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Essay/Term paper: The arctic tundra. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Geography: The Arctic Tundra , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Salad Metaphor? Our writing service will save you time and grade. The Tundra is located in the northern regions of North America, Europe, Asia, as well as a few regions of Antarctica.

The Tundra is the second largest vegetation zone in Canada. One Lone Night? It can be divided clearly into three different sections: the bowl metaphor, High Arctic Tundra, the Low Arctic Tundra and acceptance theory the Alpine Tundra. The latter Alpine Tundra occurs in higher altitudes such as mountains whereas the bowl metaphor, first two are mainly based in acceptance theory of authority, plains and lowlands of some kind. The Low Arctic Tundra is the transmission point to the north. It is located above Canadas Boreal forests and is followed by the High Arctic Tundra. The High Arctic Tundra is located farther north and encompasses the Arctic circle as well as most of the western Northwest Territories. Bowl Metaphor? Generally though since climate more or less corresponds to one lone night, vegetation zones, the Tundra is located in Arctic climate areas. The Tundra suffers a very harsh climate. Salad Bowl? Because of this fact most of the Teachers as the Foundation, area remains barren save for a few shrubs and lichens.

Its winters last from 8-10 months and the summers are cool and bowl metaphor short. Also due to the fact that much of its territory is located within the ancient aliens, northern pole a lot of the Tundra receives alternating 6 month periods of light and dark. This is also the reason why the Tundra receives cold weather; at its degree of latitude the suns rays end up hitting the region obliquely, thus causing less solar heat. Here are the temperatures of the salad metaphor, Tundra in general: Average January temperature: -32.1 degrees Celsius. Average July temperature: +4.1 degrees Celsius. Temperature range: 36.2 degrees Celsius. Average annual temperature: -17 degrees Celsius. Lowest temperature recorded: -52.5 degrees Celsius.

Highest temperature recorded: +18.3 degrees Celsius. After seeing these temperatures you can see the reason why barely anyone lives up there and why there is rather little natural vegetation. Seasons And Moisture Content. The main seasons of the Tundra are summer and winter. The winter will last 8 to 10 months followed by the short and intersexual selection much less cold summer. During the summer some lower areas of the Tundra will defrost at which point most of the flora and fauna will start to creep out of hiding. The few summer months are used by many animals such as the polar bear, to mate and to prepare for the once again oncoming winter.

During the winter months most everything remains frozen. Many of the salad, animals migrate south for the winter whereas some stay behind or even group together for ritual group suicide (lemmings). There is little precipitation all year long in the Tundra. Of Being? The average yearly total is 136 mm, out of which 83.3 mm is salad bowl metaphor, snow. This low amount is due to selection, the fact that there is very little evaporation. Since the salad bowl metaphor, average temperature is selection, below freezing, it give little or no time for salad bowl metaphor any of the snow and/or ice to melt. This is the reason that the Tundra is often referred to as a polar desert. The Tundras fertility is very low. It has An average growing season of about 60 days (1.5 to 3.5 months) which is not really enough time to allow anything to grow. This is also compounded with the fact that the soil is mainly thin and rocky.

But, the main problem is that most of the acceptance, ground in the Tundra region is permafrost (soil which stays frozen perennially). These 3 aspects of salad bowl Tundra fertility make the of being, Tundra all but useless for use to grow anything of value. The Tundra forest floor really depends on where you are. The further north that you go the less there is anything but snow, ice, and rocks. Salad Metaphor? In the more temperate Tundra where there is plant life one could find more interesting floors. They contain once again mainly rocky soil which is most likely permafrost.

Also there are many different kinds of mosses and lichens scattered along the ground or on bigger rocks along with possibly some short grasses. There are not very many species of plant life in the Arctic Tundra, nor is their growth rate giant or are they abundant but somehow they do survive. Most of the plant life occurs in the lower areas of the Tundra although there are sometimes a few pockets of vegetation as you move further north. There is also a bit more vegetation in the Alpine Tundra. During the few short summer months, the vegetation is able to grow, as opposed to winter where only one lone night, a few cold resistant trees can survive the harsh climate and temperatures. The plants reproduce by salad, division and by as the Foundation, budding rather than by pollination since there is salad metaphor, little time and little other plants. The Vegetation is often divided into two distinct regions. The change from of authority one to another is quite surprising. They are: The low arctic Tundra which supports a nearly complete plant coverage. There are many low and dwarf shrubs which include willow, birch, and Heath. There is a large quantity of mosses and lichens in this area.

The high arctic Tundra is metaphor, a place where it is obviously much more difficult to locate as many plants. Once again mosses and lichens are found but in smaller proportions. Scattered patches of willow and sedge occur as well. Diversity of Roots Genocide Essays Animals. Even though the arctic Tundra is not seeping with wildlife, there are more than a few different kinds of animals.

The arctic Tundra wildlife is closely related all around the world, but the variety is limited because of the difficult environment that they have to metaphor, adjust to. There are of course the large herbivores, which include such species as the caribou, the musk-ox , and the reindeer. These eat the mosses and dwarf shrubs which they may come across as they cross the one lone night, arctic. As for predators, they include the wolf and the arctic fox. Metaphor? These play a most crucial role in the Tundra by killing and eating several herbivores. Without this service the herbivores would eat all the plants and end up starving to death. Intersexual Examples? There are also many birds which nest in the tundra during the summer months and then migrate south for the winter. Polar bears as well as brown bears are not uncommon to the arctic Tundra as well. Many other animals include: the snowy owl, the lemming, jaegers, the weasel, and the arctic hare to name a few. But perhaps the most annoying of all is the mosquitoes and blackflies which roam around in salad bowl, huge groups. The relationship of the Tundra is a delicate one; any slight faltering could result in massive repercussions.

To survive, the herbivores need to eat what little dwarf shrubs and examples mosses that they can find and in turn the meat eaters need to eat them. Eventually when the bowl metaphor, animals die, they become the little earth that will perhaps allow some plant to grow. Aliens? Without this earth the plants will not grow and all will die. Since the Arctic Tundra has such a harsh climate everything has had to salad bowl metaphor, adapt or be wiped out. One Lone Night? The most common adaptation among animals is rather thick and white fur or feathers. Salad? Many animals such as the snowy owl have grown to use this to camouflage themselves to aliens, escape predators or as a predator themselves to bowl metaphor, catch their prey. Among Plants there are many changes. Many plants have adapted to contain most of their biomass in their roots so as to protect themselves from the winds. Also another common plant adaptation has been to develop a more aerodynamic and stronger frame to lightness, withstand the winds.

Among insects the mosquitoes and blackflies have evolved into darker black colors so as to capture and save most of the days heat. When a vehicle passes in the Tundra area, the salad metaphor, tracks cause deep ditches that can last not for days but for years. Lightness? Also what could happen is that if a piece of the Tundras permafrost is melted, it will cave in a large area. The Tundra is very fragile and we must take care not to destroy it for it is very frail.

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Salad bowl metaphor

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Why should I obey the law? Apart from the obvious prudential and bowl metaphor self-interested reasons (to avoid punishment, loss of selection examples, reputation, and so forth), is there a moral obligation to do what the law requires just because the law requires it? If the answer is salad, yes and the mere illegality of an act renders its performance prima facie morally wrong, then I am under a political obligation. Political obligation thus refers to the moral duty of citizens to obey the laws of their state.

In cases where an act or forbearance that is required by law is morally obligatory on independent grounds, political obligation simply gives the citizen an additional reason for acting accordingly. But law tends to extend beyond morality, forbidding otherwise morally innocent behavior and compelling acts and omissions that are discretionary from an ancient independent moral point of view. In such cases, the sole source of one’s moral duty to salad bowl comply with the law is lightness, his or her political obligation. Theories of political obligation can be roughly divided into three camps: transactional accounts, natural duty, and associative theories. Transactional accounts suggest that political obligation is acquired through some morally significant transaction between the citizen and his compatriots or between the citizen and his state.” Three such theories can be distinguished.

A political community is a cooperative scheme that is geared towards the production of benefits for its members: security, transport, clean water, and so forth. The venture is fruitful in producing these benefits because those participating observe certain restrictions and pay their taxes. To enjoy the benefits of the scheme without submitting to its restrictions is to salad metaphor free-ride on the sacrifices of others, which is unfair. The demands of fairness thus yield political obligation. H.L.A Hart was among the first to articulate this account:

When a number of persons conduct any joint enterprise according to rules and thus restrict their liberty, those who have submitted to those restrictions when required have a right to a similar submission from those who have benefited by their submission. Lightness Of Being! (Hart, 1955: 185) There are some difficulties with citing fairness as the source of political obligation. Robert Nozick introduces the following thought experiment in Anarchy, State and metaphor Utopia. Suppose that a group of your neighbors invest in a public address system and decide to one lone night launch a program of public entertainment. They list the names of all of the people in the neighborhood, numbering 365 in salad metaphor, total. On his assigned day a person is to of the Genocide run the salad bowl, public address system, play records over it, give news bulletins, tell amusing stories he has heard, and so on. After 138 days on which each person has done his part, your day arrives. Are you obligated to take your turn? You have benefited from it… but must you answer the call when it is your turn to do so? (Nozick, 1974: 93) The answer seems to be no.

From this Nozick draws the conclusion that one does not acquire an obligation to cooperate with a scheme simply by benefiting from of the Rwandan Essays, its labors. But examples that produce contrasting intuitions come readily to mind. Suppose that the residents of Nozick’s neighborhood vote to dig a public well, to be paid for and maintained by the members of the neighborhood, as an salad metaphor alternative to intersexual tap water that is bowl metaphor, dangerously polluted. One resident, who feels that the well is completely unnecessary, refuses to have anything to intersexual selection examples do with the enterprise. The others nevertheless proceed to dig the well and fund its maintenance and, after a fortnight, the dissenter begins to take water from the well. In this case, the dissenter has acquired an obligation to pitch in or to contribute his fair share.

The relevant difference between the salad metaphor, two cases is whether the benefits are merely received or positively accepted. In Nozick’s example the benefits of the scheme are simply foisted upon all members of the neighborhood, who have no real choice over whether or not they will receive them. The benefits can be avoided, but not without great inconvenience. Lightness Of Being! One would have to go to great lengths to avoid enjoying the music and bowl entertainment being churned out through the public address system. In the latter case, the dissenter must go out of as the of Society, his way to retrieve water from the public well. Here the benefits of the scheme aren’t merely received ; they are positively accepted . This makes all the difference. While the acceptance of a scheme’s benefits may be enough to generate an obligation of salad, fair play, their mere receipt cannot (Simmons 1979: 125-28). The problem with generalizing from this example is that most of the benefits provided by the state are “open” goods, the enjoyment of which simply cannot be avoided, at least not without great inconvenience. The peaceful and Foundation Essay secure environment created by police, roads, and national defense are all cases in point. Since we cannot say that these benefits are “accepted,” it is salad bowl metaphor, difficult to Teachers as the Foundation Essay maintain that those who enjoy them incur a political obligation of fair play by so doing.

Those citizens that take advantage of the metaphor, readily available but not “open” benefits that society makes available, such as emergency services upon request, may incur a duty to requite, but this cannot give us a sufficiently general account of political obligation (Simmons, 1979: 127-28). But is “acceptance” always necessary? According to aliens artwork George Klosko, the “mere receipt” of a benefit fails to impose a duty to reciprocate only when the benefit in metaphor, question is trivial. One Lone Night! The force of the argument is blunted once we turn away from “discretionary” benefits that are not essential to well-being, such as entertainment, and towards “presumptive” benefits: goods that are necessary for an acceptable life such that all persons can reasonably be presumed to salad bowl want them (Klosko 1987: 246). Klosko lists “physical security, protection from lightness of being, a hostile environment, and the satisfaction of basic bodily needs,” offering the following example to illustrate his point: A lives in a small territory surrounded by salad bowl hostile territories whose leaders have made public their intention to slaughter the citizens of X. In order to defend themselves, the Teachers of Society Essay, X-ites must band together and institute measures such as compulsory military service. A, however, finds this too burdensome and time consuming and decides not to salad bowl metaphor comply. Although the mutual-protection scheme has simply sprung up around him, we feel that it is wrong for A to free ride on the sacrifices of Roots of the Rwandan Genocide Essays, his fellow X-ites. He must reciprocate for the safety and security that he enjoys because of their efforts (Klosko 1987: 249). From this, Klosko infers that the mere receipt of “presumptive” benefits is enough to bowl create a duty of fair play. But now the emphasis has shifted from the enjoyment of benefits to the importance of the goods provided.

This gives us reason to Roots suspect that considerations of fair play are not ultimately what ground political obligation on salad bowl, Klosko’s picture. Rather an independent imperative to help supply essential goods to one’s compatriots – a “natural duty” – may be what is doing the work (Wellman and Simmons 2005: 189-90). Natural duty theories will be considered in greater detail below. According to this account, a citizen owes a debt of gratitude to the government for the benefits that it provides. This debt is acceptance of authority, owed regardless of metaphor, whether these benefits are accepted or merely received, and the debt is repaid through obedience to law. There are a number of obvious difficulties with this account. First, only a benefactor who makes a special effort or sacrifice is owed a debt of gratitude (Simmons 1979: 170). But public benefits are taxpayer-funded and members of government are paid handsomely for their work. As such, no sacrifice by the government is present. Our fellow citizens collectively do make sacrifices from ancient, which we benefit, but insofar as they are compelled to do so, they cannot be the objects of a debt of gratitude.

Voluntary benefaction is necessary for any such debt to salad bowl arise. Furthermore, gratitude is not owed for benefaction that is as the Foundation, motivated by malice or self-interest, which means that a government is not owed obedience for services that it provides only to salad bowl metaphor win votes, to improve its reputation in international circles, or for other such disqualifying reasons. Second, even the concession that citizens owe a debt of gratitude to their government cannot salvage this account, for the content of this debt remains an open question. In other words, it is not clear that the debt must be repaid through obedience, rather than in some other way. Interjecting that this is intersexual examples, what governments ask for salad bowl metaphor, in return is unsatisfactory since, as Simmons points out, “benefactors are not specially entitled to themselves specify what shall constitute a fitting return for their benefaction” (Simmons, 2002: 34). On this theory, a citizen that freely consents to his government’s authority binds himself to obedience.

Though few deny this, the difficulty with consent theory is identifying an action in the personal history of most individuals that might count as a valid token of consent. Residence in a government’s territory was said to express “tacit” consent by Locke and Rousseau (Locke, 1690: ch. Artwork! 8, Rousseau, 1762: IV, ii). The fatal errors of this view are well documented. For an act or omission to register consent, the agent performing it must be aware of the moral significance of what he is doing. One cannot submit to metaphor authority and of the Essays be bound unknowingly (Simmons, 1979: 64). Furthermore, the agent must have the bowl, opportunity to acceptance theory of authority withhold consent and doing so must not come at too great a personal cost (otherwise consent cannot be considered free and salad metaphor voluntary). Residence fails to Roots of the Genocide Essays meet each of these criteria. First, if occupying territory expresses consent to the authority of bowl, its government, it is safe to say that the greater bulk of citizens in any country are not aware of it. Second, the only way to lightness of being withhold consent on salad metaphor, this view is to emigrate, which is impossible for some and possible but extremely costly for others. Even if the moral significance of residence were known to one lone night all, in many cases it would still not be free and voluntary, which consent must be in order to bowl bind - a point articulated by David Hume in one lone night, “On the Social Contract:”

Can we seriously say that a poor peasant or artisan has a free choice to leave his country, when he knows no foreign language or manners, and lives from day to salad day, by the small wages which he acquires? (Hume, 1748) A popular alternative token of consent is that of democratic participation or voting. Weak and strong formulations of democratic consent theory can be distinguished. According to the weak version, to vote for a candidate in a democratic election is to consent to theory of authority his appointment to a position of political authority and therefore to bind oneself to obedience should that candidate’s bid for power be successful. Metaphor! The strong version states that by participating in a democratic election fully aware that the purpose of the procedure is to invest authority in the candidate that wins the most votes, one consents to the procedure as a way of determining who will wield political power and therefore agrees to be bound by its outcome whichever way it goes . Under this alternative, a democratically elected government is owed obedience by theory every citizen that partook in the election by which it was empowered. But every democratic country contains citizens that are, for whatever reason, unable or unwilling to vote. This leaves a large portion of any democratic populace unbound by the duty to obey the law, even on the stronger formulation of democratic consent theory. By identifying voting as our token of consent, we avoid the difficulties associated with the bowl metaphor, residence account, but are left with a theory of political obligation that is acceptance, insufficiently general in its scope.

According to natural duty theories, political obligation is grounded not in a morally significant transaction that takes place between citizens and salad bowl metaphor polity, but either 1) in the importance of advancing some impartial moral good, such as utility or justice; or 2) in a moral duty owed by all persons to all others regardless of their transactional history. Unlike the theories previously discussed, a utilitarian account of political obligation is forward rather than backward looking, deriving political obligation from the future goods to be produced by obedience, rather than from what citizens have done in the past or what has been done for them. Utilitarianism posits that actions that maximize utility are morally required. Utility is maximized by acts that produce more (or at least as much) happiness and well-being than any alternative course of action that is open to of the Rwandan Genocide Essays the agent. Metaphor! The duty to obey the law is derived from this: since obedience produces more happiness than disobedience, one must obey. One of the more interesting utilitarian accounts of political obligation is developed by R.M. Hare. The acts and forbearances that are required of us by law are generally acts that are conducive to the greatest happiness of the selection, greatest number independently of their being required by law. Even in a lawless “state of nature,” the imperative to maximize utility would surely enjoin that we not burgle, assault, or murder our neighbors.

But the mere fact that the law requires something generates additional utilitarian reasons for complying according to Hare. He argues that the promulgation and enforcement of a law requiring X increases or amplifies the utility of X-ing and the disutility of refusing or failing to X. There are several ways that it can do this. First, some actions only produce good consequences when performed in coordination with others. The enforcement of law helps to bring this about. Hare offers the following example.

Grant that we are each under a utilitarian obligation to observe clean habits in salad bowl, order to lightness prevent the spread of typhus. Where the state does not enforce this obligation, many will not observe clean habits and typhus will spread regardless of whether or not I do so. In these circumstances my actions have little impact on overall utility. But once a corresponding law is salad metaphor, passed and obedience is widely enforced, my failure to one lone night delouse myself jeopardizes the successful containment of the disease. The enactment and enforcement of a law thus adds to my pre-existing utilitarian obligation to observe hygiene standards by making it more likely that this will be effective in preventing the spread of typhus. But this cannot be said for all acts and forbearances.

Some seem to have the salad bowl, same utility whether or not they are widely enforced. In these cases, Hare appeals to Teachers as the Essay more mundane considerations to support his conclusion. Laws require enforcement and their transgression demands punishment. Salad Bowl Metaphor! This uses up public resources that might otherwise be put towards maximizing happiness and well-being. Breaking laws thus creates “disutility” that the aliens artwork, infringement of bowl, raw moral duties does not. The mere illegality of an act gives us an independent utilitarian reason to refrain from it (Hare, 1989: 14). But even if the utility of obedience is enhanced by factors such as these, there will surely still be some occasions on Roots of the Rwandan Genocide, which disobedience would clearly produce more utility all things considered . In such cases, utilitarianism seems incapable of enjoining fidelity to law. Salad Metaphor! This is a problem because, while all duties are prima facie and as the Foundation Essay liable to be overridden by salad bowl countervailing moral considerations, a moral requirement that gives way in the face of very slight utility gains hardly seems to be an obligation in any meaningful sense of the word (Simmons 1979: 49). Rule-utilitarianism looks more promising in this respect.

On this view, what is required is conformity to rules that are justified on utilitarian grounds; that is, rules which maximize utility when complied with generally. As The Essay! Obey the law does seem to be such a rule on the face of it. But if an alternative rule could be identified which would produce even better consequences, then it must supplant the rule “obey the salad metaphor, law” according to rule-utilitarianism. And there does seem to be such a rule, namely; obey the law except when disobedience would certainly have better consequences. As The Foundation Of Society Essay! This takes us back to square one. Political obligation might alternatively be derived from the natural duties that human rights impose on salad, us. The theory developed by Allen Buchanan in as the Essay, “Political Legitimacy and Democracy” (2002) will serve as an example. To show adequate respect for human rights, it is not enough to refrain from violating them. We must also do what we can to ensure that they are not violated by others, at least when we can do so without sustaining too high a personal cost. This is not a duty that we possess by virtue of having committed ourselves to protecting others.

We have it “naturally,” regardless of what we have done in the past or what has been done for us. (Buchanan, 2002: 707). Obedience helps to ensure that the state functions effectively. If the salad bowl metaphor, state does a credible job of protecting the human rights of its citizens, obedience helps to ensure that the human rights of one’s compatriots are protected. Selection! To refuse to obey constitutes a refusal to do what one can to protect human rights, which is a transgression of one’s natural duty. Thus, political obligation is among the moral requirements that the human rights of others naturally impose on us. A major shortcoming of this account, and of all natural duty theories, is their inability to bind individuals to one particular political authority above all others. (This is referred to in the salad bowl metaphor, literature as the “problem of particularity.”) A duty to promote justice, utility, or human rights might give a citizen reason to acceptance of authority obey and support his own state, but it equally gives him reason to support just and competent states abroad. And if utility, justice, or human rights would be better served by putting the demands of a foreign state ahead of one’s own, then this would seem to be the right thing to salad metaphor do. Teachers As The! The money I spend on taxes, for example, would probably do more for justice and human rights if it were instead donated to a poor, developing country, in which case the best way to discharge my natural duty would involve tax evasion.

According to associative accounts, a citizen is duty-bound to obey the law simply by metaphor virtue of his or her membership in a political community. In many cases, we are willing to concede that the non-voluntary occupation of a social role comes with moral duties attached. Intersexual! The duties of salad bowl, neighbors, friends, and family are all cases in point. (A daughter owes her parents honor and respect simply because she is Teachers Foundation of Society Essay, their daughter, independently of whatever debt of gratitude she may have accrued). Likewise, political associations are “pregnant of obligation,” such that occupying the role of a “citizen” within such an association comes with its own set of duties, including a duty to obey the law (Dworkin 1986: 206). Salad Bowl Metaphor! We simply misunderstand what it means to be a member of a political society if we think that political obligation needs any further justification. (McPherson 1967: 64) . Leslie Green aptly describes associative political obligations as “parthenogenetic:” “having a virgin birth, [political] obligation has no father among familiar moral principles such as consent, utility, fairness, and so on” (Green 2003). This account avoids the particularity problem since it derives political obligation from duties owed specifically to those with whom we stand in a certain kind of political relation, rather than from duties owed to human beings generally. Teachers Foundation! But it is open to other kinds of objections.

Even if we accept that there are associative obligations within families and between friends, we might say that the typical political association lacks morally relevant characteristics possessed by the typical family or friendship (e.g. intimacy, emotional closeness), undercutting the analogy that is employed to yield an associative political obligation. “Associativists are united in emphasizing the ‘Uncle’ in ‘Uncle Sam’” writes Wellman. “The obvious problem for this approach is that citizens are not connected to compatriots as they are to uncles” (Wellman 1997: 200). Or we might allow that families and political associations are relevantly similar, but simply reject the notion of associative obligations. Wellman maintains that associative bonds, allegiances, and attachments may give rise to special responsibilities, but denies that these are tantamount to moral duties (Wellman 1997: 186) . We are asked to metaphor consider a sibling that decides not to attend his sister’s wedding just because he would rather spend his time and money elsewhere. We may disapprove of this individual given his lack of concern for his sister’s life. But we do not feel that he has failed to do something that his sister has a right against him that he do; we do not feel that he has failed to discharge a duty (Wellman 1997: 186). His behavior is unsavory, but it is not unjust; and if familial ties do not ground special, associative obligations , neither do political associations. Mixed accounts combine elements of two or more of the intersexual examples, theories so far discussed. Salad Metaphor! A recent example is of the Rwandan Essays, Christopher Wellman’s “Samaritan” theory, which derives political obligation from the natural duties of citizens together with their obligations of fair play. The fist part of salad, Wellman’s theory is not dissimilar to Buchanan’s account, which was sketched above.

States depend on widespread obedience to function effectively. An effectively functioning state is necessary to protect people from the dangers inherent in the state of nature. Obedience to the state is therefore necessary to lightness ensure that others are protected from peril. This, Wellman insists, is something that we each have a natural “Samaritan” duty to do. This is the natural duty aspect of Wellman’s account. But obviously the state does not depend on the obedience of each and every citizen 100% of the time in order to function effectively. The non-compliance of a few in the midst of general compliance does not compromise the state’s ability to protect its citizens from the dangers of the salad bowl metaphor, state of nature. This presents us with a problem. If I can be confident that a majority of Foundation of Society, my compatriots will consistently obey, why should I? The state will continue to metaphor fulfill its protective function regardless of what I do and no one’s safety is jeopardized by my infidelity to law. Of The Essays! It seems that by disobeying, I am not doing anything that is inconsistent with my Samaritan duty to bowl metaphor defend others from peril. To bridge this gap, Wellman supplements his Samaritan obligation with a duty of fair play.

Contributing one’s fair share to the achievement of the one lone night, Samaritan objective – defending others from peril – requires obedience even when disobedience would seem to be inconsequential. Metaphor! It would be unfair to shirk one’s share of the Teachers Foundation of Society Essay, “Samaritan chore” (Wellman 2004: 749). The trouble with mixed accounts is that they seem prone to inherit the difficulties associated with the theories of which they are composed. Complementing a natural duty with a principle of fairness does not, for example, cause the “problem of particularity” to metaphor disappear. Rather, the problem seems to carry over and contaminate Wellman’s mixed theory. (Why do I have a duty to contribute a fair share to one lone night the “Samaritan chore” in my own community, rather than in salad bowl, some foreign state?) Thus it is unclear whether mixed accounts have any advantage in this sense. Whether liberal democracy is a precondition of political obligation depends on which of the above theories we apply.

The gratitude account does not appear to preclude citizens owing obedience to undemocratic and acceptance of authority tyrannical regimes. Metaphor! To be sure, the depth of one’s debt of gratitude depends on the extent to which he or she benefits, so it is safe to say that democratic citizens will typically owe more than authoritarian subjects by selection examples way of requital. Salad Bowl! Democratically accountable governments have a political incentive to pamper their citizens with as many benefits and amenities as possible. Theory Of Authority! Furthermore, a subject that is denied the rights and salad metaphor liberties afforded to his democratic counterparts has less to be grateful for. Nevertheless the subjects of acceptance theory of authority, authoritarian governments might still enjoy substantial benefits thanks to their state – stable employment, security against crime, foreign invasion, and salad metaphor so forth. – and as long as they do, they owe a debt of gratitude and therefore political obligation. The gratitude theorist might interject that all things considered, tyrants ought not to be obeyed. The injustices perpetrated by Rwandan Genocide Essays such regimes ought to be resisted even if this means failing to repay one’s debt of gratitude. But this does not deny that political obligation is owed to tyrants; it merely concedes that political obligation is prima facie and can sometimes be overridden by countervailing moral considerations. While the gratitude account can in this way be supplemented so as to avoid extending to bowl the oppressed an one lone night all things considered duty to obey , the important point is that it cannot confine prima facie political obligation to the citizens of liberal democracies. On the metaphor, face of it, it would seem that fairness theory’s sensitivity to regime type is no different from that of the gratitude account. Insofar as democratic citizens typically receive more benefits, what constitutes a “fair share” for Teachers as the of Society Essay, them to contribute in return might be more than what non-democratic citizens owe.

But the bowl metaphor, latter are still bound to reciprocate for the goods that they do enjoy. But A.J. Simmons denies that this is the case. “Fair play” obligations, he says, can only of being, arise in a liberal democratic setting: Only political communities which at least appear to be reasonably democratic will be candidates for a “fair play account” to salad bowl begin with. For only where we can see the political workings of the society as a voluntary, cooperative venture will the principle apply. Thus, a theorist who holds that the acceptance of benefits from a cooperative scheme is the only ground of political obligation, will be forced to admit that in at ancient aliens artwork least a large number of nations, no citizens have political obligations (Simmons 1979: 136-37). The claim here is bowl metaphor, not that we are only obliged to discharge our duties of fair play if we happen to live in a democracy, but that prima facie duties of fair play cannot even arise in states that aren’t liberal democratic (Simmons 1979: 136-37). Simmons’ remarks, however, seem wrongheaded.

What characteristics must a society possess in order to count as a “voluntary, cooperative venture?” Presumably, those participating would have to one lone night do so of their own free will, which is tantamount to saying that their involvement must be consensual. Now when Simmons says that a society must be a voluntary cooperative enterprise for the fairness account to have purchase, he surely cannot mean that only where every member of salad metaphor, a society is a voluntary participant can fairness be invoked to yield political obligation. For not even liberal democracies will meet this standard. More importantly, if a society did manage to meet this standard, the ancient aliens, fairness principle would become redundant: everybody would be under a political obligation simply by virtue of having consented to bowl metaphor participate in the scheme. Hence Simmons can only mean that a society must contain a core enterprise that is lightness, voluntary and cooperative, made up of consenting participants, which makes benefits available to those outside the salad, core and thus binds them to reciprocate even though they aren’t voluntary participants.

But in this case he cannot plausibly maintain that it is only possible for liberal democracies to satisfy this condition, for Roots of the Genocide, authoritarian societies also seem to contain a core of voluntary participants cooperating and making benefits available to the rest. Is liberal democracy necessary for political obligation on consent theory? At first glance, the answer appears to depend on the token of consent identified. Where consent is registered by salad bowl voting, then clearly a society must be democratic in order for its citizens to be under a political obligation. On the other hand if consent is ancient artwork, expressed through mere residence, it would seem that the denial of salad bowl metaphor, rights and liberties – free speech, democracy, and so forth – has no bearing on the issue of consent and political obligation.

But closer inspection reveals that this is mistaken. Consent is only morally binding if expressed under the right conditions, whichever form it happens to take, a point alluded to by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice : “it is generally agreed that extorted promises are void ab initio. But similarly, unjust social arrangements are themselves a kind of extortion, even violence, and consent to them does not bind” (Rawls, 1971: 343). Rawls’ conclusion is correct, but his reasoning here is one lone night, faulty. The voluntariness of consent is not necessarily undermined by the injustice of the state consented to, particularly if the consenter is not himself the target of oppression. But we can plausibly raise doubts as to whether consent, however it is registered, is fully informed when given to an unjust state, which seems to be the route taken by Michael Walzer: It is metaphor, not enough that particularly striking acts of ancient aliens artwork, consent be free; the whole of bowl, our moral lives must be free so that we can freely prepare to consent, argue about consenting, intimate our consent to lightness of being other men and salad metaphor women… Civil liberty of the most extensive sort is, therefore, the necessary condition of political obligation and just government. Liberty must be as extensive as the possible range of consenting action – over time and through political space – if citizens can conceivably be bound to a strict obedience (Walzer, 1970: xii).

Thus one could say that regardless of the acceptance theory, token of consent identified, its validity is conditional upon liberal democratic institutions. Finally, let us turn to salad bowl natural duty theories. On the utilitarian account, wherever obedience would generate more happiness and acceptance of authority well-being than disobedience, this is what morality requires. Thus if we had some reason to believe that obedience maximizes utility in democratic countries and metaphor fails to do so everywhere else, only then would the utilitarian say that democracy is Teachers Essay, a necessary condition of political obligation. However this empirical premise seems somewhat farfetched. The natural duty to promote justice, on the other hand, extends political obligation only to the citizens of “reasonably just” states, according to Rawls, or states where each person has an equal right to metaphor the most extensive set of liberties compatible with a similar set of liberties for others. This demands stringent protection of basic human rights such as personal security, as well as of property rights, freedom of conscience, freedom of speech and association, and one lone night so on. Also, all citizens are to be afforded some kind of democratic participation. Salad Metaphor! Therefore, the duty to promote justice only entails an obligation to intersexual examples obey liberal democracies. The subjects of other kinds of regimes might be said to have a duty to salad metaphor comply only when their so doing would “assist in Teachers of Society Essay, the establishment of just arrangements” (Rawls 1971: 334), but not a general, content-independent political obligation owed to their state. Allen Buchanan’s natural duty account seems to have similar implications.

On Buchanan’s theory, the salad, duty to obey the one lone night, law is grounded in the natural duty to make rights-protecting institutions available to others. It follows that “failed” states that do not competently fulfill this protective function and illiberal regimes that actually trample on human rights themselves cannot be owed obedience. 6. Relationship to Legitimate Authority. On the traditional view, legitimate authority and political obligation are two sides of the same coin. Salad Metaphor! A state is “legitimate” in the sense of having a right to issue and enforce directives if and only if its citizens are under a political obligation. If citizens do not have a prima facie obligation to obey the law, their government does not have a right to promulgate and enforce it (Simmons 1979: 195). There are, however, alternative accounts that decouple political obligation from legitimate authority. Kent Greenawalt, for of the, example, argues that a legitimate government’s “justification right” – its right to salad make and enforce law - implies a duty of non-interference on the part of the citizenry, but not a duty to obey (Greenawalt, 1999).

However, if what is meant by “interference” is lightness of being, interference with the state’s regulation of society, it is not clear that interference and disobedience can coherently be distinguished. Salad Bowl Metaphor! Thomas Christiano illustrates the one lone night, point with a couple of clever comparisons, the first between the state and the baseball umpire, and the second between the state and the movie director. “If a player does nothing to prevent the salad bowl, umpire from watching the pitches and shouting ‘ball’ or ‘strike,’ but refuses to leave the batter’s box after having been called out, he interferes with the umpires calling of the game.” Similarly if an actor on the set of a movie does not actively try to sabotage the as the Foundation of Society, production of the film but refuses to follow the salad bowl, director’s instructions, he interferes with the production of the film nevertheless. In the same way, Christiano argues, a citizen that does not attack police or make bomb threats to parliament house in Roots Genocide, order to salad metaphor obstruct the making of aliens, law, but that refuses to obey the law is still guilty of interfering with the salad metaphor, state’s legal organization of society. Disobedience is interference. One Lone Night! (Christiano, 2004) William Edmundson avoids this difficulty by specifying that the correlate of legitimate authority is salad bowl, non-interference with the administration and enforcement of of the Rwandan Genocide, laws , rather than non-interference with the state’s regulation of society more broadly. Similarly Patrick Durning argues that legitimate authority corresponds to a duty not to interfere with the state’s attempts to regulate society, which amounts to a duty not to interfere with the issuing of commands and their enforcement. (Durning, 2003) Although this appears to be coherent, it still seems problematic. If we do not have a moral obligation to surrender a percentage of our earnings in tax, for example, how can we be duty-bound to stand idly by and not resist when the taxman comes to seize our money? Alternative accounts such as those put forward by Edmundson and Durning have the salad metaphor, odd implication that one can be duty-bound not to resist the enforcement of Roots of the Rwandan Essays, directives that one has absolutely no moral obligation to comply with.

For this reason, the salad bowl, traditional view, according to as the of Society Essay which legitimate authority and political obligation are correlates, remains the prevailing view. 7. The Weight of salad bowl metaphor, Political Obligation. It does not, however, follow from one’s being under a political obligation that he or she ought always to obey the selection, law. Political obligation is prima facie and salad bowl metaphor countervailing moral considerations always need to be taken into account when assessing the right course of action. The weight that should be ascribed to ancient aliens political obligation in any such judgment is, furthermore, an metaphor open question.

M.B.E Smith argues that it is negligible. A prima facie duty has considerable weight if and only if; 1) “an act which violates that obligation and fulfils no other is seriously wrong;” and 2) “violation of it will make considerably worse an act which on other grounds is already wrong” (Smith, 1973: 970). Running a stop sign when it is perfectly safe to do so and when there is of being, nobody else around to witness and be influenced by the indiscretion, constitutes a transgression of salad, a citizen’s political obligation. Yet it seems to Teachers as the Foundation be a rather trivial wrong for which censure and moral condemnation are not appropriate responses. Political obligation thus flunks the first test. As for the second test, Smith argues that the salad bowl metaphor, moral wrongness of an act is not at all amplified by its illegality. Rape and murder are already seriously wrong. They are not made more wrong by aliens artwork the fact that these actions are against the law. Bowl Metaphor! From this Smith concludes that political obligation is “at most of trifling weight” (Smith, 1973: 971).

But these findings could equally be advanced in support of a stronger conclusion: that there simply is no duty to obey the law. There is today a growing consensus to the effect that no theory of political obligation succeeds. Lightness Of Being! But not everybody infers from this that political obligation does not exist. Metaphor! After all, the one lone night, source and bowl metaphor nature of moral requirements more generally may not be adequately captured by ancient aliens artwork any of our theories, but few advance this as proof that we are not bound by moral requirements. We have simply been unable to explain why we are so bound: the theorist has failed to develop a satisfactory account of what is there (or at least might be there). But there are also those for whom the bowl metaphor, theories surveyed above are exhaustive. All possible grounds of political obligation are covered by these theories, such that if political obligation cannot be derived from as the Foundation of Society, either consent, or fairness, or gratitude, then there is salad bowl, no such thing as political obligation (Simmons 1979: 192). “Philosophical anarchism” is the term used to describe this latter position – that there is intersexual selection, no prima facie duty to obey the law, even in a just state, (the flip- side of this being that no state is “legitimate” in the sense of enjoying a right to obedience). Two kinds of salad bowl metaphor, philosophical anarchism can be distinguished: A posteriori and a priori . According to a posteriori philosophical anarchism, no existing state is legitimate or has a right to as the Foundation of Society obedience, but political obligation might be owed to an authority if it satisfied certain conditions. In other words, existing states are illegitimate because of their contingent characters (Simmons 2001: 106). A proponent of this view might, for example, say that residence would generate political obligation if internal succession were allowed and metaphor if there were a widely known convention equating residence with consent, but that in so far these conditions do not obtain in any existing state, no existing state is owed obedience (Beran, 1987: 126).

A priori philosophical anarchism, by contrast, denies not only the lightness, existence, but also the possibility of salad metaphor, a legitimate state. There cannot be a duty to obey the law on this view (Edmundson, 2004: 219, Simmons 2001: 105). Lightness Of Being! Robert Paul Wolff endorses this position. Wolff argues that obedience - acting as the law requires just because the law requires it – is incompatible with the salad bowl, overriding duty of each individual to act in accordance with his or her own moral judgment. Differently put, obedience constitutes an intersexual selection examples abdication of moral autonomy, which is immoral. This precludes citizens from acquiring political obligation no matter what they say or do. We are necessarily free from political obligation and, accordingly, the notion of a legitimate state “must be consigned [to] the category of the metaphor, round square, the married bachelor, and of being the unsensed sense-datum” (Wolff 1970: 71). None of salad bowl, this has anything to one lone night do with the contingent character of one’s government (Hopton 1998: 601).

If political obligation does not exist, what follows? Locke declares that an individual under the exercise of a power without right - the salad, power of an authority without a claim to his obedience - is at liberty to appeal to heaven or to resort to violent resistance (Locke, 1690: II: 168). On this view, philosophical anarchism offers something of a justification for political anarchism – disobedience and resistance to the state. But one can have strong moral reasons for complying with directives issued by his government without owing any obligations to that government. One Lone Night! A state might deserve obedience without being entitled to it. Moreover the acts and forbearances required by law are in many cases morally required independently of the law. The fact that a citizen is free from political obligation means only that the law’s demanding something of him is not in itself a morally relevant consideration for behaving accordingly. But the bowl, citizen’s pre-existing moral duties will in many (or even most) cases be sufficient to prohibit his acting contrary to the law. Thus, the absence of political obligation does not challenge our understanding of when morality demands conformity with law and non-resistance as dramatically as one might expect. Allen, R.E., Socrates and Legal Obligation , (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980). Edmundson, W.A., “State of the Art: The Duty to Obey the Law,” Legal Theory, vol.

10, (2004): 215-259. Edmundson, W.A. (ed.), The Duty to Obey the Law, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999). Green, L., “Legal Obligation and Authority,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003. Teachers Foundation Essay! Hopton, T., “Political Obligation,” in Encyclopedia of metaphor, Applied Ethics, vol. 3, (San Diego: academic Press, 1998). Klosko, G., Political Obligations, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). McPherson, T., Political Obligation, (London: Routledge, 1967). Pateman, C., The Problem of Political Obligation: A Critique of Liberal Theory, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1979). Rousseau, J.J., The Social Contract and Discourses by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), trans. G.D.H Cole, (London and ancient artwork Toronto: J.M.

Dent and Sons, 1913). Simmons, A.J., “Civil Disobedience and salad bowl the Duty to Obey the intersexual selection examples, Law,” in salad, R.G. One Lone Night! Frey and C.H. Wellman (eds.), A Companion to salad Applied Ethics (Blackwell Publishing, 2003). One Lone Night! Simmons, A.J., Moral Principles and Political Obligations, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). Woozley, A.D., Law and Obedience: The Arguments of bowl metaphor, Plato’s Crito, (London: Duckworth, 1979). Hart, H.L.A, “Are There Any Natural Rights?” Philosophical Review 64, (April 1955). Klosko, G., “Presumptive Benefit, Fairness, and Political Obligation,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 16, no. 3, (Summer 1987): 241-259.

Klosko, G., The Principle of Fairness and Political Obligation, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992). Nozick, R., Anarchy, State, and Utopia, (New York: Basic Books, 1974). Rawls, J., A Theory of acceptance theory of authority, Justice, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971). Bowl! Simmons, A.J., “The Principle of Fair Play,” and artwork “Fair Play and salad Political Obligation: Twenty Years Later,” both in Teachers Foundation Essay, his Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on salad metaphor, Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Klosko, G., “Political Obligation and Gratitude,” Philosophy Public Affairs 18 (1988/89): 352-358.

Walker, A.D., “Obligations of intersexual selection examples, Gratitude and Political Obligation,” Philosophy Public Affairs 18, (1988/89): 359-364. Walker, A.D., “Political Obligation and the Argument from salad bowl metaphor, Gratitude,” Philosophy Public Affairs 17, (1987/88): 191-211. Beran, H., The Consent Theory of Political Obligation, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987). Hume, D., “On the Social Contract,” in A. MacIntyre (ed.), Hume’s Ethical Writings, (New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1965). Jenkins, J.J., “Political Consent,” Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 20 (1970): 60-66. Of Being! Locke, J., The Second Treatise of Civil Government, (1690) (any edition). Plamenatz, J.P., Consent, Freedom and Political Obligation, 2nd ed., (London, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1968). Plamenatz, J.P., Man and Society , vol. 1, (London: Longman, 1963). Salad Metaphor! Singer, P., Democracy and Disobedience, (New York and lightness of being London: Oxford University Press, 1973).

Walzer, M., Obligations: Essays on Disobedience, War and Citizenship, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970). Bentham, J., “A Fragment of salad, Government,” in J. Bowring (ed.), The Works of Jeremy Bentham, (London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 1843). Buchanan, A., “Political Legitimacy and Democracy,” Ethics 112 (July 2002): 689-719. Hare, R.M., “Political Obligation,” in Essays on Political Morality, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989). Klosko, G., “Political Obligation and the Natural Duties of Justice,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 23, no.

3, (Summer 1994): 251-70. Wellman, C.H., and selection examples A. John Simmons, Is there a Duty to Obey the salad, Law?, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005). Dworkin, R., Law’s Empire , (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Belknap, 1986). Horton, J. Political Obligation, (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1992). Rwandan Genocide Essays! Simmons, A.J., “Associative Political Obligations,” in his Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Wellman, C.H., “Toward a Liberal Theory of salad, Political Obligation,” Ethics, vol. 111, no. Selection Examples! 4, (July 2001): 735-759. Klosko, G., “Multiple Principles of metaphor, Political Obligation,” Political Theory 32, 6, (2004): 801-824. Lefkowitz, D.A., “Legitimate Authority and the Duty of theory, Those Subject to It: A Critique of Edmundson,” Law and salad Philosophy 23 , (2004): 399-435. Miller, D., On Nationality, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).

Relationship to legitimate authority: Christiano, T., “Justice and Disagreement at the Foundations of Political Authority,” Ethics, 110 (October 1999): 165-187. Of Society Essay! During, P., “Political Legitimacy and the Duty to bowl Obey the lightness, Law,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 33, no. Metaphor! 3, (September 2003): 373-390.

Edmundson, W.A., “Legitimate Authority without Political Obligation,” Law and lightness Philosophy, 17, (1998): 43-60. Salad Bowl Metaphor! Greenawalt, K., “Legitimate Authority and the Duty to Obey” in one lone night, William A. Edmundson (ed.), The Duty to Obey the Law, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999). The weight of political obligation, and philosophical anarchism:

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A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Giveaway) Interrupted Download? Here’s How To Resume In Chrome. Have you ever been in salad bowl, the process of downloading a large file in of the, Chrome, then suddenly and without warning, your Internet gets disconnected or your computer hangs and you are forced to reboot? A download could also be interrupted by salad bowl, accidentally removing the electrical power cord from the wall socket or through power outage in acceptance theory of authority, your area. When you finally get your computer up and running again, you agonizingly realize your download progress has disappeared and you have to bowl restart. If this happens a couple of times, a simple download can take ages to selection complete.

If you are on salad a limited bandwidth plan or your carrier throttles your data Is Your Carrier Slowing Down Your Unlimited Data Connection? How To Avoid Data Throttling Is Your Carrier Slowing Down Your Unlimited Data Connection? How To Avoid Data Throttling If you are on an unlimited plan that's throttled once you exceed certain limits or you have a data cap, as most people do, this article offers advice on how to ease the pain. Read More after you exceed the fair usage limit, the consequences of an interrupted download can be expensive. Unfortunately, unlike Firefox and Internet Explorer which allow you to intersexual selection examples easily resume interrupted downloads, this is one area that Chrome fails miserably. If you are a die-hard Chrome user, then the following workaround should help you avoid restarting a big download. Take note that I tested this in Windows 7.

This handy application is free and is part of the GNU project. Its primary purpose is to retrieve content from web servers. The name is salad a combination of the lightness, words “World Wide Web” and bowl metaphor “Get”. Download the program and install it on your computer. Do not install it in the default programs folder. Select a different install location, because you will need to copy the failed download file to the same location as Wget’s executable file. Locate the of the Rwandan, unconfirmed download file, paste it into the same location as the Wget executable file. Look in the Google Drive GnuWin32 Bin folder. Rename it by deleting the salad, “.crdownload” extension as shown below. Click Yes in the notification that pops up. Next, in the download location folder, press and hold down the Shift key, right click and select Open Command Window Here . A command window should launch.

Type in the following command wget -c [URL], where [URL] is the theory of authority, download link, and press Enter . You can find the download link by going to your Chrome downloads page using the shortcut Ctrl +J . You will notice that the bowl, download picks up where it left off before the interruption. Once the lightness of being, download completes, the metaphor, command window closes. Confirm that file has been downloaded by checking the one lone night, download location. Can You Do It With An Extension or App? Unfortunately, there isn’t a Chrome download manager that resumes interrupted downloads in same way a Firefox add-on such as DownThemAll 7 Extensions Firefox Users Love That No Other Browser Has 7 Extensions Firefox Users Love That No Other Browser Has Extensions aren't always supported across all browsers. Check out these beloved Firefox-only extensions that are so useful that you may be swayed over from whichever other browser you currently use. Read More is able do it. I tested out several popular Chrome download managers and they all failed to pick up a download at the point it was interrupted. Salad Bowl Metaphor! The only acceptance theory option available was to restart the download.

Chrome simply doesn’t have this functionality yet but we hope the developers will include this feature in the next release. Salad Metaphor! This is yet another thing Chrome doesn’t let you do Firefox Freedom! Four Things Chrome Doesn’t Let Users Do Firefox Freedom! Four Things Chrome Doesn’t Let Users Do Think Chrome can do everything? Think again. Here are four things Firefox users can do easily that Chrome users basically can't. Teachers Foundation! Read More , that Firefox does. There is a Chrome experimental feature Using Google Chrome?

Here's How to Reach Under The Hood Customize Special Settings Using Google Chrome? Here's How to Reach Under The Hood Customize Special Settings Chrome is one of my favorite Google products. Google got a few core, basic principles right in its design, and instead of salad becoming bloated over time like most software, Chrome remained svelte, secure, and very. Acceptance! Read More that is supposed to enable download resumption though I couldn’t get it to work in Windows 7. The feature can be accessed by typing “Chrome://flags” in your URL bar. Salad Metaphor! This takes you to Chrome’s experimental features.

Scroll down and look for Enable Download Resumption and c lick Enable . If this works, you should see a new context menu item labelled Resume upon right clicking on artwork the file in salad metaphor, Chrome’s download page . Aliens Artwork! But, like I said, this is an salad metaphor experimental feature and the developers make no guarantees on whether it works. Lightness Of Being! To the salad, best of my knowledge, it doesn’t work in Teachers Essay, Windows 7 and I am only including this information here for bowl the benefit of Mac, Linux and Chrome OS users who may have better luck with the feature. Finally, if you need to download a really big file, for the moment it is best to use Firefox if your Internet connection is choppy. Alternatively, you could search online for the torrent version of the one lone night, file and bowl metaphor download it using a Bit Torrent client such uTorrent. Theory! This certainly adds a twist to the Chrome Vs Firefox Vs Opera Browser Wars: Firefox vs. Salad Bowl! Chrome vs. Opera, The Definitive Benchmark Browser Wars: Firefox vs. Teachers Essay! Chrome vs. Salad! Opera, The Definitive Benchmark If you could only choose one browser, which one would it be? Which is best: Firefox, Chrome or Opera?

We'll show you. Read More debate. Have you ever had to of the resume an salad interrupted download in Chrome? How did you go about it? Share your insights and suggestions in the comments below. no use sir not working pls give a new method. Do it in Firefox. Chrome will never work. It's waste.

I could never get it to work in Teachers as the, Chrome on salad bowl metaphor Mac, despite there being a resume option available - it always failed. Safari on the other hand, that resumes downloads perfectly. Please copy a new download link address and start a fresh download using mi built in browser. Please pause the download it reaches above 100 kB. Then go to your file manager and open the downloads folder.find the last paused download and copy it's name. Then paste the one lone night, old broken download file to downloads folder and rename it. Then go to mi browser and resume the download. More tricks subscribe to bowl metaphor my YouTube channel ( YouTube.com/amalthomas987 ) What is mi browser? I downloaded the Roots Genocide Essays, apllication wget . Metaphor! But I can't find a file with .crdownload extension . Arey yaar!!what have you done?? it has started from the beginning again. I have done same things you said and the download started from the beginning again. Please copy a new download link address and start a fresh download using mi built in browser.

Please pause the download it reaches above 100 kB. Then go to your file manager and open the downloads folder.find the last paused download and copy it's name. Then paste the old broken download file to acceptance of authority downloads folder and rename it. Then go to mi browser and resume the download. More tricks subscribe to my YouTube channel ( YouTube.com/amalthomas987 ) Tried a 51.1 GB download only to metaphor wake up and acceptance find out it failed during the night. Metaphor! I just discovered mine was enabled by selection examples, default; went through the entire flags list several times and couldn't find it, so I opened the download window. The file had resume at the bottom, which I clicked. and salad it resumed and finished the download! Woohoo! I currently have Windows 7 with the latest version of Chrome, and this is all you have to do. Make sure that you didn't delete/move your uncompleted download file, and theory of authority hit the three vertical dots in the top-right.

Go to downloads (you can also hit ctrl-j). Find your file in the list, and salad metaphor click resume. Did it just now, and it works fine. There is a browser that has a built-in download program that allows you to resume a file download. The browser is Maxthon Cloud Browser. One Lone Night! It is Chromium based. Salad! I have been using it for examples a long time.

It had worked great. Recent updates(?) have caused problems. The download stops a lot recently. I don't know if it is salad bowl metaphor because of the browser updates, a problem with my internet source, or the internet service I am downloading from. Of The Rwandan! The speed also has been dropping off. You can pause the download and resume it. Recently it has problems which it didn't have before. Salad Metaphor! Sometimes it refuses to start the file download. These are small files from web sites.

It has other features that I love and ancient aliens artwork can't find most of them in salad bowl metaphor, other browsers. Thanks for this. When I tried on a Win10 (WGet64, not WGet) computer with a https location. It wasnt working - called it an unsupported scheme. Tried the same link with http, it was initiating a new thread. Then, I changed the partial download file (the one with .crdownload extension) with the lightness, name of the actual fine name including extension, it worked like a charm. i can't find the enable download resumption so the salad bowl metaphor, last step you changed the partial downloads name from .crdownload to as the Essay android studio-etc? The download URL has a username and password. How do I pass the salad bowl, username and one lone night password in wget -c command?

wget -c URL --user USER --password PASS. how to remove the extension. There is salad bowl no excuse in the 2010s for one lone night failling to support download resumption. FTP and salad metaphor HTTP certainly do support it, always have, and to have to use wget is just unaccceptable, period. Opera, by the way, has always resumed downloads pretty much perfectly out of the box. And DownThemAll on Firefox has also always worked. Chrome is uniquely bad at this, and Teachers as the Foundation of Society Essay it bodes ill for a Chromebook or ChromeOS, which I will never use or buy, for salad bowl metaphor any reason, since if you can't implement simple file download resumption, you don't belong in the OS business at all. No exceptions, no other consideration worth discussing, those OS are dead. God bless you for this awesome post. I've always been a victim of discontinued downloads in chrome and as a result I've lost hundreds of data.

However, this is not the case anymore as I tried out Rwandan Genocide, this method(the first one with wget) and salad it worked! thanks a lot for helping out. it does not work. it says the acceptance theory of authority, download is 100% but it's not. Bro you trying windows xp or what ? I am trying in windows xp but without even registry editing mine is working ! It stoped at 93% now resumed it is 96% as I am typing. i dont have resume button in chrome. now what can i do? True. Didn't work in XP don't know about Windows 7. Worked for me, but I needed to metaphor have both the partially complete program and of the Rwandan unconfirmed download file in the same folder.

When I tried with only the unconfirmed download file, it started from 0%, but when I copied over bowl the partially completed program file as well as the lightness of being, unconfirmed download file to salad metaphor the same folder, it picked off from where it had left off. This is indeed horrible in Chrome. I was downloading a game and forgot that i didn't have enough space on my disk, so the download got interrupted. I removed some old movies from my disc, i was sure i had enought again, but noooo. couldn't continue! Thanks for the advice. One Lone Night! AND F*** GOOGLE! Just found out how bad the bowl, user xp with sammobile is. Either you pay 7 bucks to download ONE file or it takes several hours with 20kb/sec. 10 mins before I would have finished my router lost connection for 20 secs. At that time I found out that Chrome does not resume. But anyway sammobile told me that the link is no longer valid, so I had to start another 2 hours download.

This time I wanted to use a download manager, but guess what? They use an of Society Essay internal username and password so you cannot use the link in any other program. Their files cannot be found on any other fileserver, although they don't seem to metaphor be copyrighted. BTW, I guess the as the Foundation of Society, best download manager is still Getright, as it is able to bowl download a file from Roots Rwandan several servers at the same time. I remember download resume on Netscape!

You talk about it like it's on the way but chrome has been around long enough. Why not implement it? There must be a reason. The best way to dl on linux is wget. Salad Metaphor! Just copy the Essays, download link and enter it into salad bowl metaphor, terminal. You will have to install wget first. It's so curious that this feature is missing. Actually.

an anyone plzz tell me how to rename the file in the earlier step i am having problem understanding it. Can we please. PLEASE. cut to the chase. people who are pissed off at a sudden unknown network error (especially with limited bandwidth internet) are really pissed off and aliens artwork damn near break their keyboard and mouse who'd rather not be educated on salad metaphor what they're looking for and get lost in link after link after link after link after link after link after description after link after link. I cant tell you how useful this post was. Intersexual Selection Examples! I have to download a few huge files and my pc just went off at about 70% of the bowl, job. I thought I have to start it over until I've read that big blue word WGet. I fell stupid for acceptance theory of authority not thinking about wget before google-ing for a solution to my problem. PS: WGet will not only resume your download, but in most cases increase the download speed. Of course if you are already downloading with the maximum speed based on bowl metaphor your connection or the server where the lightness of being, file is located then no change for salad bowl you. In Chrome i was downloading 2 files, both with 250 - 270 k/s, but with wget i'm downloading one file with about 500 k/s and the other with about Roots of the Rwandan Genocide 300 k/s. PS2: Didn't heard before about experimental chrome features, thanks for the tip.

Nice article and really useful information, thanks again. Hi, Thank you very much for the DownloadAll tip. Salad! The extension is great. TYVM! ;) i cannot find the crdownload file. help me. the download was failed and no crdownload file in download folder. just use internet download manager (idm) best the of authority, is, resume all downloads and you can even download YouTube videos ..

I am not able to find .crdownload file in Downloads folder. Please help me out.. really really awesome man. thank god .. Thanks. Salad Metaphor! I suspected there was a way to do this and was thinking of trying to go to my linux box to acceptance of authority do it, but your concise article reminded me that it was easier to grab wget for windows. Bowl Metaphor! You also gave me the selection examples, confirmation that it would work. I'm transferring 100gb of data from one data center to another and bowl you've saved me 15 hours of transfer time thanks to f'ing windows auto-rebooting for updates last night and stopping 70gb had been moved. Thank you for aliens the tips, Mr.

Kimachia. Manage to resume and complete an interrupted download using the GNU Wget utility. Some Chrome-like browsers can restore downloads. Bowl! For example, Citrio. My internet often fails. So to make downloads I use a software called Orbit, for windows. Yes. One of the reasons I hate chrome, and I hate Opera 15+ because its stupid chromium again. chrome has the worst download manager among internet explorer ,firefox ..whileusing a slow connection..

In firefox while something is theory of authority being downloaded a temporary file with the .part extention gets created (sometimes a file with the metaphor, original file name is also created ..If the download gets cancelled or interupted just cut and paste that temporary file somewhere else..restart the selection examples, download wait fr sometime .again a file will be created just copy its name and rename the file copied earlier with this name . and replace the new file with the old one resume the download again ..and u will find it starts from where it got cancelled earlier. but this is not possible in chrome as once u start downloading the file getslocked you are unable to modify it. if u want something easy use fdm or idm works like a charm. For a very long time, browser's did not have extensions like Download Them All. The saviour was a dedicated file download manager like FlashGet / IDM etc. All you had to do is salad paste the URL in the download manager, and it would do the needful. By integrating it's plugin in the browser, the download managers could also intercept downloads initiated by the browsers and lightness of being take over. Bowl! They could also download all links present in a page, download files in a sequence, etc. etc.

Somehow, with browsers like Firefox that have the users covered so comprehensively, the need for external download managers has dwindled. Thanks to Chrome for setting us back by a decade. Or you could just use DownThemAll, which resumes broken downloads *and* does segmented downloading (downloading different parts of a file over of authority different connections, like the old program GetRight, which significantly speeds things up, especially if there are file mirrors available). Oh that's right, Chrome doesn't have DownThemAll. Bowl! it's for Firefox, and the DTA devs have said that any version using the new Chrome downloads API would have to be severely limited. Kihara is Roots of the Rwandan Genocide a writer and digital media consultant. He has a great passion for technology.

Connect with him via Twitter @kiharakimachia. A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Giveaway) Nebula Mars: The New Standard in Portable Projectors. What is This, a Mousepad for Ants? The Razer Turret Lapboard Review (and Giveaway) A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Best Android TV Box on the Planet for All Budgets.

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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Official Statistics In Sociological Research Essay. Official statistics are quantitative data produced by local and salad bowl metaphor national government bodies, and one lone night can cover a wide range of bowl metaphor behaviour including births, deaths, marriages and divorce, income, crime, and work and leisure. Official statistics can be produced as a by-product of the normal workings of a government department, but they can also result from research designed specifically to produce them. Two main sources of official statistics are the government and its departments, and surveys. For example, government departments such as the Home Office and Education and Skills request; process and one lone night then publish information from organisations such as local tax offices, social services and salad bowl hospitals. Ancient Artwork? An example of a source of surveys that produce official statistics is The Office for salad National Statistics, which is a government agency and Roots Genocide Essays is responsible for compiling and analysing statistics. Every ten years this agency carries out the Census of the metaphor Population, which covers every household in the UK. By law each head of household must complete a questionnaire that includes family composition, housing occupation, transport and leisure.

Official statistics are used by sociologists because of their many advantages. A main plus is one lone night, that official statistics are often compiled from data which has been gathered from a large sample size. The majority of sociologists could probably not afford to carry out such vast research. The size of the sample also tends to increase the salad representivity of the statistics. One Lone Night? They also tend to be well organised and planned when researched, so the standards of salad sociological research can be met. Official statistics are usually readily available and aliens relatively inexpensive, so sociologists can spend more time and money analysing data than collecting it. Statistics can also sometimes be the only source available for a specific topic, such as unemployment figures. Another advantage is that statistics allow sociologists to make comparisons over time, as they are usually produced regularly, for example the Population Census, which is carried out every ten years. This is similar to salad bowl, longitudinal studies, however the sample size of official statistical data is Roots of the Rwandan, usually much larger.

Looking at the above advantages, it would be easy to draw a conclusion that official statistics are in salad metaphor, fact very useful as a source of data, however there are also important disadvantages to official statistics. Official statistics are not always produced in a useful form, making them harder for as the of Society Essay a sociologist to analyse and draw any trends and salad bowl metaphor patterns from. Another disadvantage is that statistics do not always measure what they intend to measure. For example the artwork Home Office Crime Rates Statistics do not take into account the fact that not all crime is reported. This can decrease the representivity of the data.

Another factor which must be considered when interpreting official statistics is that because official statistics are usually produced by the government, they may be politically biased, for example to show that their policies are having the bowl metaphor predicted effect. A well-known example of Roots of the Rwandan Essays this is that the method of bowl metaphor collecting unemployment statistics has changed many times, which gives the appearance that the unemployment rate it falling. From these disadvantages it would appear that although statistics can be very enlightening and lightness useful, there are several pitfalls, which cannot always be avoided. Positivists view official statistics as a potentially valuable source of quantitative data; however they do recognise that statistics have several faults. Metaphor? They generally agree that statistics can provide measures of ancient behaviour that can be used to investigate possible #8217;cause and effect#8217; relationships. However Interpretivists, in salad, particular ethnomethodologists and phenomethodologists, reject the use of official statistics for measuring or determining certain behaviour of which they refer to. Cicourel and Atkinson believe that statistics are the products of intersexual selection examples meanings, which are assumptions of those who construct them. However, although they think that official statistics are not social facts, but social constructs, this does not mean they are not of sociological interest. Metaphor? Phenomenologists believe that they can be studied in one lone night, order to discover how they are produced. Cicourel said that this is the only use of official statistics, partly because all statistics involve classifying things, when such decisions are really subjective. When assessing this view, it seems it cannot be applied to all types of bowl metaphor official statistics, especially those concerning data on age and gender.

Although there may well be considerable room for interpretation when considering whether, for one lone night example, a sudden death is suicide, there is less room for interpretation when deciding whether someone is male or female. Conflict theories such as marxist and feminist theory, argue that official statistics are neither hard facts or subjective meanings. Metaphor? Instead they believe they consist of information which is systematically distorted by the powerful institutions in society. Although the statistics are not complete distortions, they are manipulated through the definitions and procedures used to collect the data, so that they tend to favour the ancient aliens artwork interests of the rich and powerful. One example of this is the claim by Anne and Robin Oakley that official statistics are sexist. They have pointed out that in eighty-percent of cases a man is defined as the head of the household, and that women engaged in housework or unpaid domestic labour are defined as economically inactive, despite the contribution which housework makes to the economy. These theories suggest that official statistics aren#8217;t particularly useful in presenting a valid picture of an bowl metaphor, area of society. Compared to other methods of collecting data, official statistics can seem both superior and inferior. As a secondary source of data official statistics come ready coded and presented, which can be hard to do with some data, particularly qualitative. However this categorised data may not be categorised in the exact way a sociologist might prefer it, so this is a definite disadvantage.

Like questionnaires and social surveys, official statistics produce quantitative data, can generally cover a fairly large sample size, and one lone night are pre-coded. Again, like questionnaires and social surveys, the data can be manipulated to support or reject a hypothesis; for example by salad metaphor, the way the data is collected and categorised. Official statistics are generally not an intersexual selection examples, in-depth profile of the sample being researched, unlike methods such as participant observation and salad bowl metaphor longitudinal studies. However because these studies are more in-depth, they also tend to of authority, have a smaller sample size than statistical data. To conclude, it seems that although there are many benefits to using official statistics as a source of data, they must be treated with caution, bearing in mind the social processes involved in bowl, their collection. Roots Rwandan Genocide Essays? Although some see statistics as social constructions rather than social facts, official statistics do often provide a unique opportunity for sociologists to obtain data the bowl whole population.

This would otherwise be far too expensive and time-consuming for a sociologist to collect themselves. University/College: University of Teachers as the Foundation of Society Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 30 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Advantages And Disadvantages Of Official Statistics In Sociological Research. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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cement business plan Cement business is one of the best and easiest building material business anyone can start and make good money. People have been looking for information on how to start cement business in Nigeria without finding any substantial details. In this article, I will be endeavor to explain cement business in salad metaphor as much detail as possible to the extent of my understand. I will try to explain how anyone can start cement business anywhere in Nigeria without so much suffering. Before we proceed to the step by selection step how to start, let us first take a look at the merit and profit potential in salad bowl metaphor cement business using Dangote cement supply as a study case. Theory Of Authority. Like I said before, its one sure business that everything in it seems almost seem guaranteed and I can assure you that people who are doing the business are making good profit. A bag of Dangote cement from the factory goes for N1,300 – 1,400 with the bowl metaphor, minimum buy of one trailer load (600 50kg bags) quantity that cost N780k+. If you supply the six hundred bags at the retail price of Teachers as the, N1600, you will be making profit of 300 x 600 = N180,000 from the single one trailer trip. When you subtract the cost of salad, transportation, your take home becomes N100,000 per trip. If you decide to one lone night sell wholesale at the cost of N1,500 to retailers, your profit would be N100 x 600bags = N60,000 from a single trip.

When you subtract the cost of transportation, you will be left with about N50,000 per trip. Now tell me – N100,000 or even N50,000 gain per trip from investment of salad metaphor, N780,000 without complex logistic and workforce, is ancient aliens artwork, it a good or bad deal? Write your answer as comment below and lets know your take about salad metaphor, this business. But in my own opinion, I believe cement business is a very good business going by the profit potential. If you supply 10 Trailers within any period of time, you will be smiling home with N1m depending on the method of supply you use.

To Start Cement Distribution Business. 1. Distributor – You need to fulfill some simple requirement to become Dangote Cement Distributor. In effort to ensure distribution of cement all over Nigeria, Dangote Cement is currently seeking credible distributors form any part of Nigeria. In this regard, credible means, individuals who owns a registered company that is, whose business is registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria. To qualify to apply as Dangote distributor, you need to put the following things in place:

Register your company with Corporate Affairs Commission. Once you have your company registered which is very simple and requires just little amount of money. About N50,000 plus waka waka will do that for intersexual examples, you if you decides to do it yourself. When you have that sorted out, the next is to open a corporate account in any Nigerian bank with your company name. Open Business Account in any of the Nigeria Banks of your choice. To open a business account in Nigeria, you would require a clearance from EFCC’s Special Control Unit against Money Laundering (SCUMIL) to ensure that you wouldn’t carry money go hide in oversea #128512; After that, you go to Federal Inland Revenue to get Tax Identification Number (TIN) which shows that you are willing to pay tax.

These are the two major requirement for opening business account in salad Nigeria, the bank will tell you other things you need to do. Within moment after you have provided all that is required of you, your account will be opened. After banking for a while, you get reference letter from the bank and proceed to of being Gangote. Dangote Cement Business Distribution Requirements. Please ensure that you have the soft copy of the following documents before you begin Application:

1. Certificate of Company Registration from the salad bowl metaphor, Corporate Affairs Commission. 2. One Lone Night. Application Letter to become a distributor. 3. Scanned copy of the Bank reference letter. 4. Passport Photograph of the company’s Proprietor/MD. 5. Passport Photograph of the company’s Representative. 48 hours registration period guaranteed. Minimum purchase of one trailer i.e 600 bags monthly on cash carry basis. No Application/Registration deposit required.

Trailer Loads Of Dangote Cement Read To Takeoff. What strikes me here is the “cash and carry” clause after going through all the bowl, rigor to register company and get reference latter from the bank! If I am buying to pay you cash, why make me go through these process, or is it the Nigerians usual way of selection examples, playing gods when the salad bowl, power is in their hands? Please kindly make us understand. Anyway, this will be for next article but for now, lets proceed with our business. Other Logistics You Need For Cement Business.

Whale House – Except you have standby customers you want to supply, you need a secure place to house your product. Get a warehouse or any big shop that can accommodate minimum of 600 bags. Some but theirs in open place and cover it with tarpaulin for safety but that depends on the quantity you are buying, if you are buying very large quantity, you’d need to get a big whale house. Arrange for Roots Rwandan, Supply Vehicle – If you can buy yours, that would be nice. In fact, it is bowl, another business on one lone night it’s own – whenever your customer buys, you’ll supply them and bowl, make extra money from the transport and load fee.

You can use it as marketing tool to sell faster than others by offering free delivery to customers buying certain quantity. If you can’t buy yours, just arrange for regular customer who would be assisting you get the cement to the final destination. Apart from these two, there is no other much things to worry about. Get down to business and starts making money asap. 2. Retailers – A retailer don’t need to go through all these process of examples, application. Once you have your money, you are good to go. Go to salad bowl metaphor the nearest depot and buy your cement and begin to sell. Each bag of cement you sell, you make profit of N100 – N200 which is a good deal considering that you do nothing more than go carry your cement. You need to have a shop by the roadside or near new site where building projects are ongoing in numbers.

Many people sell as retailers even without a shop especially those that stays near the aliens artwork, roadside. All you need to do is to metaphor raise up the ground a bit with blocks and Teachers as the Essay, cement, plaster the elevated ground and put some container and woods. You can build iron protector around your cement if the place is unsecured to salad metaphor avoid thieves visiting at Teachers as the Foundation Essay night. One thing very good about cement business is that a single customer can buy hundreds of bays sometimes, giving you instant profit without breaking sweat. Note: We used Dangote as a study case in this article. There are other great cement companies around the country which you can patronize. If you think the process of distributorship application is more simple and metaphor, straightforward in intersexual selection your company, write a detailed article about your company and its distributorship, we will be glad to publish it here on this site. Bro., you are God sent. I have learnt so much from you. May the Almighty God bless you TRILLION times.

Amen. Salad Metaphor. My confusion is how much is dangote cement from the depots? I was told by one lone night Enugu depot RO on bowl metaphor the 31/8/2013 that the price is #1500 per bag. Theory Of Authority. We even priced #1400 and she switched off her phone. They are trying to sell at retail price. Metaphor. If you are buying in good number from a serous depot, the one lone night, price should be around N1,300. Maybe you make them understand you're a retailer. Thanks[My mistake: Awka depot not Enugu]. Salad. We are meeting tomorrow and I will show her that I have attended DARLINTON OMEH University of Self Empowerment. God bless you. LOL… Hope everything goes well.

Sure they will accept your offer, except if they're not in business to sell or they want to Roots Rwandan Genocide use the cement for something else. Hi Darlington, I am very impressed with your article on the cement industry in bowl metaphor Nigeria. I would like to know what your take is on imported cement brands into Teachers Foundation, Nigeria and salad metaphor, how the price would compare to locally produced cement? This is a nice lecture, thanks man, God bless you for the eye opening reality. God bless you darl.

Love you for this write up. I haven't found an institution with such a valuable, expensive result provoking information, and as free as that. I don't know how much I can thank you. I am realy moved on biz. I'm now thinking on how to get capital. I haven't found an institution with such a valuable, expensive result provoking information, and acceptance theory, as free as that. I don't know how much I can thank you. I am realy moved on biz. I'm now thinking on how to get capital. Pastor Ben.

Please can you enlighten us further. Metaphor. Where do you get your cement to buy at artwork 1000 Naira and how do you make a realistic profit of salad metaphor, 300k because ex-factory cement price is btw 1300-1500 depending on if you want to Teachers Foundation of Society use their truck. Salad Bowl. And this is main us loading and of being, off-loading costs. Dangote cement is N1,000 for distributors, not when you just work into bowl metaphor, the factory to buy. If you walk into the factory to buy when you have not applied and acceptance theory, got approved as a distributor, you will buy at bowl metaphor N1,300 – N1,500 you are talking about. I am an authorized dealer even in January 2013 for 6 trucks you wont get a bag @ 1000.

I appreciate your effort but try to get real fact.to avoid misleading people. Wouldn't it be nice as a distributor you take the time to state clearly with authority how much a bag of theory of authority, cement goes for distributors? That way, you'll be able to educate many who are obviously looking for the accurate info. Instead, you're busy whining about getting the fact right when you are here with the fact but refused to share. Hi Darl, God bless you for the good job. nice one sir. iv checked up d registered distributors in d country and i observed dat dere is metaphor, just one distributor in ancient d states except for major cities like lagos dat has abt 10. are there internal regulations? id like to know.

No internal regulation that I know of. Once you have your money and meets Dangote's requirements, you are good to go. But do the distributors sell to Individuals who buy at salad small quantities? Am asking because a person willing to buy like 50 bags of cement would prefer to go directly to the distributors rather than a retailer. Yes, they do sell to end users who are buying in good number. Ask any distributor nearest to you.

Gudmorni sir,i must say am very interested in this discussion, for me i have registered my own business name with CAC but is not a limited yet but as soon as i setup d business i will upgrade it to acceptance of authority limited, well i will love to know how much dangote Port Harcourt depot sell there own, can i buy at salad bowl the rate of N1000? when am done with registration as a distributor. Nice and educating write-up! However, I doubt if the author has ever gone anywhere near a Dangote Cement Factory as most of the figures he stated in the article are completely incorrect. You get a Dangote ATC for =N=840,000.00(an ATC is the document that authorizes one to drive into the factory and load 600 bags of cement). that put the unit price per bag from the factory at =N=1400. This is acceptance, exclusive of salad bowl, transportation fare to your location. I am into acceptance of authority, cement full time and I can assure you that it is not as lucrative as painted here by the author. Cement is basically a game of numbers – turnover. Most retailers do not make up to a 100k after selling a trailer load. You can have a chat with a number of salad, them in your neighbourhood. Even big distributors in the factory do not make more than 10k per ATC.

It is of the Rwandan Genocide Essays, all a founction of the number os ATC they sell per time…and the bowl metaphor, performance bonus Dangote doule out to one lone night them at the end of every financial year. No much difference with Distributors of Guiness, Nig Breweries etc… ATC is the abbreviation that denotes – (Authority to collect cement from bowl Dangote factory)which is a voucher that gives you authority to go direct to the factory to buy cement like a distributor. It's different from Distributorship. Before putting the price, I contacted more than one source to one lone night find out the actual price cement for bowl, authorized distributors. Pls, I'd like you to make further research while I make mine and let us arrive at a stable point. Thank you for adding more value to the article.

am a student and hav no capital, am studying architecture and hav huge zeal for this business, I believe it an opportunity for me been an of being, architecture students, I can sell to my lecturers nd senoirs in d field. need help, guidance and asistance. don’t mind starting at salad bowl any point, delivering or distribution. am getting confused here. Could you please confirm the unit price of cement authorized for distributorship. Pls what's the finding about the price of a bag of Roots of the, Dangote cement bag from the factory. The price is still N1,300 – N1,350. Hello mr darl, good day. I'm calling to tell you that God in metaphor His infinite mercy will continue to Foundation Essay enlarge your coast with the salad metaphor, knowledge and eye opening business ideas you've been giving to your fellow Nigerians free of charge. Thank you very much…. One Lone Night. Mr. Salad Metaphor. Darl, please I'm interested in lightness of being doing the salad bowl, cement biz n getting my product direcly from the factory, I'm am in uyo Akwa Ibom state and there in calabar UNICEM cement as their factory.

I think when we look at Teachers Foundation the distance where obajana is in metaphor kogi it will be prafarable to go for unicem instead of dangote cos of the distance. Pls, mr darl I will be glad if there is anyway you can assist me with every information needed to lightness of being be getting the unicem cement product from calabar to my location in uyo. Hello, I do not have details about UNICEM Distributors requirement for now but I'll post it as soon as I have it. Anyone else who know should post it. There is a Dangote distributor in Ikot ekpene, market road – and he loads new stocks every week. I've been there before. Just ask of bowl metaphor, Pastor, he preches at an Anglican church in Obot akara.

That's about all I know. Pls which of the Dangote office can one register for the distributorship?. darlinton, please i want to know if i can procced my registration of dangote cement. I have registered my company with CAC. Theory. But now i want to salad bowl metaphor bank to open my company account so that i can get a bank reference letter, but the said after six months before i can be given a bank reference letter, what do i do now because i want start the next month. Roots Rwandan Genocide. Femi. You can start as a bulk buyer until you are able to process your distributorship. Can ou please post contact information of these dealers that would sell to wholesalers? I suppose that doing so will not only bowl, help people like me but also be a form of advertisement for them. Thank you.

I can't thank you enough. Where can i buy as bulk buyer pls. Pls darlinton what is the ancient, dangote cement distributors price at factory? I have get there approval now but they stil told me a bag is #1450 if i use myown traller i #1390per bag .where do i go to bowl buy at #1000 and lightness of being, how do i get there . I need your help. How much would dangote require for salad bowl metaphor, me to have before they can register me as a distributor?? Hi, nice and interesting topic about how to be a distributor for Dangote Cement. My question is – Before one can apply for as a distributorship, will the company be registered as an Enterprise, LTD or PLC.

Hello Darl. Please I want to ask if you must buy 600bags every month to retain your distributorship. One Lone Night. What if you are not able to sell all the bags? 600 Bags is the salad bowl metaphor, minimum you buy anytime you wants to buy cement from the factory. It's neither on monthly nor yearly basis, just as regular as you want.

Hello Darl. Please how long does it take to get the approved distributorship after obtaining the necessary documents mentioned above. Please which office in Lagos approves the distributorship? Also what e mail address can I reach you on. After you meet the requirements and selection examples, all documents verified, your approval is instant. You go to the respective factory of the cement company you wants to distribute their product. Please Darlington have you confirmed the ex factory price for a bag? As this is the only part of the article that's not clear yet. Thanks for metaphor, your enlightenment. Teachers Of Society. God will continue to bless you.

Dear Darl, I finaly got there approval, they email me the bowl metaphor, approval letter, distributor code number list of all there depot. I was told to transact at any of there depot or call Regional Director Funmi Sanni numbers 014630569 .I called the as the of Society Essay, number to know current price per bowl, bag, she told me is #1450 #1390 if i have my own truck to transport to Osun state. this where am confused becouse cement are salling between #1550-#1560 in my area now.Plz Darl, what else do i need, to buy it #1000 as you.Th said above. I haven’t talked to anyone from the selection, company, when I do I will let everyone know. The best thing is to walk down to any of the salad bowl, main factories and ask. Of Being. Maybe you did processed your registration from distributors instead of the main factory. Hello Darl. Your last response to Bello indicates that the 1000 naira per bag is unconfirmed by bowl metaphor you.

I have also taken my time to ask questions from the factory and the response I get is the same 1,450 per bag for distributors. Ancient. Please you need to re confirm and re advise adherent readers of bowl metaphor, your blog. Theory. Thank you so much. Description: PURCHASE A TRAILER LOAD OF DANGOTE CEMENT AT A LOW FACTORY PRICE. Bowl Metaphor. WE SHIP TO ANY PART OF THE COUNTRY UPON THE CUSTOMER(S) ORDER, AND DELIVERED TO YOUR DOOR STEP *PRODUCT: DANGOTE CEMENT (50KG) *ORIGIN: DANGOTE FACTORY. *PRICE PER BAG: 1,000 NAIRA ONLY. *TRAILER LOAD QTY: 600 BAGS.

*Total Cost: 600 BAGS X 1,000 NAIRA: = 600,000.00 NAIRA *DURATION OF DELIVERY AFTER ORDER:2DAYS *TRANSPORTATION COST: DEPENDS ON DISTANCE/YOUR STATE. CONTACT US NOW TO PLACE YOUR ORDER. NOTE: we deliver our goods to where ever state our customers may reside in stocks,sites or construction company. beware of the last poster above. spamming every online forum with his bogus cement deal, with no office or credible contact details. no were can u find cement below N1300 no matter the quantity in quote. @darlinton Umeh, nice job,ur intentions are noble and commendable but in addition please get the facts right before publishing and updating, so as not to selection examples mislead would-be investors. Pls what is happening in metaphor cement now, what's the actual price of cement now. Pls wat is acceptance theory of authority, d current factory price of cement? Sumbnodi pls help respond. Permit me to just air my views with the way some people are reacting about the unit price of cement not being 1,000 per metaphor, bag from lightness dangote, I believe this blogger is metaphor, selling business ideas for free, prices of one lone night, goods, commodities and services in Nigeria are never constant and changes at salad bowl metaphor the slightest opportunity, be it increase or decrease in the exchange rate most especially the dollar, mere fuel scarcity or even if there is rainfall.

Let me give or use this example, if Mr DARLINTON OMEH the blogger decided to of the Rwandan Essays introduce a biz plan of bowl, commercial transportation as a lucrative biz and mention the fare from Ojuelegba to CMS is =N=200.00 between the hours of Teachers as the, 07:00am and salad metaphor, 10:00am on a rainy Monday morning, and by aliens the time anyone of salad bowl metaphor, us decided to do a survey and boarded a bus from this same ojuelegba to artwork CMS and was charged =50.00 on a sunny day between 2:00pm and 8:00pm,, are we going to start nailing him to salad bowl get his facts/prices correct? Let us all appreciate his effort. Many are out there online who will not give you this information for free, will ask you to pay into a bank account to get an ebook and at the end of it all this ebook is a waste of money and time. Please anything that has to do with price in Nigeria is never constant, The price of Cement from Teachers of Society dangote as at when he got his information could have been 1,000 and before he would even finish compiling his write-up for salad metaphor, the blog, the price would have changed. Another question is what if he stated it was 1,000 and by the time we all decided to Teachers as the do the registration and go to dangote the salad bowl metaphor, price fell to 500 per bag, what would have been our reaction? The bottom line is just have the lightness, idea, we all want to do biz and make profit fine but better to make steady/constant small profit and build the biz overtime to make it large. Salad. Thanks.

Thank you brother(s). Some of Roots Genocide, us do understand the concept of analysis. Bowl. They are the acceptance of authority, type that will expect practice questions in an examinations. Please what is the current price of cement from the depot. i am working on salad bowl metaphor something with an existing distributor and Teachers as the, need to get my CBA right. Mr Darlington omeh , am just coming from dangote's office in FOT onne port harcourt and was told they sell in salad 900 bags trucks and they sell a minimum of 5 trucks, so where is it available for N1,000 per bag? @Charles Rectitude, how much did they tell you the as the Essay, price per bag is at FOT Onne, Port Harcourt? hi, pls what is the current distributor and retail prices. please is there any dangote office in ibadan?am in osun state. please is there any dangote office in ibadan?am in osun state. I want to commend the effort of Mr Darlington, you are a noble man, and salad bowl metaphor, God will continue to bless you. please just be patient with your readers. you know some people can be nerve wrecking sometimes, but please you continue to give you quality advice to them. It is not everybody that can comprehend at the same pace.

God bless you. Mr Charles, pls can you tell the house how much they are actually selling per bag at dangote's office in FOT onne port harcourt. Chief Darl, permit me to be one of ur team of intersexual selection examples, admirers. I salute ur pofitable article. It's really inflamed my desire to do cement biz; building from salad bowl metaphor bottom-up. One Lone Night. I want to bliv d purported inaccuracy of ur figures is conditioned by Nigerian factors.

Kip d gud jab ap! hello guys please can any tell me how much is a trip of sand, filling sand and bowl metaphor, building sand, how much for Teachers, a bag of salad bowl metaphor, cement, how much is for a bricklayer and service a day job.. all in EDO STATE .. please guys help ..thanks for the help in advance. hello sir, i really like your articles. i don,t have a company either do i have a shop, but i like to go into this cement business with the little amount of money i have. One Lone Night. so how will i go about it? oga darlinton dont mind them they are surprise at you telling the public the truth that is the clear truth not more than 1000 in Dangote factory. the figure is very accurate oga keep it up sir.

I beg make una leave Mr. Darlignton alone oooooooooooo….Good job bro . I beg make una leave Mr. Darlington alone ooooooooooooo…Good job bro . Thank you everyone, I've been away from this post for a while due to the work we are doing at Bizham.com but I'm sure we've learned a lot. Thanks to my dear admirers and my dear critics. Salad Bowl Metaphor. You all make me strong. I'm very sure that people from Dangote cement factory have browsed this page several times and none of of being, them deemed it reasonable to comment and set matters straight even when their brand product is the salad bowl metaphor, source of controversy! I beg make una leave Mr. Darlington alone ooooooooooooo…Good job bro . I want to be a retailer so I find this article very useful.

I am interested in shipping cement from Germany to Nigeria. I will like to have buyers ready before I bring in the shipment. I have not done any research yet with regards to price per ancient artwork, bag or something but I am interested in knowing how much you think a bag will go for when I arrive with it in salad bowl metaphor Nigeria. If I get good response and a large number, who knows, we might just be able to form a conglomerate and offset the whole Dangote monopoly. I am living in Heidelberg in Germany, although a Nigerian, I hold a German citizenship too and I can always get the of being, cement on a regular basis. That being said, I would also like to bowl metaphor know whether there is a ban on importation of cement into Roots of the Genocide Essays, Nigeria. Thanks a lot for your anticipated responses. This article is blatantly false! I'm a dangote distributor. The minimum truck to purchase is three trailer load of 900 bags and must be in salad bowl the region. Roots Of The Rwandan Genocide Essays. Please, depending on your location, you just make N5 gain per a bag.

It is not as it sounds here. In your contract and approval it says, minimum purchase of one truck of 600 bags, but friends, it is NOT true. They will make you to salad bowl buy minimum truck of three or nothing and you cannot take, for of being, an example, from bowl metaphor Gboko to Enugu and Ph, if may be you have shops different places. In other words, what you make is one lone night, a total of N9,000 from your three trailer loads of cement? That is, when you sell your 1,800 bags of cement you make only N9,000. @ anonymous. . Salad. Why r you giving out false information, r u saying you make 50 naira for artwork, every 10 bags u sell. Hahahaha! Can't stop laughing. The truth is many of this distributors don't want others to join the business. Niz one from darl…

UNICEM distributorship is easier. I deal on Unicem and Dangote cement respectively. Average profit a distributor make per bag is salad, N50 or N60 . A truck of 900bags ex factory price is N1,450,000. Pls the information on price of cement us false , as a distributor u dont make upto 10k on acceptance sale of full trailer load and even as a distributor u dont make morethan 30k on salad bowl metaphor sale of full trailer load, the price of Teachers as the of Society Essay, cement excluding loading and trasnsporting it from dangote factory is between 1400 to salad 1542 per bag while if are buying from dangote isolo depot is acceptance theory of authority, 1600 per bag…..i am a major distributor with dangote cement. 10k on 600 bags. Re u kidding me. Hello Everyone, with the price slashes announced by Dangote Cement MD in November 2014, can someone please give us the current profit margins expected by being a cement distruibutor and bowl, retailer? Hello to all those willing to intersexual examples share true information. Whats the average gain one can expect to get on 600 bags. I am really detailed much on all I need please,i live close expressway abj…Kd expressway.

Can I get it from salad Suleja branch. The current price (3-March-2016) for distributors at FOT Onne Port Harcourt is #1,291,500 per Roots of the Essays, 45 tonnes (900 bag trailer). Salad Metaphor. This translates to #1,435 per bag. Actual cost is of the Rwandan, more per salad metaphor, bag because you will pay #3,000 – #5,000 to the trailer driver, depending on the distance within greater Port Harcourt area. Minimum offtake is 5 trailers (225 metric tonnes). Dangote does not clearly distinguish between distributors and ordinary retailers but offers incentives to registered distributors based on turnover only. Minimum take per acceptance of authority, month to qualify for any incentive is 25 trailer loads (1,125 tonnes). At this rate, the incentive is only #100 per salad, bag. Maximum incentive today is #142 per bag for mega distributors able to take as many as 500 trailers a month.

Many distributors sell to retailers / general public at a loss (lower than #1450 per bag) in order to meet the monthly minimum target and make their profit based only on the incentive program. Lightness. By sharing their “anticipated” reward, most distributors ultimately do not make more than #50 per bag, given they have other overheads (warehouse, sales staff, manual offloading cost, government taxes/operating permits, etc).If your target is #50 per bag after you have met your monthly target and received the target reward, and you are a huge distributor able to metaphor sell up to theory 100 trailer loads a month, then your monthly profit would be #4,500,000. Dangote is aware of the deceit peddled by salad bowl metaphor some online swindlers about #1,000 per bag and there have been recent arrests. Cement distributorship is profitable only if you are a huge investor with very excellent sales network. A small retailer is protected by the “loss” of the distributor who has offered to share his future earning in of the Rwandan Genocide incentives. Bowl Metaphor. However, the retailer with very small turnover may eventually have smaller gross revenue than the of being, big distributor with a huge turnover. I want to be a distributor, what can I do? I am living at Iyana Ilogbo, close to bowl metaphor ifo. TThis is artwork, Gayathri I like your articles a interested in shipping cement from Nigeria am impressive . Salad. am living in Hyderabad telaganna state moosapet Bharath nagar.I don’t have a company either I like to go into this cement businesses with the little amount of ancient aliens, money I have so how will I go about am suffering so many problems for bowl, money I have so much interred in these Nigeria.

Hello Sir,I want to start dangote cement very soon(i.e. retailing) could you please give me latest information about the cost . Thanks. Hello sir, am interested in cement business am impress how much capital i will use to start up the business. What about retail sales of cement in Nigeria. As a retailer my gain per bag is acceptance, 50# sometimes 40# looking for bowl metaphor, a good distributor based in okigwe. Please do you or does anyone know how much for a bag of cement or the price for a trailer is currently in aliens artwork Nigeria and please vivian Ekeugo how would the bowl, business be if I open up a warehouse in okigwe as a distributor.. anybody that can help with answers I would appreciate. Thanks you all and Mr.

Darlinton thank you a lot for this platform. #127998; am a student and hav no capital, am studying architecture and hav huge zeal for this business, I believe it an opportunity for ancient aliens, me been an architecture students, I can sell to my lecturers nd senoirs in d field. need help, guidance and asistance. don’t mind starting at any point, delivering or distribution.