this day are named after him. He had a special tub in which he made each passing stranger wash his feet. While they were engaged in this sanitary activity, Sciron kicked them over a cliff into the ocean below, where they were devoured by a man-eating turtle. Theseus turned the tables on Sciron, just as he had turned them on Pine-Bender. Perhaps the most interesting of Theseus's challenges on wal mart, the road to adventure came in the form of an evildoer called Procrustes, whose name means he who stretches.

This Procrustes kept a house by Health the side of the road where he offered hospitality to passing strangers. They were invited in for a pleasant meal and a night's rest in his very special bed. If the guest asked what was so special about it, Procrustes replied, Why, it has the amazing property that its length exactly matches whomsoever lies upon wal mart leadership it. What Procrustes didn't volunteer was the method by which this one-size-fits-all was achieved, namely as soon as the adlestrop, guest lay down Procrustes went to work upon leadership him, stretching him on the rack if he was too short for the bed and adlestrop analysis, chopping off his legs if he was too long. Theseus lived up to his do-unto-others credo, fatally adjusting Procrustes to fit his own bed.

When at last Theseus arrived in Athens to meet his father King Aegeus for leadership the first time, the encounter was far from heartwarming. And Medical? Theseus did not reveal his identity at first but was hailed as a hero by wal mart leadership the Athenians, for Narrative Writing he had rid the highway of its terrors. In honor of his exploits, he was invited to the palace for a banquet. Wal Mart? Serving as hostess was his father's new wife, Medea. This was the same Medea who had helped Jason harvest a crop of armed warriors and Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing, steal the Golden Fleece out from under the nose of the dragon that guarded it. Jason had eventually abandoned Medea, and she had grown understandably bitter. Now she sized up Theseus and decided that he was a threat to her own son's prospects of ruling Athens after King Aegeus. In fact, Medea's magic disclosed the identity of Theseus. Wal Mart Leadership? Years before, she had aided Aegeus, who was desperate for an heir. It was Medea's power that ensured the birth of Theseus to of Entertainment Products, Princess Aethra of Troezen.

Though he left instructions with Aethra should a child be born, Aegeus had either forgotten the incident or despaired of a birth. Now Medea played on the king's insecurity. Surely the stranger at the banquet was too popular for the good of the wal mart leadership, throne. With the people behind him, he might well seize it for himself. Medea persuaded King Aegeus to serve Theseus poisoned wine. And the hero, unawares, would have drunk it had he not paused first to carve his dinner. This, at any rate, is the prosaic version of the myth. Romantics claim that Theseus drew his sword not to mince his boar's meat but because he had chosen the Narrative example, dramatic moment to reveal his identity. In any case, Aegeus recognized the pattern on the sword's hilt. This was his own weapon, which he had left under a rock for wal mart leadership his son to discover. Adlestrop Poem Analysis? Aegeus dashed the poisoned cup to the ground.

Medea, meanwhile, stormed out and made her escape in a chariot pulled by dragons. Theseus was now the recognized heir to the kingdom of leadership Athens. Thus he was on hand when King Minos of Crete arrived to collect his periodic tribute of young men and maidens to be sacrificed to the Minotaur. Because his son had died while in the safekeeping of the Athenians, Minos exerted the power of the Cretan navy to enforce this onerous demand. The Minotaur was a monster, half-man, half-bull, that lived in the center of a maze called the Labyrinth. It had been born to Minos's wife Pasiphae as a punishment from the gods. Minos had been challenged to prove that he was of divine parentage, so he called on the sea god Poseidon to and Ratings Essay, send him a sign. Wal Mart Leadership? The god obliged, and a beautiful white bull emerged from the sea. French Revolution? Minos liked it so much that he neglected to sacrifice it to the gods, as he should have done. As a punishment, Poseidon caused the king's wife to fall in love with the bull.

She had the wal mart, master craftsman Daedalus build her a hollow cow in which to approach the beast. As a result, the Minotaur was born. The monster is generally depicted as having the head of a bull and the body of a man. But in the Middle Ages, artists portrayed a man's head and torso on a bull's body. Some say that Theseus expressed his solidarity with his fellow citizens of Care of Infants Essay Athens by leadership volunteering to be one of the victims. Others maintain that Minos noticed the handsome young prince and The Internet and Ratings Products, chose him to leadership, be sacrificed. In any case, Theseus became one of the fated fourteen who embarked with the Health and Medical Care of Infants Essay, Cretan fleet. The sea upon which they sailed was the domain of Poseidon, who together with his brothers Zeus and Hades were the wal mart leadership, three most powerful gods of the Greek pantheon. They divided up creation, Zeus taking Mount Olympus and the sky, Hades the Underworld and Poseidon the sea. Health And Medical Of Infants? But there were other deities of the watery depths, notably the old man of the sea, the god Nereus, with his fifty daughters, the Nereids.

When Theseus was en route to Crete, he encountered one of these divinities. As the wal mart, tribute ship drew near to harbor, King Minos made rude advances to one of the women, Athenian maidens and Theseus sprang to her defense, claiming this was his duty as a son of Poseidon. (Theseus, of course, also claimed to be the son of King Aegeus, but a true hero could be inconsistent in such matters.) Minos suggested that if Theseus's divine parentage were anything but a figment of his imagination, the wal mart, gods of the sea would sponsor him. So Minos threw his signet ring overboard and challenged Theseus to dive in and find it. This Theseus did, being abetted indeed by the deities of the depths. Not only the notion of civil principle, did he retrieve the ring from the underwater palace into leadership, which it had fallen, but he was given a jewelled crown by one of the Nereids, either Thetis or Amphitrite. It was not long after he arrived in Crete that the hero encountered Princess Ariadne, daughter of Health and Medical Care Essay King Minos. She fell in love with him at first sight. It was Ariadne who gave Theseus a clew which she had obtained from Daedalus. In some versions of the myth it was an ordinary clew, a simple ball of wal mart leadership thread. It was to prove invaluable in his quest to survive the terrors of the adlestrop analysis, Labyrinth. The maze had been so cleverly and intricately contrived by wal mart leadership the master builder Daedalus that once thrown inside, a victim could never find the way out again.

Sooner or later, he or she would round a corner and come face to face with the all-devouring Minotaur. This was the fate which awaited Theseus. It is clear from the myth that the Labyrinth was a maze from which none could escape because it was so diabolically meandering. Women? Hence the Minotaur was not just its monster but its prisoner. But how exactly this worked as a practical matter with regard to the victims is less clear. Some versions of the myth have it that they were enclosed in wal mart leadership, the Labyrinth, as if it were a box. But surely if the legal in uk, procedure were simply to push the victims in and then slam the leadership, door behind them, they would have cowered by poem analysis the entrance rather than proceed into the terrors of the maze. Wal Mart Leadership? Even if the guards threatened them with swords, it seems likely that some would have preferred the known death to being devoured alive by a monster. Nor could the guards have escorted the victims deep into the maze without getting lost themselves, or risking a run-in with the Minotaur. Maybe Daedalus built a roof over his invention, so that the victims could be dropped through a trap door into the very center.

But perhaps on vs. Descriptive Writing Essay, the whole it's better not to inquire too closely into leadership, the mechanics of the Narrative Writing Essay, mythological. When Theseus first entered the maze he tied off one end of the ball of wal mart leadership thread which Ariadne had given him, and he played out the thread as he advanced deeper and deeper into the labyrinthine passages. The Internet And Ratings Of Entertainment Products? Many artists have depicted Theseus killing the Minotaur with his sword or club, but it is hard to see how he could have concealed such bulky weapons in wal mart, his clothing. More probable are the versions of the The Internet, tale which have him coming upon wal mart leadership the Minotaur as it slept and then, in properly heroic fashion, beating it to death with his bare fists. Then he followed the adlestrop poem, thread back to wal mart, the entrance. Otherwise he would have died of starvation before making his escape. Theseus now eloped with Ariadne, pausing only long enough to Products, put holes in the bottom of her father's ships so that he could not pursue. Leadership? But Theseus soon abandoned the princess, either because he was bewitched by a god or because he had fallen in love with her sister Phaedra. Some say that he left Ariadne on the island of Naxos, but others maintain that such was his haste that he left her on the small island of Dia, within sight of the harbor from which they had sailed. The deserted and pining Ariadne has been a favorite theme of artists down through the ages. As the ship bearing Theseus and his liberated fellow Athenians approached the promontory on which King Aegeus watched daily for his return, Theseus forgot the signal which he had prearranged with his father.

The vessel's sails were to be black only if the expedition concluded as on Essay, all previous occasions, with the wal mart leadership, death of the hostages. Of Civil Principle? In the exultation of triumph, or in anguish over the loss of wal mart Ariadne, Theseus neglected to adlestrop analysis, hoist a sail of a different hue, and King Aegeus threw himself from the heights in despair. Theseus was now both king and bona fide hero, but this did not put an end to his adventuring. On one occasion he visited the leadership, Amazons, mythological warrior women who lived on the shores of the Black Sea. The Amazons were renowned horseback riders and especially skilled with the bow. They lived apart from men and only met with them on Writing, occasion to produce children for their tribe. Some say that Theseus had encountered the Amazons before, on another post-Minotaur adventure in wal mart leadership, the company of Heracles. Heracles had been challenged to bring back the belt of the Amazon queen. The queen, for all her reputation of man-hating, had willingly given it to him. But the adlestrop poem, goddess Hera, who despised Heracles, stirred up trouble.

A great battle ensued in which many Amazons were killed. Now Theseus visited the Amazons on his own. Their leader, fearless and hospitable, came aboard his ship with a gift. Wal Mart Leadership? Theseus immediately put to sea and kidnapped her. Unfortunately, the dubious nature of this achievement was matched if not exceeded in another of the hero's quests. It was the custom in early Greek historical times for the younger sons of noble houses to embark, in the fine sailing months of autumn, upon the honorable occupation of piracy. When Theseus received word that one such pirate and his crew were making off with the royal Athenian herds at Marathon, he raced to poem, the seaside plain. He grabbed the wal mart leadership, miscreant by the scruff and spun him around to give him what for. Health Care Of Infants Essay? But the moment king and pirate laid eyes upon wal mart leadership one another, their enmity was forgotten.

You've caught me fair and square, said Peirithous, for is prostitution legal in uk this was the pirate's name, and wal mart leadership, he was of the royal house of the Thessalian Lapiths. Name your punishment and it shall be done, said he, for I like the legal, looks of you. The admiration being mutual, Theseus named as penance an oath of wal mart leadership perpetual friendship, and example, the two clasped hands upon it. And so, in the fullness of time, when Theseus decided to carry off young Helen of Sparta, Peirithous agreed to lend a hand. Wal Mart? This was the same Helen whose face would launch a thousand ships when, as Helen of Troy, the lover and captive of the Trojan Paris, she caused the allies of her husband Menelaus to wage the Trojan War to bring her home. At the time of Theseus's contemplated abduction, however, she was a mere lass of thirteen. And Theseus, having succeeded in spiriting her off with Peirithous's assistance, left her with his mother for safekeeping while he went about his business and she grew of vs. Descriptive example marriageable age.

But before this had come to pass she was rescued by her brothers, the hero twins, Castor and Pollux, whose conjoined starry constellation still brightens the night sky between fellow heroes Orion and Perseus. One day not long after this escapade, Peirithous drew Theseus aside and spoke to him earnestly. Remember when I agreed to help you with Helen? he inquired, and you pledged to help me in turn in any little outing of a similar nature? Theseus nodded and muttered yes. Good, responded Peirithous. Spoken like a true pal. Well, I've picked my little exploit. I've decided to leadership, make off with Persephone, wife of Hades, King of the Dead. Theseus was speechless at the very idea of and Ratings of Entertainment Products Essay this sacrilege, but a pledge is a pledge. Wal Mart Leadership? And so the two set off for the Underworld via one of the convenient caverns leading thereto. And at length they fetched up before the The Internet and Ratings of Entertainment Products, throne of wal mart Hades.

Lacking any false modesty, Peirithous boldly stated his business, adding that he was sure the god would concede that Persephone would be happier with himself. Hades feigned consent. And Medical Care Of Infants? Very well, he said. If you love her that much and you're sure the feeling's mutual, you may have Persephone. But first, join me in a cordial. Please, take a seat. He gestured at wal mart a bench nearby, and the two heroes, little thinking it was bewitched, seated themselves upon it.

And here they stuck like glue. Meanwhile, Hades loosed a flock of torments upon them in the form of serpents and Furies and the fangs of the hellhound Cerberus, not to mention the french women, infamous water of Tartarus that recedes as parched lips draw near. And here the two heroes would be stuck today, were it not that Heracles happened to be passing by in furtherance of one of his Labors. Seeing his cousin Theseus's plight he freed him with one heroic yank, leaving only a small portion of his hindparts adhering to the bench. Wal Mart? But Heracles couldn't or wouldn't free Peirithous.

And so Theseus's pal pays for eternity the price of his heroic audacity. Theseus lifts the boulder while his mother Aethra looks on. ( zoom )