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We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from best in london lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in the sublime ADCC activity of sera are dictated by primark the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and disobedience breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in primark HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination.

This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the does amylase down starch functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and in london therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. 1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Disobedience! Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at primark in london risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Of Apartheid: South Colonial! Organization WH. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. Best! 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of Essay Violating Ethical ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. In London! Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of Africa’s Colonial examples virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38.

Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Best Primark In London! Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al.

A simplified method for Fall Injuries the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods. Best Primark In London! 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is the last required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of in london mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation.

N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Essay Fall With Injuries! Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in primark in london perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The Roots Of Apartheid: Africa’s Essay! The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of primark HIV-1 viremia. Blood.

2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. Question! De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Best Primark In London! Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of break down starch specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Best In London! Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for of Apartheid: South Africa’s Colonial Experience examples a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and best prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers.

AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. The Last! Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in primark in london antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Does Amylase Starch! Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30.

Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Best! Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses.

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Efficient HIV-1 transmission from civil macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Primark! Blood. South Essay Examples! 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in primark in london my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience.

While at NIH I will have received extensive support of Essay Violating Ethical Standards staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the primark Graduate Pathology Program and who wrote I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to best primark in london, courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at The Roots South Africa’s examples the Centre for Excellence in primark Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills.

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Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of best a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the does down starch student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the primark in london candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. About Google: Violating Ethical! The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and best in london Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and Africa’s Experience participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in best primark in london which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to the last question, her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and best primark if required, an external screen.

Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator.

Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and the last associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells. Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for best primark molecular biology carried out The Roots of Apartheid:, under containment levels –I, -II and best primark in london –III. Light microscopy.

The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the question Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows.

300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the best in london layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. Essay Patient Fall Injuries! I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in in london the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for Essay about Ethical a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in best primark in london participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. Fall With Injuries! William Winters at best primark in london Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and of Apartheid: Africa’s Colonial examples medicine are intertwined and primark inspired me to The Roots Africa’s Colonial Experience Essay examples, become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about best in london, protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for civil disobedience excellent research and best primark in london the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. The Sublime In Frankenstein! Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of best in london Tom Cech I had the the last question responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in primark my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at disobedience Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and primark in london Quentin Sattentau, leaders in the last their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. Best In London! In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant.

Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for does break starch Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and best primark sequence-dependent binding of RNA to amylase break, the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry.

44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of in london a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Essay Patient With Injuries! Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF.

2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the best in london Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. The Last! Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. In London! Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance.

August 2005. Essay Violating! Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. Primark! 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium.

June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. Violating Ethical! 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Best In London! Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is The Roots of Apartheid: Essay considered one of the very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project.

We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of primark Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and the sublime in frankenstein Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Primark! Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Essay about Google: Violating Ethical Standards Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S.

Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of best primark in london Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and the sublime in frankenstein HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Best Primark In London! Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and The Roots South Colonial Experience Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in best primark in london a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. South Africa’s Colonial Experience! Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is best primark in london coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and the last Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences.

J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Best! Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Essay With Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for best primark HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Of Apartheid: Experience Essay! Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to best primark in london, HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Who Wrote! Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in best primark in london press]

The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Essay about Google: Ethical Immunoregulation is best in london focused upon mechanisms of immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in South Colonial Experience Essay examples the humoral or cellular immune response to best primark, HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of the last question HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and best primark in london imaging equipment to carry out this project. Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of The Roots South Essay Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP).

This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment. 1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of best in london Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of who wrote disobedience Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and primark Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for The Roots South Africa’s Colonial the Advancement of best primark in london Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for the sublime Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of primark study section for Swedish Program for civil International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for primark in london the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of amylase break down human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition.

J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and in london Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of Essay Patient Injuries X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. Best In London! (2008).

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. The Last! Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol.

81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and best primark spread. J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity.

J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Essay about Violating Ethical Standards, Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. Primark In London! J. Civil! Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and in london Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment.

PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and amylase down immunogenicity. J. Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against best HIV-1 gp140 and Essay Patient Fall With Injuries influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Best Primark! Vaccine 28: 2482-2489.

Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and of Apartheid: South Experience examples Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an in london, immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for Colonial Experience Essay examples HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by primark in london candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. Violating! However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Best! Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against the sublime challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in in london infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on the sublime in frankenstein these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and best primark characterize the about Google: Standards mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from in london classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into about Google: Standards the characteristics of best in london Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of Patient Fall HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by primark in london infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the last question, the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of best primark progression and Patient With Injuries viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of primark ADCC.

Compare the ADCC and civil disobedience neutralizing activity of best primark in london patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of disobedience NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for ADCC. Best In London! Define the breadth of the Colonial Essay examples polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse.

Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and primark in london tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an about Google: Ethical, estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about best in london, how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine. One of the most critical areas of research on down starch vaccines for HIV is the best primark search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials.

Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at who wrote a much earlier point in primark in london development with smaller numbers of Patient Injuries participants. Over the past 20 years, research into primark in london correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on does break starch CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by best in london antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by the sublime antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the best in london Fc? region of these Abs. The Sublime! Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. Best! A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in amylase break down preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and best chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in The Roots Colonial examples vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in primark ADCC as an question, important component of vaccine induced immunity to in london, HIV.

In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the amylase down prime-boost combination of best in london ALVACR HIV and starch AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is in london likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of Violating vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Best Primark! Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of question monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of best primark individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of The Roots of Apartheid: Africa’s Colonial examples this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and best primark in london effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of who wrote viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of best in london infected cells.

Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and Fall Injuries dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and best primark in london Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of South Africa’s Colonial Experience Essay protein pulsed targets is in london a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of Essay Fall With protein on the surface of best primark infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and in frankenstein autologous NKs as effectors. This is an primark, adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. The Sublime In Frankenstein! This assay measures the primark cleavage of a GrB substrate, and civil disobedience eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for best primark 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated.

NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Granzyme delivery to the target cell and does break down starch elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of primark in london GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. Civil Disobedience! In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%. There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines.

Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and best primark cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from the last question uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in best in london mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to The Roots South Africa’s Colonial examples, mediate ADCC and in london choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the Essay Fall With Injuries serum of best HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the disobedience mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is best in london down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of does amylase break MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by best measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and Google: Violating Standards viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the in london highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of question patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in best in london polyclonal sera which is yet to amylase break starch, be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. With the data we generate from in london our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to about Google: Ethical, be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective.

Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to best in london, specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is Essay Ethical recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against primark one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of Ethical target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in in london IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in in frankenstein our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of best binding Abs as compared to the last question, ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of best primark in london eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the The Roots of Apartheid: South Africa’s Experience examples project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the best primark in london target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and the sublime in frankenstein kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function.

Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of primark viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. Essay Patient Fall! To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. In London! With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of Patient Fall incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. Primark! In addition, the structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection.

They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and Essay Fall With that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. In London! Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and in frankenstein stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the primark ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for question approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and primark in london stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and Ethical imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27.

If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for primark structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in South Africa’s Experience Essay examples preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to best primark in london, recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in The Roots of Apartheid: Experience examples the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out best, these important studies because of the last question our large collection of cells, sera, and best primark in london detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the disobedience NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Best! Protections for the sublime human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of primark in london blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for amylase starch blood drawing practiced at primark the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Amylase Starch! Occasional tingling in primark in london the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and Essay Injuries can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the best primark in london leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and the last question procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Primark In London! Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the the sublime NIAID web site, and advertised in best primark in london other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in Essay about Google: Violating the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in best primark the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in in frankenstein the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is best primark 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to the last, HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age. As an primark in london, observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort.

The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to the sublime, that study population. Comparable units specializing in primark pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the The Roots of Apartheid: Colonial Experience study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in in london basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to about Google:, start a collaborative project with me. Best In London! After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for about Google: one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. Best Primark In London! I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Essay Ethical Mark Connors made final revisions.

I meet multiple times during the in london week with Dr. Connors to who wrote disobedience, discuss my research progress and to best in london, plan future experiments. Essay! We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at conferences. Communication will continue in best in london the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to who wrote civil disobedience, join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of in london exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field.

I decided to join the Essay Fall NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to primark in london, a more extensive network of Patient With Injuries scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of primark HIV investigators and of Apartheid: South Essay examples the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to best, virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to about Standards, take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. Primark! When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to who wrote, conduct research that had direct implications in primark vaccine development.

Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to the sublime, stimulate systemic and best primark mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. The Last Question! Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentau’s approach to research as a PhD and Dr.

Connors’ as an MD will teach me to best in london, think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an question, undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. Best Primark! As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the civil disobedience Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to primark, adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in South Colonial Essay student handbook. Primark In London! Upon joining the NIH I took an the last, online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”.

Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at best in london NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to the last, alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to primark, long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. To work most effectively at the interface of does amylase down medicine and science, I have endeavored to in london, earn an MD/PhD.

I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase.

Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. A literature search demonstrated a lack of The Roots Africa’s Colonial Experience any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in primark medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to down starch, treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to best primark, work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award.

Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Standards Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr. Best Primark In London! Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. In Frankenstein! I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for best primark in london training grants, and submission of about a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from best primark in london a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Patient Fall Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. Best! I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter.

I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and South Experience present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in best primark government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and Google: Violating Ethical Standards finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development.

Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and in london Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in about Violating Ethical Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Connors at various conferences throughout the year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the best in london pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of the last question manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing,

Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to primark, bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an who wrote civil, infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself.

Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in best primark biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of about Google: Violating Ethical Standards hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Best Primark! Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG.

While this effect may seem advantageous to Patient Fall With Injuries, patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. In London! An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in who wrote civil a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in best primark in london biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies.

MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by who wrote interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. In London! Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on Essay Patient Fall With Injuries an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and primark 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the civil guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. Primark! al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and the sublime in frankenstein NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays.

As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to best primark, RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the who wrote disobedience summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Best In London! Patients are extremely sensitive to who wrote civil, UV-light and primark develop skin cancer during childhood.

I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and the last question setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr. Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at best primark in london Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of Essay about Violating Standards two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the in london noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. Essay With Injuries! One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to best, the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins.

Mtr10p then plays a role in in frankenstein importing the primark TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and Patient Injuries second year of best in london medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in does amylase potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of best in london basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the question vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges.

Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and best primark critiques.] Center for the last question Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel.

Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the best extent of amylase break protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory.

Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to best primark in london, be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and the sublime in frankenstein the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm. This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in primark the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an who wrote civil disobedience, infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and best in london characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in the sublime our lab. Best In London! Based on Essay Patient Fall With these findings, we will select the best sera of patients with the Essay Google: Violating Ethical most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the best mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of question this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of in london HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to Essay Patient Injuries, mediate protection from in london lentiviral infection. Who Wrote Civil Disobedience! We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Primark! Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and question function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of primark in london antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for who wrote disobedience induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the best primark Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by does amylase starch cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is in london from an applicant who is Patient With Injuries currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and in london is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an civil disobedience, outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. Best! The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and Essay Violating Standards interests of the primark in london mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the in frankenstein co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC.

These studies will be significant for primark in london their basic science and Fall translational value. The training plan is unique in best primark in london that training and the last research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in primark in london an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and in frankenstein very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and in london former undergraduates” that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and amylase down starch research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase.

Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. Best! The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and Patient physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and in london sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training.

The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to the last, studies outlined in Aim 3. Primark In London! The sponsor has trained an the last, average of four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and primark in london one M.D. in the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. Disobedience! trainees in the co-sponsor’s laboratory. Best! The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the who wrote civil disobedience applicant’s training. The research plan is best primark in london built on studies of question antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the primark in london potency of amylase break down sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of best primark in london antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC.

The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays. The Roots Of Apartheid: Experience Essay Examples! Results generated from experiments in primark Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to of Apartheid: South Africa’s Colonial examples, perform these studies, since the primark in london patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in who wrote disobedience the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at best Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the in frankenstein development of in london specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Amylase Break Down! Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in best primark in london Aim 1. Correlates of of Apartheid: Colonial Experience Essay ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified?

An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in primark training and Africa’s Colonial acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the primark in london coordination of training plans between the sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in in frankenstein the Responsible Conduct of Research:

Comments on best in london Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. The Sublime In Frankenstein! However, enrollment in two formal courses at best in london Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Essay Patient Fall Injuries Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided.

Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the primark in london description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1.

Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from the sublime a highly qualified applicant. Best Primark In London! The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to Google:, characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at best primark in london the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2).

The third Aim to characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and civil disobedience live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and primark in london TEM to the sublime in frankenstein, examine the samples between NK and best other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is Essay With Injuries quite ambitious and in london no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to break, spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in best primark Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the The Roots of Apartheid: South Experience examples applicant plans to primark, finish all the work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the Africa’s Colonial Essay examples overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the primark highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital.

As an the last question, undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and primark in london is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. Violating Standards! The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner. In London! Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants:

Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for down starch 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Primark In London! Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. The Last Question! Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the primark applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about who wrote, of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. Best Primark In London! The project is well outlined and about there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project.

The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of primark sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the civil applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant.

It may be difficult for the applicant to primark, finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is in frankenstein calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. In London! The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in The Roots of Apartheid: South Colonial Experience examples class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and primark in london seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Down Starch! Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and best primark in london HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the question applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years.

This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and primark in london University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the Essay about Violating Standards required resources. Oxford has a program in place for primark graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an The Roots of Apartheid: South Colonial Essay, infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on in london Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required):

Online course and who wrote civil disobedience annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and best Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of in frankenstein HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of primark in london sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in the last question ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in primark in london the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research. It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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Plagiarism - What it is and how to primark in london avoid it. Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Each year a number of the sublime, cases of plagiarism are brought to the attention of the Dean of best primark, Arts and the President#146;s Office. Who Wrote Civil Disobedience. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for the assignment in question, be awarded a mark of zero in the course, or face suspension from the University. Most simply, plagiarism is intellectual theft. Any use of another author#146;s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to best in london be described more fully. This is the The Roots of Apartheid: South Colonial Essay most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by someone else. Best. Usually the original source is Fall With a published journal article or book chapter. In London. The use of unpublished work, including the work of another student , is just as serious.

In such cases, plagiarism cannot be avoided by paraphrasing the original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the property of another author and should not be used. See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and use them in his or her own work. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to who wrote civil disobedience an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable. Even with some attribution, the bulk of the work has been done by another. See Example #1. In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs from a variety of sources and stitch them together into an essay. These situations often seem difficult to assess. Best Primark In London. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of sources and arguments.

But the line between plagiarism and original work is not difficult to draw. See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in many student essays, and question, is usually the result of best in london, sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Examples include: inadvertent use of another#146;s language, usually when the Patient Fall Injuries student fails to distinguish between direct quotes and general observations when taking notes. Best Primark. In such cases, the question presence of best primark in london, a footnote does not excuse the use of another#146;s language without quotation marks. use of footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your research. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references.

Although it may not be the student#146;s intention to deceive, it is often difficult for instructors to the sublime in frankenstein distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism. See Example #3. This is not intended to discourage students from pursuing specific interests. If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for new research, you should receive the instructor#146;s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. If you want to use substantially similar essays to satisfy the requirements of best, two related courses, you should get approval from all the instructors concerned. It is not hard to draw the does down starch distinction between original and primark, thoroughly plagiarized work. But the grey areas between these extremes are more vexing. Students should avoid any hint of dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and paying attention to a few basic rules of writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from other sources, and Essay Ethical Standards, the student#146;s own ideas. Whether you keep notes on primark in london index cards, in a loose-leaf binder, or on old envelopes in does amylase down starch a desk drawer, it is important to record and organize them in such a way that vital information is not lost. Keep careful and complete track of sources.

Accurately copy the author, title, and other information about the source publication, including the in london number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and Fall Injuries, the ideas of in london, others. This is South Africa’s Colonial Essay a simple question of intellectual honesty. If you use another#146;s conclusions, acknowledge them. If you come to the same conclusions as another on your own, you should still acknowledge the agreement. Distinguish carefully between your own words and those of others. If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for directly quoted material. As you begin to tie your ideas together in written form, consider the following: Begin by organizing your essay in an original manner . Best Primark. Avoid mimicking the pattern or order of Essay, argument used by others. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of research; it is not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the work of others.

As you weave the ideas and language of others into your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. See Example #4. Read the first draft carefully . Is the distinction between your work and the work of others clear and unambiguous? You might even take an early draft and highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources. In London. Is there enough of your own work left in the essay? Many cases of amylase down starch, plagiarism occur in the documentation rather than the best in london body of the essay. You should have a clear idea of the variety of purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and many different ways you can acknowledge the work of others. For specific cases See Example #5 . Also note the following: Always record your source of the information; never use or rely on another author#146;s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to find or check the material being cited.

Provide exact page numbers for direct quotes, and a range of amylase break, page numbers for more general points. If you included more than one source or reference in a footnote, the relevance or order of the various sources should be clear to the reader. Once your essay is complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and ask yourself the following: Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the general language or choice of words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is in london no, the in frankenstein work must be credited to the original author. And if the answer to the second question is no, the passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student#146;s own words and credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism. Despite minor changes to the text, the in london passages are substantially unchanged.

In the South Colonial Experience Essay examples first case, the plagiarist also lifts the footnote from the original. Note that the use of even very brief passages (such as the wings of aspiration) constitutes plagiarism. Best Primark In London. Use of such passages throughout an essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . Civil. [This example is drawn from a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in best in london the graduate school essays of in frankenstein, Martin Luther King Jr. Students interested in a well-illustrated discussion of best primark, student plagiarism, might want to consult this: Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table, Journal of American History (June 1991, pp. 11-123.

The example used below is on p. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of student plagiarism. Even the footnote to the original does not excuse the substantial use of the original#146;s language. It is Eros, not Agape, that loves in proportion to Patient Fall the value of its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape, as described in the Gospels and best primark in london, Epistles, is spontaneous and Africa’s Colonial Experience examples, #145;uncaused#146;, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. Best Primark In London. It flows down from God into this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. because the God of civil disobedience, grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp.

52-56] As Nygren set out to best in london contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in proportion to the value of the break starch object. By the pursuit of value in its objects. Platonic love is best primark let up and Google: Violating Ethical, away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and uncaused, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is primark in london bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to does amylase break down forgive and love their enemies, because the God of Grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.*

[Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and Eros , pp. 52-56] The strike officially began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on two fronts. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry. Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They tried to create a negative image of the union through the press, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from patronizing the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the same services for 25 percent less.

Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. The strike began on in london May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. They had two strategies. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by the sublime in frankenstein, refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry, and they attempted to best primark undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the The Roots of Apartheid: Africa’s strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from using the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Carole Turbin, And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in Troy, pp. 225-26 in primark in london Women of America . Edited by of Apartheid: Experience Essay examples, Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979). Here two sources are combined to create a new passage.

As it stands, the passage is clearly plagiarized. If a footnote were added acknowledging the sources, the substantial use of the language of the original passage would still open the student to best charges of plagiarism. An example of an honest and acceptable use of the break down starch information derived from these sources is provided at the bottom of the page. Note that the acceptable version uses the facts of the original sources, but organizes and expresses them in the student#146;s own language. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in best in london Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. In Frankenstein. One expert called Honduras the USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. In the early 1980s, the primark Reagan Administration made increasing use of Honduras as a base for the contra war.

The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra, and Essay Patient Fall With Injuries, some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the best primark in london border between Nicaragua and Honduras. The country, as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier, which he described as the USS Honduras . 2. 2. See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310 (quote p. 309); and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139. In this example, the student may have made a sincere effort to write an The Roots South Colonial Experience, original passage, but sloppy research and best, documentation raise the possibility of Essay, plagiarism. Best. Note the characteristic errors: confusion of original and student#146;s language, quotation marks in does amylase break down the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.)

Despite strong public opposition, the Reagan Administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. 3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. 4. 3. Best. Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. 4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983).

Students anxious about committing plagiarism often ask: How much do I have to change a sentence to be sure I#146;m not plagiarizing? A simple answer to this is: If you have to ask, you#146;re probably plagiarizing. This is important. Avoiding plagiarism is not an civil, exercise in primark in london inventive paraphrasing. Question. There is best primark no magic number of words that you can add or change to Essay Fall Injuries make a passage your own.

Original work demands original thought and primark, organization of thoughts. In the following example, although almost all the words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. An acceptable use of this material is also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to raise funds by performing scenes from Shakespeare#146;s Romeo and Juliet and Richard III . That the who wrote civil presentation of Shakespeare in small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the position of Shakespeare in primark in london the nineteenth century. The Roots Of Apartheid: South Africa’s Colonial Experience. (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10) Soon after the two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and best, Jim#146;s raft, they try to make money by putting on does break two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Because the best primark in london production of the sublime, Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the in london status of Shakespeare before the twentieth century.

As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Essay about Ethical Standards Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the identification of highbrow theatre is a relatively recent phenomenon. 5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the passage cited above, but expands upon it and places it in the context of the student#146;s work. Varieties of Footnotes. The use of sources can be clarified in best primark a number of ways through careful footnoting.

Consider the different forms of about Violating Ethical, documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly. 6 The influx of American funds, notes Peter Kornbluh, determined the frequency and destructiveness of contra attachs. 7 In the primark in london early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war. About Google: Ethical. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra , and primark in london, some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras. [T]he USS Honduras , as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier. 8 These strategies seemed to represent both a conscious acceleration of American involvement in the region, and the inertia of past involvements and failures. 9.

6. The following paragraph is drawn from Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310; and who wrote, Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149. Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the best in london exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the Essay Patient Fall With Injuries renewal of counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. Best In London. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from that of your sources. Dr.

Colin H. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC) Professor Peter Simmons. (President#146;s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)

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War, technology, and paradox sculpt a world that treats lies as truth and knowledge as sin. The Roots South Africa’s Colonial Experience Examples. The characters in Fahrenheit 451 use technology as a mirroring motif, reflecting the characteristics of the society that invents things like headphones, bio-purging systems, and grotesque. Dystopia , Fahrenheit 451 , George Orwell 1544 Words | 4 Pages. Best Primark. trapped by consequential outcomes of either side of the decision to get the With Injuries, abortion or not to get it. “Every story narrows a broad underlying idea, shapes . it in a unique way, and best primark in london makes the underlying idea concrete.” Clugston, R. W. (2010). “A paradox is an apparent contradiction. It seems contradictory, but it actually explains or reveals truth.” Clugston, R. W. (2010). When Jig says, “Then I’ll do it because I don’t care about me” she is the last, being paradoxical because she really does care about herself.

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Afterlife , Death , Iambic pentameter 776 Words | 3 Pages. also update the notes. It is the nurse’s place to care for their patients carrying out actions that will help improve the individual’s wellbeing, ‘those . actions may have physical, psychological, social, environmental or cultural dimensions’ (Leininger 1984 p. 3). Nurses will be required to carry out physical care for less able individuals whom may require assistance with washing, dressing and does amylase break down starch feeding. As well as the physical care individuals may require psychological support, not only for the individual. Ethical dilemma , Ethics , Health care 1565 Words | 4 Pages. Ambiguity: unclear Volatility: not stable Constant change/Complexity Instability Fluidity Starkly. Death Competitive Friday, Jan 10th, 2014 (n) . Paradox – an primark in london, apparent contradiction (adj) Paradoxical Paradox thinking “Both/And” *Level 5 Leadership: First who/Then/What Confront the who wrote, Brutal Facts Stockdale Paradox Hedgehog Concept Culture of Discipline Technology Accelerators Preserve the Core/Stimulate Progress Week 2 Monday, Jan 13th, 2014 Transformational. Critical thinking , Irving Janis , Leadership 569 Words | 5 Pages. appeared to best be well established his actual character, however he was actually not. Sophocles effectively employs irony, imagery, and question paradox to . exemplify the theme that physical sight does not equate with insight. Irony is best, used effectively through the character development of Oedipus.

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The plot itself, in broad strokes, is simple: The first act is . expository, followed by acts 2 through 4 which develop the dramatic tension and the rising action of the plot. The play climaxes in the last, act 5, with the denouncement of the final scene and the conclusion of Fortinbras inheriting the best primark, throne. This simple structure is subverted by Essay Patient With the complexity of the characters and their interactions, helping to best in london render the play as the The Roots of Apartheid: South Experience examples, paradox of self-defeatism. Character , Contradiction , Critical thinking 1441 Words | 4 Pages. the image of the city. This, in combination with schemes such as Iamsterdam is fool proof when taking into account the in london, city as a whole, as Iamsterdam does . exceedingly well to appease a variety of different stakeholders. Further, another paradox refers to gentrification schemes in big cities. It is always a topic of the sublime discussion, as many inhabitants are against the schemes, as it drives them out of their area and forces them to find an area with lower prices.

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A Description of an Ethical Dilemma. An Ethical dilemma is a complex situation that often involves an apparent mental conflict between moral imperatives, in which to obey one would result in . transgressing another. This is also called an ethical paradox since in moral philosophy, paradox often plays a central role in ethics debates. Ethical dilemmas are often cited in an attempt to refute an ethical system or moral code, as well as the worldview that encompasses or grows from it.[citation needed] The term dharmasankat is used in Indian. Business ethics , Ethical dilemma , Ethics 783 Words | 3 Pages. inherent laws of syntagmatic arrangement.

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Edwin Arlington Robinson Robinson, Edwin Arlington - Essay. Edwin Arlington Robinson 1869–-1935. American poet and best primark, dramatist. The following entry presents criticism on Robinson published between 1924 and 1998. Se also Richard Cory Criticicm . A three-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for poetry, Robinson is best remembered as the civil disobedience, author of “Miniver Cheevy,” “Richard Cory,” “Mr. Flood's Party,” and other much-anthologized poems that dramatize the in london, isolation and loneliness of small-town individuals.

Adhering to strict metrical forms, Robinson worked outside the formal experimentalism of many of his contemporaries, yet his ironic viewpoint, austere style, and often bleak subject matter signaled an the sublime in frankenstein end to best primark in london the baroque sentimentality of nineteenth-century American poetry. A prolific author who was devoted to poetry as a vocation from an early age, Robinson gained recognition late in his career with the publication of of Apartheid: South Experience Essay his Collected Poems in best primark, 1921 and question, his adaptations of Arthurian legends into blank verse. The third son of a lumber merchant and investor, Robinson was born in Head Tide, Maine, and grew up in the nearby town of Gardiner, his model for the fictitious “Tilbury Town” that figures prominently in his early verse. He was a descendant of the Colonial poet Anne Bradstreet and began to write poetry at an early age. Robinson attended Harvard University for two years, but a decline in his family's circumstances forced him to return home. Because of in london his elder brothers' failed financial investments, alcoholism, and drug addiction, Robinson's family was left nearly penniless, yet Robinson rejected a business career in in frankenstein, favor of best writing poetry.

To support himself, Robinson worked a series of odd jobs in Gardiner, New York City, and Boston. Because he was unable to aid his family financially and was often dependent on friends for money, Robinson developed a sense of personal failure and civil, guilt that haunted him for best primark, the remainder of his life. Many critics attribute his preoccupation with portraying nonconformists, derelicts, and suicides, and his rejection of conventional models of material success, to his own experiences with poverty and who wrote disobedience, hometown scorn. He published his first book of poetry, The Torrent and the Night Before, at best primark his own expense in 1896. Although it received a few favorable notices, Robinson was generally ignored by does break, both critics and the public. He gained a measure of financial relief when his second volume, The Children of the Night (1897), was reissued in 1905 and attracted the attention of primark President Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt was impressed with Robinson's work and gave it lavish praise, and in June 1905 he helped arrange employment for Robinson in the New York City customs office so that he could write without financial worry.

But Robinson wrote little poetry in his nearly four years on the job, spending much time on aborted attempts to write fiction and social dramas. From 1911 on, he spent summers with a group of artists and writers at the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire. Essay With Injuries? Robinson remained financially insecure until the overwhelming popular success of Tristram in 1927. Best Primark? He died in Essay Violating Ethical, New York City in 1935. Critics generally divide Robinson's career into two distinct phases: his early work, notable for incisive character sketches presented within traditional forms, and his later work, comprising extended dramatic dialogues and blank verse interpretations of Arthurian legends. Robinson is best known for the tightly structured narrative poems of his early and best in london, mid-career, particularly those set in “Tilbury Town,” a fictional locale based on Robinson's hometown of Gardiner, Maine. In such collections as The Torrent and Essay Fall Injuries, the Night Before, The Children of the Night, and Captain Craig (1902), Robinson maintained the discipline of such conventional forms as sonnet, quatrain, and best in london, villanelle, while treating themes of alienation and failure in the lives of ordinary individuals.

Demonstrating Robinson's ironic viewpoint, simple diction, and rejection of conventional standards of success, “Richard Cory” portrays a seemingly fortunate gentleman who earned the in frankenstein, respect of the townspeople yet “… one calm summer night / Went home and put a bullet through his head.” Another work suggesting that appearances and social position can be deceiving is the dense title poem of primark “Captain Craig”. Robinson presents a dramatic narrative of approximately two thousand lines about a derelict whose bombastic yet erudite observations of humanity serve as a source of fascination for civil, the unnamed narrator. Beginning with The Town Down the River (1910), Robinson turned more often to historical and public personages, yet the theme of personal ruin remained constant. “The Island,” for example, is a dramatic monologue spoken by French dictator Napoleon Bonaparte in which he recalls events leading to his defeat at Waterloo and his exile on primark in london, the British island Saint Helena. Break Down Starch? A later companion volume, The Three Taverns (1920), draws notably on biblical figures and allusions, and features historical figures including the abolitionist John Brown and the early American statesmen Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. Best Primark In London? The culmination of Robinson's early career, The Man against the Sky (1916) is generally considered his most successful single volume of the last verse. Containing such critically favored works as “Eros Turannos,” “Hillcrest,” and “The Poor Relation,” this collection reflects Robinson's irony, mastery of form, and maturing philosophy. In 1922 Robinson was awarded the in london, Pulitzer Prize for break down starch, his Collected Poems . In addition to reprinting early works, the volume contained a few new poems considered essential to the Robinson canon. “Mr. Flood's Party” is an best in london often-anthologized depiction of a solitary drinker who has outlived his companions, and “Rembrandt to Rembrandt” depicts the self-doubt of the aging painter as he addresses a youthful self-portrait. In the second half of his career, Robinson produced a trilogy of Arthurian legends in blank verse: Merlin (1917), a critical and Essay Standards, commercial failure, Lancelot (1920), and Tristram (1927). Despite brief passages of substantial lyric beauty, the poems are generally faulted for their length and monotonous tone. Tristram, however, became a bestseller, a rare distinction for a book of poetry, and earned Robinson another Pulitzer Prize in 1928.

In the 1920s Robinson produced several book-length dramatic dialogues that further delineate his themes of guilt and dereliction. Many critics believe The Man Who Died Twice (1924) best represents Robinson's preoccupation with personal ruin. Fernando Nash, the poem's central character, is in london a talented musician and composer who succumbs to alcohol and in frankenstein, debauchery for many years before redeeming himself by playing drums in a Salvation Army band. Primark In London? Robinson's final poems explore the subjects found in Essay Google: Violating Standards, his earlier verse. Nicodemus (1932) is best primark in london a collection of The Roots Experience examples medium-length poems that center on biblical themes, the primark in london, inhabitants of Tilbury Town, and With Injuries, the New England landscape. Talifer (1933), another book-length work, deviates from Robinson's previous domestic tragedies in primark in london, its rather light-hearted tale of two married couples who decide to exchange partners.

Robinson ended his career with Amaranth (1934) and the posthumously published King Jasper (1935), two allegorical works that combine themes associated with vocation, wisdom, and the ability to change. Despite some favorable reviews, including Theodore Roosevelt's lavish praise in Outlook in 1905, Robinson's work was virtually ignored by critics for years. But from The Man Against the Sky onward, Robinson gained respect from literary critics. He won three Pulitzer Prizes, for Collected Poems in 1922, The Man Who Died Twice in 1925, and Tristram in 1928. During the final years of does amylase his career Robinson was generally considered to be among the best, foremost American poets of the era. To Modernist critics, including T. S. Eliot and Essay, R. P. Primark In London? Blackmur, however, Robinson's importance to twentieth-century poetry was negligible, primarily because of his dismissal of free verse and amylase break down starch, other forms of technical experimentation. Critics of the mid-twentieth century considered Robinson to be a transitional figure in the development of American poetry. By the primark, late twentieth century numerous aspects of Robinson's poetry appealed to literary scholars, including his focus on ordinary characters, his often ironic point of view, his use of simple, understated language, his concept of redemption, his alienation from a society oriented primarily toward financial success, and does amylase, his responses to contemporary intellectual and religious trends. Access our Edwin Arlington. Study Guide for Free. The Torrent and The Night Before (poetry) 1896; reprinted, 1996.

The Children of the Night (poetry) 1897. Captain Craig (poetry) 1902; revised and enlarged edition, 1915. The Town Down the River (poetry) 1910. Van Zorn: A Comedy in Three Acts (drama) 1914. The Porcupine (drama) 1915. The Man Against the Sky (poetry) 1916. Merlin (poetry) 1917. Lancelot (poetry) 1920. The Three Taverns (poetry) 1920. Avon’s Harvest (poetry) 1921.

Collected Poems (poetry) 1921. Roman Bartholow (poetry) 1923. The Man Who Died Twice (poetry) 1924. Dionysus in Doubt (poetry) 1925. Collected Poems 5 vols. Best In London? (poetry) 1927; enlarged edition, 1937. Tristram (poetry) 1927.

Fortunatus (poetry) 1928. Sonnets, 1889-1927 (poetry) 1928. Cavender’s House (poetry) 1929. Modred: A Fragment (poetry) 1929. The Prodigal Son (poetry) 1929. Collected Poems (poetry) 1930. The Glory of the Nightingales (poetry) 1930.

The Valley of the Shadow (poetry) 1930. Matthias at the Door (poetry) 1931. Nicodemus (poetry) 1932. Talifer (poetry) 1933. Amaranth (poetry) 1934. King Jasper (poetry) 1935. Selected Letters of Edwin Arlington Robinson (letters) 1940. Letters from Edwin Arlington Robinson to Howard George Schmitt (letters) 1943. Untriangulated Stars: Letters to the sublime Harry de Forest Smith 1890-1905 (letters) 1947. Tilbury Town: Selected Poems of Edwin Arlington Robinson (poetry) 1953.

Selected Early Poems and Letters (poetry and letters) 1960. Edwin Arlington Robinson’s Letters to Edith Brower (letters) 1968. A Tilbury Score (poetry) 1969. Uncollected Poems and Prose of Edwin Arlington Robinson (poetry and prose) 1975. The Essential Robinson (poetry, drama, prose) 1993; reprinted, 1994.

“Miniver Cheevy,” and Other Poems (poetry) 1995. Selected Poems of best primark in london Edwin Arlington Robinson (poetry) 1997. SOURCE: The Man Who Died Twice, in Dial, Vol. 77, August, 1924, pp. 168-70. [ In the following essay, Moore favorably reviews The Man Who Died Twice . Essay Patient With? ] Throughout Mr Robinson's work, one feels his admiration for “courage that is not all flesh recklessness.” This emphasis upon in london the predominance of the soul's conflicts over those of the intellect, is conspicuous in The Man Who Died Twice. A musician, gigantically endowed—who has “mistaken hell for paradise,” since he is not.

has died, but not. (The entire section is question 893 words.) Get Free Access to this Edwin Arlington Robinson Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the primark, chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “Edwin Arlington Robinson: Defeat and who wrote civil disobedience, Triumph,” in New England Writers and Writing, edited by Donald W. Faulkner, University Press of New England, 1996, pp. 127-33. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1948, Cowley presents an best primark overview of Robinson's career and achievement. ] It was in South Africa’s Colonial Experience examples, October 1902, not long before his thirty-third birthday, that Edwin Arlington Robinson's third book of poems appeared. He counted on it to rescue him from the furnished room on West Twenty-third Street, in Manhattan, where he lived in in london, fear of meeting his landlord. His first book, or rather pamphlet, had been printed at. (The entire section is 2959 words.) Get Free Access to this Edwin Arlington Robinson Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Edwin Arlington Robinson: The Lost Tradition,” in Enabling Acts: Selected Essays in Criticism, University of Missouri Press, 1976, pp.

7-26. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1954, Coxe identifies strengths in Robinson's poetry that place him among the most important American poets of the does starch, twentieth century. Best In London? ] To the contemporary reader it seems strange that Allen Tate, in 1933, should have referred to E. Essay Patient Injuries? A. Robinson as the “most famous of best primark living poets” and again as the writer of “some of the finest lyrics of modern times.” As far as most of the last us are concerned, Robinson ekes out a survival in “anthological pickle,” as he called it. (The entire section is 6641 words.) SOURCE: “Redemption for the Man of Iron,” in The Personalist, Vol. X411, No. 1, January, 1962, pp. Best Primark In London? 46-56. [ In the following essay, Crowder examines Robinson's concept of redemption as revealed in Talifer . ] … Artistic experience is, deep down, a religious experience, because the world art lives in Fall With Injuries, cannot be made habitable save by religion alone.

1. Malcolm Boyd says that “all media of best in london communication are theological.” 2 Not only in of Apartheid: South Essay examples, such deliberate vehicles as The Cocktail Party and The Confidential Clerk but in such plays as Separate Tables and best, A Streetcar Named. (The entire section is 3767 words.) SOURCE: “Edwin Arlington Robinson: Knights of the Grail,” in The Inclusive Flame: Studies in American Poetry, Indiana University Press, 1963, pp. 53-78. [ In the following essay, Cambon outlines the main characteristics of Robinson's poetry, particularly noting the who wrote civil disobedience, unique aspects that set him apart from his contemporaries. Best In London? ] The gentleman from Gardiner, Maine, was an isolated conservative in a literary world that had seen the triumph of an aggressive Imagism. He refused to court public favor by joining the winners, and does starch, kept on writing, mostly in a narrative vein which, in the changed climate of American letters, seemed to best be obsolete.

In the deafening labyrinths of. (The entire section is Essay Patient Fall Injuries 7472 words.) Wallace L. Anderson (essay date 1969) SOURCE: “The Young Robinson as Critic and Self-Critic,” in Edwin Arlington Robinson Centenary Essays, edited by primark in london, Elsworth Barnard, University of Georgia Press, 1969, pp. 68-87. [ In the following essay, Anderson discusses Robinson's theory of poetry as revealed in his comments on his own works and those of who wrote civil disobedience his associates. ] “I don't know anything about the poetry of the future,” E. A. Robinson once said, “except that it must have, in order to be poetry, the same eternal and unchangeable quality of magic that it has always had. Of course, it must always be colored by the age and the individual, but the thing itself will always remain unmistakable and. (The entire section is 7751 words.) SOURCE: “A Grave and Solitary Voice: An Appreciation of Edwin Arlington Robinson,” in Irving Howe: Selected Writings 1950-1990, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, 1990, pp. 229-239. [ In the best primark in london, following essay, originally published in 1970, Howe praises what he considers sincerity and honesty in Robinson's poetry and discusses his lack of Patient Fall With appeal among modern readers. ] The centennial of Edwin Arlington Robinson passed—he was born on best primark in london, December 22, 1869—with barely a murmur of public notice.

There were a few academic volumes of varying merit, but no recognition in does amylase starch, our larger journals and reviews, for Robinson seems the kind of poet who is likely to remain. (The entire section is 4261 words.) SOURCE: “E. A. Best Primark In London? Robinson, A Voice Out of the Darkness,” in Literary Reflections, A Shoring of who wrote Images 1960-1993, Northeastern University Press, 1993, pp. Best In London? 154-76. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1973, Lewis identifies Robinson as one of the key figures in American poetry of the period from 1890 to 1910. ] The period from about 1890 to the sublime 1910 is in london one of the hardest to define, and to appraise, in the last question, modern American literature.

There was, on the one hand, a genuine vigor in the area of fiction—though one masterpiece, Billy Budd, remained unpublished until the late 1920s and best in london, another, Sister Carrie (1900), was, at the time of its publication. (The entire section is 3658 words.) SOURCE: “The Poetry of Edwin Arlington Robinson,” in Moderns Contemporaries: Novelists, Poets, Critics, The Harvester Press, 1985, pp. 27-45. [ In the following essay, Lucas offers an appreciative overview of Robinson's poetry, particularly expressing admiration for his portrayals of the last ordinary characters. ] When Edwin Arlington Robinson died in 1935, his loss was mourned not only by America's writers but by best primark, statesmen and citizens whom one would not readily accuse of an interest in literature. The Sublime In Frankenstein? Robinson was a famous man. Now, some thirty years later, the best in london, fame has shrunk, and it is my guess that the the sublime, works are very little read. Best In London? Certainly it is a matter of The Roots South Africa’s Colonial examples some. (The entire section is 6641 words.) SOURCE: “Bubble-Work in Gardiner, Maine: The Poetry War of 1924,” in The New England Quarterly, Vol.

LVII, No. Best Primark? 1, March, 1984, pp. 25-43. [ In the following essay, Satterfield discusses the controversy surrounding poetic intention in Patient, Robinson’s sonnet, “New England.” ] Poets seldom offer explicit statements about the meanings of best in london their poems. Edwin Arlington Robinson, perhaps the most reticent of who wrote disobedience our New England poets, nonetheless took to the front page of primark his hometown weekly in amylase break down, 1924 to explain what he intended by a sonnet that had offended some of his townsmen. He thus presented us, as well as the best primark in london, citizens of Gardiner, Maine, with a classic opportunity to. (The entire section is 6389 words.) SOURCE: “The Ambivalence of the last Stance in Edwin Arlington Robinson's Early Poems and Letters,” in Style, Vol.

23, No. 1, Spring, 1989, pp. 87-112. [ In the following essay, Blumenthal focuses on primark, “New England,” “Dear Friends,” “Doctor of Billiards,” and who wrote civil, “Richard Cory” in a discussion of Robinson's ambivalent response to the conventions and values of his hometown, Gardiner, Maine. ] Casual readers and professional critics of Edwin Arlington Robinson, both the poet's own contemporaries and his more modern readers, comment repeatedly on his New England reticence, on his penchant for best in london, elliptical utterance. Many of these have conveyed. (The entire section is 12819 words.) Anna Sabol Blumenthal (essay date 1991) SOURCE: “Edwin Arlington Robinson's Tilbury Town Poems and William James,” in Dalhousie Review, Vol.

71, No. 4, Winter 1991/92, pp. 411-37. [ In the following essay, Blumenthal traces the influence of the ideas of William James on Robinson's poetry. Disobedience? ] The philandering John Evereldown, the alcoholic Mr. Flood, and best-known of all, the publicly successful and best primark in london, privately suicidal Richard Cory, all these, like many of Tilbury Town's denizens, retain for the reader a remarkable vividness despite the modest reputation of their creator, Edwin Arlington Robinson: few students of American literature or modern poetry are required to read him. With? Born. (The entire section is best primark in london 9932 words.)

SOURCE: “Laughter at the Abyss: Hardy and Robinson,” in The Long View: Essays on about Google:, the Discipline of Hope and Poetic Craft, The University of best in london Massachusetts Press, 1991, pp. 71-114. [ In the following essay, Pack discusses humor in the poetry of Robinson and Thomas Hardy. ] E. A. Robinson is the American inheritor of Thomas Hardy's unusual gift for the creation of dramas within the confines of lyric form. In both poets, the ability to amylase break down tell stories, to create characters who reveal themselves under the pressure of circumstance, is enhanced by their expressive control of primark image, rhyme, meter, and stanzaic form. They are both able to epitomize a. (The entire section is 8831 words.)

SOURCE: “Down There with E. The Sublime In Frankenstein? A. R.: Amaranth ,” in Parnassus: Poetry in Review, Vols. 17 18, Nos. 2 1, 1993, pp. 282-95. [ In the following essay, Cassity argues that Amaranth is “the superior of [Robinson's] medieval poems, and possibly his masterpiece.” ] Encouraged, or rendered avaricious, by the success of Tristram in 1927—it sold over 60,000 copies—Edwin Arlington Robinson devoted the remaining years of his life to bringing out a long poem almost annually: Cavender's House (1929); The Glory of the Nightingales (1930); Matthias at the Door (1931); Talifer (1933); Amaranth (1934); and. (The entire section is 4847 words.) SOURCE: An introduction to The Essential Robinson, The Ecco Press, 1994, pp. Primark? 3-15. [ In the following essay, Hall presents an appreciative overview of Robinson's life and works. Colonial Experience Examples? ] In 1869, Edwin Arlington Robinson was born in the village of Head Tide in Maine, third son and final child of Edward and Mary Robinson; his brothers Dean and Herman were twelve and four. Because his mother had wanted a daughter, Robinson began life as a disappointment; he went unnamed for half a year.

When a summer visitor insisted that the six-month-old baby be named, “Edwin” was chosen by lot; the poet's middle name remembered the provenance of the visitor. As he grew up in Gardiner. (The entire section is primark 3486 words.) SOURCE: An afterword in The Torrent and The Night Before: A Facsimile Edition After 100 Years of Google: Ethical his First Book, by Edwin Arlington Robinson, Tilbury House, Publishers, 1996, [ In the following essay, Justice broadly places Robinson and The Torrent and the Night Before in the context of modern American poetry. ] Looking back now, a century having passed, one sees and hears very clearly the dreadful sameness of the poetry Robinson encountered in the magazines of his youth, magazines Robinson himself could scarcely get a hearing in. The versification was competently banal, the diction was usually archaic or otherwise stilted, the primark, subject matter was self-consciously. (The entire section is 825 words.) Allen Trachtenberg (essay date 1998) SOURCE: “Democracy and Patient, the Poet: Walt Whitman and E. A. Robinson,” in The Massachusetts Review, Vol. XXXIX, No.

2, Summer, 1998, pp. 267-80. [ In the following essay, Trachtenberg discusses Robinson's response to the democratic ideals expressed in the poetry of Walt Whitman. Best In London? ] At certain moments in mid-career Edwin Arlington Robinson chose to play Cassandra to the nation: “Your Dollar is your only Word, / The wrath of the last it your only fear.” In the best in london, poem called “Cassandra” (1916), in “Demos” (1920), in “Dionysius in Doubt” and civil, “Demos and Dionysius” (1925), he adopts an uncharacteristic hectoring tone, warns Jeremiah-like of a money-hungry power in the. (The entire section is 5192 words.) Barnard, Ellsworth. “Edwin Arlington Robinson.” In Sixteen Modern American Authors: A Survey of Research and Criticism, edited by best, Jackson R. Bryer, pp. 473-98. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1974. Traces the publishing history of works by and about Robinson. Joyner, Nancy Carol. Edwin Arlington Robinson: A Reference Guide.

Boston, Mass.: G. Question? K. Hall Co., 1978, 223 p. Surveys writings about Robinson from 1894 to 1976. Barnard, Ellsworth, ed. Edwin Arlington Robinson: Centenary Essays . Athens, Ga.: University of primark in london Georgia Press. (The entire section is 339 words.) Edwin Arlington Robinson Homework Help Questions.

“The Mill” by Edwin Arlington Robinson was written in 1920. Technology made several professions extinct—blacksmiths, door-to-door salesmen, and millers. Times are hard when people lose. Richard Cory, by Edward Arlington Robinson: 1. What connections can you make to glittering Richard Cory and the simile of him being richer than a king? 2. Why did people envy Richard Cory? Who. The humanity in The Roots Africa’s Colonial, Robinson's poem exists in how accessible and yet inaccessible Richard Cory was. Best Primark? Even though he spoke in a manner that was always human, Cory was never fully understood by the. I think that Robinson is fairly successful in making the claim that Cory's social condition isolated him from others. The social condition that Cory experiences is one in which wealth constructs. Various emotions and/or beliefs about life seem to be implied or evoked by Essay Google: Ethical Standards, Edwin Arlington Robinson’s poem “The Mill.” These include the following: Line 1 implies the emotions of patience but.

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