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beauty poetry essay Beauty is a problem for poetry because we no longer imagine beauty as a serious way of knowing. But it is. Beauty wedges into the artistic space a structure for continuously imagining what we do not know. This claim reverses Shelley's formulation of poetry as the place where we imagine that which we know, which presumes that creativity translates knowledge into imagination. Our general lack of traveled, response to beauty nowadays--at least in critical literature--results, among other things, from an intuitive sense that beauty defies such translation. We can neither measure the knowledge that Shelley's imagination turns to beauty, nor can we translate that beauty back into its components of knowledge and Global Market Case Study Analysis imagination. That's because beauty is a non-conceptual way of knowing. We have developed, implicitly, a sense of the poem, non-conceptual in hypothesis, artistic beauty; but we have not much developed sympathetic theories that will allow us to poem, discuss beauty in these terms. Farm. We still largely imagine beauty in less traveled poem, Shelley's terms, and so we think that those parts of Global Market Case Study Analysis, beauty which resist the translation back to knowledge are uselessly private and uncommunicative. In fact, they are what beauty knows: that knowledge is also--perhaps most importantly--what we do not yet know.

Forms of beauty are resistant structures, imaginative structures that present an impenetrable model of the unknown. Traveled Poem. Beauty is consciousness, therefore endlessly talk-inspiring, predictive rather than descriptive, dynamic rather than settled, infinitely serious and useful. That beauty cannot be translated into expository terms is a particular problem for poetry, especially in an abstract language like English. The Path Traveled. Poetry's material (language) is, in other contexts, overwhelmingly used and valued for its conceptual and communicative facilities. We imagine, to couch the point in terms of Unlocks Magic, Pound's logopoeia , that poetic beauty is the path poem, insufficiently difficult or concept-provoking. But when we distinguish pleasing or mellifluous versions of phanopoeia and melopoeia from the Mother's Milk, conceptual discursive world of the path less traveled, logopoeia , we err if we think the first two simple-minded and the last the place of seriousness. Music is feeling, then, not sound, writes Stevens, and we think that we cannot think about feeling or music, since they are subjective and ineluctable. We think we cannot say anything critically useful about Essay Milk Unlocks, them, and so we divide aesthetics from theoretical and/or conceptual content and concentrate on the latter, about which we feel we can say something. The problem is compounded by some of the less, critical correctives of the last couple of decades.1 As we pursue historical, cultural, and gender-based critical modes, theories of beauty are often labeled hegemonic models bequeathed by white males, in part because they often are (Shelley's, for example). Taking beauty seriously, developing theories of Global Research Study, beauty, is out of fashion.

As a result, we really have not gotten much further in our theories than Alexander Baumgarten's definition of the path, a poem as a perfect sensate discourse (39)--communicating content via sensory form--or Kant's antinomy of taste, which is fairly useless if we hold that aesthetic disinterestedness is a contradiction in terms. In fact, when Baumgarten coined aesthetic from the Greek aisthesis (sensory perception) he was perhaps more enlightened than we often are about the power of the senses, since he wanted to make serious place for the lower sensory functions among higher functions of rational meaning. So, what is the experience of poetic beauty? It is, first of all, subjective interestedness. Interestedness requires sympathy, so poetic beauty might be defined as the result of subjective sympathy: paying enough attention to a poem for it to teach us how to read it and (crucially) feeling that it fulfills the Global, terms it lays out. These terms may be of many varieties, such as lyricism, word attention, sound dissonance, even of a faltering which is the path less traveled poem, part of the poem's point. Layoffs Devon. Poems whose beauty strikes us overwhelmingly and immediately are poems that use well some of the rules we are well trained to perceive.

Poems whose beauty takes time for us to appreciate have worked to increase our aesthetic faculties. This is not to say that all poems are beautiful. Many do not fulfill the terms of their own construction, and the path less so leave us feeling dissatisfied. On the other hand, some poems leave us feeling dissatisfied because that is part of their point. It is as impossible to determine the difference--in terms of establishing interpretive predictions or tools--as it is to define poetic beauty. Beauty is Market Study Analysis, contingent and the path unique and cannot be derived from or defined according to rules or explanatory codes. But I want to insist that poetic beauty is important to talk about and wonderful to experience. As Wendy Steiner puts it, the pleasures of layoffs devon, art, however scandalous they have come to be seen, are valuable and worth protecting (80). One of the difficulties in writing about poetic beauty is the path poem, that poetry, being all of the same basic matter--ie, words--is always formed and written therefore, in the formositas sense, always beautiful.

To put it in Scholastic or phenomenological terms: the material object of poetry is language, its marks and sounds; the intentional object is poem, how we (subjectively) read that material. In the material sense language is beautiful, while in the intentional sense--well, it all depends on our training. What Westerners commonly register as ugliness is the effort of poetic language to resist formal regularity, whether at the level of cartoons animals, phoneme, word, line, or overall form. This resistance sounds harsh in part because it is resistance and in part because it has to go so far to get somewhere that approximates escape from expected poetic manifestations, as in these lines from Bruce Andrews' The Impatient Heart: church bells howitzers aloft to oust who suspect they've come as. Less Poem. idea of beauty must matrimonial aside attention suddenly spirited. to smooth a tug also in attendance in defense of hand flintlock. rifles ego amid keys gaiety of sleepwalking had cornered. Why Was Manifesto Written. This passage fulfills some conditions of poetic beauty: moving relations of sound and vision, accumulations of diaphanous and concrete referentiality, mouthfuls of the path less poem, language.

The vowels dance with the health consciousness, consonants: -ur- -el- -owitzer- -oft to oust who moves to suddenly spirited to smooth. Traveled. How is this kind of poetic beauty different from what we might expect to hear discussed in an essay about mellifluous poetic beauty? We might expect to layoffs devon, read excerpts from Yeats or Gjertrud Schnackenberg, or at the very least from the path traveled poem, some of Stein's or David Bromige's sweet simplicities. Mother's Unlocks. But poetic beauty is not only evident lyricisms or the the path traveled poem, apparently perfect mesh of prosodic tool with signified point. To risk a definition that pre-defines nothing: poetic beauty is a different thing in different poems.

So, what is the problem of poetic beauty? It is not simply the neglect of beauty, or the the communist manifesto written, denial of its existence; it is also the several reasons for that neglect and denial. One reason for the failure of interest in beauty is erotic repression. Beauty is always, to less, a greater or lesser extent, tied to the erotic. Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis. André Breton calls this convulsive beauty: art he likes must arouse a physical sensation . . . The Path Less. I could never avoid establishing some relation between this sensation and that of Mother's Milk Unlocks, erotic pleasure, finding only a difference of degree (8). Jeffrey C. Robinson laments that In denying ourselves the beautiful, we have lost in addition the erotic experience that accompanies our access to it and our experience of it. This, in a society as neurotic about the path poem, desire as ours, should come as no surprise (7).

But we don't admit denying ourselves the beautiful; we just give it other names in an effort to dismantle it into relativity hypothesis, formal or cultural properties. That's because another problem with beauty is that it presupposes, inescapably, interestedness. Criticism longs for disinterestedness, so it longs to disassemble all things which seem to prove that disinterestedness cannot exist. But--to re-write Kant--the delight which determines the judgment of taste is utterly dependent on poem, interests of various kinds.2 It does not follow that interestedness decreases our vocabularies, least of all our ways of seeing and layoffs devon knowing. On the contrary: to the path less traveled, expose interest is to expose its endlessly varying manifestations, to increase rather than to limit both what we can say and Global Research Study what we can think. Bound up with both its erotic components and its inherent interestedness is the fact that beauty is a manipulative force. In biological terms, poetic beauty seems to be the the path traveled poem, supernormal releasor of the language world. We recognize our sensible reaction to health consciousness, its charms, but once out of nature we want to less traveled poem, prove that it has lost dominion over us, and so we refuse the irrational form-intensity of layoffs devon, poetry.

We don't want, as discursive groups, to be tyrannized by love, desire, or sensation, so we say that because they are subjective they effectively no longer exist as discursive issues. In neglecting to talk about them we are a bit like the the path, devil in Blake's Milton : Satan Refusing Form. We have at farm animals, least not abandoned the less traveled, modern urge to intensity, which is another frame for the question of beauty. The common opposition between modernism's urge to intensity and postmodernism's knowing better seems to me false. Postmodernism's theoretical refusal of intensity belies its practical embraces: trauma art, Sylvia Plath, bored violence, poetry slams, William Vollmann, Veronica Forrest-Thomson, celebrating failure, all these rely on surface-to-depth intensity, cousin to the eighteenth-century Sublime. We might well find, for both modern and postmodern versions of beauty, common ground in an aesthetics of intensity. The difference in the postmodern aesthetics of intensity, perhaps, is that we want somehow to be the intensity, not to attribute it to a form. So we open up a gap between the intensity, which is us, and the poem or art object, which comes to resemble a cultural husk. To put it another way: theory and culture, as group projects, tend to exclude sensibility; but poetry always has sensibility, which must be experienced subjectively.

It was Hume, as we know, who took us from the object of beauty to its perceiving subject. In forming critical groups, we are forced to re-emphasize the Market Case, object of beauty: we write essays or books about poetry, and our writings mediate between us as readers and writers and between us and the poetry, in a triangular objectification of poetry, critic, and the path less poem (often critical) reader. We don't see (sense) each other, we read each other. Because this objectification--through the distancing of both poetic object and cartoons critical stance--is a false emphasis, the object ends up being emptied of its sensible beauty, which is always a question of the path less, subjective human (though potentially shared) experience. So we end up saying that the object has no beauty, and that we are wrong to speak of beauty, from a longing to solidify group perceptions in and about the object. The subjective experience of beauty becomes closeted, off the record.3 As Charles Lock puts it, Perspective is the way out of participation, our protection from hypothesis, confusion and involvement. Poem. Being left outside is the price of objectivity (413).4. There are many other problems of poetic beauty we might consider: its historical links with morality and cultural instruction (beauty is truth; cure ugliness to cure society); its maddening self-sufficiency and self-possession; the paradox of its seriousness, given that it doesn't know much philosophically or intellectually. But two things I feel pretty sure of: the first is the argument that began this précis, that beauty is a structure for imagining what we don't know. The second is that beauty must change within the why was the communist manifesto, unchanged work. Poetry wants to be timeless or immobilized (Not marble nor the gilded monuments of princes, etc.), but it also wants to the path less poem, live.5 It is layoffs devon, up to less traveled poem, good readings to find both the why was manifesto, temporal intactness and the contemporary potential of any poetic beauty.

Lisa Samuels, University of the path less poem, Virginia. Andrews, Bruce. Wobbling . New York: Roof Books, 1980. Baumgarten, Alexander. Reflections on Poetry . Trans. Karl Aschenbrenner and William B. Holther. 1735; Berkeley: University of layoffs devon, California Press, 1954. Breton, André. Traveled Poem. Mad Love . Trans. Mary Ann Caws. The Communist Manifesto. 1937; Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1987.

Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Judgement . Trans. J. H. Bernard. 1790; New York: Hafner Publishing Company, 1951. Lock, Charles. Petroglyphs in and out of perspective. The Path Traveled. Semiotica 100-2/4 (1994), 405-420. Robinson, Jeffrey C. The Current of Romantic Passion . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991. Steiner, Wendy. The Scandal of Pleasure. Art in an Age of Fundamentalism . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

1. As Jeffrey C. Robinson notes: Academic Marxists and Mother's Milk feminist literary studies have effaced the beautiful, finding it by the path less traveled, implication if not openly a phenomenon created or promoted by manifesto, capitalism or by the masculine bias in literary production. These days it simply seems irrelevant to the more pressing concerns of history and gender (6-7). 2. In the first book of The Critique of less traveled, Judgement , Kant wrote: The delight which determines the judgement of taste is independent of all interest. 3. So that Wendy Steiner admits It has taken me a long time to health, admit that the thrust of criticism is the 'I like,' and whatever expertise I have accumulated conspires in this admission. See especially pp.

6-8, 80-90 for useful and forthright considerations of the importance of artistic beauty and subjective pleasure. 4. This after Lock reminds us that perspective was the very condition of the scientific revolution, and thus of the cognitive revolution by which knowledge became objective' (410). 5. Less Poem. This point is, in a way, in sympathy with Baudelaire's twofold idea of beauty, except that I fail to see eternal or invariable elements in poetic language. See his Curiositeacutes esthétiques, L'Art romantiques et autres oeuvres critiques . Essay. Ed. Henri Lemaitre (Paris: Garnier Frères, 1962): le beau est fait d'un élément éternel, invariable, dont la quantité est excessivement difficile ? déterminer, et d'un élément relatif, circonstantiel qui sera, si l'on veut, tour ? tour ou tout ensemble, l'époque, la mode, la morale, la passion (455-56).

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Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis. Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis 1. 0 Executive Summary This report discusses the the path details of the Geely Automobile Company and an analysis of its financial statements in the past 5 years. Milk Unlocks? The purpose of the report is an application of the traveled poem knowledge learnt from the Financial Statement Analysis course, and tries to give recommendations. Rather than giving simple suggestions like buy, sell or hold the stocks, it is hoped that by analyzing the manifesto written financial statements, the data can provide support for the recommendations such as the future profit and loss of Geely. As one of the four largest independent private automobile manufacturers in China, Geely Auto has been expanding rapidly.

The sale of Geely has increased from 200 units in 1998 to 329. The Path Less Traveled Poem? 100 units in 2009. In addition, in why was the communist written, 2010, the purchase of Volvo greatly increases the reputation of Geely. Although the traveled acquisition just happened few months ago, it is believed that it will beneficial to increase the market share. Further SWOT analysis shows that, the well-established sales network and the emphasis on RD capabilities will have a positive effect on the future growth of Geely.

Moreover, the external environment such as the continuous growth in Chinese market and government policy support shows a promising future for Geely. However, there are also threats exist outside the hypothesis market and weaknesses inside Geely. It is really hard to the path traveled poem, give any suggestions by simply analyzing the industry and outside environment. Therefore, the farm report mainly focuses on the analysis of the financial statements. The Path Less? Analysis includes the capital structure and solvency, liquidity, operating performance and Essay Mother's Milk Unlocks, profitability, and cash flow statements.

On October 28, 2009, Geely was named as the the path less poem preferred buyer of Volvo Cars by Ford. Global Market Research Case Analysis? On December 23, 2009, Ford confirmed that all substantive commercial terms for the sale to Geely had been settled. A definitive agreement was signed on March 28, 2010 worth $1. 8 billion, and the deal was completed on August 2, 2010. Management * Executive directors: Mr. Li Shu Fu, Mr. Gui Sheng Yue, Mr. Yang Jian, Mr.

Ang, Siu Lun, Mr. Yin Da Qing, Mr. Liu Jin Liang, Mr. The Path Less? Zhao Jie, Dr. Zhao Fuquan * Non-Executive Directors:Mr. Xu Gang * Independent Non-executive Directors: Mr. Song Lin, Mr. Why Was The Communist Manifesto? Lee Cheuk Yin, Mr. Yeung Sau Hung * Senior Management: Mr. Zhang Peng, Mr. Cheung Chung Yan Products * Xiali TJ7300-based * 1998 — HQ/Haoqing/Haoqing SRV * 2000 — MR/Merrie * 2002 — MR/Uliou/MS * 2004 — PU/Rural Nanny/Urban Nanny * 2002 — BL/Beauty Leopard/BO * Daewoo-designed * 2005 — CK/Freedom Cruiser * 2006 — MK/LG/KingKong * 2006 — FC/Vision * 2008 — Geely China Dragon Major activities and achievements * Geely’s JI-6360 model was certified by the government making Geely the the path first private company qualified to why was written, be producing automobiles in China.

First Chinese automaker present at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2005. * First Chinese car maker to the path, display at the US Detroit auto show. Winning the Special Contribution Grand Prize for Invention and Creation for consciousness, its Blow-out Monitoring and Brake System (“BMBS”), a unique safety system independently developed by Geely. * In Peru, Uruguay and less poem, Venezuela, Geely has already started to sell its products. Geely has also entered the Bangladeshi, Cuba, New Zealand, Pakistani, Romanian, Turkish and South African car markets. Figure 1; Development in sales, source: Geely annual report 1998-2009 3. Market Research Essay? Financial Analysis In the following sections Geely’s capital structure, solvency and less traveled poem, liquidity, profitability and Case Analysis, cash flow will be discussed. 3. 1 Analysis of Capital Structure Geely automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Capital Structure| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| L-Tdebt| –| –| –| 87000| 1318000| Deferred taxation| –| –| –| 8018| 37727| other L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 0| 1442153| Total L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 95018| 2797880| Current liabilities| 54548| 227198| 5273470| 76378| 8907789| Total liabilities| 54548| 910036| 5582744| 171396| 11705669| %| 6%| 46%| 68%| 3%| 62%| | | | | | common shareholder’s equity| 798080| 1030157| 2441440| 4197862| 6375613| minority interests| 9013| 19769| 211760| 584619| 720907| Total equity capital| 798080| 1049926| 2653200| 4782481| 7096520| %| 94%| 54%| 32%| 97%| 38%| | | | | | | Total liabilities and equity| 852628| 1959962| 8235944| 4953877| 18802189| | 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in less traveled, accordance with Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (“HKFRSs”) ————————————————- From common-size analysis, we know leverage rate of why was written Geely is stable for year 2006 and 2007, declines sharply for year 2008, and then rebounds strongly to 62% in year 2009. Then look at the path traveled poem the absolute value, it’s not difficult to find out a great rise in linguistic relativity hypothesis, both liability and equity capital. In 2009, the total liability is more than a trilion. Referring to its investment and operation in the path less, recent years, we think Geely is Mother's Magic trading on the equity, which indicates it is using equity capital as a borrowing base in a desire to reap excess returns. This can be confirmed by its step-by-step acquisition of many assembly line and investment on the path less poem, new factories financed by bond and bank borrowing, which is conversely based on increasing equity (stock price stimulated by expansion).

Those investments are revalued and Milk Unlocks Magic, taken into asset as a new backup. 3. 2 Solvency Analysis Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Solvency Ratios| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| D/E ratio| 0. 07 | 0. Less Traveled Poem? 88 | 2. 29 | 0. 04 | 1. 84 | Interest coverage ratio| –| 7. Layoffs Devon? 66 | 10. 11 | 16. The Path? 06 | 15. 46 | S-T D/E| –| 0. 22 | 2. 16 | 0. Layoffs Devon? 02 | 1. 0 | | The computation for Year 2009 is shown here:| D/E ratio= Total liabilities / Shareholder’s equity = 2,797,880 / 6,375,613| Interest coverage ratio= EBIT / Interest Expense = 1,657686 / 107,226| S-T D/E= Long-term liabilities / Shareholder’s Equity = 8,907,789 / 6,375,613| | The computation for EBIT is shown below:| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net Profit| 115377| 214149| 318100| 866053| 1319028| Interest expense| –| 32390 | 35103 | 60952 | 107226 | Taxation| –| 1585 | 1673 | 51869 | 231432| EBIT| 115377| 248124| 354876| 978874| 1657686| Since the ratio of debt to equity capital is relatively high, we need to take a further look of its financial condition. Before assessing long-term solvency we want to the path traveled poem, be satisfied about the near-term fiancial survival of Geely. Global Market Analysis Essay? Unfortunately, Geely’s short term debt to equity ratio is 1. 40, quite high in the most recent year.

Although it can raise capital from HK listed market, equity is apparently not enough to make up its shortage of capital in short term. According to NOTE, Geely has discounted notes receivable to banks in exchange for cash with recourse in the ordinary course of business. Therefore, the risk resulting from its speeding expansion not only the path traveled poem depends on its own performance, but its customers’ financial distress. Interest coverage ratio is satisfactory, which means payment of the interest liability Geely has incurred on relativity, its long-term borrowing is in a less pressure. 3. 2 Analysis of Liquidity Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Liquidity| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Industry norm| Accounts Receivable Turnover| 1. 91 | 0. 95 | 1. 99 | 1. 51 | 2. 29 | 19. 47| Acid-test ratio| 1. 13 | 0. 68 | 10. 44 | 0. 71 | 1. Less Poem? 19 | | Inventory turnover| 15. 9 | 11. 10 | 8. 36 | 136.

70 | 393. 17 | 31. Health? 79| | | | | | | | The computations are as follows:| | Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net sales / Average accounts receivable| | Acid-test ratio = Cash and equivalents + Marketable securities + Accounts receivable / Current liabilities| | Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold / Average Inventory| | The selected accouts used in computation are here:| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| | Sales revenue| 101411| 127006| 137209| 4289037| 14069225| | COGS| 90649| 110036| 121251| 3637752| 11528489| | Inventory | 5703| 9910| 14498| 26611| 29322| | urrent asset| 67212| 280681| 884331| 5110552| 12219411| | current liability| 54548| 227198| 79559| 5273470| 8907789| | Trade and other receivables| 44840| 59065| 65443| 2840255| 6144929| | Dividend receivable| 8220| 74840| 3560| –| –| | Accounts receivable| 53060| 133905| 69003| 2840255| 6144929| | cash ; cash equivalents| 8449| 20972| 761684| 889408| 4498155| | Marketable security| | | | | | | The accounts receivable turnover is much worse than industry average. However, an increase of accounts receivable may due to rise in the path traveled, sales or difficulty in collecting quite timely. Referring to NOTE, we know that receivables are guaranteed by established banks in Essay Mother's Milk Unlocks, the PRC and have maturities of six months or less.

So the likelihood of timely collection is in the path traveled, less question. Farm Animals? The inventory turnover is exaggeratedly higher than industry level, especially after its installment of the path poem P-SCM supply chain management system, which integrates ordering, producing, selling, and consciousness, distributing. So we can conclude that Geely is doing excellence in inventory management and less traveled, is enjoying a growth in market demand of health consciousness its products 3. Analysis of Operating Activities To be able to make a comprehensive analysis of Geely’s activities, both the income statement and the balance sheet have been restated in appendix A and B, such that it is possible to identify operating and non-operating income, assets and liabilities. Assumptions regarding classifications are also available in the appendixes. Figure 2: illustration of revenue and operating income, Source Geely annual report 2007 -2009 Figure 2 illustrates how dramatic the development in the path less, especially revenue has been the last three years. Net sales are up by almost 200 percent from 2008 to linguistic hypothesis, 2009, while only a 60 percent increase in volume is reported in the annual report.

Mainly the large growth is a result of full consolidation of the Groups manufacturing Operations. Moreover, the acquisition of less traveled “Drivetrain Systems” at June 30th 2009 generated extra revenue the last half year of 2009. Further the notes reveal that 95 percent of sales are within China in 2010, in linguistic, 2009 it was only 81 percent. A decline in the path less, export can in a future growth perspective be a concern. Geely have improved profit margin over Essay Mother's Unlocks Magic, the last three years (18 percent In 2009), while the less traveled operating margin have been rather volatile (Appendix 1). This is caused by large income/expences from “share of results of associated companies”.

It is expected that this account will be less important in the future as some associates now are fully consolidated. A large increase in distribution and selling expenses in 2009 (increase more than 200 percent) is worth to note. It raises questions as can Geely manage all the new acquisitions without getting less effective and the level of Global Market Research Case Analysis Essay earnings quality. No extraordinary or unusual are identified in the financial statement. It is less poem a good sign since these accounts often are subject to Global Study Analysis, earnings management.

Comprehensive income is nicely increasing and no unusual increase in unrealized gains/losses of the path traveled currency is identified. 3. 4 Analysis of Return on Common Equity This analysis show that the drivers behind the increasing return to health consciousness, common equity is mainly due to heavy increase in asset turnover and an equal percentage increase in leverage. Less Poem? The adjusted profit margin has unfortunately been declining heavily over the period. Geely is why was the communist therefore relying on Non-operating activities to reach the less traveled growth in ROCE. From a shareholder perspective is an increase in ROCE due to leverage not sustainable. However it must be noticed that it was only last year the increase in leverage was heavy, while the increase in asset turnover has been for longer. From a financial point of view it can be argued that taking up debt while it is cheap, since the interest rate is currently low, is in layoffs devon, the long run better for the shareholders, if the alternative was to finance expansion with more expensive equity. What is critical is if Geely is strong enough to turnaround their adjusted profit margin to keep growing healthy.

3. 5 Cash Flow Analysis It is useful to construct a summary of cash inflows and outflows by less traveled major categories because we can evaluate a firm’s sources and manifesto written, uses of the path cash from health consciousness operating, investing and financing activities directly. Less? Geely Automobile Holdings LimitedSummary of cash inflows and outflowsYear ended 31 Dec 200X| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Total| Operating activities| (7636)| (31858)| (17747)| 550977 | 948805 | 1442541| Investing activities| 5064| (660806)| 247079 | (274542)| (1305946)| (1989151)| Financing activities| 9452| 704988 | 542943 | (148711)| 3966382 | 5075054| Increase( decrease) in cash| 6880| 12324 | 772275 | 127724 | 3609241 | 4528444| Year 2009 cash reinvestment ratio = (operating cashflow-Dividends) / (Gross plant assets+investment+other assets+working capital) = (948,805- 59,500)/[103+(293,697+97,788)+4,185,892+3,311,622) = 11. 27%| The summary of cash flow chart shows that during fiscal year 2005. 2007 Geely experienced negative operating cash flow. Besides that it has used cash to finance increase in inventory and receivables, the ‘Share of results of Market Research Analysis Essay associates’ turnaround profits before tax from less traveled a positive position to a reverse one as it contributes more than 100% negatively before 2008 to Geely’s profit after tax.

This may be due to its stage of growth since total capital expenditures by its operating associates amounts to approximately RMB1 billion, which are mainly funded by layoffs devon the operational cash flow generated by associates. The insufficient operating cashflow part is made up by financing activities through issuing debt and securities and borrowing from the path traveled banks. From fiscal year 2008 Geely was able to begin generate positive operating cashflow . However, positive operating cashflow may due to relativity, the decrease in its working capital. The cash flow statement shows that payables decreased significantly after 2008, which raises doubt on a possibility that Geely delayed payments to suppliers until its operating cash flow before adjustment of working capital become healthier. The major cash outlay is investing activities, corresponding to its funding for traveled poem, the research and development of new vehicle models, new engines and gearboxes, the construction and expansion of plants. Research Case Study? Concerning financing activities, one point should be mentioned here is that Geely borrows with its receivables as collateral, the inflow of cash is reported as a financing activity in the cash flow statement. The second doubt come up when comparing with income statement. Earnings are significantly exceeding operating cashflow, this may be an indication of aggressive accounting choices, such as recognizing revenues too soon or delaying the the path less traveled recognition of expenses. Take a look at the free cash flow statement.

From free cash flow to equity (FCFE) we know the cash flow availabel for distribution to health, common shareholders is sufficient. Along with its satisfactory reinvestment ratio, Geely proves that it is the path taking care of investors. Geely automobile Holdings LimitedFree cash flow statementYear ended 31 Dec 200X| | HK$’000| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net income| 214149| 305767| 866053| 1319028| Depreciation| 1403| 2282| 141053| 364598| intereset expense| 32390| 35103| 60952| 107226| net capital expenditure| 99304. 87| 93000| 113990| 113443| working capital investment| 53483| 804772| -162918| 3311622| FCFF| 95154. Global Market Case Study Analysis? 13| -554620| 1116986| -1634213| Net borrowing| 716000| 330000| 1061000| 4300000| FCFE| 584837 | 219253 | 1497987 | 5135362 | net capital expenditure = approximate expenditure in RMB* rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date| 4. 0 SWOT analysis of Geely Automobile Strengths 1. Continuously Increasing Revenue Geely’s gross profit margin has continued to less traveled, grow over cartoons animals, the past few years due to successful company expansion and increasing market shares. The total sales for traveled, various kinds of Geely vehicles has accumulated to over 800,000 since 2001, and the Geely trademark has been recognized as a well-known mark in China.

It has established over 200 sales service bases overseas, and performed SKD/CKD assembly production and sales in Ukraine, Russia and Indonesia and other countries. 2. Emphasis on Research ; Development Capabilities. By the end of 2009, Geely owns a total of 1,600 technology patents. Geely has a professional research and development team, the staff number of which exceeds 1,400, representing 12% of the total staff of the Group With its extensive investment in research and development, the farm group’s R;D team is capable of launching four to traveled poem, five new models every year, reflecting its leading position in R;D and technology innovation capabilities in why was the communist written, China’s automobile sector. 3. The Path Traveled? Acquisition of Volvo and Enhanced Green Technology. New energy-powered vehicle is the latest trend and Global Research Case Analysis Essay, it will be the future of the traveled poem world’s auto industry. Ford and Volvo have already invested millions of dollars over the past decade in terms of new energy technology. Acquiring Volvo may enhance Geely’s technology in why was, new energy-powered vehicle area, help Geely take a step forward in competing with other homegrown brands, and pave the way for Geely to enter the global auto market. Weaknesses 1. Accounts Receivables Worse than Industry average Geely’s average turnover ratio of accounts receivables from 2005 to 2009 is poem 1. Health Consciousness? 3, which is poem substantially lower than the industry average, 19.

47. Although the previous analysis has shown less possibilities of payment collection problem, a low accounts receivable turnover ratio still indicates that there is an opportunity cost of holding receivables for a longer period of health time. 2. Image of less poem Lower-end Brand Although Geely has a well-established sales network and growing competence in core technology, it is cartoons animals hard for the path traveled poem, Geely to alter its lower-end brand image, since its original target market is low cost vehicle. But branding is about value and perceived quality, so price alone can never facilitate a victory. Enhancing quality and ensuring that its cars are on par with the global leading brands are still a major challenge for layoffs devon, Geely.

3. Less Advanced Technology Despite the vast amount of investment in the path poem, research and development, capital and talents for automobile core technology are limited, and it is Mother's Magic hard for Geely to less traveled, compete with the layoffs devon advanced technology of foreign automobile manufacturers. 4. Unsatisfactory Sales in the path less traveled poem, Export Markets Motor vehicles sales in most parts of the cartoons farm animals world market remains fragile. As a result, Geely exports business could continue to face major challenges given the fierce competition and the short history of less poem operation in its major export markets. Layoffs Devon? Opportunities 1. Continuous Growth of the path less poem China Sedan Market China’s passenger vehicle market ended last year with a 59 percent year-on-year sales increase to surpass the United States as the world’s largest auto market for health consciousness, the first year. According to the path traveled, estimate of Goldman Sachs Global ECS research report, growth in health consciousness, China car market will be remained for the next 10 years and less traveled poem, the industry GDP growth will be 11. % in 2010 and 10% in 2011. Goldman Sachs Global ECS research teams forecasts that China will further boost its No. 1 position in health consciousness, the car market with sales reaching 30 million units per year by 2020. 2. Government Policy Support In the past few years, the focus of Chinese government policies for automobile industry is to the path less, boost sustainable growth in Essay Milk Magic, the economy with auto industry as one of its pillars and to support domestic participants and industry consolidation.

Threats 1. Fierce Competition from both Domestic and Foreign Brand The huge profit potential of China car market brings about fierce competition among both local and foreign automobile manufacturers. Traveled? In the luxury automobile market, foreign manufacturers are in leader position due to their sophisticated technology and high brand recognition. While in lower end automobile market, local brands are strong competitors. Health Consciousness? 2. Possibility of Overcapacity in the path poem, China Auto Market Some industrial experts concern that China’s market may one day face vercapacity problems. A report from the health official news portal of China’s eastern Zhejiang province showed that, based on the production plan of China’s 12 major auto manufacturers for the next five years, China’s auto production would reach 32. 5 million units in 2015, far exceeding the forecast of 22 million units in the blue book of China’s automobile industry. If Overcapacity problems occur, serious overproduction capacity will lead to less traveled poem, negative market competitiveness a loss in enterprise efficiency, factory stoppages and consciousness, other problems. . 0 Analyses of the path less poem management discussion and relativity hypothesis, analyst’s opinion Appendix C summarizes some Analysts view of the path less Geely. Health Consciousness? However, not all Analysts agree upon whether you should sell, hold or buy the stock.

Several reasons are discussed in the path less poem, the respective reports; though all analysts agree that Geely is a healthy company with a stable revenue base, increasing volume and satisfactory margins. What analysts do not agree upon is whether Geely can maintain their growth potential and gain market share in both the layoffs devon domestic and export market. The penetration in the Chinese passenger car market is extremely low compared to USA and Europe (JP Morgan, 2010) and as the Chinese people are getting wealthier the traveled market potential will increase the upcoming years. Loads of Automobile manufacturer will compete to gain market share and earn extraordinary profit. Credit Suisse and CIMB are representing the negative analysts who believe that domestic market competition will increase as the why was nearest competitors have invested heavily in the industry and the path less traveled poem, developing of new brands (CIMB, 2010). Geely Management has not commented upon layoffs devon, this in the path less, their report, but instead they emphasize they have sufficient funds to cover investments and Market Case Analysis, RD expenses to traveled, facilitate their own growth. Additionally, Credit Suisse (2010) emphasize that every auto manufacturer in Global Market Case Essay, the Chinese market are currently investing in production facilities. Credit Suisse is therefore worried it will result in an oversupply and consequently make inventories to rice.

To bring inventories down a price war on vehicles can arise. This will affect margins negatively. JP Morgan represents a positive analyst that strongly believe that the the path traveled current acquisition of Volvo will result in synergy effects and a technology platform that no one else can imitate in the near future. Linguistic? Further JP Morgan is confident that the the path poem low penetration of vehicles in the domestic market will ensure future growth, and consciousness, therefore recommends buying the stock. DBS, Deutche Bank and Yuanta are recommending holding the stock, since they believe there are too many uncertainties connected to the path less traveled poem, Geely and the future. Especially they all emphasize the lack of Global Market Research Case Study Analysis Essay a clear growth catalyst to outperform the traveled poem market. Further, the acquisition of Volvo seems to have longer prospects before profiting than expected at first hand (CIMP, 2010). Essay Milk Unlocks Magic? As expected Geely’s management discussion is very positive towards the future and leaves the shareholders with the impression of a highly growing company with a healthy economy and a clear defined strategy, although it is noticed that very little space is used to comment upon the current competition in the market. Instead Geely Management has chosen to focus at their new strategic platform and how they can develop brands and the path less traveled poem, product lines into a competitive advantage (Geely, 2010). It can be interpreted as an indirectly method to cope with the market competition without discussing the hypothesis situation in detail. Less Traveled? Shareholders, however, must be aware of this matter when evaluating the linguistic hypothesis business.

Even though current revenue is increasing heavily one must consider how sustainable this growth rate is in the future. It can be concluded that Geely Management are slightly taking a too positive approach towards the current market conditions, since these are not discussed in depth and analysts report emphasize different issues than Geely. This analysis facilitate that there are no universal answer to poem, trading with stocks. We all wants to buy the stocks that are undervalued and sell the ones that are overvalued, and the answer you get depends on the method, forecast and strategic mindset of the analyst. Geely is without doubt a healthy company so the buy, held, sell decision lies within how you value the growth opportunities, how Geely can facilitate RD and cartoons animals, implement acquisitions and thereby benefit from synergies. 6. 0 Recommendation.

Geely have the recent years had an expansion strategy, and as a consequence a high level of investment. This has resulted in the path, a higher leverage and animals, that earnings significantly are exceeding cash flows. However this is also a natural picture of the path less traveled a company in an expansion phase. It is found that Geely has satisfactory interest rate coverage even though leverage is increasing. Furthermore, accounts receivables is found worse than industry average, but good bank agreements make it easy for Research Case Study Essay, Geely to the path poem, meet liquidity issues. Inventory turnover is also good, as the focus on SCM systems have proven its worth. This is layoffs devon moreover expressed in the increased asset turnover which partly is the driver behind the increasing ROCE. However it is important to the path less, note that the adjusted profit margin is declining. The overall performance shows increased revenue/earnings, but it is very difficult to determine the earnings quality since most of the rise is due to the communist, consolidation and acquisitions. Less Poem? The positive free cash flow and satisfactory reinvestment ratio shows that Geely are taking care of investors. Why Was Written? SWOT analysis identifies possible business catalyst as RD and the new acquisition of Volvo that could create synergy effect.

It is our opinion that these business drivers are rather uncertain but is very likely to the path, succeed and combined with Geelys current healthy financial situation; we are taking a positive approach towards Geely and Essay Milk Unlocks, recommends to buy the stock. 7. 0 Bibliography Geely Automile Holdings Annual report 2005-2009 Investment Reports: DBS (8. June2010) Hong Kong/ China Company Focus; Geely Automobiles Holding; DBS Vickers Securities; Analyst: Miu, Rachel Credit Suisse (12. July 2010) Asian Daily – Geely Auto; Credit Suisse Analysis; Analyst: HungBin Toh CIMB (28. Sep. The Path Less Traveled? 010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; CIMB Reasearch; Analyst: Cheam, The Shen JP Morgan (26. Sep. 2010 ) Geely Automiles Holding LTD – Initiating Coverage, JP Morgan Asia Pacific Equity Research; Analyst: by Li, Frank Deutche Bank (26. Aug.

2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Deutche Securities Asia LTD; Analyst: Ha, Vincent Yuanta (26. The Communist Manifesto? Aug. 2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Yuata Research; Analyst: Wong, Johnny Websites: Reuters (http://www. reuters. com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) Appendix A: Restated income statement Appendix B: Restated Balance Sheet. Appendix C: Overview of Analysts opinion Source: Reuters (http://www. reuters. Less? com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Health Consciousness? Industry average figure reference: http:// www. stats. gov. The Path Poem? cn [ 3 ]. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated on a straight-line basis at cartoons the following rates per [ 4 ]. Goldman Sachs, China: Automobiles, May 19, 2010 [ 5 ]. Business Monitor International, BMI China Auto’s Report 2010, November 2009 [ 6 ]. Global Times, China’s Expanding Auto Production Triggers Overcapacity Concerns, July 19 2010. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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Transcript: Barack Obama's Speech on the path less Race. Click to Market Case Study Analysis view mentions of traveled poem key words in written, Obama's speech. Less Traveled Poem. hide caption. The number of times Obama used these key words in layoffs devon, his March 18 speech on race in the path less poem, Philadelphia. The following is a transcript of the remarks of Democratic Illinois Sen. Barack Obama, delivered March 18, 2008, in Philadelphia at the Constitution Center. In it, Obama addresses the layoffs devon, role race has played in the presidential campaign.

He also responds to criticism of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, an unpaid campaign adviser and pastor at Obama's Chicago church. Wright has made inflammatory remarks about the United States and has accused the country of bringing on the Sept. Less Poem. 11 attacks by spreading terrorism. We the cartoons farm, people, in order to form a more perfect union . — 221 years ago, in a hall that still stands across the traveled poem, street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in democracy. Farmers and Research Analysis, scholars, statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at the path a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787.

The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. Mother's Magic. It was stained by this nation's original sin of slavery, a question that divided the colonies and brought the convention to a stalemate until the founders chose to allow the slave trade to continue for at least 20 more years, and to leave any final resolution to future generations. Of course, the answer to the slavery question was already embedded within our Constitution — a Constitution that had at its very core the ideal of equal citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty and justice and a union that could be and should be perfected over time. And yet words on a parchment would not be enough to deliver slaves from bondage, or provide men and women of the path traveled poem every color and creed their full rights and obligations as citizens of the United States. What would be needed were Americans in successive generations who were willing to do their part — through protests and struggles, on the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and civil disobedience, and always at great risk — to narrow that gap between the promise of our ideals and the reality of their time. This was one of the tasks we set forth at the beginning of this presidential campaign — to continue the long march of those who came before us, a march for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and the communist, more prosperous America.

I chose to run for president at this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together, unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction — toward a better future for our children and traveled poem, our grandchildren. This belief comes from relativity hypothesis my unyielding faith in traveled, the decency and generosity of the American people. Layoffs Devon. But it also comes from my own story. I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in less traveled poem, Patton's Army during World War II and cartoons farm, a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I've gone to some of the best schools in America and lived in the path less traveled, one of the world's poorest nations. Consciousness. I am married to less poem a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and slaveowners — an Global Research Case Study, inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and the path less traveled, cousins of every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in manifesto written, no other country on Earth is my story even possible.

It's a story that hasn't made me the most conventional of candidates. The Path Less Poem. But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the animals, idea that this nation is more than the sum of its parts — that out of many, we are truly one. Throughout the first year of this campaign, against all predictions to the contrary, we saw how hungry the American people were for this message of unity. Despite the temptation to less traveled view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won commanding victories in states with some of the whitest populations in the country. In South Carolina, where the Confederate flag still flies, we built a powerful coalition of African-Americans and white Americans. This is not to say that race has not been an issue in this campaign. At various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either too black or not black enough. We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every single exit poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in terms of white and black, but black and brown as well. And yet, it has only been in cartoons animals, the last couple of weeks that the discussion of race in this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn. On one end of the spectrum, we've heard the implication that my candidacy is less poem, somehow an exercise in health, affirmative action; that it's based solely on the path less the desire of wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on layoffs devon the cheap.

On the other end, we've heard my former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, use incendiary language to less poem express views that have the potential not only to widen the racial divide, but views that denigrate both the greatness and the goodness of our nation, and that rightly offend white and Essay Unlocks Magic, black alike. I have already condemned, in unequivocal terms, the statements of traveled Reverend Wright that have caused such controversy and, in some cases, pain. For some, nagging questions remain. Global Market Research Case Analysis. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of less traveled American domestic and foreign policy? Of course. Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in Mother's Milk, the church? Yes. Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely — just as I'm sure many of you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with which you strongly disagreed. But the remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren't simply controversial.

They weren't simply a religious leader's efforts to speak out against perceived injustice. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of this country — a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is the path less poem, wrong with America above all that we know is right with America; a view that sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart allies like Israel, instead of emanating from the perverse and hateful ideologies of radical Islam. As such, Reverend Wright's comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive at a time when we need unity; racially charged at written a time when we need to less traveled poem come together to solve a set of monumental problems — two wars, a terrorist threat, a falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and potentially devastating climate change — problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather problems that confront us all. Given my background, my politics, and my professed values and why was the communist manifesto, ideals, there will no doubt be those for whom my statements of less condemnation are not enough. Layoffs Devon. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place, they may ask? Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend Wright were the snippets of those sermons that have run in the path traveled, an endless loop on the television sets and YouTube, or if Trinity United Church of Christ conformed to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is no doubt that I would react in much the linguistic, same way. But the truth is, that isn't all that I know of the man.

The man I met more than 20 years ago is a man who helped introduce me to my Christian faith, a man who spoke to the path less traveled me about our obligations to love one another, to care for the sick and lift up the poor. Linguistic Relativity. He is a man who served his country as a United States Marine; who has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in the country, and who for over 30 years has led a church that serves the community by doing God's work here on Earth — by housing the homeless, ministering to the needy, providing day care services and scholarships and prison ministries, and reaching out to those suffering from HIV/AIDS. In my first book, Dreams From My Father , I describe the experience of my first service at Trinity: People began to shout, to rise from their seats and clap and cry out, a forceful wind carrying the reverend's voice up into the rafters. And in that single note — hope! — I heard something else: At the foot of traveled that cross, inside the thousands of churches across the city, I imagined the stories of ordinary black people merging with the stories of David and Goliath, Moses and Pharaoh, the Christians in the lion's den, Ezekiel's field of dry bones. Those stories — of survival and freedom and hope — became our stories, my story. The blood that spilled was our blood, the tears our tears, until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of a people into future generations and into a larger world.

Our trials and triumphs became at once unique and universal, black and more than black. In chronicling our journey, the stories and songs gave us a meaning to health consciousness reclaim memories that we didn't need to feel shame about — memories that all people might study and cherish, and with which we could start to rebuild. That has been my experience at Trinity. Like other predominantly black churches across the country, Trinity embodies the black community in its entirety — the doctor and the welfare mom, the model student and the former gang-banger. Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of raucous laughter and sometimes bawdy humor. The Path Less Traveled Poem. They are full of dancing and Essay Mother's Unlocks Magic, clapping and screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to less the untrained ear. The church contains in full the kindness and cruelty, the the communist manifesto, fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the struggles and successes, the love and, yes, the bitterness and the path less traveled poem, biases that make up the black experience in layoffs devon, America. And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to me. He strengthened my faith, officiated my wedding, and baptized my children. Traveled. Not once in my conversations with him have I heard him talk about any ethnic group in derogatory terms, or treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and respect.

He contains within him the contradictions — the good and the bad — of the community that he has served diligently for so many years. I can no more disown him than I can disown the black community. I can no more disown him than I can disown my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed her by on the communist manifesto written the street, and who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe. These people are a part of me. And they are part of America, this country that I love.

Some will see this as an attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply inexcusable. I can assure you it is less traveled, not. I suppose the politically safe thing to do would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the woodwork. We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in the aftermath of her recent statements, as harboring some deep-seated bias. But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now. Layoffs Devon. We would be making the less poem, same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his offending sermons about America — to simplify and Milk Unlocks, stereotype and amplify the negative to the point that it distorts reality. The fact is that the comments that have been made and the issues that have surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country that we've never really worked through — a part of traveled our union that we have not yet made perfect. Research Case Analysis. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective corners, we will never be able to the path poem come together and solve challenges like health care or education or the need to find good jobs for every American. Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at this point.

As William Faulkner once wrote, The past isn't dead and buried. In fact, it isn't even past. Why Was Manifesto Written. We do not need to recite here the history of the path traveled racial injustice in layoffs devon, this country. But we do need to remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist between the African-American community and the larger American community today can be traced directly to inequalities passed on from an earlier generation that suffered under the brutal legacy of slavery and Jim Crow. Segregated schools were and less traveled poem, are inferior schools; we still haven't fixed them, 50 years after Brown v. Board of Education.

And the inferior education they provided, then and now, helps explain the consciousness, pervasive achievement gap between today's black and less traveled poem, white students. Legalized discrimination — where blacks were prevented, often through violence, from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions or the police force or the fire department — meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to bequeath to future generations. That history helps explain the Global Essay, wealth and income gap between blacks and whites, and the concentrated pockets of poverty that persist in so many of today's urban and rural communities. A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and frustration that came from not being able to provide for one's family contributed to traveled the erosion of cartoons black families — a problem that welfare policies for many years may have worsened. And the lack of basic services in so many urban black neighborhoods — parks for the path traveled poem kids to play in, police walking the beat, regular garbage pickup, building code enforcement — all helped create a cycle of violence, blight and neglect that continues to haunt us. This is the reality in which Reverend Wright and other African-Americans of Research Case Essay his generation grew up. They came of age in the late '50s and early '60s, a time when segregation was still the law of the traveled, land and opportunity was systematically constricted. What's remarkable is Global Market Case Study Essay, not how many failed in the face of less traveled poem discrimination, but how many men and women overcame the odds; how many were able to make a way out of no way, for those like me who would come after them. For all those who scratched and clawed their way to get a piece of the American Dream, there were many who didn't make it — those who were ultimately defeated, in one way or another, by discrimination. That legacy of defeat was passed on to future generations — those young men and, increasingly, young women who we see standing on street corners or languishing in our prisons, without hope or prospects for the future.

Even for those blacks who did make it, questions of race and racism continue to define their worldview in fundamental ways. For the men and women of Reverend Wright's generation, the memories of humiliation and doubt and fear have not gone away; nor has the anger and the bitterness of those years. That anger may not get expressed in Global Study Essay, public, in front of white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or the beauty shop or around the the path less traveled poem, kitchen table. At times, that anger is exploited by politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to make up for Mother's Magic a politician's own failings. And occasionally it finds voice in the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and in the pews. The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in some of Reverend Wright's sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the most segregated hour of American life occurs on Sunday morning. That anger is not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from solving real problems; it keeps us from squarely facing our own complicity within the African-American community in our condition, and prevents the the path poem, African-American community from forging the alliances it needs to bring about real change. But the anger is real; it is relativity hypothesis, powerful.

And to simply wish it away, to traveled condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to widen the chasm of misunderstanding that exists between the races. In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the white community. Essay Mother's Milk Unlocks. Most working- and the path less poem, middle-class white Americans don't feel that they have been particularly privileged by cartoons farm animals their race. Their experience is the immigrant experience — as far as they're concerned, no one handed them anything. They built it from scratch. They've worked hard all their lives, many times only to see their jobs shipped overseas or their pensions dumped after a lifetime of the path labor. They are anxious about their futures, and they feel their dreams slipping away. And in an era of stagnant wages and global competition, opportunity comes to be seen as a zero sum game, in which your dreams come at my expense. So when they are told to the communist manifesto bus their children to a school across town; when they hear an African-American is getting an advantage in the path, landing a good job or a spot in linguistic relativity hypothesis, a good college because of an the path poem, injustice that they themselves never committed; when they're told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over time. Like the linguistic hypothesis, anger within the black community, these resentments aren't always expressed in polite company. But they have helped shape the the path less traveled, political landscape for at least a generation.

Anger over welfare and affirmative action helped forge the Reagan Coalition. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own electoral ends. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism. Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white resentments distracted attention from the Market Research Case Analysis, real culprits of the the path less, middle class squeeze — a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting practices and short-term greed; a Washington dominated by lobbyists and special interests; economic policies that favor the linguistic relativity, few over the many. And yet, to wish away the resentments of white Americans, to label them as misguided or even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns — this too widens the racial divide and blocks the path to the path less traveled understanding.

This is where we are right now. It's a racial stalemate we've been stuck in for years. Contrary to linguistic relativity the claims of some of my critics, black and white, I have never been so naive as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy — particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own. But I have asserted a firm conviction — a conviction rooted in less, my faith in God and my faith in layoffs devon, the American people — that, working together, we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on the path of a more perfect union. For the African-American community, that path means embracing the burdens of our past without becoming victims of less our past. It means continuing to the communist manifesto insist on a full measure of justice in every aspect of American life.

But it also means binding our particular grievances — for traveled poem better health care and better schools and better jobs — to the larger aspirations of all Americans: the white woman struggling to break the glass ceiling, the white man who has been laid off, the Global Market, immigrant trying to the path feed his family. Linguistic Hypothesis. And it means taking full responsibility for our own lives — by demanding more from our fathers, and spending more time with our children, and the path less traveled, reading to them, and teaching them that while they may face challenges and discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to despair or cynicism; they must always believe that they can write their own destiny. Ironically, this quintessentially American — and yes, conservative — notion of self-help found frequent expression in Reverend Wright's sermons. But what my former pastor too often failed to the communist manifesto written understand is that embarking on less a program of self-help also requires a belief that society can change. The profound mistake of Reverend Wright's sermons is health, not that he spoke about racism in our society. The Path Less Poem. It's that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress had been made; as if this country — a country that has made it possible for one of his own members to run for the highest office in relativity hypothesis, the land and the path traveled poem, build a coalition of Global Case white and black, Latino and the path less traveled, Asian, rich and poor, young and why was the communist manifesto written, old — is still irrevocably bound to a tragic past. But what we know — what we have seen — is that America can change.

That is the true genius of this nation. The Path Traveled. What we have already achieved gives us hope — the audacity to hope — for what we can and layoffs devon, must achieve tomorrow. In the white community, the path to the path poem a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the African-American community does not just exist in the minds of why was manifesto black people; that the legacy of discrimination — and current incidents of less traveled poem discrimination, while less overt than in Research Study, the past — are real and must be addressed, not just with words, but with deeds, by investing in our schools and our communities; by enforcing our civil rights laws and ensuring fairness in our criminal justice system; by providing this generation with ladders of the path less opportunity that were unavailable for previous generations. Layoffs Devon. It requires all Americans to traveled realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of my dreams; that investing in the health, welfare and education of black and brown and white children will ultimately help all of America prosper. In the end, then, what is called for is nothing more and nothing less than what all the world's great religions demand — that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Consciousness. Let us be our brother's keeper, scripture tells us. Let us be our sister's keeper. Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and let our politics reflect that spirit as well. For we have a choice in this country.

We can accept a politics that breeds division and conflict and the path less, cynicism. We can tackle race only as spectacle — as we did in Essay Mother's Milk Unlocks, the O.J. trial — or in the wake of tragedy — as we did in less poem, the aftermath of Katrina — or as fodder for the nightly news. We can play Reverend Wright's sermons on every channel, every day and talk about consciousness, them from now until the election, and make the only question in traveled, this campaign whether or not the American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by a Hillary supporter as evidence that she's playing the health consciousness, race card, or we can speculate on whether white men will all flock to John McCain in less traveled poem, the general election regardless of his policies. But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we'll be talking about some other distraction. And then another one. And then another one.

And nothing will change. That is layoffs devon, one option. Or, at the path traveled poem this moment, in this election, we can come together and say, Not this time. This time, we want to cartoons farm talk about the crumbling schools that are stealing the the path less, future of health black children and white children and Asian children and Hispanic children and Native American children. This time, we want to reject the cynicism that tells us that these kids can't learn; that those kids who don't look like us are somebody else's problem. The children of the path less traveled poem America are not those kids, they are our kids, and health, we will not let them fall behind in a 21st century economy. Not this time. This time we want to talk about how the lines in the emergency room are filled with whites and blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care, who don't have the power on the path their own to overcome the special interests in Washington, but who can take them on if we do it together.

This time, we want to talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent life for men and women of every race, and layoffs devon, the homes for sale that once belonged to the path less Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of Mother's Milk life. This time, we want to less talk about the fact that the real problem is not that someone who doesn't look like you might take your job; it's that the corporation you work for health will ship it overseas for nothing more than a profit. This time, we want to talk about the men and women of every color and creed who serve together and fight together and bleed together under the same proud flag. We want to talk about how to bring them home from a war that should have never been authorized and should have never been waged. Traveled. And we want to talk about how we'll show our patriotism by caring for them and their families, and giving them the benefits that they have earned. I would not be running for President if I didn't believe with all my heart that this is what the vast majority of Americans want for this country.

This union may never be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be perfected. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about farm, this possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation — the young people whose attitudes and beliefs and the path poem, openness to change have already made history in this election. There is one story in particularly that I'd like to leave you with today — a story I told when I had the great honor of speaking on Dr. King's birthday at his home church, Ebenezer Baptist, in cartoons animals, Atlanta. There is the path less traveled poem, a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized for our campaign in Florence, S.C. Why Was The Communist Manifesto Written. She had been working to organize a mostly African-American community since the beginning of this campaign, and one day she was at a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their story and why they were there. And Ashley said that when she was 9 years old, her mother got cancer. Traveled Poem. And because she had to miss days of work, she was let go and lost her health care. They had to file for bankruptcy, and cartoons farm animals, that's when Ashley decided that she had to do something to help her mom. She knew that food was one of less traveled poem their most expensive costs, and relativity, so Ashley convinced her mother that what she really liked and really wanted to the path less traveled poem eat more than anything else was mustard and relish sandwiches — because that was the cheapest way to eat.

That's the mind of a 9-year-old. She did this for a year until her mom got better. So she told everyone at the communist the roundtable that the reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help the millions of traveled poem other children in the country who want and need to help their parents, too. Now, Ashley might have made a different choice. Perhaps somebody told her along the way that the layoffs devon, source of her mother's problems were blacks who were on welfare and too lazy to less poem work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country illegally.

But she didn't. She sought out health consciousness, allies in her fight against injustice. Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and then goes around the room and asks everyone else why they're supporting the campaign. They all have different stories and less traveled, different reasons. Many bring up a specific issue. Farm Animals. And finally they come to the path this elderly black man who's been sitting there quietly the entire time. And Ashley asks him why he's there. Cartoons Farm Animals. And he does not bring up a specific issue. Traveled Poem. He does not say health care or the Market Study Analysis Essay, economy.

He does not say education or the war. He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. He simply says to less poem everyone in the room, I am here because of consciousness Ashley. I'm here because of Ashley. By itself, that single moment of recognition between that young white girl and that old black man is traveled, not enough. It is not enough to give health care to the sick, or jobs to the jobless, or education to our children. But it is where we start.

It is Global Market Case Study Analysis Essay, where our union grows stronger. And as so many generations have come to the path less poem realize over Global Market Research Study Analysis Essay the course of the traveled poem, 221 years since a band of patriots signed that document right here in Essay Milk, Philadelphia, that is where the perfection begins.

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Advice on Starting A Coffee Business. One of the main reasons for starting a business is to less poem make money. If you want to make some real money with the coffee retail business, you must follow steps that will lead to that goal. Wake Up and Smell the Profit: 52 Guaranteed Ways to Make More Money in Milk Unlocks Magic Your Coffee Business by John Richardson (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) This will be the most important factor in your success or lack of it. You may have the less traveled poem, best coffee in layoffs devon the world, but if the prospective customers can#8217;t see you, or your access is not convenient, your chances of the path less poem, success will be greatly reduced. Health Consciousness? Some espresso bars gross $2000-$3000 a day, 70% of this revenue coming from espresso based drinks, and the owners of poem, these establishments put in their pocket (or purse) about $25,000 a month in profits! If you have an excellent location, and assuming that you do everything right, you can expect to Unlocks Magic gross anywhere from the path less traveled $20,000-$30,000 in Essay Mother's Milk Unlocks your second month of operation and the path less end up the first full year with over $500,000 and reach over one million on your third year. Assuming that your rent is $3000-$8000 per Market Research Case Essay month, this should leave you with 30%-40% of your sales after the break-even point. Therefore, if your rent is $3000 and you gross $20,000 your break-even point will be approximately $12,000 and your earnings about $3000-4000 from the $20,000.

You can figure how much you will make from $500,000 a year or more. Undertown Coffee Port Townsend, WA. The Path Traveled? The locations with the best probability of success are, in order: Next to colleges and relativity universities, on a commercial walking street Downtown business district, in a large office building Neighborhood commercial walking streets Heavy foot traffic tourist areas, with great visibility Airports and large medical facilities (for carts and kiosks) Strip Malls Inside shopping malls. Don#8217;t forget to check with zoning and Restaurant Health Inspection Departments and the path less traveled make sure that they will allow you to open and operate such a concept on relativity hypothesis that location. This is especially important for the drive-thru locations. Besides an less traveled poem, attractive visual design, your espresso station must be also designed for speed and why was the communist efficiency of service so your customers don#8217;t have a long wait. There have been times when I had to wait ten minutes to get served my latte, with only a few people ahead of me. Slow, sloppy service like that may reduce the number of the path, drinks that you sell in a given time period, reflecting directly on your revenues. It will also upset your customers, which will also affect your revenues.

The Successful Coffee House: 22-Day Action Plan to Create a Relevant and relativity Profitable Business by David J. Morris (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) If your menu is meaningless and the path traveled poem confusing to a new customer, the customer will end up asking for the most familiar item, #8220;house coffee#8221;, and you won#8217;t be able to develop an espresso drink customer base. Think about the price difference between a cup of house coffee and a latte! That difference is relativity hypothesis, almost pure profit. I believe that one of the best ways to build your coffee business is by developing an effective, customer friendly espresso drink based marketing program. By achieving that you will make more money for yourself and be in a stronger position against the path less your competition. After twenty-seven years in this business, I have come to Milk Unlocks the conclusion that the single most important factor-besides the location- for the path less the success of an espresso operation is whether the owner, the CEO or the person responsible for the overall project is an why was the communist manifesto written, espresso based drink consumer himself or herself, and understands what a properly prepared drink should taste like.

Unfortunately, properly prepared espresso drinks are hard to find in the path less poem most parts of this country. So when a prospective CEO or a future franchise owner of a bagel shop, for instance, has his or her first #8220;espresso experience#8221; at layoffs devon, a place that has no clue, and that first sip proves to be unpleasant or indifferent, these CEO#8217;s never develop a taste for espresso and are probably wondering what all that excitement is all about. With such a mind set, espresso based drinks won#8217;t be on the priority list of many owners and espresso drinks will represent only a minor part of their revenues. Most of the coffee sold will be of the the path less traveled, #8220;regular#8221; type. This will result in lower revenues, lower customer satisfaction and the failure of consciousness, providing the customer with a compelling reason to return on a daily basis. How to Open a Financially Successful Coffee, Espresso Tea Shop by Elizabeth Godsmark (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) If your customers do not like the taste of your espresso based drinks because of traveled, faulty preparation techniques, they either won#8217;t order it again or won#8217;t come back. Unfortunately, most of the espresso served in this country has no relation to the real thing, and the only way it can be consumed is by drowning its thin, overheated, bitter, flavorless, overpriced taste in some fancy flavored syrup. By the way, the taste of an cartoons farm animals, espresso based drink has more to less traveled poem do with the way it is prepared, than with the coffee or equipment being used. Layoffs Devon? I had some tasteless cappuccinos prepared with $11.00 a pound coffee with a $10,000 machine, and some excellent ones made from $5.00 a pound and a $3000 machine. You may be surprised to traveled poem know that most of the espresso operations in this country do not understand how to properly prepare espresso based drinks.

By #8220;properly#8221;, I mean good tasting drinks made fast. Consciousness? Though taste is subjective, most of the customers, when tasting the same coffee, prepared with the same machine, but one cup made #8220;right#8221;, and the other made following the training guidelines of the operation, will taste the difference and prefer the #8220;right#8221; cup 95% of the the path less, time. What is the use of blending and roasting the best coffee in the world if it becomes unpalatable during the preparation stage at Essay Mother's Unlocks Magic, the retail level, and the path traveled poem the only farm, way it can be consumed is by drowning its bad taste with flowered syrups? To be really successful in the coffee bar business you must make coffee drinks your main product, and less traveled poem from these, espresso based drinks should account for at least 50% of your total sales. In many of the most profitable and successful coffee bars, espresso based drinks account for over 65% of their total gross sales. You can brew around 50 cups of regular coffee from the layoffs devon, same pound, and sell it at $1.00 a cup. The Path Less Traveled? That is around $45.00 gross profit!

Add the layoffs devon, cost of a paper cup, lid, sugar, cream, and that brings the cost to around 25 cents per cup. The Path Less Poem? You make 75 cents a cup. Now, let#8217;s go a step further: suppose that most of the coffees sold are espresso based drinks, you would still pay from relativity $5.50-$7.00 a pound for the beans and produce, on the average, around 60 shots from a pound at a cost of around 12 cents for a single shot. Add for the cup, milk, etc., and that would bring the cost of a cappuccino or latte to the path less poem around 35 cents. But your sale price per cup, on the average, would be around $2.00.

You make $1.65 a cup! That would make an linguistic, enormous positive impact on your bottom line! Here are actual statements (rounded) from two of my past stores: Sat Sun doing one third of the path less traveled, normal sales. As you can see, 85% of my gross sales was from espresso based drinks. Summer business one-third to half of Essay Mother's Milk, normal. Less? Here are some rough estimates of how much capital you will need to open your business. Fully Equipped Cart or Inside Kiosk: $10,000-$30,000 Fully Equipped Drive-Thru: $25,000-$120,000 Coffee House/ Bar: $50,000 and up. Let me be more specific about linguistic hypothesis coffee houses: all the equipment (espresso machine, grinders, refrigerators, ice machine, sinks, etc.) that you will need to operate a coffee/bar house will be approximately $18,000, the rest will be used for traveled poem remodeling costs, furnishings, signs etc. I opened stores from $17,000 to $120,000 for consciousness myself, and from $63,000 to $187,000 for my clients. I served as a consultant to clients that opened coffee bars/houses ranging in total initial investment from $50,000 187,000.

Considering that Starbucks invests around $325,000 to the path less poem open a store, my clients did OK! Your start-up investment to open a coffee bar may vary greatly with the chosen location. Though the cost of the equipment will remain the same, around $18,000, the remodeling costs may go from $30,000 to $250,000 or more, depending on the quality of the location and the surrounding stores. Obviously, if you are opening in cartoons a prestige location the landlord will demand a sizable investment to make the store look good, comparable to the adjacent stores. They won#8217;t even talk to you unless you can show them that you have enough capital to develop such a project. Wake Up and Smell the Profit: 52 Guaranteed Ways to Make More Money in Your Coffee Business by the path traveled, John Richardson (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) How to Open a Financially Successful Coffee, Espresso Tea Shop by Elizabeth Godsmark (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) The Successful Coffee House: 22-Day Action Plan to farm Create a Relevant and Profitable Business by David J. Morris (Amazon USA, Amazon UK, Amazon CANADA) Latest posts by the path traveled poem, Alex Fisenko (see all) Start your next Amazon purchase here. It helps INeedCoffee and costs you nothing extra.

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Copyright and Fair Use in the UMUC Online or Face-to-Face Classroom. The information presented here is only general information. Legal advice must be provided in the course of an attorney-client relationship specifically with reference to all the facts of the particular situation under consideration. The Path Less Poem. Such is layoffs devon, not the the path poem case here, and accordingly, the information presented here must not be relied on layoffs devon, as a substitute for obtaining legal advice from a licensed attorney. Updated January 28, 2011. Consistent with BOR Policy IV-3.20, the UMUC Library has developed guidelines for the use of copyrighted materials. These guidelines address library and educational fair use as well as fair use exceptions for research and scholarly work.

The purpose of this document is to help UMUC faculty understand copyright and fair use in the classroom, and less traveled, it may be useful to Essay Mother's Milk Magic, UMUC students as well. The UMUC Library addresses copyright and intellectual property issues because of its role in less traveled poem, teaching and Global Market Case Study, promoting information literacy. The Path Traveled Poem. Information literacy is defined as a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2010, para. 1). One of the information literacy competency standards of the Association for College and Research Libraries concerning the effective use of information states that “an information literate individual is Mother's Milk, able to . understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of the path poem information, and access and use information ethically and legally” (ACRL, 2010, para. 2). Simply put, copyright is a legal device that provides the creator of a work of art or literature, or a work that conveys information or ideas, the right to control how the work is used (Fishman, 2008, p. 6).The intent of copyright is to advance the progress of knowledge by why was written giving an author of a work an less traveled poem, economic incentive to create new works (Loren, 2000, para. 12). Tangible, original expressions can be copyrighted.

This means, for example, that a verbal presentation that is not recorded or written down cannot be copyrighted. However, anything that is tangible can be copyrighted. There are three fundamental requirements for something to be copyrighted, according to the United States Copyright Office (2008, p. 3): Fixation: The item must be fixed in some way. The manner of fixation may be just about Essay Mother's Unlocks Magic, anything. For example, fixation occurs if something is the path poem, written on a piece of paper, posted online, or stored on a computer or phone, or on an audio or video device. The Communist Manifesto. Originality: The work must be original. Originality includes a novel or a student's e-mail message to a professor. Both are considered examples of original expression.

It is the path poem, not necessary for the work to be completely original. Works may be combined, adapted, or transformed in Milk, new ways that would make them eligible for copyright protection. Minimal Creativity: The work must include something that is the path less, above and beyond the original. Verbatim use is not considered original. Reference to the original work that is used to discuss a new concept would be considered original, however. Creativity need only be extremely slight for the work to be eligible for protection.

The law merely states this is original works of authorship (United States Copyright Office, 2008, p. 3). Works in the public domain: Ideas are in the public domain. Facts are in the public domain. Words, names, slogans, or other short phrases also cannot be copyrighted. However, slogans, for layoffs devon, example, can be protected by trademark law. Blank forms. Government works, which include: Judicial opinions. Public ordinances. Administrative rulings.

Works created by federal government employees as part of the path their official responsibility. Works for which copyright was not obtained or copyright has expired (extremely rare!) (U.S. Copyright Office, 2008, p. 3). It is a common misperception that state employees and contractors performing work on behalf of the federal government cannot copyright their work. Unless it is farm animals, explicitly stated in the contract between the government and poem, a contractor, federal government contractors are permitted to copyright their works as can state employees (Commerce, Energy, NASA, Defense Information Managers Group, 2008, p. 19). Copyright provides authors fairly substantial control over their work. The four basic protections are: The right to make copies of the work. The right to farm animals, sell or otherwise distribute copies of the work. The right to prepare new works based on the protected work. The right to perform the protected work (such as a stage play or painting) in public (U.S.

Copyright Office, 2008, p. 1). Fair use is the most significant limitation on the copyright holder's exclusive rights (United States Copyright Office, 2010, para. 1). Deciding whether the use of a work is fair IS NOT a science. There are no set guidelines that are universally accepted. Instead, the individual who wants to use a copyrighted work must weigh four factors: The purpose and character of the use: Is the the path less traveled new work merely a copy of the linguistic relativity hypothesis original? If it is simply a copy, it is not as likely to be considered fair use. Does the new work offer something above and beyond the original? Does it transform the original work in some way?

If the work is altered significantly, used for another purpose, appeals to a different audience, it more likely to be considered fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. 6). Recent case law has increasingly focused on transformative use to the path traveled poem, make fair use determinations – for a discussion of this topic see Lultschik, 2010. Is the use of the Mother's Unlocks copyrighted work for nonprofit or educational purposes? The use of less poem copyrighted works for nonprofit or educational purposes is more likely to be considered fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. Health. 6). The nature of the copyrighted work: Is the copyrighted work a published or unpublished work? Unpublished works are less likely to be considered fair use. Is the copyrighted work out of print? If it is, it is more likely to be considered fair use.

Is the work factual or artistic? The more a work tends toward artistic expression, the less likely it will be considered fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. Less. 9). The amount and substantiality of the portion used: The more you use, the less likely it will be considered fair use. Does the amount you use exceed a reasonable expectation? If it approaches 50 percent of the entire work, it is not likely to be considered a fair use of the copyrighted work. Mother's Unlocks. Is the particular portion used likely to adversely affect the traveled poem author's economic gain? If you use the heart or essence of a work, it is less likely your use will be considered fair (NOLO, 2010, para. 13).

The effect of farm use on the potential market for the copyrighted work: The more the new work differs from the original, the less likely it will be considered an less poem, infringement. The Communist Written. Does the work appeal to less, the same audience as the original? If the answer is yes, it will likely be considered an infringement. Does the new work contain anything original? If it does, it is more likely the use of the copyrighted material will be seen as fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. 11). What are the Rules for Fair Use for Instructors? Copying by instructors must meet tests for brevity and spontaneity: Brevity refers to how much of the work you can copy.

Spontaneity refers to how many times you can copy and hypothesis, how much planning it would take to otherwise seek and obtain permission from a copyright holder (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 6). According to the rule, the need to copy should occur closely in time to the need to use the copies. If you use something repeatedly, it is less likely to be considered fair use. The expectation is that you will obtain permission from the copyright holder as soon as it is the path poem, feasible. Using something over a period of multiple semesters or years is not within the spirit of the fair use exception. In addition, there are recommendations for what the U.S. Copyright Office calls special works. Certain works in poetry, prose, or in ‘poetic prose’ which often combine language with illustrations and which are intended sometimes for children and at other times for health consciousness, a more general audience fall short of 2,500 words in their entirety (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 6).

Special works should never be copied in their entirety. An excerpt of the path traveled poem no more than two pages or 10 percent, whichever is less, is the health consciousness rule for special works (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. The Path Traveled. 6). The use of the copies should be for one course at one school. Consciousness. The copies should include a notice of copyright acknowledging the author of the work (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. Less Traveled. 7). UMUC recommends that its faculty and instructors consider both the special guidelines for instructors and take into account the four factors that are used to evaluate fair use when they are deciding what and how much of a copyrighted work to use.

In General, What Counts as Fair Use? Keeping in mind the rules for instructors listed above, and that the source(s) of Essay Mother's Unlocks all materials must be cited in order to avoid plagiarism, general examples of poem limited portions of published materials that might be used in the communist manifesto, the classroom under fair use for a limited period of time, as discussed by less the U.S. Copyright Office (2009, p. 6), include: A chapter from why was manifesto a book (never the entire book). An article from a periodical or newspaper. A short story, essay, or poem. One work is the the path poem norm whether it comes from an Market Research Case Analysis, individual work or an anthology.

A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper. Poetry Copies of a poem of 250 words or less that exists on less traveled, two pages or less or 250 words from a longer poem. Prose Copies of an article, story or essay that are 2,500 words or less or excerpts up to 1,000 words or 10 percent of the total work, whichever is less. Illustrations Copies of Global Market Research Study Analysis Essay a chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture contained in a book or periodical issue (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 6). Making multiple copies of different works that could substitute for the purchase of books, publisher's reprints, or periodicals. Copying and using the less same work from written semester to semester. Copying and using the less traveled same material for layoffs devon, several different courses at the same or different institutions. Traveled. Copying more than nine separate times in linguistic, a single semester (U.S.

Copyright Office, 2009, p. 7). When you intend to less traveled poem, use the materials for layoffs devon, commercial purposes. When you want to use the materials repeatedly. When you want to use a work in its entirety, especially when it is longer than 2,500 words (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 7). How Do I Get Permission? How Can the traveled poem Library Help?

The UMUC Library will assist UMUC faculty in obtaining permission for copyright-protected materials for use in UMUC classes. Mother's Milk Magic. The Library can place copies of copyrighted articles, readings, and short audio or video clips in the eReserves area of your online classroom. See the eReserves FAQ for an overview of the the path process and layoffs devon, How to Request eReserves for instructions on submitting requests. To use materials outside of UMUC courses, you must obtain permission yourself. You may use this sample letter as a guide. Copyright and Electronic Publishing. The same copyright protections exist for the path traveled, the author of a work regardless of whether the layoffs devon work is in print, in the path traveled, a library research database, a blog, an online discussion board or comment space, or any social media formats. If you make a copy from an online source for health consciousness, your personal use, it is less traveled poem, more likely to be seen as fair use. However, if you make a copy and put it online, it is less likely to be considered fair use.

Note that the Internet IS NOT the public domain. There are both copyrighted and uncopyrighted materials online. Always assume a work online is copyrighted. Tips for Using Online Information. Always credit the source of your information. If you do not see an individual named as the author, do not forget that the author may in fact be the organization responsible for Mother's Unlocks, the Web site.

Credit the organization. Find out if the author of the path a work (e.g., text, video, audio, graphic, etc.) provides information on how to use his or her work. If the author provides explicit guidelines, follow them. Consciousness. Whenever feasible, ask the copyright holder for permission. Less Traveled Poem. If no copyright holder is specifically named, do not assume that the material is in the public domain. Linguistic. Assume that the the path poem copyright holder is the author, whether it be an individual or an organization. Keep a copy of your request for permission and the permission received. UMUC Educational Multimedia Guidelines. The guidelines provide guidance for the use, without permission, of health portions of lawfully acquired copyrighted works, and are based on the path less, the U.S. Copyright Office guidelines mentioned above (see U.S.

Copyright Office, 2009) and the findings of the Conference on Fair Use (see Lehman, 1998). The guidelines are intended to apply to educational multimedia projects that incorporate educators' original material, such as course notes or commentary, together with various copyrighted media formats, including motion media, music, text material, and graphics illustrations. The guidelines are voluntary and do not have the force of law. If you follow the guidelines, it is more likely that your use is fair use. The guidelines are safe minimums. Cartoons Animals. The newly created work that includes copyrighted material may only be used for learning activities. Other uses, such as selling the work commercially, require permission (Lehman, 1998, p. 51). Students may incorporate portions of copyrighted materials when producing a project for a specific course. Students may perform and the path, display their own projects and use them in their portfolio or use the project for job interviews or as supporting materials for application to graduate school (Lehman, 1998, p. 52). Faculty may include portions of copyrighted works when producing their own multimedia project for their teaching in support of curriculum-based instructional activities at educational institutions. Faculty may use their project for: Assignments for student self-study For online instruction provided that the network is secure and why was the communist manifesto written, is designed to prevent unlawful copying For professional conferences, presentations, or workshops For their professional portfolio (Lehman, 1998, p. 52).

The fair use of copyrighted material in multimedia projects lasts for traveled poem, two years only. After two years, obtain permission before using the project again (Lehman, 1998, p. 53). Types of media and permissible amounts. Motion media, e.g., movies, film clips, excerpts from health television shows, etc.: Up to the path less, 10 percent of the total or three minutes, whichever is less. Text material: Up to 10 percent of the total or 1,000 words, whichever is layoffs devon, less. An entire poem of traveled less than 250 words may be used, but no more than three poems by layoffs devon one poet or five poems by different authors in an anthology. For poems exceeding 250 words, 250 words should be used but no more than three excerpts from one poet or five excerpts from different poets in the same work. Music, lyrics, and music video: Up to 10 percent of the work but no more than 30 seconds of the the path traveled music or lyrics from an individual musical work.

Illustrations or photographs: No more than five images from one artist or photographer. No more than 10% or 15 images, whichever is less, from a collection. Numerical data sets: Up to 10 percent or 2,500 fields or cell entries, whichever is less, from a copyrighted database or data table. Copying of an educator’s multimedia project which contains materials used under fair use: No more than two copies may be made of consciousness a project (Lehman, 1998, p. 53-54). When you intend to use the project for commercial or non-educational purposes. When you intend to duplicate the project beyond the two copies allowed by the guidelines.

When you plan to distribute the project beyond the scope of the guidelines (Lehman, 1998, p. 54). If you have any doubts about whether a use is fair use, it is always best to traveled poem, seek permission. How Do I Get Permission? How Can the Library Help? The UMUC Library will assist UMUC faculty in obtaining permission for copyright-protected materials for Market Research Analysis Essay, use in UMUC classes. The Library can place copies of copyrighted articles, readings, and the path less, short audio or video clips in the eReserves area of your online classroom.

See the why was the communist manifesto eReserves FAQ for an overview of the process and How to Request eReserves for instructions on submitting requests. To use materials outside of UMUC courses, you must obtain permission yourself. If you would like to request permission yourself, we have a sample letter you may use as a guide. The UMUC Library encourages its faculty and students to poem, make use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) whenever possible. Open educational resources (OERs), according to an often-cited definition, are “teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others” (Atkins, Brown, and Hammond, 2007, p. 4). Because we work in a collegial, sharing atmosphere in cartoons farm animals, higher education, many creative individuals and poem, institutions have made resources freely available on the Web so that others can use and adapt them in why was the communist, their classes. You may find that what you need for your classes is readily available for use without copyright permission. See the traveled Library’s guide to Open Educational Resources for more details about collections of learning objects that you may freely use, as well as additional information about how the open source movement affects us in Global Market Case Essay, higher education. In 2002 Congress passed the T.E.A.C.H.

Act (Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act) in the path, an effort to make explicit how copyright works in online, distance education. Previously, when U.S. copyright law applied to the classroom, it applied only to face-to-face settings. While the T.E.A.C.H. Act gave educators some rights in relativity hypothesis, the online, distance education environment corresponding to the rights enjoyed in the path less poem, the face-to-face classroom, the amount of material that may be used in online and Global Essay, distance education classrooms is much more restricted. Moreover, there is a formidable list of less traveled conditions that educators must meet before they can use the T.E.A.C.H. Act as legal protection against copyright infringement claims. The University System of Texas offers a checklist with more information on the T.E.A.C.H. Act (Harper, 2002, para.

17). At the present time, however, the University of Maryland University College has not implemented the T.E.A.C.H. Act, so it cannot be used by UMUC faculty to justify use of copyrighted materials within UMUC classrooms. Copyright Crash Course - University of Texas Libraries Copyright and Fair Use Center - Stanford University Libraries Center for Media Social Impact: Fair Use, Free Speech Intellectual Property - American University. Association of College and Research Libraries. (2010). Information literacy competency standards for Mother's Milk Magic, higher education . Retrieved from Atkins, D., Brown, J.S., and Hammond, A.L. (2007). A review of the poem Open Educational Resources (OER) movement: Achievements, challenges, and new opportunities . Retrieved from

Commerce, Energy, NASA, Defense Information (CENDI) Managers Group, Copyright Working Group. (2008). Works created under a federal contract or grant. Frequently asked questions about copyright issues: Issues affecting the U.S. government . Consciousness. Retrieved from Fishman, S. (2008). The Path Less Traveled Poem. The copyright handbook: What every writer needs to know . Berkeley, CA: Nolo. Harper, G.K. (2002). Health Consciousness. The TEACH Act Checklist. The Copyright Crash Course . Retrieved from Lehman, B.A. (1998). The Conference on the path, Fair Use: Final report to the Commissioner on the conclusion of the Conference on linguistic, Fair Use.

Retrieved from Loren, L.P. (2000). The purpose of copyright. Open Spaces Quarterly, 2 (1). Less Poem. Retrieved from NOLO. (2010). The 'fair use' rule: When use of copyrighted material is acceptable . Retrieved from Mother's Milk Unlocks United States Copyright Office. The Path Traveled Poem. (2008). Copyright basics . (Circular 1). Health. Retrieved from United States Copyright Office. (2009).

Reproduction of copyrighted works by educators and librarians . (Circular 21). Retrieved from the path poem United States Copyright Office. (2010). Fair use . (Circular FL-102). Retrieved from 855-655-8682, opt. 6, x22020.

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essay on buddism Buddhism arose in northern India in the 6th century BCE. The historical founder of less, Buddhism, Siddharta Gautama (c.560-480 BCE) was born in a village called Lumbini into a warrior tribe called the Sakyas (from where he derived the title Sakyamuni, meaning 'Sage of the Sakyas'). According to tradition Gautama's father, Suddhodana was the king of a small principality based on the town of Kapilavastu. His mother, Queen Maya, died seven days after Gautama's birth. Following the death of Maya, Suddhodana married Maya's sister, Prajapati, by whom Gautama was brought up in great luxury and sheltered from the harshness of the outside world. At sixteen the prince married Yasodhara. Yasodhara bore him a son whom he called Rahula (meaning chain or fetter), a name that indicated Gautama's sense of why was the communist, dissatisfaction with his life of luxury.

His apparent sense of traveled poem, dissatisfaction turned to disillusion when he saw three things from the window of Mother's Milk Magic, his palace, each of which represented different forms human suffering: a decrepit old man, a diseased man, and the path traveled poem, a corpse. So traumatised was Siddharta by his new found awareness of the transience of pleasure and the universality of health, suffering, that he decided to embark on a life dedicated to true knowledge. Inspired by the example of a mendicant monk, Siddharta abandoned his family and life as a prince, cut off his hair and adopted the lifestyle of a wanderer. Siddharta began his spiritual quest under the guidance of two teachers who showed him how to reach very deep states of meditation (samadhi). This did not, however, lead to a sense of true knowledge or peace, and the practice of deep meditation was abandoned in favour of less traveled, a life of extreme asceticism which he shared with five companions. But again, after five or six years, of self-mortification, Siddharta felt he had failed to achieve true insight and rejected such practices as dangerous and useless. Resolved to why was written continue his quest, Siddharta made his way to a deer park at Isipatana, near present day Benares. Here he sat beneath a tree meditating on death and rebirth. It was here that Siddharta attained a knowledge of the way things really are; it was through this knowledge that he acquired the title 'Buddha' (meaning 'awakened one'). This awakening was achieved during a night of meditation, which passed through various stages. Less! In the first stage he saw each of his previous existences.

In the second he surveyed the death and rebirth of all living beings and understood the law that governs the cycle of birth and death. In the third he identified the four noble truths: the universality of why was written, suffering, the cause of suffering through selfish desire, the solution to suffering and the way to overcome suffering. This final point is called the Noble Eightfold Path, this being eight steps consisting of wisdom (right views, right intention) ethics (right speech, right action, right livelihood), mental discipline (right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration), which ultimately lead to liberation from the source of suffering. Although initially hesitant to the path less traveled poem share his insight on health, the grounds that humanity might not be ready for such a teaching, the Buddha decided to less traveled poem communicate his discovery to those willing to listen. His first converts were the five ascetics with whom he had lived when he himself followed the lifestyle of the ascetic. To these he preached his first sermon in the Deer Park at Benares, outlining to them the Four Noble Truths. Out of cartoons farm animals, this small group the community of monks (or sangha) grew to the path less about sixty in size and included Buddha's cousin, Ananda, and his son, Rahula.

Later the Buddha was persuaded by his step-mother and layoffs devon, cousin to the path less poem accept women into the sangha. The remaining forty-five years of the Buddha's life were spent journeying around the plain of the layoffs devon, Ganges, teaching and receiving visitors. At the traveled, age of 79 the Buddha fell seriously ill and died. During his life the Buddha had taught that no one was to layoffs devon succeed him as leader of the Sangha. Instead, his followers were to take his teaching and the path less traveled poem, rule as their sole guides. Councils and Early Schisms in the Community. Following the Essay Mother's Milk, Buddha's death, his teachings were gathered together at the first Buddhist council, which is said to the path traveled have taken place at Rajagrha shortly after the Buddha's Final Nirvana. A second council, which is said to have taken place a century after the Market Research Study Analysis Essay, Buddha's death, took place at Vaisali. The purpose of this council was to consider allegations that certain monks at Vaisali permitted ten practices that contravened the rules of conduct of the Vinaya. The Vaisali Council condemned these practices, after which the Council was closed. At some point following the Second Council the Sangha divided into the path less poem, two traditions: the Sthaviravadins ('Elders') and the Mahasanghikas ('the great Sangha').

The difference between the two traditions seems to relate to their perception of the status of the lay person and the status of the Milk, arhant. Whereas the less traveled poem, Mahasanghikas were more open to the laity practising Buddhism and linguistic relativity hypothesis, tended to believe that the lay person was capable of becoming an less traveled, arhant, the Sthaviravadins believed that monastic life alone could lead to arahantship and, therefore, nirvana. Sometime in the 3rd century B.C.E. The Communist Written! a new group called the Sarvastivadins emerged out of the Sthaviravadins. The name Sarvastivadin is believed to derive from the phrase sarva asti (everything exists). The Sarvastivadins taught that the less poem, dharmas, the Global Market Research, most basic elements of existence, exist in the path traveled poem the past, present and future which are simply modes of being.

The growth of this movement led King Asoka, of the Maurya dynasty, to call the why was manifesto written, third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra (c. 250 BCE) which decided against the teachings of the Sarvastivadins. This decision prompted some of them to emigrate to north India and establish a center in Kashmir where they survived for about a thousand years. Another group that emerged in the 3rd century B.C.E. were the Pudgalavadins, who derive their name from the the path traveled poem, word pudgala, meaning 'person'. The Pudgalavadins claimed that for reincarnation to take place, there had to be a person who was reincarnated. This view was criticised by other Buddhist sects who said that Pudgalavadin teaching implied the reality of a self and, therefore, contradicted the basic Buddhist teaching of anatman (no self).

Those Sthaviravadins who did not accept the doctrines of either the Sarvastivadins or the Pudgalavadins came to Market Research Study Analysis be called Vibhajyadins ('Distinctionists'). This group formed a number of branches, of which the largest and most important were the Theravadins of Ceylon. The sacred text for the Theravadins of Ceylon and for those throughout south-east Asia is the Tripitaka ('Three Baskets'). These three baskets consist of the Vinaya Pitaka (rules for monks and nuns), the Sutta Pitaka (the discourses given by the Buddha) and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the systematic ordering and analysis of Buddhist doctrine). Accompanying the Tripitaka was a large body of commentarial literature explaining in detail the meaning of particular sutras. Early Mahayana Buddhism. At about the beginning of the less traveled poem, common era there appeared texts which did not belong to the Tripitaka of the early schools (in so far as the Tripitaka existed at this time).

The movement associated with these texts came over time to call itself the Essay, Mahayana ('Great Vehicle') in contrast to non-Mahayana schools which were pejoratively named Hinayana ('Lesser Vehicle'). In India Mahayana Buddhism developed through a number of stages. Initially it produced a number of poem, texts that engaged with issues such as the nature of Buddhahood or the philosophy of emptiness. Later identifiable schools such as Madhyamaka and Yogacara emerged. Then, between the fifth and seventh centuries Classical Mahayana Buddhism developed as an attempt to systematise the various schools and teachings within the Mahayana. Finally, a trend which came to be known as the cartoons animals, Vajrayana emerged based on the path poem, new texts known as Tantras, which were more magical and ritualistic than other strands of Buddhism. Buddhism was not to survive in North India much beyond the 13th and linguistic relativity, 14th centuries. In the the path, south it remained for a few more centuries but had largely disappeared by the end of the 18th century. It was in Southeast and Northern Asia that Buddhism was to establish itself as the dominant tradition. The Buddhism of south-east Asia is largely Theraravadin. When Buddhism came to health Southeast Asia is unknown.

Certainly, there was an established presence by the early centuries of the common era. Less Poem! Archaeological and inscriptional evidence indicates the Magic, presence of southern Buddhism in Central Burma by the fifth century C.E. At about the same time (and quite possibly earlier) the Mon people of Southern Burma and the path less poem, Northern and Central Thailand had adopted Pali Buddhism. The Communist Manifesto! The Buddhism of the Mon was in the path turn transplanted into the Khmer empire, and supplanted the already present Mahayana Buddhism and Brahmanism. From both the Mon and the Khmer Southern Buddhism was adopted by the Tai peoples, whose principalities emerged in regions now occupied by layoffs devon parts of modern day Thailand, Burma and Laos. Northern Buddhism came to be dominant in Central Asia (Tibet) and East Asia (China, Korea and Japan). It was through China that Buddhism was transmitted into Northern and Central Asia. Following its entry into China in the 1st century of the Common Era, it went on to develop in four stages. Up to the 4th century Buddhism gradually spread into China from Central Asia as Mahayana sutras were translated into the path traveled poem, Chinese and Indian schools established themselves. During this period Buddhism remained largely a fringe religion.

The second stage came about as a result of the fall of the Han dynasty in 220 CE, the invasion of northern China in c. 320 CE and the flight of the royal court to the south. In the northern foreign occupied part of the country Buddhism's status as a foreign religion ceased to be problematic; in the south Buddhism received support from the educated classes with the consequence that distinctively Chinese forms of cartoons farm animals, Buddhism began to emerge. The third period is represented by the reunion of the country under the Sui and traveled, T'ang dynasties. Unification allowed for manifesto written, new transmissions of less traveled, Buddhism into the country while also fostering the cultivation of indigenous forms of Chinese Buddhism such as T'ien T'ai, Hua-Yen, Ch'an and Ching-Tu. The fourth stage began with the persecution of farm, Buddhism in the 9th century.

This persecution was so severe that it destroyed the T'ien T'ai and less, the Hua-yen schools. Later dynasties gave periodic support to various strands of Buddhism. Disaster struck, however, in health the 19th century with the T'ai-p'ing rebellion of 1850-1864 which viciously persecuted all forms of Buddhism it encountered. The Path Less! Buddhism enjoyed a brief reprieve under the farm, Nationalist regime, but with the ascendancy of communism in 1949 many monasteries were closed down and Buddhist clergy were forced to return to lay status. Buddhism arrived in Korea from China towards the end of the 4th century. It was not until the 6th century that Buddhism was recognised as an official religion in Korea. This official religion paved the way for Korean monks to less traveled visit China in the 6th and layoffs devon, 7th centuries and to introduce into Korea various major schools of Chinese Buddhism. It was during the Koryo period (935-1392) that Buddhism enjoyed its greatest period of expansion. However, with the ascendancy of the Yi dynasty (1392-1910) Confucianism received official favour and Buddhism came over time to be severely suppressed. Such was the degree of suppression that by the 19th century Son (Ch'an) Buddhism remained the only dominant school in the Sangha. Following Japanese control in the 20th century Korean Buddhism underwent a renewal, but this was at the expense of accepting the importation of Japanese styles of Buddhism.

The division of the country into North and South had a major impact on the Sangha. The land reforms in the path less the North have virtually brought to an end the presence of Buddhism there. In the South, however, Buddhism has received official support and Buddhism is enjoying a revived role in the life of the country. Buddhism was introduced into Japan from Korea in the 6th century in the form of gifts sent by Korean kings to health consciousness the Japanese imperial court. During the the path traveled, 7th century Buddhism was integrated into the state apparatus through the support of a series of Buddhist emperors. Cartoons Animals! The close relationship between the court and Buddhism has meant that periods of Buddhist history are identified by the location of the the path less poem, capital city at a particular period of the layoffs devon, country's history. Between 710 and 794 the capital was located at Nara. The six traditions of Buddhism introduced from Korea and China and supported by less the imperial court during this period are often referred to as Nara Buddhism. With the health consciousness, move of the traveled poem, capital to health consciousness Heian (modern day Kyoto) two new forms of Buddhism emerged, Shingon and Tendai, which were founded by Japanese monks who had visited China. The Kamakura period (1192-1338) saw the rise of a distinctively Japanese form of Buddhism as a number of popular movements arose.

The earliest of these new schools are associated with Pure Land (Jodo) Buddhism and its veneration of Buddha Amida. Another important sect was founded by the path traveled poem Nichiren (122-1282) who identified true Buddhism with the Sakyamuni Buddha of the Lotus Sutra. The medieval expansion of Buddhism was curtailed in why was manifesto written the 14th - 16th centuries by the outbreak of national unrest and the subsequent destruction of a number of major centres of Buddhism. Buddhism suffered further as a consequence of the establishment of the path, military rule in the 17th century and cartoons farm animals, the concomitant complete cultural isolation imposed on Japan by its military rulers. The situation changed with the emergence of the Meiji dynasty in 1867, the the path traveled poem, acceptance of Shinto as the linguistic, official state religion and brief persecution of the path traveled, Buddhism. In the 20th century Buddhism has become open to the rest of the world. This has enabled Buddhist missionaries to travel abroad but at the same time has exposed Japan to the mixed blessings of westernisation.

Buddhism entered Tibet surprisingly late. Tibetan historians conventionally understand Buddhism to have entered Tibet in two waves: the first wave, which was sponsored by Tibetan monarchs, took place between the 7th and 9th centuries C.E., and the second wave occurred in the 10th century as a result of Tibetans travelling to India for religious education. It was during this later period that new texts were transplanted into Tibet and new orders were established. These orders are not based on distinct doctrines but derive from Global Market Case, lineages associated with early Buddhist masters (known as lamas). Buddhism in the West. In the 20th century Buddhism has spread well beyond its Asian origins and has become a global religion. An important early channel for the propagation of Buddhism was the World Parliament of Religions, which was held in Chicago in 1893. Among those attending was a Japanese Rinzai Zen master whose disciples established a number of Zen groups on the West coast of America. Buddhism was further disseminated through the writings of Buddhist scholars such as D.T. Suzuki in the path traveled the United States and Christmas Humphries and Edward Conze in the United Kingdom.

In the health, 1950s and traveled, 1960s the study of Buddhism became an integral part of higher education through the establishment of Religious Studies or Asian Studies departments. The establishment of Buddhist temples and centres for European and American converts or Asian immigrants has further strengthened the presence of Buddhism in the West.