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book report comanche Author of The Last Prince of the Mexican Empire, etc. Book Review by C.M. Mayo. THE COMANCHE EMPIRE. Yale University, 2008. Originally published in Marfa Mondays Blog, T he cover of Pekka Hämäläinen's The Comanche Empire , of a ghost-white warrior with a trio of blood-red slashes down his cheek, is as arresting as the argument that, as it opens, the Comanches' was an American empire that, according to conventional histories, did not exist. In the United States public discourse conflates wildly heterogenous groups into easy categories#151; Native American, white, black, and so on and so forth#151; and then, with school board-approved narratives as mortar, we construct colossal political edifices.
In their shadows, alas, many of us are blind to the complexities in our society and history. The complexities are riotous. And when we shine a light on but one of them#151; as Finnish historian Hämäläinen has in this brilliant study of csr companies Comanche hegemony#151; suddenly our easy categories and well-worn narratives may look strange, deeply wrong. Control? As those of you who follow this blog well know, I am at work on csr companies a book about Far West Texas, that is, Texas west of the Pecos River. Anyone who heads out there, especially to the remote Big Bend, hears about jack sainsbury Comanches, e.g., they crossed the Río Grande here, they watered their horses there.
But the Comanches, an equestrian Plains people who hunted the buffalo, were latecomers to the Trans-Pecos. They did not settle there; they trekked through it on csr companies the Comanche Trail (more aptly, network of trails) on their way to raid in northern Mexico. They returned driving immense herds of imperialism japan horses and kidnapped Apache and Mexican women and children in tow, for markets up north around Taos, New Mexico, and csr companies Big Timbers on the Arkansas, which garnered them metal tools, cooking pots, corn and other carbohydrates, textiles, and essay above all, guns and ammunition. The Comanche were raiding south of the Río Grande as early as the 1770s, but their large-scale raiding in northern Mexico commenced in the 1820s, plunging deep into Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas and, in the 1840s, as far as Jalisco and the major central market and manufacturing city of csr companies Querétaro. This systematic mass violence which left the northern realm of the Mexican economy crippled and its people demoralized, turned it into what Hämäläinen terms an extension of why gun control wont Greater Comanchería. Hence, by the late 1840s, when the csr companies, U.S. Army invaded Mexico, what they were really invading was, to quote Hämäläinen, the industries, shatterbelt of Native American power. But this is to get ahead of the story. CIRCA 1750-1850: THE COMANCHE CENTURY. The imperialists of the 19th century: wouldn't that be Yankees, the csr companies, English, the French, the Spanish, the perspectives, Portuguese, the Germans and Belgians and Dutch#151; white people, so-called?
Hämäläinen's is an audacious argument: In the Southwest, European imperialism not only csr companies, stalled in imperialism japan the face of indigenous resistance; it was eclipsed by csr companies, indigenous imperialism. Specifically, from about 1750 to 1850, the Comanches aggressively expanded their territory to eventually dominate what we now call the three main sociological perspectives, Southwest. Csr Companies? True, they did not have a central government, permanent cities or structures such as pyramids, kivas, or acqueducts, nor any single chief whose role could be compared to that of a European-style emperor. Moreover, as nomads for much of the year, their aim may not have been to conquer and colonize, but they were an identifiable group whose aim was to control and exploit. As given by everyman, what is common to discretion, strength, five, the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, one of the csr companies, definitions of empire is an extensive territory or enterprise under single domination of control, hence, unnerving as it may strike some readers, Hämäläinen's use of the word is apt. He argues: The Spanish, French, Mexicans and Anglo-Americans, as they contested the heart of the North American continent, were restrained and overshadowed by Comanches. Belton? In fact, argues Hämäläinen, the rise of the Comanche empire helps explain why Mexico's Far North is today the American Southwest. Not that said European and Euro-American contestants recognized what they called Comanchería as anything so elevated as an empire. Csr Companies? They considered the Comanches savages, indios bárbaros , requiring extermination or, failing acceptance of their invitation, a frog-march into industries Christian civilization, Catholic or Protestant, end of story.
But here, in Hämäläinen, unfolds the many-chaptered story. Csr Companies? ARRIVAL AT THE EDGE OF THE KINGDOM OF NEW MEXICO. A Spanish report of 1706 is the first written mention of the work, Comanches, who called themselves the Numunu. With their then-allies, the csr companies, Utes, they were preparing to belton industries attack Taos, at the mountainous edge of the Kingdom of New Mexico. Sometime before, this nomadic Uto-Aztecan speaking people had broken away from the Shoshones, then in the central plains in present-day Wyoming, to head south, skirting the eastern edge of the csr companies, Rocky Mountains, in search of game and horses. Horses had arrived in Mexico in 1519 with the conquistadors and, along with the Spanish colonists, spread north. In New Mexico the Spanish prohibited indigenous Puebloan peoples' access to horses, but the why gun control wont, corrals blew open, as it were, with the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, and csr companies horses and equestrian know-how quickly spread north across the plains.
For the Comanches, the jack sainsbury, horse changed everything, economically, militarily, and down to the marrow of their culture. With the horse, writes Hämäläinen, In almost an instant, the world became smaller and its resources more accessible. On the one hand, the csr companies, horse allowed the Comanches to more efficiently harvest the buffalo, which roamed in herds of wont work tens of thousands on csr companies the shortgrass plains. On the jack daniels sainsbury, other hand, the horse enabled them to csr companies fight and raid more effectively. And more: for the Comanches, horses served as a store of value, a signal of status, and a trade commodity. Within a few decades, Comanches were specializing in hunting buffalo and everyman, what strength, five wits, and beauty? stealing horses and taking captives, and trading these to provide for their other needs. While this allowed them to thrive#151; in 1740 Athanase de Mézières wrote, They are a people so numerous and so haughty that when asked their number, they make no difficulty comparing it to the stars#151; in reality, with an unsustainable resource base plus severe external shocks to come, they were on the rise of a Seneca Cliff. THE COMANCHES AND SLAVERY. In the csr companies, contemporary American imagination the word slave conjures images of African-Americans in the old South, their bondage cemented by a legal system that defined and enforced racial identity. Comanches, however, were apparently colorblind, and a captive, whether African-American, Mexican, Apache, Puebloan, or, say, German, might as easily be slaughtered as sold, or kept and exploited, oftentimes mercilessly, or adopted.
One child captive, Cynthia Ann Parker, kidnapped from her family's Texas frontier farm, ended up the wife of a leading Comanche chief, and imperialism japan mother of the incandescently famous chief, Quanah. According to csr companies Hämäläinen, Comanche society was a complex one in which several standards of conduct coexisted simultaneously. In The Play Everyman, To Discretion, Five? Nonetheless, Comanches built the largest slave economy in the colonial Southwest. Numbers are guess-work, however, based on csr companies multiple and diverse anecdotes. Initially, in and around New Mexico, Comanches took captives as they warred on Apaches, Pueblo Indians, other indigenous peoples, and Spanish and mestizo colonists. And initially, the colonists, though victims themselves of raiding, provided a ready market for them.
In many cases, Comanches pocketed the rescate, or ransom, and victims were returned to their families. Although since the mid-16th century Spanish law prohibited slavery, for the colonists of New Mexico, trading in Indian slaves was too lucrative to resist. Writes Hämäläinen, In theory, these ransomed Indians were to be placed in Spanish households for religious education, but in imperialism japan practice many of them became common slaves who could be sold, bought, and exploited with impunity. By the late 18th century, large numbers of Apache and other Indian captives purchased from csr companies Comanches had been sent to the silver mines in Mexico and Caribbean tobacco plantations. Comanche slaving began to change in belton industries the early 19th century when, smallpox having devastated Comanche and other Indian populations, Euro-American fur traders and other traders moved onto the plains. In response to richer trading opportunities, Comanches began to make greater use of captives to tend their larger horse herds and to scrape and prepare buffalo robes. But again, Comanche society was a complex one in csr companies which several standards of conduct coexisted simultaneously. There were several notorious cases of gang rape and torture-murder of in the wits, and beauty? captives, including of children, as well as several cases when captives, assimilated into the Comanche way of life and kinship networks, refused the opportunity to return to their original families. EXPANSION IN THE 18th AND EARLY 19th CENTURIES. Early in 18th century, in csr companies search of buffalo and captives, the Comanches roamed east onto the Plains.
Empowered by why gun control wont, the horse, and enriched by the bounty of the buffalo and csr companies both tribute from New Mexico and stolen horses and captives, throughout the century Comanches continued pushing east, north, west, and south on main sociological perspectives the Great Plains with what Hämäläinen calls a vigorous diplomatic and commercial expansion, forging a far-reaching trade and alliance network that in time dwarfed Spain's imperial arrangements in North America. By the 1750s, having displaced the Apaches, the csr companies, Comanches controlled the western Great Plains below the belton industries, Arkansas River. In 1762, when by the Treaty of Fountainbleau Carlos III took Louisiana off of Louis XV's map, writes Hämäläinen, the transfer was, in effect, imaginary. The following year, the Treaty of Paris confirmed Spain's North American expansion, refining its border against what was now British territory to the east#151; again, ignoring the mammoth and dangerous reality of an expanding Comanchería. But the Comanches did not settle permanently in any one place; they moved with the csr companies, buffalo and, with lightning speed, towards raiding opportunities, primarily in New Mexico and other the Spanish colonies in the north.
For the Spanish, already stretched thin in the north, then weakened by the wars for Independence that began in essay 1810, Comanche raids proved devastating. Hämäläinen: Itinerant American peddlers provided Comanches with nearly bottomless markets for csr companies stolen stock while supplying them with weapons that made raiding more effective. The result: Rather than New Spain's absorbing the imperialism japan, southern plains into its imperial body, Comanches had reduced the Spanish borderlands to csr companies a hinterland for an imperial system of imperialism their own. Spanish Texas, which lay north of the csr companies, Nueces River and hugged the Gulf Coast into Lousiana, was subject to so many Apache, Comanche, Tawakoni, and other indigenous depredations of control its missions, presidios, and csr companies ranches that it seemed it might not survive, never mind prosper. When he visited San Antonio in 1821, Stephen F. Austin described the belton, whole country from the Sabine River west a wild, howling, interminable solitude. To make a convoluted story short, by csr companies, invitation of the Mexican government, Austin, now a Mexican citizen, would sign a contract as an empresario , receiving land in industries exchange for the commitment to colonize it. Mexico City's aim was to both counter Anglo-American colonization by effectively absorbing it qua Mexican, and, crucially, to establish a buffer between Apache and Comanche raiders and its other northern ranching and population centers.
To give an idea of how urgent that latter project was, in 1825 over 300 Comanches arrived in San Antonio to settle in for csr companies six days looting the town. By the 1830s, for fear of Indian depredations, the Anglo settlers or Texians, as they came to essay on holy prophet be known, had still refused to settle east of the Colorado River. South and csr companies east Texas, largely under Comanche vassalage, remained Tejano, and sainsbury was so poor and csr companies terrorized that, writes Hämäläinen, basic economic functions began to on holy shut down. Farmers did not dare venture into their own fields or onto the roads. In 1835 the Texians, along with many Tejanos, rebelled against Mexico City.
The Texas Revolution is a foundational story told and retold in csr companies an overwhelmingly triumphalist literature, both academic and popular, emphasizing the imperialism japan, manliness of the Anglo heroes of the csr companies, Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto, and three the weakness of the Mexicans under the cruel and corrupt Antonio López de Santa Anna. Hämäläinen's bucket-of-cold water revisionism: MEANWHILE, IN NEW MEXICO. Csr Companies? The distance between what was then Texas and New Mexico was almost inconceivably vast and extremely perilous to cross. Even today at full speed on a major highway it takes eleven hours to travel from San Antonio, Texas to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Unsurprisingly, developments in 19th century Texas and New Mexico differed.
What they had in common was their rivalry with what lay between them: Comanchería. Texans, their ranks growing rapidly with ambitious and essay prophet color-conscious immigrants from slave states such as Kentucky, South Carolina, Tennesssee, Virginia, and elsewhere, took a largely belligerent stance against the Comanches, while New Mexicans, increasingly isolated and impoverished, looked to Comanchería for the necessities that kept them alive. One of the little known phenomena of early 19th century New Mexico was the growth of its genízaro settlements. The word genízaro is the Spanish translation of Janissary, the early 16th century term for a kidnapped Christian boy trained to become a Turkish elite soldier. In New Mexico, genízaros were Puebloan Indian or Apache, mestizo, Spanish or other people who had been captured and raised by Comanches. Csr Companies? Many retained close friendship and on holy prophet family ties to csr companies Comanches. Notes Hämäläinen, The rise of genízaro settlements did not signify New Mexico's expansion into the Comanche realm but rather the colony's persisting gravitation toward the economic and belton cultural power of Comanchería. This was when and where the comanchero commerce began to develop, and the ciboleros, New Mexican bison hunters, emerged on csr companies the plains. Comancheros specialized in trading with the wont work, Comanches#151;and so meeting the needs of two societies across a narrowing cultural gulf, one narrowing so quickly that, writes Hämäläinen, [m]any nineteenth century observers found it impossible to differentiate ciboleros, comancheros, and Comanches from one another.
Comanchería's frontier with New Mexico then was a trading and tribute zone, while other frontiers were assigned to the collection of tribute, other types of trade, and raiding. Raiding depended in part on csr companies whether tribute was paid and that, in turn, depended in part on resources forthcoming#151; and often they were not#151; from Mexico City. By the japan, 1830s, as Comanche raiding in Mexico stepped up, New Mexicans had resigned themselves to purchasing peace from the Comanches, even if it meant inflicting death and suffering for the rest of northern Mexico. Put another way: New Mexican elites had been forced to choose between appeasing one of two imperial cores and, in more cases than not, they chose Comanchería. COMANCHERIA'S TRADE PUMP AND THE EXPLOSION INTO NORTHERN MEXICO.
Having pushed the Apaches out of the csr companies, southern Plains, in daniels the 1830s, using Texas as a byway, Comanches now pushed the Apaches west and south out of some of the richest raiding zones of csr companies northern Mexico. The door had been left open, so to imperialism japan speak, for in the wake of two decades of war for its independence from Spain, then the bloody contests among monarchists, federalists, and republicans, Mexico did not have the material nor political resources to protect its northern frontier. But as Hämäläinen explains, the Comanches were drawn into northern Mexico not only by their own vitality, the clamor of young warriors seeking status in action and booty, but because of the vulnerability of their power complex. In essence, the Comanches had constructed what Hämäläinen calls a trade pump. By thievery, they suctioned into the southern plains massive herds of horses and csr companies then, via trade with comancheros and imperialism japan others in New Mexico and around Big Timbers on the Arkansas, released them into the maw of what seemed an insatiable demand.
The vulnerability was that their productive foundation#151;Hämäläinen's euphemism for the territory they had been raiding#151; was becoming exhausted. Texas had been scoured of easy-pickings, and impoverished New Mexico was now locked into a tribute relationship. Demand for horses had three wellsprings. First, northern Plains Indians such as the Arapahoe, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, Pawnee, and Sioux, among others, needed horses for csr companies hunting, and to replenish the stock that could not survive or reproduce in the harsh winters north of the Arkansas River. Secondly, demand came from the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) that had been forced out of the southeast United States and into Indian Territory by President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830. Thirdly, demand came from daniels sainsbury pioneers, those heading from all points east, northeast and csr companies northeast into the fringes of the Plains and overland to California, Oregon, and Colorado. If a dollar was to be made, there were traders, such as the Bent Brothers and Holland Coffee, who would eagerly deal in horses stolen from Mexico. Texas officials even supplied Comanches with provisions, the better to speed them through on their way to three main sociological and from csr companies Mexico. Shocking expanses of northern Mexican soon lay in waste, its farms and ranches abandoned.
The all-important Chihuahua road had become an Indian plunder trail, commerce was paralyzed, and mines languished unused. By the end of the 1840s, the U.S. Essay On Holy Prophet? Army marched down through northern Mexico, encountering surprisingly little resistance, and in some cases, assistance, and occupied Mexico City itself. By the csr companies, 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded to the United States territories that are today the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. And here again, asserts Hämäläinen, it was Native American expansion that paved the imperialism japan, way for the Anglo-American one. Csr Companies? The US-Mexican War was in fact, a display of both United States and three perspectives Comanche power. CHILDREN OF THE SUN. The sixth chapter, sandwiched in between that on csr companies Greater Comanchería and in the play strength, five wits, and beauty? Hunger, the csr companies, beginning of the play everyman, to discretion, wits, and beauty?, collapse, is Children of the Sun, wherein Hämäläinen offers a monograph-like examination of csr companies Comanche every day and sociological seasonal life, family, social, military, political, and religious structure, including slavery and polygyny, and how these changed as trade expanded and csr companies the Comanches increasingly specialized in buffalo hunting and raiding horses.
If somewhat lumpily placed in the middle of the book, Children of the Sun is a fascinating and illuminating chapter. As the Comanches specialized in moving stolen horses and processing buffalo robes for trade, they also moved toward more highly structured and sociological perspectives competitive warrior cult and, for the extra household labor it could provide, polygyny. The latter reinforced the former, as young warriors, obstructed by older chiefs, found it difficult to accumulate horse herds and obtain wives. The result, firing Comanche expansion, argues Hämäläinen, was relentless competition for social prestige. This chapter also includes an intriguing albeit brief look at the Comanches' political councils, massive, ordered, hierarchical and democratic all at once, which met at the high elevation points of Medicine Mounds, the Wichita Mountains, and the Caprock Escarpment, in the general vicinity of present-day Amarillo and Wichita Falls, Texas.
The United States en route to its Manifest Destiny, and csr companies the fall of the jack daniels, Comanches: it would seem that the one was the Juggernaut that rolled over the other. Hämäläinen is careful to underline, however, that the American expansion did not trigger their decline; by the end of the 1840s the Comanches' decline was already underway, and the cause was ecological. The buffalo were being overhunted by Comanches and other indigenous peoples, many of whom had been granted hunting priviledges in Comanchería as part of trading agreements. Rising demand for buffalo robes#151;a new fashion#151; came from urban centers in the northeast; to satisfy it, many of the Indians newly arrived in Indian Territory took to mounted buffalo hunting. In addition to the Comanches, others, including ciboleros, and Arapahoe and csr companies Cheyenne hunters, brought into belton industries Bent's Fort#151; the main trading post near Big Timbers on the Arkansas#151;tens of thousands of robes. By 1841, in eastern Comanchería, bison populations were thinning rapidly. Yes, the white buffalo hunters who came in csr companies with their buffalo guns to belton industries wipe out what was left of the herds#151;leaving a horrific photographic record of stupendous mountains of bones and hides#151;but that was later, primarily in the 1870s and early 1880s. Csr Companies? In the 1850s, it was indigenous overhunting, combined with the three main perspectives, destruction of the buffalos' prime winter riverine habitat by horses, and a sudden and severe onslaught of drought that had begun in 1845, that left the Comanches starving.
In 1849 Bent closed his trading fort, and a second fort closed in csr companies 1860, and with that ended almost 150 years of organized Comanche trade in the Arkansas valley. With ever fewer buffalo to hunt, Comanches warred over hunting rights with ciboleros, the indigenous newcomers to Indian territory, and with Osages and Kiowas. From the daniels sainsbury, east, immigrants to Texas, many from Germany, were settling in Comanchería, and from the west, in New Mexico, new settlers were establishing sheep and cattle ranches. After the last wave of gold rushers had passed through the upper Arkansas valley to Colorado in 1859, that valley, once a haven for Comanches and their horses, had become a dust highway. In short, the great Comanche trading empire had collapsed. Csr Companies? And when it collapsed, the Comanches had lost their access to corn and other vegetables, guns and ammunition. When they tried to raid, the Texas Rangers and belton industries the U.S. Army went after them. And then, suffering from malnutrition, they were decimated by csr companies, smallpox and cholera. Trading, raiding, and their own numbers collapsed.
By 1860, it seemed the sun was setting on Comanchería. But then, in the mid-1860s, there came a dramatic revival. The rains returned to work the Great Plains and the buffalo herds rebounded, and in csr companies the chaotic aftermath of the U.S. Civil War, the Comanches renewed their lucrative practice of control stealing horses, and now also cattle, and kidnapping women and children. Csr Companies? Post-bellum Texas began to disintegrate. Main? It seemed that the solution to Comanche violence would be imposed by the U.S. Army under such as General William Tecumseh Sherman, famed for his March to the Sea and burning of Atlanta.
It would, eventually, but in 1869, President Ulysses S. Grant, bowing to his constituents' anti-war sentiments and lobbying by Protestant missionaries, introduced his Peace Policy. A Quaker named Lawrie Tatum was put in charge of the Comanche and Kiowa agency. Csr Companies? Under Tatum, Comanches continued hunting and raiding as they always had, but enjoying rations on the agency in the winter. As Hämäläinen so originally puts it: Tatum made a practice of ransoming Comanche captives, both American and Mexican, paying out as much as a hundred dollars each, then a staggering sum. Tender-hearted Tatum could not last.
For General Sherman and other veterans of the U.S. Civil War who had fought for the Union and the end of jack slavery, it was outrageous to permit Comanches to engage in stealing livestock and what amounted to slave trading on U.S. soil. In 1871 General Sherman was authorized to csr companies unleash war on the Comanche. But it was not by battles so much as strategic sabotage that the U.S. Army crushed the Comanches. Beginning in 1872, breaking the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the U.S. Army permitted the white hunters onto tribal lands. With powerful new long-range guns, they began an industrial butchery of what was left of the buffalo#151;and, as at the two battles of Adobe Walls, fought off and deeply demoralized the Comanches and industries their allies.
With a string of csr companies forts and camps, U.S. soldiers and industries scouts occupied Comanche water sources and, whenever possible, destroyed their horse herds, hides, and food supplies. Over the course of what came to be known as the Red River War, the csr companies, Comanches were harried off the plains and into the reservation in control work Indian Territory. In the autumn of 1874, U.S. Army surprised the last substantial holdout of Comanches in csr companies Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Only three Comanche warriors died in that encounter, however the why gun wont work, army destroyed over 1,000 of their horses and made a bonfire of their tipis and winter food stores, rendering them unable to survive outside the reservation. By the following June, the last of the free Comanches, including Quanah, surrendered at Fort Sill. Csr Companies? DOING AWAY WITH THE UNANTHROPOCENTRIC BARRIER METAPHOR In his concluding chapter Hämäläinen coins the phrase: The unanthropocentric barrier metaphor. He means the image served up by earlier historians, among them, Frederick Jackson Turner (The Significance of the Frontier in American History) and Walter Prescott Webb ( The Great Plains ), of the Comanches as blood-thirsty savages, like the cacti and the mountain lions and the eagles, a part of the landscape, altogether representing, to quote Hämäläinen, an essentially nonhuman impediment to the U.S. empire. In plain English: monsters in feathers blocking our way.
Beginning with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in the late 19th century, American and world culture have been bombarded with cartoon-like images of Comanches. John Wayne movies, dime novels by the dozen, Rawhide and other TV shows, and more recently, novels such as Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian continue the tradition of portraying Comanches as, to quote Hämäläinen again, beastlike. on the other side of play is common to discretion, wits, and beauty? humanity.
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Modernity Essay: An useful Essay on Modernity in India. The other widely expressed way of coming to grips with our lack of csr companies true modernity is to say that there are “multiple modernities”, and that the Indian variety is just another expression of modernity. Anthony Giddens has put a very sound thesis that modernity is control work, multi-dimensional. It is neither monolith, nor liberal only. Nor it is democratic only. It has several dimensions. Csr Companies. Indian sociologist, Dipankar Gupta in his book, Mistaken Modernity (2000), has made yet another statement which applies to different nation-states.
If modernity is multiple, it means that India should have its own variant of modernity. Everyman, What Five Wits, And Beauty?. And, further, there are several or plural ethnicities in this country and therefore modernity in this country has to be defined in terms of the social-historical and cultural conditions of csr companies different regions or social segments of the nation. When European countries had entered into industrial era, feudalism was on the wane. Imperialism. The series of revolutions which took place in Europe, gave emergence to democracy and nation-states. And, interestingly, Europe had already experienced renaissance and csr companies, enlightenment. Such a kind of social conditions in in the is common to discretion, wits,, Europe created modernity. And, with the increasing force of modernity, there came into existence the csr companies, form of modernity which is industries, now called late modernity.
The pioneers of sociology – Marx, Weber, Durkheim and Simmel – were the products of modernity, i.e., capitalism, democracy and industrialism. Indian social conditions were different. Our challenges were serious. There was colonialism and in princely states, feudalism. Our first priority was to csr companies, get freedom, and japan, our ambition was to csr companies, build India into a nation. Our pioneering sociologists, G.S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas, D.P. Mukerji, B.K.
Sarkar, Radhakamal Mukherjee, S.V. Ketkar, B.N. Dutt and K.P. Chattopadhyay drew their value premises and perspectives on daniels sainsbury, the approach to studying Indian society from nationalist reformation leadership of the 19ih century. All these sociologists had not encountered the challenges of industrialism and capitalism. Csr Companies. Nor had they any experience of belton industries western modernity. Specifying the orientation of pioneer Indian sociologists, Yogendra Singh, in csr companies, his book Indian Sociology (1986), writes: The sociologists of the pioneer generation were less concerned with the professionalization of sociology as a discipline, in respect of concepts, theories, methodology of social observation or with establishing sociology as a branch of science. Their deeper concern, however, was with the issue of social relevance. Yogendra Singh spells out the issues of belton industries social relevance and csr companies, says that pioneers of sociology in India wanted to belton, focus on social change.
For them, industrialism in whatever form it was brought by colonial rule was not a challenge. It was first a beginning of modernity and therefore they showed their concern for the study of family, kin, caste and village. And, what is important is that the social background of csr companies most of the sociologists of this period was that they came from renaissant middle class, urban gentry; most were educated in European, particularly British universities; and had inherited in their consciousness both a substantial package of western philosophy of science, liberalism and humanism (both Marxist and non-Marxist) and deeper concern for issues of national identity, freedom from colonial rule and establishment of a culturally, economically and politically independent Indian society. Indian sociologists paid very little attention to the study of modernity and its impact on Indian society. Modernity as a distinct form of enquiry came late during the seventies. We have two very excellent research documents – Trends Reports sponsored by play to discretion, strength, wits, and beauty?, ICSSR and the book by Yogendra Singh (1986). In the Trend Report (1969-1979), Pravin J. Patel surveys the literature in industrial sociology in India and csr companies, puts his concluding remarks: As a matter of fact quite a few studies on the reciprocal relationship between industrialization and society have a direct bearing upon modernization theory. Similarly, some of the studies on industrial organizations, trade unions and industrial relations have explicitly or implicitly used the conceptual frameworks of structural-functionalism and the dialectical analysis.
Pravin Patel in his comments very clearly observes that “we are not in a position to offer many generalizations which may be both meaningful and empirically valid”. Yogendra Singh refers to the emergence of modernity and development late in the 1970s. In the annual conferences of sociology, it was for the first time that indications of the coming up of is common to discretion, strength, five wits, modern society were given by R.N. Saxena (1972) on ‘Modernization in Development: Trends in India’; S.C. Csr Companies. Dube (1976) on ‘Indian Sociology at in the play everyman, what strength,, the Turning Point’ and A.R.
Desai (1981) on ‘Relevance of the Marxist Approach to the Study of Indian Society’. During 1970s and 1980s some efforts were made to study modernity. But it was in csr companies, a sporadic way. The Indian sociologists showed their concern for social change in India. But their social change was characterized by structural-functional analysis or in some cases structuralist or historical-structural paradigm.
During this period social change was also studied with the perspective of Marxism. For instance, D.P. Mukerji stressed the relevance of studying modernity from Marxian paradigm. D.P. strongly believed that in imperialism japan, order to push the history towards the csr companies, next higher stage we shall have to modernize our traditions. It is illuminating to mention that the modernists in Europe did not discuss the imperialism japan, bipolarity of tradition and modernity to analyze the later. In India, approach to modernity has always been with reference to tradition. Whether Yogendra Singh or Dipankar Gupta, they invariably dwell on tradition to explain modernity. Csr Companies. This bipolar approach seems to be borrowed from D.P. D.P. Mukerji and modernity : D.P. talked about modernity in an elaborate way.
And what is further interesting is that D.P’s ideas about modernity have been discussed at length by T.N. Madan in his work Pathways (1994). D.P. alleges that the western concept of modernity is erroneous. He argues that to define modernity only in terms of industrialization, bureaucracy and democratization is mistaken. It abandons holism. In The Play To Discretion, Strength,. It dispenses with all values. What should we do for accepting modernity in India? We should, first of all, distinguish genuine modernization from the spurious product and the clue lies in its historicity, Indian modernity, therefore, is rooted in its culture and history. Western modernity has to be adapted with the genuine Indian culture. Commenting on csr companies, the approach of main D.P. in this respect, Madan writes: …. India’s intellectual and artistic achievements were in no way inferior to those of the west. Hence, the urge for a synthesis of csr companies Vedanta, western liberalism and Marxism.
Thus, the model of modernity which could be attempted in India, according to D.P. would be like this: Indian synthesis of modernity = Western liberalism and Marxism + Vedanta and Indian culture. On Holy. I.P. Desai very candidly accepts that the Indian sociologists have not moved away from the obsession of colonialism and national movements which characterized our past. We have abundant studies on csr companies, rural society, family, caste and why gun wont work, kin and have studied social changes observed in these institutions. Our social change studies more than often talk about adaptive changes and we never move from the notion of the ‘Indian’. Our views about the ‘western’ is also the same as it was for the ‘pioneers’ of Indian sociologists. All this has resulted in the neglect of the study of modern Indian society.
Modernity, therefore, has remained an csr companies, untouched area. After the attainment of independence, whatever sociology developed in India was highly influenced by American and in the everyman, five wits, and beauty?, British sociology. It was massively anchored in functionalism. There was a weak and fragile trend of Marxism. D.P. and Ramkrishna combined Marx’s dialectical logic with Indian traditions. A.R. Desai examined India’s social history in Marxian perspective. All through 1980s and 1990s the Marxian sociologists remained strict doctrinaire in this approach.
They did not look at Indian reality in terms of Habermas, Giddens or Jameson; no influence of Frankfurt School is seen in their analysis. They have kept themselves from any study of csr companies modernity. Perspectives. At best, they have criticized the evil consequences of capitalism in class formations. It was in the beginning of 1970s that some serious efforts were made to define and csr companies, analyze Indian modernity. Indian sociology witnessed a radical change in its approach. By 1980s, it became clear through the works of imperialism Louis Dumont that Indian society cannot be studied without reference to its traditions. The notion of tradition became a key factor in the ideology of social structure in India. It was increasingly argued (by Dumont and Pocock) that the reality in Indian society in terms of ideology such as purity and pollution can only be studied ideologically. The discussion on modernity at a book length level has been done by Yogendra Singh in his book, Modernization of Indian Tradition (1994) and Lloyd Rudolph and Susanne Rudolph in their work, The Modernity of Tradition.
Besides these two books, there is a huge literature which deals with the processes of social change. The social change studies focus on modernity but their reference to modernity is only in a very casual way. The features of csr companies modernity such as democracy, capitalism, secularism, civil society, state and development have not been discussed as a scientific discourse. Modernization in India is different from European modernization. Imperialism. Britain was cradle of European modernization. Industrial revolution of 18th century brought about gradual change in the social structure of western feudal society by transforming it first into a mercantile society and later into an industrial liberal society. In this process, the estates, mainly consisting of the serfs and the feudal lords, underwent cataclysmic changes. Peasants and csr companies, serfs were transformed into industrial workers; feudal lords, especially in Britain, took more and more to commercial and industrial entrepreneurship; and traditional guilds in the cities became obsolescent and guild masters replaced by projectors or entrepreneurs. The transition from one stage to the other was not smooth. The intervening periods were marked by why gun control wont, pauperization of the uprooted peasantry, growth of slum-like work houses in csr companies, cities, sudden breakdown in belton, the family structure and exploitation of the workers by csr companies, an emergent entrepreneurial class which was more predatory than rational in imperialism, orientation.
Modernization in csr companies, India came in a different situation. Here, colonialism and feudalism prospered side by side with capitalism. Traditionalism also existed with modernity rather the former got a new life also. The social conditions for Indian modernity were of different nature. Yogendra Singh traces the emergence of modernity in India in these words: Modernization in India started with the western contact, especially through establishment of the British rule. This contact had a special historicity which brought about many far-reaching changes in daniels sainsbury, culture and social structure of the Indian society. The basic direction of csr companies this contact was towards modernization, but in daniels sainsbury, the process a variety of traditional institutions also got reinforcement. Csr Companies. This demonstrates the work, weakness of assuming a neat contrariety between tradition and csr companies, modernity.
Yogendra Singh, M.N. Srinivas, Dipankar Gupta and others, who have discussed Indian modernity, have invariably discussed it in a bipolar way. Why Gun Control. It appears, any discussion of modernity in India is not possible without a deep understanding of its traditions. Csr Companies. This has not happened in the case of Europe. It is India’s historicity which makes it obligatory to deal in tradition for a discussion of modernity.
We now turn to define modernity as is meant in India. M.N. Srinivas on westernization and why gun control work, modernization : M.N. Srinivas has constructed the concepts of westernization and modernization. Csr Companies. These concepts have emerged from his empirical studies on the religion and society among the Coorgs of South India.
Initially, he introduced the concept of sanskritization. And, at a later stage, the developed the concept of westernization to explain social change in the caste system. Westernization is defined by Srinivas as “the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels… technology, institutions, ideology and values”. But, the control work, term ‘westernization’ does not mean only the things of the west. It is csr companies, a comprehensive term and includes humanitarianism and rationalism besides values, ideology and technology. Acceptance of all these aspects of western society also means establishment of scientific, technological and educational institutions, rise of nationalism, new political culture and leadership in the country. According to Srinivas, the increase in westernization does not retard the process of sanskritization; both go on simultaneously, and to some extent, increase in westernization accelerates the process of sanskritization. For instance, the postal facilities, railways, buses and imperialism, print media which are the fruits of csr companies western impact on India render more organized religious pilgrimages, meetings, caste solidarities, etc. Belton Industries. possible now than in csr companies, the past. Srinivas has not discussed modernization as an independent theme of social change in India.
It is the by-product of his theory of social change. And, in fact, he prefers westernization to modernization. Belton Industries. And Srinivas argues that since human ends are based on value preferences, it is doubtful that in a civilizational society like India rationality will work satisfactorily. And, for him, westernization also means primarily the British impact. Thus, the definition and meaning of modernization boils down to the following points according to Srinivas: 1. Westernization and modernization are interchangeable, though in India’s social change westernization is preferable. 2. Csr Companies. Modernization includes humanitarianism and rationalism.
3. Modernization subsumes technology, democratic institutions, ideology and values. 4. Building of nation-state. 5. Development of political culture. 6. There is sanskritization at the level of caste system; there is westernization or modernization at the nation-state level. Modernization is more widespread at the individual level than sanskritization. 7. Traditionalism goes hand-in-hand with modernization. Yogendra Singh on modernity : Initially, Yogendra Singh prepared a volume of wont his essays originally written for the Indian Council of csr companies Social Sciences Research (ICSSR) in 1977. The book entitled. Social Stratification and Change in India deals with modernization at two levels: structural and cultural. Cultural modernization is concerned with ideas, sentiments and values, whereas structural modernization relates to forms of relationships such as family, kin, clan and caste. Most of the studies of social change fall in the field of cultural modernization.
In fact, the change studies were basically studies of prophet cultural modernization. In the field of structural modernization, nothing substantial has happened. The joint family made some adaptive changes and there appeared sub-joint family or nuclear family. Csr Companies. In other words, modernization did not bring any structural change in Indian society. This was Yogendra Singh’s position about modernization in imperialism, his essays contained in this volume. Yogendra Singh’s major work in the field of tradition and modernization appeared in 1972. The work is really a classical one which makes an excellent effort in the understanding of tradition and modernization in India. Yogendra Singh is concerned with the transformation of Indian society. In this context, he raises three important questions: Under what structural or cultural conditions does modernization lead to csr companies, integrative transformation of Indian society? What are the structural prerequisites for institutionalization of modernizing changes without breakdown? How does the Indian case warrant the possibility of institutionalization of modernity or alternatively of structural breakdown in the process?
The questions are substantively related to the way modernization is defined and conceptualized. Yogendra Singh admits that there is no unanimity in the definition of modernization, nor is there any evaluative standards for its measurement. However, an in-depth analysis of change studies indicates that sociologists have adopted two broad approaches in the study of control work modernization in India. These approaches are structural and evolutionary. The structural approach analyzes modernization with the help of selected social or normative variables. The normative variables include social mobilization, growth of communication, media exposure, democratic political institutions and values, morals and norms conductive to csr companies, modernization, technological and economic resources of society. The evolutionary approach is based on more systematic theoretical assumptions. It treats modernization as an evolutionary stage in the life of human society.
The formation of the process of evolution could be structural-functional or dialectical. The evolutionary approach in its structural-functional form treats modernization as continuity from the sub-human phase to human phase and beyond. Drawing from both these approaches to the study of in the what is common to discretion, strength, wits, modernization, Yogendra Singh defines it as under: Modernization approximates to such a cultural order. It symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues, and their evaluation from a universalistic and not particularistic viewpoint; when it involves an emotional response to problems, orientation is emphatic and not constructive; modernization is rooted in the scientific worldview; it has deeper and positive association with levels of diffusion of scientific knowledge technological skill and technological resources in a particular society. But what may be essential to modernization is the commitment to scientific worldview, the csr companies, internalization of humanistic and philosophical viewpoint of science on contemporary problems and not merely the daniels, volume of technological achievement.
So far, the definition of modernity given by Yogendra Singh fits very well in the paradigm of western ideal type of modernization. It includes the following important elements or features of modernity: 1. It is a cultural phenomenon, which stands for the cult-urology of society. 2. It is rational attitudes towards societal issues and problems. 3. Its norms are universalistic, applicable to the totality of csr companies all the societies. 4. Its worldview is scientific. 5. It contains scientific knowledge and technological skill, which need to be differed in all the societies. 6. It encourages internalization of humanistic and philosophical attitudes, which are inherent to japan, scientific knowledge. Scientific values, surely, are universalistic. But, the traditional values are local, rooted in the traditions of the immediate society. When the ideal type of modernity is applied to the local community, there ensues a conflict.
In this encounter, there are two alternatives: first, there are adaptive changes in the local tradition, and second, modernization is rejected or redefined. The challenge given by local tradition to modernity has been analyzed by Yogendra Singh: The distinction between modern values and traditional values may be maintained on csr companies, the ground that modern values, like science, being evolutionary universal, might not be typical to any one particular cultural tradition, whereas traditional cultural values may be particularistic and typical. What Yogendra Singh argues is that modernity is a universal- cultural phenomenon, whereas tradition is belton, local and is observed by the immediate society only. The challenge of csr companies modernity with its universal features and jack daniels sainsbury, characteristics is the same in all societies but the responses to it are varying. This gives rise to multiple modernities. Csr Companies. And, therefore, Yogendra Singh very rightly says that “the substantive adaptation to modernization should be distinguished from modernization per se since in all likelihood, not for a long time to come (perhaps never), anywhere in the world shall we have a fully modern society”. And in support of three main perspectives his conclusion Yogendra Singh refers to the conclusion made by Daniel Lerner and others. Dipankar Gupta: India’s mistaken modernity : Dipankar Gupta’s work on modernity is a recent publication. In his book, Mistaken Modernity: India between Worlds (2000), Dipankar defines the concept of modernity in India’s context and says: “The mode of relations among people in our country is csr companies, still not modern.
Family connections, privileges of caste and status, as well as the willingness to break every law in the book characterize our social relations very deeply. Belton. This is why I argue that true modernity is about how people relate to other people (italics added), and likewise, true ethics is all about a concern with ‘others’ as equal citizens. Modernity is an attitude, which represents universalistic norms, where the dignity of an individual as a citizen is inviolable and where one’s achievements count for more than family background and connections. Once modernity is understood in this fashion, it is apparent that Indian still has long distance to go.” Dipankar argues that modernity is not a single large block, a monolith. The true modernity, in fact, consists of csr companies ‘multiple modernities’ and viewed from this perspective, the Indian modernity is a specific variety of wont multiple modernities. Even in developed countries such as U.S. and Japan, there are several modernities. We have, in India, misunderstood modernity on more than one count. Csr Companies. Dipankar has pointed out some major wrong thinking’s about modernity which characterize contemporary India.
These are as below: Contemporary is not necessarily modern : Some people think that whatever is contemporary is modern. On Holy. Our ideas, fashions, and even, ideology and traditions, which characterize our life today, are all modern. Spending lakhs of rupees on the celebration of csr companies festivals and marriages, which was never done earlier, is daniels sainsbury, considered as modern. There is an csr companies, exorbitant excitement in the celebration of imperialism certain religious festivals such as Ganesh Mahotsava, Garba, Diwali and Holi. This is contemporary and is therefore categorized as modern. Fundamentalism, terrorism, increasing communalism and csr companies, rapid incidence of belton industries graft and corruption are likewise contemporary, and therefore, they are all modern. Such an csr companies, understanding of modernity is erroneous. Is technology, the only modernity? The layman’s understanding about modernity is that it is prophet, technological only.
In other words, if there is new technology, or innovation, it is said to be the attainment of modernity. The advancement in communication, agriculture and csr companies, transport is considered by common people as the only criterion of modernity. In Dipankar’s views, technology is only one part of why gun control wont work modernity. Modernity involves certain other features also such as human values and relationships. Only consumerism is not modernity : Admittedly, the modern society is a consumer society. Csr Companies. In U.S. and Europe, consumerism is considered to be a strong indicator of belton industries modernity. More there is csr companies, consumerism, more there is modernity. Everyman, Is Common And Beauty?. Capitalism is the bedrock of modernity and it enhances an increasing standard of consumerism.
The situation in csr companies, India is different. In our country, consumerism has given rise to inequality; the poor have become poorer in the race of uplifting their standard. And, in such a situation, it is mistaken to align modernity with increasing consumerism. It is wrong to accept violent behaviour as modernity : It is unfortunate that in India modernization, somehow or other, is jack daniels sainsbury, associated with unlawful, illegal and violent behaviour. Those who are affluent, often commit crime. Dipankar Gupta comments as under on this mistaken aspect of modernity: In India, we have not paid attention on the mainsprings of modernity, but have been quick to csr companies, declare certain sectors as modern because of their acquisition of artefacts and belton, technology. This has also led to csr companies, frequent complaints against modernity, especially when egregious offences are committed in contemporary locales or their perpetrators are those who were mistakenly seen as modern because they possessed expensive material objects.
Thus, sexual harassment, violence in public places, dowry deaths and a host of wont work other fairly uncivilised forms of conduct get posted as modern. Looked at csr companies, closely, none of these things is really modern. Three Sociological Perspectives. They are carry-overs of attitudes from the past. Traditionalism is often defined as modernity : In most of the cases, the csr companies, elites and the middle class define traditionalism as modernization. What has happened in India is that in the wake of modernization, traditionalism is strengthened. Some of our traditions have been redefined as modernity.
Caste is reorganized to suit to the needs of the politicians. Feudal mindset works in our modern organizations and subaltern segments of society continue to be looked with contempt. Most of the abuses of our translations are interpreted as items and play is common to discretion, five wits, and beauty?, aspects of csr companies modernity. Fundamentalism and main perspectives, the ideology of Hindutva could be referred to as new forms of modernity. In fact, traditionalism has reappeared in csr companies, the form of modernization. Such a modernization is fake and control wont work, erroneous.
Dipankar Gupta argues that what we understand by modernity in India is often “its equation with technology and with other contemporary artifacts”. It is not always that what we call urbanization and industrialization is modernization. It is something else also, something more also. Dipankar says that a modern society is one in which at least the following characteristics must be present: 1. Dignity of the individual; 2. Adherence to universalistic norms; 3. Csr Companies. Elevation of individual achievement over privileges or dis-privileges of birth; and.
4. Accountability in public life. In Dipankar’s definition of modernity first place or priority is given to the above four attributes, and “once these attributes are in place, it does not really matter if there is is common to discretion, wits,, a high level of technology, super fast transit system, or consumerism. Generally speaking, technology and consumerism are consequences of the four characteristics of modernization listed above, and do not by themselves constitute modernity”. Dipankar has elaborated the attributes of modernity and says that the core feature of this process is the relations between people. These relations have to be characterized by csr companies, equality with, and respect for control wont work, others.
It is the principle of democracy that all people should be considered equals and should have, therefore, equal opportunities. Thus, the key to modernity is what Dipankar calls, inter-subjectivity. “Inter-subjectivity is csr companies, about being able to participate in industries, one another’s lives and share in one another’s fate …. Inter-subjectivity thus arouses the quality of csr companies empathy. As empathy encourages a vicarious participation in the lives of other people, it becomes a distinguishing trait of modernity. This and other attributes of a modern attitude help in the realization of what is common to discretion, strength, wits, and beauty? substantive (not just legal) citizenship.” Concluding observations on csr companies, modernity in India : Modernization as a theoretical construct, in a broader way, is pluralization of worldview. In the west, it is argued that it is a multi-dimensional process and begins from the evaluation of new classes, technology and communications resulting from the decay of feudalism and the emergence of capitalism and democratic nation-state. Britain has been the cradle of industrialization, urbanization and belton, secularism, i.e., separation of state from church. Here, tradition is csr companies, not the referent point. Rather, it is the industrialization.
There are a large number of sociologists such as Giddens, Habermas, Wallerstein and Stuart Hall who have examined the challenges given by modernity. India’s modernity is specific to Indian social structure. If there are multiple modernities, India’s modernity is one variant, one specificity. If modernity is multi-dimensional, Indian modernity is determined by Indian traditions. Here, there are modernization traditions. It is because of the specificity of Indian social structure that our sociologists, Yogendra Singh and essay on holy, Dipankar Gupta, are in a way obsessed by the role of csr companies tradition in social structure. Neither of them can talk about modernity without reference to its traditions. Yogendra Singh defends himself: Whereas the emphasis on social structure has led us to survey the uneven processes of in the play everyman, what is common to discretion, strength, five wits, and beauty? social changes and modernization with the csr companies, help of the contemporary sociological studies, the play everyman, what strength, and beauty?, tradition’s framework in our analysis has necessitated that we draw from, the Indian history, or even employ a kind of historiography.
The historiographic constructions are necessitated to establish the cognitive-structural attributes of the Indian ‘traditions, which we have characterized as consisting of elements of ‘hierarchy,’ ‘holism,’ ‘continuity,’ and ‘transcendence’. Both Yogendra Singh and Dipankar Gupta accept that modernity, in a way or the other, either strengthens traditions or traditions are mistaken as modernity. What is modernity? In the Indian context, the consensus is that it has universalistic norms, there is emphasis on csr companies, achievement, its roots are in essay, secularism, it is democratic in its design and media, communication, values, morals and ethics are its dimensional features. And, then, importantly, what is the csr companies, direction of modernization or social change? How do we define modernity in the light of change studies, which are available to us in Indian sociology?
The questions are uncomfortable, but they help us to define modernity at a substantial plane. Sociologists have studied social change in India right from its emergence. The approaches to social change or modernization have been structural and evolutionary. Out of the two approaches structural approach is dominant in social sciences. Belton Industries. The evolutionary approach is structural-functional or dialectical. Structural-functional analysis looks at modernization in terms of sub-cultural forms of westernization of great traditions. Dialectical approach, on the other hand, employs Marxian concepts of social change.
Modernization thus in India is defined with reference to structural-functional analysis and dialectics. The dialectical approach has remained restricted to only a handful of sociologists such as D.P. Mukerji, Ramakrishna Mukherjee and A.R. Desai. A large number of sociologists have looked at the impact of modernization from structural-functional perspective. They define modernization as social change in the traditional aspects of Indian society. Social change for these sociologists is csr companies, change in the Hindu traditions and institutions. For them, joint family has changed; caste has changed; village structure has witnessed transformation but change towards what? At best for why gun work, most of these functionalists the change is from Hindu social traditions to adaptive changes.
For a few, the change is towards family disorganization or caste disorganization. Generation after generation the university students are taught that social change leads to disorganization of csr companies Hindu traditional institutions. The point of reference of social change is hardly modernity. For, both Indian and American sociologists working on India have never explained social change with reference to modernity. And here is the jack sainsbury, rub. Our sociologists come from the high-caste Hindu background, their professional and intellectual training has been in the colonisers’ countries, they are interested in continuity and change and therefore they have created a flood of research material which stands on the pillars of evolutionary structural-functional method. In such a kind of adherence to a conservative methodology, not much has been done to evaluate the impact of modernization on Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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The Gathering Storm vs. the Crisis of Confidence. Are we living through an era that resembles the 1930s, when authoritarian leaders were on the march, democratic leaders failed to stand up to them, the international system buckled, and csr companies the world was dragged into war? Or are we living through something more like the late 1970s, when America, recovering from industries its long engagement in a losing war and csr companies pulling itself out of a prolonged economic slump, began to take the course corrections that allowed it to embark on daniels, a period of national recovery and reassert its international ascendancy? People naturally try to wrap their heads around unfamiliar and challenging situations by comparing them to what has come before. Csr Companies. And so since Donald Trump’s election, Americans have been searching for the best historical analogy to play everyman, what to discretion, and beauty? help them understand what is happening to the global order.
The problem with historical analogies, however, is that they often obscure as much as they clarify. Csr Companies. Our present era is not precisely “like” anything that came before it. And so fixating on a single analogy or comparison often causes us to exaggerate the broad similarities between yesterday and today while overlooking the myriad differences. The philosopher George Santayana famously proclaimed: “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” But, in imperialism, fact, those who rely too heavily on any particular historical precedent are likely to misunderstand the csr companies present. The historian Ernest May and the political scientist Richard Neustadt, both of whom also served as special advisors to multiple administrations, offered a better way. In their classic book, Thinking in Time , they argued that the only way of making analogies useful — rather than dangerous — was to pit them against one another. Daniels. Specifically, they called for policymakers to examine multiple historical cases when searching for comparisons to the present. Such an approach, they argued, would push decision-makers to think critically about their favored analogies, grapple with differences as well as similarities, and gain a fuller and csr companies suppler understanding of the present. A comparative model, they suggested, can help us think more rigorously about the real nature of the age. In this spirit, it is useful to compare the present to both of the imperialism japan two prior eras that have often been invoked by commentators seeking to csr companies make sense of the Trump era and the broader state of the world: the 1930s and the 1970s.
Those who argue that we are reliving the 1930s believe that the international scene resembles a gathering storm, as authoritarians advance, democracies retreat, and the system slides quickly toward catastrophe. A somewhat more optimistic analogy, however, holds that the play what is common five present situation is more like the 1970s — another period in csr companies, which U.S. Why Gun Control Wont Work. leadership and the international order were sharply tested. In this comparison, the United States is csr companies, again in a funk, with wavering enthusiasm for internationalism at home and major geopolitical and geoeconomic challenges abroad. But, despite such worrying developments, long-range trends are on America’s side, and U.S. power and activism will rebound, just as they did during the late 1970s and 1980s. So what is the better analogy? Comparing the two periods, in both their similarities and differences, suggests that America — and the world — is closer today to main the 1970s than to the 1930s. The international order is not yet crumbling; there are still more reasons for optimism than despair. But the 1930s analogy also yields a critical insight. If the United States and other defenders of the international order lose the willpower to take decisive action in support of the global arrangements that they have worked to construct — as happened during the 1930s — things could go downhill in a hurry.
We could end up slipping back, all too rapidly, toward a darker past after all. A picture dated in 1935 shows German Nazi army parading in Saarland. Csr Companies. (AFP PHOTO/FRANCE PRESSE) In opening his six-volume history of World War II, Winston Churchill wrote: “It is my purpose, as one who lived and acted in these days, to show how easily the tragedy of the Second World War could have been prevented [and] how the belton industries malice of the wicked was reinforced by the weakness of the virtuous.” This purpose pervades the first volume of those memoirs, The Gathering Storm , which chronicles the interwar years with a sense of foreboding about the disaster to come. Many aspects of csr companies, this story seem eerily familiar today. Abroad, the play what is common to discretion, and beauty? 1930s witnessed the rise of aggressive authoritarian powers and growing instability in key regions of Europe and Asia. A raging civil war in Spain became internationalized, serving as a proving ground for weapons and csr companies tactics that would play a prominent role in the larger conflagration to come and ending in control wont work, the victory of a brutal authoritarian regime. Democracy was being hollowed out from within in key European states and csr companies was under siege from the play everyman, what is common to discretion, five wits, rise of violent, authoritarian ideologies; the csr companies democratic powers were too frequently incapable of effective collection action. Belton Industries. Rising economic nationalism and protectionism undermined global prosperity and undercut potential geopolitical cooperation to hold back the aggressive powers. Within the United States, the Great Depression had caused vicious economic insecurity and trauma for many Americans, and protectionism and populism — often of a quasi-authoritarian variety — were on the rise. Disillusion with U.S. engagement overseas was rampant, given that America’s participation in World War I had failed to produce a peace that matched the soaring rhetoric and csr companies expectations that accompanied that crusade. There was a growing perception that a conspiracy of coastal elite — the “globalists” of today — had purposefully drawn the country into that conflict in order to advance their own economic interests.
As the international security environment darkened in the late 1930s, many Americans favored pulling back from a dangerous world, with isolationist sentiments sometimes reinforced by nativist or even anti-Semitic themes. And yet American abstention from the global order simply exacerbated the brewing chaos, as aggressive dictators suppressed democracy, carved out spheres of influence, and ultimately took the world to war. It can be hard not to hear these echoes of the 1930s in today’s events. Democracy is again under strain in many countries, and aggressive authoritarian powers are again advancing; many of the key democratic powers are demoralized and internally divided. Daniels Sainsbury. A raging civil war, this time in Syria, has again become an arena for great-power competition; doubts about America’s commitment to maintaining a stable global system are again severe. As Robert Kagan and csr companies others have compellingly observed, the 1930s analogy certainly captures a widespread contemporary sense of dread about the state of the international order and the destabilizing uncertainty created by on holy an apparent American turn away from internationalism. Csr Companies. Whatever the limits of the comparison, the 1930s still stand as an apt warning about how quickly things can spin out of control — and what happens when the defenders of international peace and stability retreat from that task.
There are, however, crucial differences between then and now. During the 1930s, the very idea of on holy prophet, democratic governance was under mortal threat in a world of rising authoritarian states. We may be living through a chastening democratic recession today, but there are still more than 110 political democracies in the world, and the Western democracies still possess a clear preponderance of global power relative to any authoritarian adversaries. In the 1930s, there were no strong coalitions in csr companies, place to check Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and imperial Japan, and it proved impossible to form those coalitions until the global system had already broken down. Today, in Europe and the Asia-Pacific alike, coalitions that were created with the express purpose of preventing acts of aggression by revisionist states are already in wont, place. This is not to argue that either NATO or America’s five treaty alliances in the Asia-Pacific region have deterred territorial land grabs by Russia in Ukraine or China in the South China Sea. But the csr companies core geopolitical mechanisms for checking further aggression do exist, have been quite successful in why gun control wont work, the past, and are in csr companies, the process of being reinvigorated due to the pressures emanating from Beijing and imperialism Moscow. Additionally, whereas the 1930s witnessed the csr companies effective collapse of the japan League of Nations in csr companies, the face of external aggression, international institutions from belton industries NATO to the United Nations to the International Monetary Fund are not yet breaking down and remain important forums for csr companies confronting global challenges. Main Sociological. Meanwhile, the world’s most significant regional organization, the European Union, is in csr companies, crisis, but its outright collapse still seems unlikely, and its two most powerful states, Germany and France, remain committed to their common mission.
In the interwar years, America was absent militarily from key theaters; today, U.S. forces remain forward deployed in Europe, the Asia-Pacific, and the Persian Gulf, fortifying friendly regional powers against coercion and intimidation. And while Russia, China, and Iran continue to belton industries undermine regional stability and threaten democracies on their peripheries, it pushes the analogy too far to hold that any of these states are the equivalent of csr companies, Adolf Hitler’s Germany or even imperial Japan — bent on domination and willing to risk global war to achieve it. Today’s domestic landscape also differs from the 1930s in critical ways. The United States currently has a president who has questioned key aspects of American global leadership, but political and other elites — in Congress, the media, the foreign-policy establishment, the business community, and perspectives elsewhere — are largely committed to internationalism. The situation in the 1930s, when Franklin D. Roosevelt was powerfully constrained by an assertive and largely isolationist Congress — was far more daunting for advocates of a more active American role in global security. The public disillusion with internationalism that followed World War I was pervasive and severe; for all the weariness that has resulted from U.S. interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan, and all the complaints often heard about the csr companies burdens of American leadership, public opinion polling still shows relatively strong support for U.S. alliances, free trade, maintaining American military primacy, and other traditional foreign-policy goals. American foreign policy and international security clearly are not headed in a positive direction today, but the analogy to three sociological the 1930s risks overstating the problems and perils of our current situation and csr companies unduly deprecating the strengths and resources at main perspectives, our disposal. Soviet and German leaders meet to sign a treaty between the Soviet Union and West Germany on Aug.
17, 1970 in Moscow. (AFP/Getty Images) The darkness before the dawn. So what about csr companies, a more optimistic analogy? Darkness might mean a gathering storm, but it also could herald the arrival of a brighter future. The night before the 1980 presidential election, after a long period of national doubt and on holy soul-searching, Ronald Reagan intuited that national renewal was at hand, declaring that “at last the sleeping giant stirs and csr companies is filled with resolve.” Such a vision seemed out of place with the dejected mood of the country. “Many of us,” he said, addressing the American people, “are unhappy about our worsening economic problems, about the constant crisis atmosphere in our foreign policy, about our diminishing prestige around the globe, about the weakness in play everyman, strength, five and beauty?, our economy and national security that jeopardizes world peace, about our lack of strong, straight-forward leadership.” Reagan’s description purposefully built off Jimmy Carter’s infamous “malaise” speech of the previous year. Csr Companies. Though Carter nowhere mentioned the word “malaise,” in the speech, he spoke of America’s “crisis of confidence,” which was “threatening to destroy the social and the political fabric of why gun, America.” In many ways, this was an csr companies, accurate reflection of the industries national mood at the end of the 1970s. During that decade, the United States faced a raft of serious challenges — severe economic competition from other leading powers, the rise of the Soviet Union as a global peer competitor in military terms, the stagflation and national humiliation caused by the oil shocks. There were concerns that the United States was turning inward in the wake of csr companies, Vietnam, as leading congressional observers even sought to withdraw significant numbers of U.S. troops from Europe. Economic nationalism was on the rise. Richard Nixon’s first treasury secretary, John Connally, artfully expressed the ethos: “Foreigners are out to screw us.
Our job is to belton screw them first.” In these circumstances, doubts about the staying power of the United States and the postwar international system were pervasive. Defenders of that system fretted that the American era was coming to a close; enemies of the free world were often exultant. “The retreat of American power” could “become a rout,” James Schlesinger, the former secretary of defense and csr companies secretary of energy, wrote in 1979. “The trend could well become irreversible in work, many respects.” “Imperialism is not able to face the csr companies crises,” Leonid Brezhnev had told Warsaw Pact leaders the why gun control wont work year prior. And yet the 1970s proved not to be the death knell for American power and the free world system erected after World War II, but simply a difficult moment that served as prelude to renewal. By the late 1970s, the world was again turning in America’s direction — democracy was spreading, globalization was racing ahead, America’s primary great-power competitor was sliding into irreversible decline. And by csr companies the early 1980s the United States was pursuing assertive and broadly effective strategies for re-establishing its global ascendancy and pushing the positive trends along.
Within a decade, the Cold War had ended on American terms, as democracy and on holy prophet markets were advancing — with U.S. Csr Companies. assistance — further than ever before. If focusing on the 1930s analogy thus leads one to fear that the end of the jack daniels sainsbury international order is nigh, looking at csr companies, the 1970s encourages the conclusion that perhaps the future is relatively bright after all. In this view, the United States and the international system it anchors still have tremendous and unmatched strengths vis-a-vis the competition, the long-term trends are working in industries, Washington’s favor, and America is simply experiencing one of its periodic moments of csr companies, doubt and introspection rather than a more fundamental turn away from internationalism — just as occurred during the 1970s. So how well does this analogy fit? In some ways, emphasizing the 1970s comparison risks understating the why gun control work difficulties and challenges America faces today. For all the csr companies disillusion occasioned by Vietnam, America did not elect a president who repudiated key traditions of U.S. foreign policy as vehemently and frequently as Donald Trump did during the sociological 2016 campaign. Csr Companies. American “soft power” took a beating amid the control wont work domestic upheaval of the 1970s, but that weakness may ultimately prove to be minor compared with the loss of prestige the United States is already suffering as a result of Trump’s presidency. From a global perspective, the Soviet Union may have been an authentic military peer rival during the 1970s, but even at csr companies, its peak its sclerotic, command economy never threatened U.S. economic primacy as China does today. Essay On Holy Prophet. And in the 1970s, the United States was able deftly to play China and the Soviet Union against each other; today, Washington has fraught and deteriorating relations with both powers as they challenge international norms and geopolitical arrangements to which they were never genuinely reconciled.
The 1970s were a difficult period, no doubt, but the csr companies comparison may — at three sociological perspectives, least in some ways — encourage too rosy a view of what America confronts today. Yet if the 1970s are far from the perfect analogy, the period does nonetheless illuminate important aspects of the contemporary moment. It reminds us that, today as in the past, America’s competitors face long-term challenges that make ours look relatively modest by comparison. Russia is, after all, a declining economic power and a demographic basket case; its military power thus rests on extremely precarious foundations. China is already dealing with slowing economic growth, a rapidly aging population, and a massive debt bubble, and csr companies its sense of geopolitical self-confidence hardly conceals its leadership’s transparent nervousness about growing social unrest and other signs of dissatisfaction with a corrupt and ruthlessly authoritarian political system. Similarly, the 1970s analogy reminds us to take into account long-range U.S. strengths that no adversary can match and to factor in emerging trends that may play to America’s advantage. Washington’s unequaled collection of allies, its relatively healthy demographic profile, its culture of innovation, and its repeated resilience in what is common strength, five, the face of macroeconomic shifts falls into csr companies the first category; an energy revolution that is essay on holy prophet, giving America new economic and geopolitical leverage is but one example of the csr companies second.
Moreover, the experience of the 1970s underscores that assertive challengers often overplay their hand, thereby risking overreach and exposing vulnerabilities for the United States and its allies to everyman, what to discretion, five exploit. An overconfident Moscow took on numerous Third World commitments during the 1970s, allowing Carter and csr companies then Reagan to punish that overextension through support to anti-communist guerrillas. Should Russia and China continue their revisionist behavior today, they are similarly likely to encourage geopolitical blowback, if only by driving their rivals toward closer cooperation with one another and with the United States. Wont. Additionally, we can learn from the csr companies 1970s that our current traumas are neither unprecedented nor particularly severe by historical standards. In its effects on U.S. political stability and American power, the Vietnam War was far worse than anything the country has experienced in Iraq or Afghanistan over the past 15 years. Finally, the industries experience of the 1970s also cautions us not to panic about the csr companies state of American internationalism. Japan. Yes, the csr companies Trump phenomenon is deeply disturbing for those who wish to see a globally engaged America contributing constructively on issues including international trade and combating climate change. But we have lived through periods of American disillusion with the daniels sainsbury world before, as the experience of the 1970s reminds us, and the logic of global engagement and csr companies activism has generally reasserted itself after a fashion — usually in response to threatening developments abroad. Indeed, the fact that public opinion polling on support for essay on holy prophet U.S. alliances and csr companies honoring America’s overseas commitments actually looked much worse in the mid-1970s than it does at present (after the U.S. Perspectives. withdrawal from Vietnam, for csr companies instance, only 36 percent of Americans felt that “it was important for the United States to make and keep commitments to other nations”) provides some antidote to why gun work pessimism today. If there is a single key lesson to be learned from the csr companies 1970s, then, it is that we have been here before — that challenges to American engagement and the international system are not new, that they have often been more severe than they are today, and that American power and leadership have repeatedly proved more resilient than predicted.
Near the end of his presidency, Jimmy Carter told the National Security Council that if the in the everyman, what five wits, and beauty? United States could just weather the near-term storms that were battering its geopolitical position, the longer-term horizon looked fairly promising. Csr Companies. Present traumas and travails notwithstanding, a similar case for such optimism could be made today. U.S. President Donald Trump and other leaders arrive for the group photo on the first day of the why gun control wont work G-20 economic summit on July 7, 2017 in Hamburg, Germany. (Sean Gallup/Getty Images) But — and this is csr companies, a huge “but” — such a forecast is on holy prophet, dependent on America’s proactive efforts to correct course and csr companies grapple effectively with the main sociological perspectives forces shaping the international landscape today and in the future.
What doomed the international system in the 1930s was not necessarily the overwhelming strength of the authoritarian powers — overall, Nazi Germany remained militarily inferior to Britain and France until 1938 — but the csr companies fact that their opponents did not react strongly or cohesively enough until it was nearly too late. And when the United States eventually pulled out of its 1970s malaise, it was not simply because the geopolitical winds began blowing in its favor. Japan. It was also because U.S. officials began to pursue far-sighted policies that allowed them to take advantage of their good fortune. It is now well established that the Reagan administration — building on foundations laid by Carter — employed a multipronged offensive for taking advantage of Soviet weaknesses, made up of a historic military buildup, covert action against Soviet forces and proxies in csr companies, the Third World, ideological and economic warfare, and what five and beauty? other methods. Csr Companies. U.S. officials also worked diligently to revitalize American alliances in both Europe and belton the Asia-Pacific. Washington developed — first under Carter and then under Reagan — a policy of using U.S. Csr Companies. leverage to encourage political liberalization overseas, and three main perspectives it consistently employed American leverage to promote market-oriented reform that helped globalization spread. At home, the policies associated with Reaganomics broke inflation and touched off two decades of robust economic growth.
In all of these areas, America played to its strengths — and its opponents’ weaknesses — and took advantage of the opportunities that presented themselves. What remains to be seen is whether the United States and csr companies its geopolitical partners can do so again today. Until November 2016, the signs seemed at least partly promising. Three Sociological Perspectives. The Barack Obama administration had already started to csr companies firm up the control wont U.S. geopolitical posture in some key areas — reinforcing NATO’s eastern flank, for csr companies instance, and progressively accelerating the fight against the Islamic State — and most observers deemed it likely that a Hillary Clinton administration would only have accelerated this trend. But Donald Trump was elected, of course, and so far he has been headed in a rather different direction — projecting incompetence and unpredictability in foreign policy, alienating rather than reassuring America’s partners, squandering rather than maximizing America’s advantages, and exacerbating rather than healing America’s domestic divisions. Belton Industries. As noted, there remains some reason to think that Trump’s apparent indifference to global order is not matched by a broader public turning away from American internationalism, and the administration is still charting its course in foreign affairs. Yet Trump’s rise has at least raised the possibility that the United States may not return to a posture of constructive, multilateral assertiveness and csr companies instead turn inward or pursue a narrow, destructive unilateralism. And if the United States takes the in the is common to discretion, strength, and beauty? latter path, then things could get ugly indeed. Csr Companies. The one fundamental geopolitical fact of the post-World War II era — and the one primary reason why the experience of the 1930s has so far not recurred — has been imperfect but indispensable American leadership.
Should that leadership fade, the cohesion and effectiveness of the jack sainsbury democratic world could fade. Csr Companies. The challenges to international order could intensify. The revisionist authoritarian powers could deem this their moment of opportunity. Daniels. In this scenario, the 1930s might no longer seem like such a bad analogy after all. History is csr companies, never a perfect guide to the future, of course, and it rarely provides concrete, specific lessons about what policies the United States should pursue today. But history does provide reference points that can help us make sense of our own moment, as well as warnings about what might occur if America falters.
Let us all hope that this administration — or, perhaps more likely, its successors — finds the purpose and wisdom necessary to daniels make sure that we someday look back on the present as a prelude to renewal, not a prelude to csr companies disaster.
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14 Reasons this is a Perfect Recent College Grad Resume. Share this article: If you’re unsure where to start or what to include in your entry-level college grad resume, we’re here to csr companies help! TopResume recently partnered with TheJobNetwork to control work produce a webinar all about csr companies, resume writing for the recent college graduate. Click on sainsbury, the following link to listen to a resume-writing webinar for the entry-level professional and check out a sample resume below to help craft the perfect resume for your job search. Csr Companies! Below are 14 reasons why this is an excellent resume for a college graduate. 1. He used a professional-looking email address. The email address firstname.lastname@example.org may have been funny when you were in college, but it’s not the best choice to represent your professional brand in the working world. Do yourself a favor and set up a professional-looking email address that’s reserved for your job-seeking activities. 2. Control Work! It includes a customized link to his LinkedIn profile.
Not only is LinkedIn a great place to build your professional brand and make connections, but recruiters expect to csr companies find you on control work, there. Csr Companies! In fact, a survey found that more than 90 percent of employers use LinkedIn to search for and evaluate job candidates. Make it easy for them to find you by including the link to your profile at the top of your resume. Imperialism! Take it a step further and customize your LinkedIn profile URL so it matches your brand and fits nicely on your resume. 3. Csr Companies! The professional summary isn’t full of fluff. It can be tempting to belton industries throw a bunch of buzzwords such as “ambitious” and csr companies “self-starter” into the summary section of industries your college grad resume, but employers know these are pure fluff and won’t be impressed when they read them. Don’t tell employers how you’re a great team player. Csr Companies! Instead, explain how you served on a committee to raise money for your lacrosse team or received accolades for essay prophet a group project during your internship.
Click on the following link for more tips to craft your professional summary. 4. Nicolas optimized his resume with relevant keywords. Your job application needs to csr companies get past multiple gatekeepers before it makes it into play what strength,, the hands of csr companies a hiring manager. Take a look at what is common to discretion, wits, the job listings you’re interested in and identify the key terms and phrases that routinely pop up. If you have those skills or were exposed to that industry or process, incorporate them into your resume. You can add them into a core competencies section, similar to Nicholas’ resume, or incorporate them throughout the csr companies, work experience section. 5. There aren’t any mentions of imperialism japan high school. Hiring managers are interested in what you’ve done lately, not what you accomplished four or more years before you went to college. Focus on csr companies, highlighting your activities, accomplishments, and prophet the work experience that took place during your college career, calling special attention to anything that directly supports your job goals. Only list your GPA on your entry-level resume if it’s a 3.0/4.0 or higher. If the GPA in your major is higher than your overall GPA, feel free to use that instead.
However, keep in mind that employers will know why you didn’t include the csr companies, GPA and may ask you about it during the interview process. 7. Nicholas didn’t include his course work. If you’ve held at least one internship that’s relevant to main sociological your degree and career goals, there’s no reason to also include a list of the courses you took. Employers will value your internship experience over csr companies, the stuff you learned in the classroom any day of the week. However, if you did not intern, include a list of the 400-level courses you took that are most closely tied to your job goals to why gun wont work show hiring managers what subjects you’re familiar with. 8. It plays up Nicholas’ selling points. The format of your entry-level college grad resume will depend upon the information you have to csr companies work with.
If you have a ton of great internship experience, highlight that just below your professional summary and what strength, wits, and beauty? education sections. If you didn’t hold any jobs that were related to csr companies your future career, play up other information instead, such as the high-level courses you took or major projects you participated in, academic or athletic honors you received, or extra-curricular activities that demonstrate your leadership skills. In Nicholas’ case, we divided his experience into two categories so his relevant internships took the spotlight. 9. Each employer has a company description. Help employers get a better understanding of the industries, industries and work environments you were exposed to by including a line that describes each company with which you held an internship. If you’re tight on space, feel free to eliminate this information for your summer jobs that aren’t related to your current career goals.
You can also omit this information from your internships if they were all held at companies with big, well-known brand names. 10. Nicholas bulleted the most important information. Use bullet points to draw attention to the information you believe recruiters will care most about. Csr Companies! This may include an accomplishment or other major contribution you helped your team achieve. 11. Action verbs are used to describe his work experience.
Notice how the bullets under Nicholas’ roles begin with an action verb? This information focuses on how Nicholas contributed to an end result. Three! When you’re new to the workforce, you may not have many major accomplishments and contributions to include in your resume; however, use action verbs (i.e. created, led, managed, improved, developed, built) to describe your activities. Csr Companies! 12. Main Sociological Perspectives! His extracurricular activities and csr companies honors are provided. Main Sociological! Your first resume out of college should play up your best selling points. Csr Companies! This may include any projects or extracurricular activities you held while attending college, as well as any scholarships or other honors your receiving during that time.
Click on the following link for more tips on essay prophet, how to build a resume using college involvement as experience. Csr Companies! 13. Nicholas’ relevant skills are listed. Take a closer look at the job descriptions that interest you and note what technical skills they expect you to possess. This may include a particular software program or a language skill that’s considered valuable in your chosen field.
If you have a working knowledge of these platforms, list them on your resume. Three Main Perspectives! If you keep seeing a skill or tool mentioned that you don’t know much about, look for free or low-cost online courses on the topic to csr companies bolster your skill set. Resources such as edX, SkillShare, and Lynda.com are a great place to start. As an entry-level professional, you only get one page of on holy prophet resume real estate don’t waste it by adding references or the phrase, “References available upon request.” Employers usually won’t ask for this information until you make it to a face-to-face interview, and they know you’ll provide it if they request it. Looking for more samples and advice?
Click on csr companies, the following links to check out a recording of our recent resume-writing webinar and take a look at industries another recent college graduate resume sample I wrote for csr companies Business Insider. Click on the following link for more resume advice. Need help with your entry-level resume? Take advantage of our free resume critique today! Subscribe today to get job tips and career advice that will come in handy. Let's stay in touch. Subscribe today to imperialism japan get job tips and career advice that will come in csr companies handy.
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chnm essays Chronicle of Higher Education , Feb. 24, 2006. I hate Scantron, one exasperated high-school student wrote on an online bulletin board earlier this year, referring to the ubiquitous multiple-choice forms covered with ovals, named for the corporation that has manufactured them since 1972. An older student replied: Get used to seeing them. Colleges are all about Scantrons. Noting that it can take 30 minutes to grade an essay question, the older student explained, That's why most instructors use Scantron, or at least multiple choice, for most of their tests. But multiple-choice tests not only torment students; they also feature centrally in the increasingly vitriolic debate over standardized testing.
Do they adequately measure student learning? Do they simply force teachers to teach to csr companies the test? In our own discipline of history, policy makers, teachers, and scholars have begun to debate whether history should be added to the list of subjects tested in the schools under the essay prophet, No Child Left Behind Act. Csr Companies? And we can safely predict that when the industries, National Assessment of Educational Progress history tests are given again this year, we will see a new round of hand-wringing over why students don't know any history. Now a national commission, calling for accountability, is raising the level of debate by considering expanding standardized testing to higher education.
Such student complaints and adult debates about standardized tests could soon become obsolete if, as we argue, the digital technology that allows students to csr companies share their grievances online undermines the very nature of multiple-choice exams. As the calculator forever altered mathematical education eventually muscling its way into the test room when it became clear that long division had become a useless relic of the past what if modern technology is about to make the format of why gun wont work these tests as quaint as a slide rule? What if students will have in their pockets a device that can rapidly and accurately answer, say, multiple-choice questions about history? Would teachers start to face a revolt from (already restive) students, who would wonder why they were being tested on their ability to answer something that they could quickly find out about on that magical device? It turns out that most students already have such a device in their pockets, and to them it's less magical than mundane. It's called a cellphone.
That pocket communicator is rapidly becoming a portal to csr companies other simultaneously remarkable and commonplace modern technologies that, at least in our field of history, will enable the essay, devices to answer, with a surprisingly high degree of accuracy, the kinds of csr companies multiple-choice questions used in industries thousands of high-school and college history classes, as well as a good portion of the standardized tests that are used to assess whether the schools are properly educating our students. Those technological developments are likely to bring the multiple-choice test to the brink of csr companies obsolescence, mounting a substantial challenge to the presentation of history and other disciplines as a set of facts or one-sentence interpretations and to the rote learning that inevitably goes along with such an approach. Surprisingly, multiple-choice testing is less than a century old. According to the psychologist Franz Samelson, the multiple-choice question made its first published appearance in 1915 in a silent reading test devised by Frederick J. Kelly, the why gun work, director of the Training School at csr companies the State Normal School in Emporia, Kan. Kelly's innovation responded, in part, to growing complaints about the subjectivity of grading in standardized tests that had become increasingly common at the turn of the century. But equally important, he wanted to imperialism make tests cheaper and faster to grade. Csr Companies? How could you administer mass standardized tests and three sociological perspectives establish objective test norms without some quick and easy method of grading? The need for easily scoreable exams became even more compelling two years later, when the United States entered World War I, and psychologists convinced military leaders that measuring the intelligence of almost two million soldiers would improve military efficiency. In the mid-1920s, the College Board added multiple-choice questions to its SAT's, previously just a set of essay questions, and sealed the csr companies, triumph of the new format. The multiple-choice test efficient, quantitative, capable of sampling wide areas of subject matter and easily generating data for complicated statistical analyses, Samelson writes, became the daniels, symbol . of American education.
Along the way, the technologies of testing became more elaborate moving from the scoring stencils devised around World War I to the IBM 805 Test Scoring Machine, which appeared in the late 1930s and could read pencil marks, to the Scantron forms and machines that are the bane of today's high-school and college students. The IBM 805 and the Scantron were effective and widespread 20th-century technologies. But they pale in comparison to the power and ubiquity of csr companies two 21st-century technological developments that may change the debate over in the play what is common to discretion, wits, and beauty? multiple-choice testing. The first is the World Wide Web not only the largest record of csr companies human knowledge in the history of our species, but also the most open and available. We can already hear the snickers from our colleagues: You want to send students to belton the wilds of the Web to find the answers to exam questions?
Scholars in csr companies history (as well as in other fields) have generally viewed the state of knowledge on the Web with skepticism. In 2004 Leon Botstein, president of Bard College and also a historian, told The New York Times that a Google search of the Web overwhelms you with too much information, much of which is belton industries, hopelessly unreliable or beside the point. It's like looking for a lost ring in csr companies a vacuum bag. What you end up with mostly are bagel crumbs and dirt. Scholars like Botstein used to the detailed analysis of essay on holy prophet individual documents for credibility and csr companies import look in horror at the many Web pages with factual errors or outright fictions. Three? Even if students could Google any topic they wanted from csr companies their cellphone, they would surely choose some of those errant Web pages, select some bagel crumbs and dirt, and flunk their exams. But what if, as in statistics, the extremes could cancel each other out, and the errors become swamped by the truth? Is there enough historical truth out there on the Web to do that swamping, or are the lunatics running the asylum?
Computer scientists have an optimistic answer for worried scholars. They argue that the enormous scale and linked nature of the Web make it possible for main perspectives it to be right in the aggregate while sometimes very wrong on csr companies specific pages. The Web has enticed millions of users to type in trillions of characters to create billions of Web pages of on average low-quality contents, write the computer scientists Rudi Cilibrasi and Paul Vitányi in a 2004 essay.Yet, they continue, the sheer mass of the belton industries, information available about almost every conceivable topic makes it likely that extremes will cancel and csr companies the majority or average is meaningful in a low-quality approximate sense. In other words, although the Web includes many poorly written and erroneous pages, taken as a whole the medium actually does quite a good job encoding meaningful data. At the same time that the Web's openness allows anyone access, it also allows any machine connected to it to scan those billions of documents, which leads to the second development that puts multiple-choice tests in peril: the means to everyman, to discretion, and beauty? process and manipulate the Web to produce meaningful information or answer questions. Computer scientists have long dreamed of an adequately large corpus of text to subject to a variety of algorithms that could reveal underlying meaning and linkages. They now have that corpus, more than large enough to perform remarkable new feats through information theory. For instance, Google researchers have demonstrated (but not yet released to the general public) a powerful method for creating good enough translations not by understanding the grammar of each passage, but by rapidly scanning and comparing similar phrases on countless electronic documents in the original and second languages. Given large enough volumes of words in csr companies a variety of languages, machine processing can find parallel phrases and reduce any document into a series of industries word swaps. Where once it seemed necessary to have a human being aid in a computer's translating skills, or to teach that machine the basics of csr companies language, swift algorithms functioning on unimaginably large amounts of text suffice.
Are such new computer translations as good as a skilled, bilingual human being? Of course not. Are they good enough to get the gist of a text? Absolutely. So good the National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency increasingly rely on that kind of technology to scan, sort, and mine gargantuan amounts of text and communications (whether or not the rest of us like it). As it turns out, good enough is precisely what multiple-choice exams are all about. Easy, mechanical grading is made possible by restricting possible answers, akin to a translator's receiving four possible translations for a sentence. Not only would those four possibilities make the work of the translator much easier, but a smart translator even one with a novice understanding of the jack daniels sainsbury, translated language could home in on csr companies the correct answer by recognizing awkward (or proper) sounding pieces in each possible answer. Belton Industries? By restricting the csr companies, answers to certain possibilities, multiple-choice questions provide a circumscribed realm of information, where subtle clues in both the question and on holy prophet the few answers allow shrewd test takers to csr companies make helpful associations and rule out certain answers (for decades, test-preparation companies like Kaplan Inc. have made a good living teaching students that trick).
The gaming of a question can occur even when the test taker doesn't know the correct answer and is not entirely familiar with the play what to discretion, strength, five wits,, subject matter. Are there algorithms that might identify connections between a multiple-choice question and the correct answer, thus providing a means of effectively mining those billions of csr companies words suddenly accessible free to everyone with an play what is common to discretion, strength, five, Internet connection a group that already includes many people with cellphones? To test the ratio of accurate to inaccurate historical information on the Web and to csr companies pursue the idea that machine reasoning might, as with the essay, new computational translation services, provide good enough answers to historical questions, one of us, Daniel, created a software agent called H-Bot. On the Center for History and New Media Web site, we have a public beta test of csr companies that software that you can use to answer simple factual questions about history using natural language (http://chnm.gmu.edu/tools/h-bot). Jack Daniels? For instance, ask it, Whenwas Nelson Mandela born? It responds, Nelson Mandela was born on csr companies July 18, 1918. Although it has a fast mode that looks at trusted sources first (i.e., online encyclopedias and dictionaries), it can also use the main sociological, entire Web to answer questions using algorithms drawn from computer science. Suppose you want to know when Charles Lindbergh took his famous flight to Paris. Asking H-Bot When did Charles Lindbergh fly to Paris? would prompt the csr companies, software (using its pure mode, which does not simply try to industries find a reliable encyclopedia entry) to query Google for Web pages that include the words Charles Lindbergh, flew, and Paris. H-Bot would then scan those pages as a single mass of raw text about Lindbergh.
It would search, in particular, for words that look like years (i.e., positive three- and csr companies four-digit numbers), and is common to discretion, five it would indeed find many instances of 1902 and 1974 (Lindbergh's birth and death years). But most of all, it would find a statistically indicative spike around 1927, the year that Lindbergh made his pioneering flight to Paris. By scanning and processing many Web sites sites like the csr companies, official Lindbergh Foundation site and the amateur enthusiast Ace Pilots site in the same breath H-Bot would accurately answer the user's historical question, disregarding as statistical outliers the few sites that incorrectly state the year of his flight. While simple statistical methods can process the raw material of the Web to answer basic historical questions, more involved algorithms can provide the answers to more complex questions. Using a theory called normalized information distance, a special version of H-Bot programmed to industries take multiple-choice tests can tackle not only csr companies question-and-answer pairs similar to the Lindbergh question, but also questions from the NAEP U.S. history exam that supposedly invoke the higher-order processes of historical thinking, and that should be answerable only if you truly understand the subject matter and control are able to reason about the past. Csr Companies? For example, a 1994 NAEP question asked, What is the purpose of the Bill of Rights? It provided the following options: (a) To say how much Americans should pay in taxes. (b) To protect freedoms like freedom of speech. (c) To describe the jobs of the President and Congress. (d) To make Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
H-Bot cannot understand the principles of taxation, liberty, or the purviews of the executive and why gun control wont legislative branches. But it need not comprehend those concepts to respond correctly. Instead, to figure out the significance of the csr companies, Bill of Rights, H-Bot found that Web pages on which the phrase Bill of japan Rights and the word purpose appear contain the words freedom and csr companies speech more often than words like taxes, President, or Washington. (To be more precise, H-Bot's algorithms actually compared the normal frequency of those words on the Web with the on holy prophet, frequency of those words on relevant pages.) H-Bot thus correctly surmised that the answer was (b). We gave H-Bot that and csr companies dozens of other publicly available multiple-choice questions from the fourth-grade NAEP American-history exam, on which such questions composed about two-thirds of the total. It got a respectable 82 percent right much better than the average student. Moreover, the experimental H-Bot is jack, only a preliminary version programmed by a humble historian of science with help from a (very bright) high-school student, Simon Kornblith. Imagine how well it could do with financing and legions of math Ph.D.'s to attack problems on behalf of search-engine giants like Google. Before we disdainfully dismiss H-Bot's test-taking prowess as a parlor gimmick, we need to csr companies remember that we have built a good deal of our educational system around such multiple-choice tests.
They are ubiquitous even in essay on holy college classrooms and are widely cited as evidence of csr companies national ignorance in history and other fields. Moreover, our attachment to these tests (as Frederick Kelly knew well) has more to do with economics and technology than with teaching and essay prophet learning. We use these tests, Sam Wineburg, a cognitive psychologist who teaches at Stanford University's School of Education, writes in csr companies The Journal of American History, not because they are historically sound or because they predict future engagement with historical study, but because they can be read by machines that produce easy-to-read graphs and on holy prophet bar charts. Moreover we should remember the csr companies, resistance that accompanied the entry of the calculator into the exam room. Skeptics fretted, Wouldn't American students be at a disadvantage if they couldn't do multiplication without a machine? Doesn't the ability to do such processes unassisted lead to a deeper understanding of mathematics itself? But most people quickly realized that providing calculators to students freed them up to work on more complex and important aspects of jack daniels mathematics, rather than worrying about memorizing multiplication tables. The combination of the cellphone and csr companies the magnificent, if imperfect, collective creation of the Web with some relatively simple mathematical formulas has given us a free version of main what our provost and historian, Peter Stearns, proposed to csr companies us a couple of years ago the Cliolator, a play on the muse of history and the calculator. Control Wont? Stearns observed that many educators would resist the adoption of the csr companies, Cliolator, as they had the calculator.
But he also argued, rightly in our view, that it would improve history education by displacing the fetishizing of factual memorization. Moreover, as the Web continues its exponential growth, it will become (again, taken as a whole) an increasingly accurate transcription of human knowledge. A basic principle of information theory is that the larger the corpus, the daniels sainsbury, more accurately it encodes meaning over csr companies all and the more useful it is for data-mining applications. And consider what will happen to the quality of information on the Web after the completion of the jack daniels sainsbury, vast initiatives of Google and csr companies others to digitize the high-caliber information in books. By the time today's elementary-school students enter college, it will probably seem as odd to them to be forbidden to use digital devices like cellphones, connected to an Internet service like H-Bot, to find out when Nelson Mandela was born as it would be to tell students now that they can't use a calculator to do the routine arithmetic in an algebra equation.
By providing much more than just an on holy, open-ended question, multiple-choice tests give students and, perhaps more important in csr companies the future, their digital assistants more than enough information to retrieve even a fairly sophisticated answer from the Web. The genie will be out of the bottle, and we will have to start thinking of belton more meaningful ways to csr companies assess historical knowledge or ignorance. At around the jack daniels sainsbury, same time that Kelly was pioneering the multiple-choice test on csr companies the Kansas frontier, the educational psychologists J. Carleton Bell and David F. Control Wont? McCollum, no doubt influenced by the same mania for testing that was sweeping the country, began a study of the attainments of history students in Texas. At the outset, they wrote, they surmised that they might, for example, assess students' ability to csr companies understand present events in the light of the past, or their skill in sifting and evaluating a mass of miscellaneous materials and constructing . a straightforward and probable account, or their aptitude at providing reflective and discriminating replies to 'thought questions' on belton a given historical situation. Csr Companies? Bell and McCollum then noted a final possibility, that historical ability may be taken as the readiness with which pupils answer questions revealing the range of their historical information, although this is perhaps the narrowest, and . the least important type of sainsbury historical ability. But, they continued, it is the csr companies, one which is the most readily tested, and was, therefore, chosen for study in the present investigation. As Wineburg observes, While perhaps the why gun wont work, first instance, this was not the last in which ease of measurement not priority of csr companies subject-matter understanding determined the shape and japan contour of a research program. Of course Bell and csr companies McCollum might have had an even easier time if they had gotten word of belton Kelly's innovations in testing. Instead they asked students, for example, to write down the reason for the historic importance of each of csr companies 10 representative dates (like 1789).
That required them, to their disappointment, to give partial credit for answers, including some evaluated quite arbitrarily. Very soon, however, their factualist approach would be married to the seemingly objective multiple-choice test, and historical understanding would be reduced to wont a filled-in bubble on a form. Now that newer technology threatens the humble technology of the multiple-choice exam, we have an opportunity to return to some of the broader and deeper measures of understanding in history and other subjects that Bell and McCollum knew quite well before they and others rushed down the path that has led us and our students to Scantron purgatory. As Bell and McCollum knew (like students who complain about csr companies Scantrons), it takes considerably more time and effort to grade essay questions that, for example, measure a student's ability to synthesize historical sources into a complex narrative. But, as the essay prophet, Document Based Questions widely used in Advanced Placement history tests demonstrate, such exams are not incompatible with standardized, national measurements. They just take a little more time to csr companies grade. Imperialism Japan? Indeed, the creators of the initial NAEP U.S. history examination worried that one limitation of many traditional assessments is that they frequently present pieces of csr companies information or problems to be solved in isolation. Yet their response placing related multiple-choice questions together in three sociological perspectives theme blocks while adding some short constructed response questions only modestly addressed that problem. Although we tend to believe that new technology always saves time and money, the marriage of the csr companies, Web with the cellphone augurs the demise of the inexpensive technologies of multiple-choice tests and grading machines. But we will not be among the why gun control wont, mourners at the funeral of the multiple-choice test. Such exams have fostered a school-based culture of rote memorization that has little to do with true learning.
And the resources that it will take to offer and csr companies grade more complex and thoughtful exams pale in control work comparison to csr companies those being wasted on pointless approaches to measuring student comprehension. Politicians who insist on in the play what and beauty? raising the csr companies, stakes in standardized testing need to provide the japan, funds for people rather than machines to csr companies do the grading. If we are going to continue to essay on holy insist on csr companies having machines grade our students, then we should expect that they are going to insist on being able to answer exam questions using the machines in their pockets. Daniel J. Cohen is an assistant professor of play everyman, to discretion, strength, five and beauty? history and Roy Rosenzweig a professor of history at George Mason University. They are affiliated with the csr companies, university's Center for History and why gun control wont work New Media and are co-authors of Digital History: A Guide to Gathering, Preserving, and Presenting the Past on the Web (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005). 1996–2008, Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media, George Mason University. (Copyright Notice)
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Dear Resume: You’re Not Fooling Anybody. I wanted to spend some time today talking about an particular irritation that a (un-named) buddy shared with me. After he mentioned it I realized that I also see it all the time, and those that do it probably think that it is helping them out. Csr Companies? I think they do it because they realize the number of daniels, years of csr companies, experience they have is so important in the business of being a landman. At first I thought that it was a very simple thing, and maybe not worthy of a blog post all its own, but on some reflection I think it’s an important conversation to have. I’m sure I’ll get a few comments at the end of the article on both sides of the fence. A few examples of things I’ve seen on sociological perspectives resumes, cover letters and postings from csr companies people looking for prophet work: I have ten years of csr companies, experience in leasing and management. I have seven years of title research experience. I have been in the oil gas industry for over 20 years. Now, as you might guess when you read these examples, these individuals don’t have all of why gun control wont work, their experience as a land professional in csr companies, the oil gas business.
The first one was a manufacturing manager, the second did title searches for imperialism a mortgage company, and the third was on pipeline construction crews. Csr Companies? While all of these things may have helped the person develop applicable skills, I feel they are (at a minimum) misrepresenting their level of essay on holy, experience. I’m sure that a few of csr companies, you are saying “Now Randy, it’s not that big of a deal, the jack experience section of the resume should tell the whole story.” Many times it does. My issue isn’t really with the fact that these folks aren’t telling me up-front with open language about csr companies their experience level. My issue is jack sainsbury that for many of those who review resumes — it might make them feel like the applicant thinks the reviewer is stupid. Or, at a minimum, that the applicants thinks they are putting a positive spin on their experience – but are really turning off the csr companies reviewer. When you use these tools in your resume it can backfire on you, like when you go to a website and it immediately starts talking to you or playing music (90% of people will immediately hit the ‘back’ button on industries their browser). That isn’t to say that there isn’t a way to spin that experience, so I’ll offer some suggestions as to how I might handle it:
For the previous 2 years I have been leasing minerals in Ohio, I leased over 6,000 acres. Prior to csr companies, that I managed a production facility with 45 employees. That experience will allow me to grow with your brokerage and take on new tasks as I gain experience. I’ve been performing patent to industries, present mineral research for the last 3 years. In the four previous years I worked for a mortgage company clearing title to real estate loans. While the real estate loans were typically surface title, I do know my way around the courthouse and csr companies have working relationships with several abstract companies in essay on holy prophet, the area. I’ve been purchasing rights-of-way for the past 18 months, and for the rest of the last twenty years I’ve worked right of way construction projects performing a variety of tasks.
I’ve found landowners appreciate the fact that I can talk with them about csr companies what to expect on their property from a realistic perspective. Now, if you were the one doing the hiring would you feel better about the first set of examples or the second set? Obviously I’d pick the second because I wrote them. What is the belton take away? Be honest, be truthful, be direct. Tell me how you would represent the experience in these examples in the comment section.
Why Am I in the Energy Business? Giving Back to the Land Profession. The Young and the Restless: Old Hands vs New Blood. Into the csr companies Deep: Who is daniels sainsbury Chesapeake without Aubrey McClendon? Have You Gone to Work at 2 AM?
Chesapeake CEO Aubrey McClendon Steps Down. Randy is a land consultant with experience in field and csr companies in-house land work, land administration, and software consulting with systems used in the land management business. In The Play To Discretion, Strength, And Beauty?? He is an active member of the AAPL, HAPL, and NHAPL and is a regular attendee of industry functions. Csr Companies? Randy's latest projects have included land data systems integrations, with a focus on Quorum Land System. Click Here to Leave a Comment Below. We see it so much that I expect it out of non AAPL members, so we usually ask them in the phone interview to tell us about that period the Who What Where Questions. If we don’t get that warm fuzzy from the interview and do not know anyone who knows them to vouch then we will pass. Those who do come onboard are highly encouraged to join the AAPL as an affirmation to the code of ethics. I’ve noticed it is becoming more common for brokers (and operators) to require their field people to be AAPL members. I don’t see anything wrong with it. I’ve heard it is not as common up north in places like Ohio, but I suppose that is a function of time.
Thanks for essay on holy prophet the input! I believe that to be correct as well, for the people we have hired in Ohio many of them coming in were not members however they had verifiable work experience in the area. Csr Companies? After coming on board they joined the AAPL. Joining the AAPL doesn’t automatically give someone ethics. In The Everyman, What To Discretion, Strength, Five? Agreeing to abide by their professional code of ethics as per membership doesn’t mean that they will.
If they falsify/mislead in a resume, how much will the code mean to them. I have worked very diligently to have my years of experience, one week at a time. (Almost 20) and when joining a new broker, they phone interview me. It only takes a few minutes of conversation to know that I am for real. Csr Companies? You can’t fake that! So the faked resume only works when brokers are in a hiring frenzy and why gun wont desperate. I agree that those faked resumes fool NO ONE. Thanks for the comment Jenn. I think that folks with many years of csr companies, experience really aren’t the focus of these “AAPL Membership Required” efforts. It’s for industries the newer folks that might not really understand what is appropriate to do or not do.
In addition, it’s good for public relations for an operator to have their field personnel be a member of a professional organization. As independent contractors, we should not even be required to csr companies, provide a resume or cover letter for a new assignment with a broker. When was the last time you asked a mechanic or painter for imperialism his resume or a cover letter before you would hire them? Independent contractors acquire work by recommendations, advertising or previous working relationships. Csr Companies? Comments like “I’ve found landowners appreciate the wont fact that I can talk with them about what to csr companies, expect on belton industries their property from a realistic perspective” should not be of interest for a contractual relationship between a broker and sub-broker (contracted Landman).
It should be about csr companies “if” the Independent Contractor can explain what is about happen to the landowners property and how the Landman is sociological going to go about explaining the procedure. AAPL membership on the other hand should be considered! Using the example above, wouldn’t you feel more comfortable if your mechanic an independent contractor was a member of the Automotive Service Association or your painter was a member of the Painting and Decorating Contractors of America or at csr companies the very least certified (RL, RPL, CPL)? We are not employees applying to be hired, we are Independent Contractors looking for work. We have to advertise (sell) our work ethic, products, skills, certifications and use websites (music/talking or not)to get the point across to our market (the placement Broker) JUST as Landman Insider.com and the Brokerage Companies have done in their market. Just an three main perspectives opinion! Thanks for taking the time to respond Hypatia. The only thing I wouldn’t be in agreement with is your example about contractors not providing resumes.
Car mechanics, for instance, typically provide a warranty. That doesn’t really exist in csr companies, the field landman world, most field landmen don’t carry their own E#038;O insurance. I’d submit that some examples of sainsbury, contractors who provide resumes are computer programmers (tech contractors more generally), attorneys (who quite often work on a contract basis), and even geologists. If you have enough experience to csr companies, make phone calls to japan, movers and shakers and get hired via an informal process you probably don’t need a resume. Csr Companies? However, most field landmen don’t have those types of essay prophet, connections and have to rely on some amount of canvassing. That means using a resume as part of a larger ‘marketing’ system. Again, thanks for the comment! It let’s me know people are reading, and that’s why I write.
If everyone agrees with me then it means I’m being too ‘safe’. Hey Randy, I liked this. It actually helped me. I have sent out quite a few resumes and I, for csr companies the most part never even get a reply via email, which is what to discretion, five puzzling to me as if they are reading the email why not take the time to at least say, “we do not have a spot right now, we will let you know, even tell me you are not interested” Anyway, that said I see I have been sending the csr companies wrong, for imperialism the most part, cover letter. Csr Companies? I have done this for almost 17 years and I have not worked for a lot of control wont, different brokers as when one job ended I just got sent somewhere else, or my husband would make a couple of calls and off we would go. We are not working the same job now because of the csr companies if the job ends in one place, the other will have a job. Anyway, after all that rambling, this helped. Is the above what people want to read in on holy prophet, a cover letter?
Or if not I wish someone would post one that they want to csr companies, see because as I said, I have never had to essay, send resumes, I just went from job to job. I will put an article on cover letters on my list of csr companies, aeticles to three, write. In the meantime, email me a copy of csr companies, your resume and cover and I will give you a review of it. PS: I also agree,I think all landmen should belong to three sociological, AAPL. I really do have 25 years of experience and csr companies will often put that in the Re: when emailing a resume and in my cover letter, but I can back it up. Yet I still can’t seem to get an interview. Any suggestions? Do you specify a dayrate in your initial cover letter/resume? Does your resume accurately specify your experience (i.e. Jack Sainsbury? It shouldn’t just say “Joan’s Land Service Company” From 1980 – Current, Performed x,y,z.
That isn’t verifiable, or informative information.)? Good article and fresh perspective, Randy. Ms. LaCour invoked some provocative points to the discussion. I believe in professional affiliations, for reasons obvious to me. However, I understand the thinking of the very independent and to their lack of my goals within the industry. Too, I’ve even heard that affiliating with an organization, like AAPL, leans towards joining a union; that thought alone within the OG Industry can be a ‘spark’. I haven’t ever really thought of the AAPL as a union, but I can see the thought process.
Thanks for csr companies the insight. Thank you for the advice on job descriptions with a CV. I have always had difficult finding my vioce so that I can communicate what I want to in the play is common to discretion, strength, and beauty?, say in writing. The examples you provided certainly help me with the structure and purpose of what I am trying to communicate. This is very helpful and csr companies I would greatly appreciate a review of my resume. I’ve even had brokers say they received my resume and main would look it over and give me a call today — then I never hear back from csr companies them. I believe that it is all about daniels sainsbury your resume being on the right desk/inbox at the right time. Timing is very important in this industry!
Should the csr companies cover letter say what our day rate is? I think that is a very fact-specific question and could go either way. It is really your call. If you are asking for a very above-market rate then your resume better reflect that rate. If you are asking for a below market rate that could also work against you. If you are right in the ‘market rate’ area, it might be unnecessary to daniels sainsbury, even mention it. Csr Companies? Many people would like to see it so they know if you are in the ‘ball park’ or not. Control? If you are a little high that isn’t a big deal, if you are $100/day high then you might get thrown out csr companies of the pile. Yes Randy, everyone appreciates all your articles and belton industries they are good. I have 2 points on this one I agree with.
1)With reference to your comment doing title abstracting as being surface only. That is totally untrue. If you sought to purchase a tract of land, a home or a business, would you feel you had the right to csr companies, know both the surface and subsurface estate of the property? Yes, everything that has to industries, do with that piece of property has to csr companies, be reported. If you did not own minerals to the property you sought to purchase and the title company did not report that to you a lawsuit is in order. 2) As you listing your company’s name and the services that you perform as being incorrect. I disagree.
One of the first reasons of “why” you want to on holy, do that is you are an independent landman…you own your own business. That is csr companies how a business resume is set up. Continually setting up instruments such as a resume like an employee where it lists dates with names of who you did work for only further gives rise the industries IRS’ possibility of csr companies, deeming you an employee. The resume should be set up as a business resume and then the reference sheet should be set up with the brokers or other people who have had direct contact with your work product. Hi Lisa, thanks for the comment.
Of course you can’t address every single situation in in the play everyman, what to discretion, strength, and beauty?, a ‘generic’ article. In many states mortgage title does not examine mineral interests, and does not certify it either. I know in Louisiana and Texas this is ‘typically’ correct, but other states may have different practices. As to a ‘business resume’, I think your approach is fine if you include a reference sheet showing who you’ve worked for (brokerages, direct contracts with operators, etc) — but most people who use this approach don’t do this. They just say that Jane Doe worked for JD Research LLC for 12 years. Again, in my experience, the typical industry standard for field landmen is to list the csr companies people they have contracted to imperialism japan, and dates. Hi Randy, I have to beg to differ again as to csr companies, what a title researcher would be required to obtain in is common to discretion, wits, and beauty?, a title search. While emphasis is on the surface estate, in csr companies, Texas all minerals are considered a part of the real property and, therefore, must be reported.
While it is true that it is usually shown as an control wont exception to csr companies, title on Schedule B to a title policy, it is searched and reported and listed therein. Title researchers in their career would also be subjected to many commercial searches which are normally not only full abstracts of belton industries, title but also include environmental searches on the property as well. The only thing that a title researcher would not encounter in that a landman would do is actually calculate the csr companies interest of the mineral owner and imperialism japan prepare the Mineral Owner Report. Here is an article by an attorney where it is csr companies not only japan important to report it on the title report, but in csr companies, the contract of sale as well. Also in why gun control wont work, recent years, with the mortgage companies having mortgages that require royalties to csr companies, paid over to the mortgage company to reduce the loan amount, it would be imperative for them to have the knowledge of whether or not the mortgagor has mineral rights or not. You are certainly allowed to disagree Lisa, and I’ll agree to disagree with you on this #128521;