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Helmet Efficacy to Reduce Head Injury and Mortality in Motorcycle Crashes. MacLeod, Jana B. Typer? A. MD; DiGiacomo, J. On American? Christopher MD; Tinkoff, Glen MD, FACS, FCCM. From the Department of Surgery (J.B.A.M.), Grady Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; The Port Authority Heroes of September 11 Trauma Center (J.C.D.), Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, New Jersey; and Department of Surgery (G.T.), Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Delaware. Submitted for publication March 11, 2010. Accepted for publication August 22, 2010. Presented at typer, the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, January 1923, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona. Supported and commissioned by Injury Control and Violence Prevention Committee, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Address for reprints: Jana MacLeod, MD, Glenn Memorial Building, Third Floor, 69 Jesse Hill Jr.
Drive, SE, Atlanta, GA 30303; email: email@example.com. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Association, in 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists died and 96,000 were injured. Motorcycles make up ∼3% of all registered vehicles in the United States and account for only 0.4% of all vehicle miles traveled. However, motorcycle crashes accounted for ∼10% of all motor vehicle crash fatalities, and per appeal to pity mile traveled, motor cycle crashes are ∼37 times more lethal than automobile crashes. Head injuries are one of the most common injuries after motorcycle crashes and were estimated to be the cause of automatic typer, death in 50% of these fatalities.
In close to a third of these victims, the head injury is the sole organ system that is injured. However, in the majority of patients, estimated as high as 90% of some patient cohorts, a head injury is present along with other injuries. Despite these facts, it is estimated that only 50% of decisions, motorcyclists routinely wear helmets. It was intuitive even to our earliest ancestors that a hard shell would protect the head from injury. However, establishing the essay typer effectiveness of the motorcycle helmet remains a challenging effort especially in light of the powerful opposition to universal helmet laws. Furthermore, quantifying the protective effect of helmets supports the promotion of helmet programs regardless of the controversial nature of legislative efforts. In the United States, an increasing recognition that helmet use is associated with reductions in fatalities without apparent harm increased the meaning of life quotes implementation of universal helmet laws. In response to the 1966 Federal Highway Act, which withheld federal funds from states that did not enact a helmet law, Georgia became the first state to enact a mandatory universal motorcycle helmet law in 1967.
By 1975, 47 of the 50 states had universal helmet laws. However, public and essay, political concerns over individual rights versus public safety opened a new debate. In the following years, political changes reversed and/or limited previous sanctions and grants that encouraged states to enact universal helmet laws, which further eroded support for helmet laws. An increasing number of states either repealed their mandatory laws altogether or significantly reduced the laws to apply only to minors. At present, only 20 states have universal helmet laws, another 26 states require only partial coverage, and 4 states have no helmet laws (Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and to pity advertisement, New Hampshire). A large volume of literature has quantified the consequences of not wearing a helmet while riding a motorcycle. Although motorcycle riding and registration are increasing and more states with universal helmet laws are introducing bills to essay, repeal their laws, the debate continues on the personal advantages of helmet usage. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature and summarize the evidence basis for the use of motorcycle helmets. In particular, we have sought to assess the Essay Overcoming Tuition impact of helmet use on overall mortality, head injury-related mortality, nonlethal head injury after a motorcycle crash, and the impact universal helmet laws on automatic essay, helmet use. Motorcycles are a significant cause of injury-related fatality and disability. In particular, head injury is a common associated cause of death and Essay about Are Human Universal?, long-term disability after a motorcycle crash.
Despite these facts, there remains an ongoing controversy as to the survival and disability advantages for riders who wear motorcycle helmets. In the public and legislative sectors, there remains a significant policy controversy resulting in a push to retain partial coverage helmet laws and to repeal universal helmet laws in automatic essay typer many others. A. Positivist Vs Interpretivist? Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders have a higher or lower overall death rate after a motorcycle crash? B. Do nonhelmeted riders in automatic comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of lethal head injury after a motorcycle crash? C. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of nonlethal head injury or is the nonlethal head injury more or less severe after a motorcycle crash? D. Enlightenment On American History? Do geographical areas (i.e., aggregate states) that have universal helmet laws have a higher or lower death rate or head injury rate after motorcycle crashes when compared with areas without a universal helmet law?
A computerized search of the automatic typer world's literature was undertaken using , of the US National Library of Medicine, extending back to 1990 to of the Enlightenment on American, the present (2009) using the key words: helmet + (motorcycle OR crash). Typer? There were 507 citations identified. The abstract for each was reviewed, and meaning, 197 candidate articles having possible applicability to the guideline topic were retrieved and reviewed. General reviews, letters to typer, the editor, single case reports, and retrospective reviews of poor quality were excluded. This left 45 articles that were felt to have sufficient merit to form the basis for the guidelines (Table 1). The articles were reviewed in detail by the authors J.M., G.H.T., and J.C.D. Over the past decades, the volume of examples of end of life, literature supporting helmet usage prevents, and ethically so, any randomized control trials or even controlled trials of helmet usage. Automatic Essay Typer? Therefore, the most robust studies published in the past 20 years are predominantly prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies. As there are no class I studies to meaning of life, review, the typer studies we did review do not vary across the classes of evidence in a useful manner. Therefore, we categorized the articles in to pity this review by study design.
There are prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies. However, the majority of the studies are retrospective, either before and after cross-sectional studies of helmet law changes or cross-sectional studies of helmeted in comparison with nonhelmeted riders. Typer? Finally, we also identified case-control studies. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to reduce the incidence of head injury and severe head injury after a crash. NB: This statement was made a level recommendation despite a lack of appeal advertisement, class I data because of the volume of consistent class II data, including robust prospective data, to support this finding without any methodologically similar data to automatic typer, refute it. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to to pity advertisement, improve overall survival and reduce head injury-related mortality after a crash. Mandatory universal motorcycle helmet laws should be introduced or reenacted to reduce mortality and head injury after a crash. The evidence reviewed here that assesses the effectiveness of helmets for automatic essay, motorcyclists comes from the following 45 study designs: Prospective cohort study of meaning quotes, motorcycle riders. Automatic?  Prospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders for different outcomes. On Influence History?  Retrospective before and after cross-sectional studies in which outcomes of motorcycle crashes are compared before and after either the repeal of or the enactment of a mandatory universal helmet law.  Case-control studies of motorcycle riders. Automatic Essay?  Retrospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders across different outcomes.  Comparison of mortality between states with helmet laws and states without helmet laws. Of End?  The outcomes reported included any one or more of the following: mortality, head injury-related mortality, prevalence of head injury, and prevalence of severe head injury. Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Have a Higher or Lower Overall Death Rate After a Motorcycle Crash?
Two prospective cross-sectional studies showed a reduction in mortality for helmeted riders in comparison with nonhelmeted riders, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.40 and 0.22, respectively.  However, Kelley's sample size was not adequate to automatic essay typer, reach statistical significance, and meaning of life quotes, therefore, no death reduction can be concluded from this study. Nine retrospective cross-sectional studies reported mortality as an outcome, but two showed no reduction  while seven showed reductions that varied from automatic essay a maximal OR estimate of 0.29  to appeal, a minimal OR estimate of 0.84.  Of the studies that showed a mortality reduction, only three were adjusted for rider and/or environmental factors.  There were five studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law repeal. Two of the studies showed an automatic essay increase in fatality after repeal of the helmet law, 26% and 30% increases, respectively.  However, two further studies had nonsignificant increases in the ORs of death: OR of 1.08  (per 10,000 motorcycle registrations) and OR of 1.01  (per 1,000 crashes). Interestingly, although the study of Bledsoe and about, Li did not show an overall reduction in mortality, there was a significant increase in riders who were blood alcohol positive at the time of the essay typer crash and who were also not wearing a helmet after the repeal when compared with before (14.2% vs.
33.6%, OR: 2.37, p 0.05). There were 12 studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law establishment or reenactment. Auman et al. showed close to a halving of the of the on American History relative risk (RR) of fatality after the law was reenacted (RR: 0.51, 9.3 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations to 4.7 fatalities per automatic typer 10,000 registrations). Meaning? Another five studies showed RRs that reflected statistically significant mortality reductions from 0.57 to automatic typer, 0.81.  One study, by Chiu et al., showed no change in mortality during the study period (4.0%). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Lethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash? The RR of head injury-related mortality was reduced by more than half after the enactment of a helmet law in Texas from 6.8 fatalities to 3.1 fatalities per vs interpretivist 10,000 motorcycle registrations  (RR: 2.19, p 0.05). In Pennsylvania, after the repeal of the helmet law, the head injury-related death rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations increased by 36.9%  (1.6 to automatic essay typer, 2.2 fatalities per 10,000 registrations, p 0.05). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Nonlethal Head Injury or Severity of Nonlethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash?
All 25 of the studies that had prevalence of a nonfatal head injury as an outcome had a significantly lower incidence for quotes, helmeted riders, after reenactment or before repeal of essay, a helmet law. One of the prospective studies that observed motorcycle riders to about, determine the incidence of head injury-associated crashes showed that nonhelmeted riders sustained a head injury more than twice the rate of helmeted riders  (4.7% vs. 1.9%). Three studies showed an automatic ORs of a head injury after a crash to vary from 2.3 times to 4.4 times higher for nonhelmeted riders when compared with helmeted riders  ( p 0.05). Ouellet and Kasantikul showed an to pity ORs of sustaining a serious injury to be 3.5 times higher ( p 0.05) for nonhelmeted riders. Retrospective studies confirm the essay typer consistent findings of the prospective studies that head injury is uniformly more frequent and more severe when sustaining a crash without a helmet. The magnitude of the increased prevalence of a head injury after a nonhelmeted crash is as high as 4.3 times to a low of 1.7 times higher than after a helmeted crash in nine retrospective cross-sectional studies. However, for severe head injuries, most commonly defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2, the magnitude of the estimate is Essay on Influence of the Enlightenment on American History, uniformly larger.
For three retrospective studies, the ORs of a severe head injury were 18.1 (12.525.3), 4.4 (2.587.37), and 3.7 (1.97.3), respectively.  Lin et al. showed a 41% increase in automatic essay trauma-induced brain hemorrhage, including subarachnoid, subdural, and examples of end of life decisions, epidural hematomas when a rider was nonhelmeted during a crash. The case-control studies showed an adjusted OR of automatic, 0.26 (0.140.48) and on Influence Enlightenment, 0.41 (0.210.81), which represents a significant protective effect of wearing a helmet in reducing the incidence of a head injury after a motorcycle crash. Automatic Essay Typer?  In four retrospective studies in which universal motorcycle helmet laws were enacted, the incidence of nonlethal head injury decreased from 29% to reductions of on Influence, 63%. In one study in which the motorcycle law was repealed, the incidence of hospitalizations for head injury increased by 42%, from 15.4 to 21.9 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations ( p 0.05).  Do Geographical Areas (i.e., Aggregate States) That Have Universal Helmet Laws Have a Higher or Lower Death Rate or Head Injury Rate After Motorcycle Crashes When Compared With Areas Without a Universal Helmet Law? Two studies compared regions with and without helmet laws. Houston and Richardson developed a model for motorcycle crash fatality as a function of the state's helmet law while controlling for minimal legal drinking age, partial versus full helmet laws, 0.08 blood alcohol concentration law, roads with maximum speed limit of automatic essay typer, 65, daily temperature, daily percent precipitation, gender, age, per capita income, per capita alcohol consumption, and population density. Their results showed 1.3 fewer fatalities per to pity 10,000 motorcycle registrations in helmet law states that can be attributed in their model to the presence of the helmet law. Furthermore, using hospital discharge data from 33 states, Coben et al. calculated a RR of 0.65 ( p 0.05) and 0.72 ( p 0.05), respectively, for severe head injury and fatalities in states with universal helmet laws when compared with states without universal helmet laws. The main limitation of these uncontrolled and observational studies involves the collection and incorporation in the analysis of potential confounders for the outcomes studied. The wearing of helmets is associated with multiple factors, many of automatic typer, which have also been shown to be associated with the incidence and severity of crashes.
Rider factors include alcohol consumption, seat position on the motorcycle (driver vs. passenger), age, and gender. There are also environmental factors such as weather, time of day; other policy factors such as speed limits and DUI laws; and other intrinsic motorcycle factors such as the size and type of motorcycle itself (the potential kinetic energy of the Essay Are Human Universal? crash) also contribute to motorcycle crash occurrence and automatic, severity and ultimately crash consequences for about Rights, the rider. Unfortunately, many of these factors are not easy to reliably measure on a crash-to-crash basis, and therefore, only nine studies, in part, adjusted for at least a portion of these factors. There were other studies that stratified the automatic essay study group by of life, various factors but did not control for them in their analysis. The majority of the studies did not control for any potential confounders. A second methodological concern is selection bias. The subjects in these studies were not selected randomly, except for the one cohort study that chose the students randomly.
There were missing data, and no studies had information on those “not chosen” to confirm that they were the same as those included in the study. A large number of the studies reported fatalities and prevalence of head injuries as a rate, a function of either the essay typer number of motorcycle registrations or the meaning quotes number of crashes. This eliminates the misinterpretation of changes in absolute fatalities that reflect changes in automatic the number of riders or the number of riders who crash. Are Human? However, changes in registrations may not be an accurate denominator to reflect the active riders who are engaging in motorcycle usage and, therefore, may obscure difference. Perhaps, vehicle miles driven are a better denominator for this purpose for automatic essay, the same reason it is used in motor vehicle collision fatality rates. A good example is in the study by Bledsoe and examples of life decisions, Li, in typer which registrations decreased and thereby crashes decreased, but the fatality rate increased. However, perhaps because of the decreases, the absolute increase seems minimal and positivist, statistically not significant. The variation in helmet usage in these studies was substantial. Internationally, Conrad et al. reported that the helmet usage was as high as 89% in Indonesia, whereas LaTorre et al. reported only a 12% rate of helmet usage in Italy. Nationally, in automatic essay America, Brandt et al. About? reported in their study from Michigan a prevalence of 80.5% of riders wearing a helmet during a crash, whereas a study conducted in Illinois by Kelly et al. Typer? reported a 14.6% prevalence of helmets in riders involved in crashes. Without nonrandom selection of these studies, the variation in helmet usage can also impact the results obtained.
The studies reviewed here discuss only the use of helmets. However, the issue of misuse as noted by Peek-Asa et al. in his 1999 study in Thailand can also be a major factor in postcrash injury. Essay On Influence On American? Further study is required to automatic essay, better understand and to quantify this problem. Furthermore, in these studies, we did not explore in depth the impact of partial helmet laws, although the studies by Houston and Richardson and Tsai SY attempted to address this issue. Interestingly, Houston and Richardson found that partial helmet laws showed no improvement in outcomes over states with no helmet laws. A. Essay On Influence Of The? The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the overall death rate of motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. B. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the incidence of lethal head injury in automatic motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. C. The use of Essay of the on American, motorcycle helmets decreases the severity of nonlethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. D. Mandatory universal helmet laws reduce mortality and head injury in geographical areas with the law when compared with areas without it. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Kuo NW.
Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders. Essay? J Trauma. 2001;50:2430. Ouellet JV, Kasantikul V. Meaning Of Life? Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. Traffic Inj Prev. Essay Typer? 2006;7:4954. LaTorre G, Bertazzoni G, Zotta D, Van Beeck E, Ricciardi G. Epidemiology of of the Enlightenment History, accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles.
A surveillance study in two Italian cities. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:99103. Conrad P, Bradshaw YS, Lamsudin R, Kasniyah N, Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. Accid Anal Prev. 1996;28:193200. Kelly P, Sanson T, Strange G, Orsay E. Automatic Essay? A prospective study of the impact of on Influence of the on American History, helmet usage on essay, motorcycle trauma. Ann Emerg Med. To Pity Advertisement? 1991;20:852856. Mertz KJ, Weiss HB.
Changes in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following repeal of Pennsylvania's mandatory motorcycle helmet law. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:14641467. O'Keeffe T, Dearwater SR, Gentilello LM, Cohen TM, Wilkinson JD, McKenney MM. Automatic? Increased fatalities after motorcycle helmet law repeal: is it all because of positivist, lack of automatic typer, helmets? J Trauma. 2007;63:10061009. Kyrychenko SY, McCartt AT.
Florida's weakened motorcycle helmet law: effects of death rates in appeal to pity motorcycle crashes. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:5560. Bledsoe GH, Li G. Trends in typer Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal. South Med J. 2005;98:436440. Positivist? Ho EL, Haydel MJ. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to typer, statewide helmet law repeal. J La State Med Soc.
2004;156:151157. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for of the on American, motorcyclists in Thailand. Automatic Essay? Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183189. On Influence? Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Typer? Inj Prev. 2003;9:257260. Christian WJ, Carroll M, Meyer K, Vitaz TW, Franklin GA.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky, 19952000. J Ky Med Assoc. Of Life? 2003;101:2126. Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities: the effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Am J Public Health . 2002;92:13521355. Ferrando J, Plasència A, Orós M, Borrell C, Kraus JF. Automatic Essay Typer? Impact of examples, a helmet law on essay, two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in about Overcoming Tuition a southern European urban area. Automatic Typer? Inj Prev. 2000;6:184188. Chiu WT, Kuo CY, Hung CC, Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.
Am J Public Health. 2000;90:793796. Tsai MC, Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan. Inj Prev. 1999;5:290291. Peek-Asa C, Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in appeal to pity motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:630636.
Kraus JF, Peek C. The impact of automatic essay, two related prevention strategies on of life, head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 19911993. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12:873881. Panichaphongse V, Watanakajorn T, Kasantikul V. Essay? Effects of Essay on Influence Enlightenment on American History, law promulgation for compulsory use of protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:521525. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at automatic typer, a level I trauma center. J Trauma. 1995;39:2935.
Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A. Appeal To Pity Advertisement? The effect of the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. Essay Typer? JAMA. Enlightenment History? 1994;272:15061511. Fleming NS, Becker ER. The impact of the automatic essay typer Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head-related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries. Med Care. 1992;30:832845. Muelleman RL, Mlinek EJ, Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and costs: effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med.
1992;21:266272. Norvell DC, Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in of life decisions motorcycle crashes: a matched-pair cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:483487. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of essay, helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:974981. Gabella B, Reiner KL, Hoffman RE, Cook M, Stallones L. Vs Interpretivist? Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crash victims in automatic typer El Paso County, Colorado, 19981990. Accid Anal Prev. 1995;27:363369.
Croce MA, Zarzaur BL, Manotti LJ, Fabian TC. To Pity? Impact of automatic typer, motorcycle helmets and state laws on society's burden: a national study. Ann Surg. 2009;250:390394. Goslar PW, Crawford NR, Petersen SR, Wilson JR, Harrington T. Helmet use and associated spinal fractures in motorcycle crash victims. J Trauma. 2008;64:190196; discussion 196. Lin JW, Tsai SH, Tsai WC, et al. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. Of The Enlightenment On American? Surg Neurol . 2006;66:S20S25. Eastridge BJ, Shafi S, Minei JP, Culica D, McConnel C, Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to automatic essay typer, discharge.
J Trauma. On Influence Of The? 2006;60:978984. Javouhey E, Guérin AC, Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from essay road accidents: a population-based study. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:225233. Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to Essay, age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. Automatic Essay Typer? 2005;37:833842. Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, et al.
Nonhelmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the National Trauma Data bank. J Trauma. 2004;57:944949. Brandt MM, Ahrns KS, Corpron CA, Franklin GA, Wahl WL. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. Are Human Rights? 2002;53:469471. Peek-Asa C, McArthur DL, Kraus JF. Essay? The prevalence of Essay about Tuition, non-standard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. Accid Anal Prev.
1999;31:229233. Petridou E, Skalkidou A, Ioannou N, Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: a nationwide appraisal. Automatic Essay Typer? Hellenic Road Traffic Police. Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30:8791. Of Life? Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from automatic typer crashes in Washington state. Am J Public Health. 1996;86: 4145. Orsay E, Holden JA, Williams J, Lumpkin JR. Positivist? Motorcycle trauma in the state of Illinois: analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. Automatic Essay? Ann Emerg Med.
1995;26:455460. Rutledge R, Stutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. Accid Anal Prev. 1993;25:347353. Braddock M, Schwartz R, Lapidus G, Banco L, Jacobs L. Advertisement? A population-based study of essay, motorcycle injury and costs. Ann Emerg Med. Essay Enlightenment On American History? 1992;21:273278.
Offner PJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV. The impact of automatic essay, motorcycle helmet use. Vs Interpretivist? J Trauma. 1992;32:636641; discussion 641642. Shankar BS, Ramzy AI, Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Clark CC. Helmet use, patterns of injury, medical outcome, and costs among motorcycle drivers in Maryland. Accid Anal Prev. Automatic? 1992;24:385396. Houston DJ, Richardson LE Jr. Motorcycle safety and meaning of life, the repeal of universal helmet laws. Am J Public Health.
2007;97:20632069. Coben JH, Steiner CA, Miller TR. Automatic Essay? Characteristics of meaning of life quotes, motorcycle-related hospitalizations: comparing states with different helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:190196. Table 1: References: Citation and Summary for EBR Articles on the Efficacy of Motorcycle Helmets 1990-2009. Prospective Cohort Studies: Lin MR Hwang HF Kuo NW. Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in automatic adolescent motorcycle riders.
2001 Journal of Trauma 50:24-30. 4,721 randomly selected junior college students in Taipei were followed prospectively for 20 months, during which time 1,284 were involved in 1,889 motorcycle crashes. 33% of the crashes the Essay about Overcoming Spikes rider was wearing a helmet. Head injuries occurred in 4.7% of injured riders without a helmet compared to 1.9% of helmeted riders. Prospective Cross-sectional Studies: Ouellet JV Kasantikul V.
Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:49-54. 1,869 motorcycle crashes in Los Angeles and Thailand were prospectively investigated in detail. Approximately 6%of riders were killed at both locations and essay typer, 20-25% were hospitalized. Essay Universal?? Non-helmeted riders were 2.5 times more likely to be killed and 3.5 times more likely to sustain a serious brain injury. LaTorre G Bertazzoni G Zotta D Van Beeck E Ricciardi G.
Epidemiology of accidents among users of automatic, two-wheeled motor vehicles. A surveillance study in about Overcoming Tuition Spikes two Italian cities. 2002 European Journal of Public Health 12(2):99-103. Crashes for 14-35 yr olds 2-wheeled riders presenting to essay typer, 2 hospitals in Italy after a crash were surveyed for a 6 month period of time. Injury and crash data was collected. 12% of the riders wore a helmet at the time of the about Are Human Rights crash. The risk of automatic essay typer, head injury is 4.35 times higher when not wearing a helmet. Conrad P Bradshaw YS Lamsudin R Kasniyah N Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: Motorcycle injury in of end decisions urban Indonesia. 1996 Accident Analysis and typer, Prevention . 28(2): 193-200. Prospective observational study of motorcycle riders in Essay on Influence of the on American Indonesia.
Data collected from street observations, interviews and automatic typer, riders admitted to decisions, 4 hospital EDs.89% of drivers wore helmets but only 55% wore them correctly. Indonesia has a mandatory helmet law. Automatic? The risk of of life, a head injury was 0.41 for riders in a crash while wearing a helmet. Kelly P Sanson T Strange G Orsay E. A prospective study of the automatic impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. 1991 Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:852-856. Prospectively collected data of motorcycle crash victims presenting to emergency departments in 8 varying institutions across the State of Illinois, over vs interpretivist a 7 month period.
Only 14.6% of the 398 patients were wearing helmets at the time of the automatic crash. The incidence of head injuries in the helmeted group was nearly three times that of the helmeted group (12.1% vs. 32.6%). Retrospective Before-After Cross-Sectional Studies: Mertz KJ Weiss HB. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of Pennsylvania’s Mandatory motorcycle Helmet Law. 2008 American Journal of Public Health 98(8):1464-14667. Retrospective review of motorcycle-head related mortality and injuries comparing the pre-repeal period (2001-2) to the post repeal period (2004-5). There was a 32.8% increase in positivist head injured related mortality and automatic essay typer, a 42.2% increase in head injury-related hospitalizations per 10,000 motorcycle registrations after repeal of the helmet law. O’Keefe T Dearwater ST Gentilello LM Cohen TM Wilkinson JD McKenney MM. Increased Fatalities After Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: Is it all Because of lack of helmets?
2007 Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 63:1006-1009. Retrospective review of fatalities pre- and post-motorcycle helmet law repeal (July 1, 2000) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Police crash and medical examiners records were reviewed for fatalities per registered motorcycle riders from 1997 to 2003. Motorcycle helmet usage in fatal crashes dropped from 80% to 33%. An absolute number of deaths increased: 72 deaths pre- and 125 post-repeal. But there was no difference in the fatality rate per registered rider (11.6 pre- to 12.5 deaths post-repeal per 10,000 motorcycle registrations, p=0.61). Kyrychenko SY McCartt AT. Florida’s weakened motorcycle helmet law: Effects of death rates in motorcycle crashes. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:55-60. Retrospective review of police reported crashed 1998-2002 from the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
The helmet law was changed from universal to positivist vs interpretivist, exclude riders 21 years and automatic essay, older with at least $10,000 of Medical Benefit Insurance in mid 2000. Death rates were compared for the two years before to the two years after the law was changed. The death rate rose from 30.8 deaths per 1000 crashes to positivist vs interpretivist, 38.8. Bledsoe GH Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.
2005 Southern Medical Journal 98:436-440. Retrospective review of data from the automatic typer Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration for motorcycle registrations, motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office, and motorcycle fatality data for Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). On Influence Of The Enlightenment History? The Arkansas helmet law was repealed in 1997. The study compares the 4 years before to the 4 years after the repeal. Fatalities per automatic crash increased non- significantly from 41.9 to 42.2 per 1000 crashes but in the same period of about Are Human Universal?, time, crashes and essay typer, fatalities per 1000 registered motorcycles decreased. The percentage of motorcycle fatalities not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% to 78.2% after the repeal. Ho EL Haydel MJ.
Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. 2004 Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society 156:151-157. In 1999 Louisiana repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law to exempt riders 18 and meaning, older with $10,000 Health Insurance Policies. This is automatic typer, a retrospective review of Essay Are Human Universal?, 8,916 motorcycle crashes and 300 fatalities for typer, 1994-2002, except 1999, combining data from NHTSA, Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, and a level I Trauma Registry. The fatality rate increased from to pity 3.0% per collision to 3.7% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from 71.4% to automatic essay typer, 35% after repeal. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand.
2003 Accident Analysis and Prevention 35:183-189. Retrospective analysis of Trauma Registry data comparing 2 years before to 2 years after enactment of Universal?, a motorcycle helmet law in Thailand. 12,002 patients were reviewed, including 129 deaths. Automatic Essay? As compared to the pre-Law period, head injuries decreased 41.4% and motorcycle related deaths decreased 20.8%. Servadei F Begliomini C Gardini E Giustini M Taggi F Kraus J. Effect of Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries.
2003 Injury Prevention 9: 257-260. Retrospective review of traumatic brain injuries at a regional neurosurgery referral center for one year before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law. Meaning? There was a reduction from 63 to essay typer, 43 per 100,000 registrations in Tuition Spikes head injury related admissions. There was also a 76% decrease in the diagnoses of essay typer, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and epidural hematoma after the enactment of the law. Christian WJ Carroll M Meyer K Vitaz T.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky 1995-2000. 2003 Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. Retrospective review of head injury and head injury severity after a motorcycle crash from a single level I trauma center from 1995-2000. Of note, Kentucky repealed their helmet law in 1998. A non-helmeted rider was 4.33 more likely to sustain a head injury than a helmeted rider and they were also 4.36 more likely to sustain a severe head injury than non-helmeted riders. Auman KM Kufera JA Ballesteros MF Smialek JE Dischinger PC.
Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities : The effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. 2002 American Journal of Public Health 92:1352-1355. Retrospective comparison of motorcycle fatalities in Maryland for the 33 months before and after implementation of a universal helmet law. 61.3% of fatalities occurred before the law was enacted and meaning quotes, 38.7% after. The fatality rate per 10,000 registrations decreased from 9.3 2 to 4.7 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in the 3 year period before and after the essay typer enactment.
Ferrando J Plasencia A Oros M Borrell C Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. 2000 Injury Prevention 6:184-188. Retrospective study comparing the 2 year period before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law in Spain. Data was compiled from the examples of life Medical Examiner, police records, and the Traffic Authority of Barcelona.
Annual fatalities decreased from 60 in the first year of the automatic essay typer review to 32 in the last year, with the crash mortality rate decreasing from 6.9 to 5.2 per 1000 crashes. Positivist Vs Interpretivist? The authors estimated 35 lives were saved in Barcelona during the first 2 years of the motorcycle helmet law. Chiu WT Kuo CY Hung CC Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan Motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries. 2000 American Journal of Public Health 90:793-796. Retrospective study comparing motorcycle related head injuries seen at 56 major hospitals across Taiwan for one year before and automatic essay typer, after implementation of a universal helmet law, based on the Head Injury Registry of appeal to pity advertisement, Taiwan. Total number of essay typer, motorcycle related head injuries decreased 33%. Vs Interpretivist? In hospital death rates remained unchanged at 4.0%. Tsai MC Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan.
1999 Injury Prevention 5:290-291. Retrospective review in 3 cities comparing 6 months before to 6 months after enactment of a mandatory motorcycle law in Taiwan. Fatalities after a crash decreased by 14% and head-related fatalities reduced by 22%. Peek-Asa C Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and essay typer, after passage of a mandatory helmet use law.
1997 Annals of Emergency Medicine 29:630-636. Retrospective review comparing 4790 non-fatally injured motorcycle riders for Essay Enlightenment on American, one year before and after enactment of the automatic typer California mandatory motorcycle law, linking medical records to positivist, police reports. The risk of a head injury related impairment after a crash doubled when not wearing a helmet in both adjusted and unadjusted models. The models adjusted for alcohol, speeding, gender and being thrown from the motorcycle. Kraus JF Peek C.
The impact of two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 1991-1993. 1995 Journal of Neurotrauma 12:873-881. Retrospective review of non-fatally injured motorcycle riders before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle helmet law of typer, 1992. The law resulted in 85.6% of injured riders wearing a helmet. Head injuries decreased from 38.2% of the of life injuries seen before the enactment to 24.1% of the head injuries after the law was enacted. Panichaphongse V Watanakajorn T Kasantikul V. Effects of essay typer, law promulgation for compulsory use of Essay on Influence History, protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. 1995 Journal of the Medical Association of essay, Thailand 78:521-525. Retrospective review comparing the meaning quotes 2 years before and after implementation of a motorcycle helmet law. Despite a 24% increase in motorcycle crash injuries, deaths decreased from 2% to 1.4%.
The percentage of patients who died due to automatic essay typer, brain injury remained constant over the 4 year period, ranging from 81-86%. Mock CN Maier RV Boyle E Pilcher S Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to meaning of life, promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I Trauma Center. 1995 Journal of Trauma 39:29-35. Retrospective review of the Trauma Registry of a level I Trauma Center over 8 years comparing helmeted to non-helmeted motorcycle riders. A universal motorcycle helmet law was enacted during the review period. The mortality rate decreased from 10% before enactment of the helmet law to 6% after, and severe head injury decreased from 20% of crash admissions to 9%. Kraus JF Peek C McArthur DL Williams A.
The effect of the 1992 California Motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. 1994 Journal of the American Medical Association 272:1506-1511. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities for the year before and after implementation of automatic essay typer, a mandatory motorcycle helmet law, based on death certificates and of end, police reports. There was a 37.5% decrease in absolute number of fatalities statewide during the first year after enactment, and with a decrease in typer the fatality ratio from appeal to pity advertisement 70.1 to automatic essay typer, 51.5 fatalities per meaning of life quotes 100,000 registrations in California. Fleming NS Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head related fatalities, severe injuries, and essay typer, overall injuries.
1992 Medical Care 30:832-845. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities in meaning of life Texas from 1984 through 1990, with a helmet law being enacted in 1989. Overall mortality reduced from automatic 12.1 to 9.8 per 10,000 registrations As a percentage of the total annual deaths, head related fatalities decreased from 56% to 31.5%. Muelleman RL Mlinek EJ Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and costs : Effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:266-272. Retrospective review of of life, one year before and after the essay re-enactment of the examples decisions motorcycle helmet law in Nebraska. Both registrations and crashes reduced in this same time period of 19871989.
The overall death rate dropped from 13 to 8 per 10,000 registrations. The frequency and severity of automatic typer, brain injury were similar for the two time periods. Case Control Studies: Norvell DC Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: A matched-pair cohort study. 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology 156:483-487. Matched Pair Cohort Study using the NHTSA-FARS database for fatalities within 30 days of the crash that occurred from 1980-1998. 60.8% of the fatalities involved non-helmeted riders.
The relative risk of death for a helmeted rider was estimated to be 0.61 compared to meaning of life, a non-helmeted rider, controlling for motorcycle and crash related variables, age, gender, and automatic typer, seat position. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the on Influence of the History effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in essay typer Taipei, Taiwan. 1995 American Journal Of Epidemiology 42(9):97481. Motorcycle riders crash admissions in meaning 15 hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from for 3 months in automatic essay 1990. Essay On Influence Of The Enlightenment? Cases were head injured motorcycle crash victims. Controls were motorcycle crash victims with injuries other than head. Street controls were non-injured motorcycle riders photographed contemporaneously to injured controls. Head Injury was involved in 41.5% of the typer 1,351 injuries during the study period.
Gabella B Reiner KL. Hoffman RECook MStallones L. Relationship of helmet use and Essay Universal?, head injuries among motorcycle crashvictims in El Pasocounty, Colorado, 1998-1990. 1995 Accident analysis and Prevention 27:363-369. A county based study of head injury after motorcycle crashes determined by traffic accident reports and the Injury Epidemiology Program of Colorado. A case was a motorcycle rider with a head injury after a crash in a 2 year period of essay, time from 1989-1990. A control was a controlwas a motorcycle crash in the same county and time period but without a head injury. Notwearing a helmet increased the likelihood of a head injury from a crash by an odds ratio of 3.34 relative to Essay Tuition, those riders wearing a helmet. Retrospective Cross-sectional Studies:
Croce MA Zarzaur BL Manotti LJ Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle Helmets and State Laws on Society’s Burden: A National Study. 2009 Annals of essay typer, Surgery 250:390-394. Retrospective review from 2002-2007 of National Trauma Data Bank. Essay On Influence Of The? Helmeted trauma patients had lower odds of death as compared to non-helmeted: Adjusted odds ratio of automatic typer, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.93). N=75,644 Helmeted patients had better GCS scores.
Goslar PW Crawford NR Petersen SR Wilson JR Harrington T. Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. 2008 Journal of quotes, Trauma, Injury, Infection and automatic typer, Critical Care 53:469-471. Retrospective review of trauma registry of one Level I trauma center from July 1st, 2002-June 30th, 2005. Non-helmeted rider was 2X more likely to sustain a brain injury and 3X more likely to die from the crash than a helmeted rider. Houston DJ Richardson LE. Motorcycle Safety and the Repeal of Universal Helmet Laws. 2007 American Journal of Public Health 97(11): 2063-2069. Retrospective review of all 51 states from the NHTSA Fatal Accident Reporting System from 1975 -2004. Are Human Rights? Mortality was analyzed controlling for other rider and state factors that affect motorcycle-related mortality: demographic, social, traffic safety and automatic essay, population density across states.
There was a 13.7% mortality reduction in states attributable to Essay about Overcoming Tuition Spikes, universal helmet law. Coben JH Steiner CA Miller TR. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: Comparing states with different helmet laws. 2007 Accident Analysis and Prevention 39:190-196. A one year retrospective review of the automatic typer Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) registry. The HCUP State Inpatient Database (SID) contains data from 33 states and captures. 80% of meaning, all hospital discharges in the US.
25,794 cases were identified; 16,105 from states with universal helmet laws, 7,924 from states with partial laws and 1765 from states with no helmet laws. Cases from states without universal helmet laws were 52% more likely to sustain the most severe forms of traumatic brain injury (RR: 1.52) and had a mortality rate 39% higher than those states with universal helmet. Lin JW Tsai SH Tsai WC Chiu WT Chu SF Lin CM Yang CM Hung CC. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. 2006 Surgical Neurology S2:20-25. Retrospective review of 90,250 head trauma case admitted to the hospital in Taiwan, excluding dead on arrivals and outpatients over an 8 year period. 47% of all injuries were motorcycle related. Those not wearing a helmet had a 32.9% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, compared to 25.2% for those who were. The chance of having an intracranial hemorrhage was 1.4 times higher for those not wearing a helmet compared to those who did (odds ratio of 1.40).
Eastridge BJ Shafi S Minei JP Culica D McConnel C Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge. 2006 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and automatic, Critical Care 60:978-984. Motorcyclists who crashed and found in NHTSA GES database for pre-hospital data and NTDB for hospital data from 1994 to 2002. There was less than half the risk of death or admission with a head injury for helmeted riders in of life comparison to non-helmeted riders. Javouhey E Guerin AC Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: A population-based study. 2006 Accident Analysis and Prevention 38:225-33. Motorcycle crashes were identified in a population based road trauma registry in France from 1996-2001 to automatic essay, determine risks for severe head injury. Examples Of Life? A non-helmeted rider had an 18 fold higher risk of having a severe head injury as defined by AIS of automatic typer, 2 or higher as compared to helmeted riders.
Nakahara S Chadbunchachai W Ichikawa M Tipsuntornsak N Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to of end, age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. 2005 Accident Analysis and automatic typer, Prevention 37:833-842. Retrospective review of 9,552 patients injured in positivist motorcycle crashes in Thailand and transferred to essay, the regional Medical Center over 5 years. The case fatality rate was 0.25 for helmeted riders and 0.94 for non-helmeted riders. Appeal? The fatality was also stratified by automatic, alcohol intoxication and time of vs interpretivist, day of crash. Hundley JK Kilgo PD Miller P R Chang MC Hensberry RA Meredith JW Hoth JJ. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to automatic essay typer, society? A study using the National Trauma Data bank. 2004 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 57:944-9. Retrospective review of motorcyclist crashes identified in the NTDB from 1994-2002.
The risk of death was 44% lower for helmeted riders than non-helmeted riders. 69.2% of meaning quotes, all riders were listed as wearing a helmet. Brandt MM Ahrns KS Corpron CA Franklin GA Wahl Wl. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. 2002 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 53(3):469-71. Retrospective review of essay typer, motorcycle crashes in the trauma registry at a Level I trauma centre from 1996 to 2000. Universal?? The risk of death was 16% lower in helmeted riders as compared to non-helmeted riders. Peek-Asa C McArthur DL Kraus JF. The prevalence of nonstandard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. 1999 Accident Analysis and Prevention 31:229-233. Retrospective review comparing helmets which met the 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law requirements to those which did not.
One third of automatic essay typer, riders whose crash report indicated a non-standard helmet were killed, compared to 15.5% on non-helmeted riders and Tuition Spikes, 13.6% of helmeted riders. Essay? Among all riders wearing non-standard helmets, 75% sustained a head injury of any severity and positivist, 62.5% sustained a head injury ³ 3. This was also significantly higher than those riders not wearing a helmet (51.9% and 37.4%) and those wearing a standard helmet (30.7% and 21.8%). The authors conclude that non-standard helmets do not provide protection. Petridou E Skalkidou A Ioannou N Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: A nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. 1998 Accident Analysis and Prevention 30:87-91.
Retrospective analysis of all motorcycle crashes in Greece for 1985 and typer, 1994. No motorcycle laws were in effect during either period, and positivist vs interpretivist, helmet use rates were similar for two periods. In 1985, 3.5% of helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to 4.3% of automatic essay, unhelmeted riders. In 1994, 2.9% of helmeted riders died in quotes motorcycle crashes compared to 5.1% for unhelmeted riders. The authors estimate that 38% of all motorcycle deaths could potentially be avoided if all motorcycle riders wore helmets. Rivara F Salzberg P Soderberg R Maier R Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington State. 1996 American Journal of essay, Public Health 86:41-45.
Retrospective review combining State crash information, hospital records, and meaning of life, death records for 1989 in Washington State. There were 2,090 crashes with 59 fatalities (2.8%). Motorcycle riders who were hospitalized after a crash were 2.9 times more likely to be hospitalized with a head injury and 3.7 times more likely to have suffered a severe of critical head injury if they were not wearing a helmet. Automatic Typer? Non-helmeted riders had 1.62 times the risk of a fatal crash compared to helmeted riders. Orsay E Holden JA Williams J Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the State of Illinois: Analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. 1995 Annals of positivist vs interpretivist, Emergency Medicine 28:455-460. Retrospective review of the Illinois Trauma Registry for 18 months comparing helmeted to unhelmeted motorcycle riders. Essay Typer? Of the 1231, 18% were helmeted and Essay Universal?, 56% were not. 30% of the helmeted riders sustained head injuries compared to 51% for unhelmeted riders.
The unhelmeted riders also had more severe head injuries. Rutledge RStutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. 1993 Accident Analysis and Prevention 25:347-353. Retrospective analysis of the North Carolina State Trauma Registry over 3.5 years, comparing 892 patients.
Helmet information was available for 460 (51.6%). Automatic Typer? Head injuries with AIS 2-5 occurred in 53% of unhelmeted riders, compared to 28% of helmeted riders. Braddock M Schwartz R Lapidus G Banco L Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:273-278.
Retrospective review of 112 motorcycle deaths in Connecticut over a two year period. Positivist? The fatality rate for unhelmeted riders was 26.7 per 1000 crashes, compared to 7.9 for helmeted riders. Offner PF Rivara FP Maier RV. The Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Use. 1992 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 32(5):636-42. Retrospective review of admitted riders after motorcycle crash at one Level I trauma center. The trauma registry identified the cases from 1985 to 1990. Head injury was reduced by automatic typer, 68% when wearing a helmet while there was no impact on death. Ramzy AI Soderstrom CA Dischinger PC Clark CC. Helmet Use, Patterns of Injury, Medical Outcome and Costs among Motorcycle Drivers in Maryland. 1992 Accident, Analysis and Prevention 24(4): 385-96.
Retrospective review of all motorcycle crashes in the State of Maryland for one year, 1987 to 1988. Essay About Universal?? Riders wore a helmet in 35% of the crashes.
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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to automatic essay, write and develop. Of End? Churches often receive dozens of resumes in their pastoral search process, and finding the right candidate is a rigorous process. There are several important steps to follow as you prepare for typer, writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is a very different document than a secular resume. Vs Interpretivist? Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and even a family picture. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and developed different from essay a traditional resume. Because of decisions this structure and the details involved in automatic writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On the positivist vs interpretivist first page you should include the most pertinent and essay core information – the of life top of the automatic essay first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name.
Many ministry and examples of end decisions pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at the top right of the page. Paul’s first letter to essay, Timothy includes the advertisement pastor’s family in the description of the pastor’s qualifications, and as our culture includes the pastor’s wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture. Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and automatic essay typer biographical information. Appeal To Pity? A significant difference between a secular resume and a ministry resume is the inclusion of personal details.
Some of these details include marital status, family details, date of birth, and typer even how long you have been married. Especially from quotes a secular point of automatic typer view, and living in a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in his marriage and parenting. Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and set you apart as the candidate for the position. The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information. You should clearly indicate both your degree and the institution you received your degree at. Especially in ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the quality of Essay History your theological training. Automatic? Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and Essay on Influence of the on American teaching within the church you are hired at. You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is typically your highest degree. The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience.
In the typer case of Essay of the History someone beginning in ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships. For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in essay typer describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . This informs the reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the results of your ministries. Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is on American where you showcase your skills and talents. The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on a separate page. Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry. Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching.
Philosophy of essay Leadership. Philosophy of Counseling. Each of your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel. Be sure to personalize these statements. Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. Enlightenment On American? You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the automatic typer denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and will teach in their church.
Do not make the mistake of trusting another’s references. Meaning Quotes? Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in automatic typer their application. There are a few more details that are important not to overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Often times, search committees and churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of of end of life details or information. You resume should reflect not only your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality.
If you print off your resume to send it to automatic essay typer, a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document. This is an easy step to ensure that the pages are not separated. An important tip to consider is to insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in about Tuition the footer of automatic essay your resume, in case the pages of your resume are separated. Essay About Are Human Rights Universal?? Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in your resume. Typer? Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive. Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for resumes. A contemporary trend is to make references available upon about Rights, request. Automatic Essay Typer? These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on Universal?, your resume and separates them somewhat from the rest of your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references. If at all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends.
Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to explain some of your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Your cover letter should be written well and essay typer signed personally. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Pastoral Resume | Reproduction of Essay Rights Universal? content on this website, in part or in whole, is strictly prohibited | Log in.
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Childhood Obesity Essays and automatic essay typer, Research Papers. Childhood Obesity : African American Cooking May 28, 2011 Introduction Obesity is appeal to pity advertisement a disease that has . beset the lives of so many people around the automatic essay typer world for decades. It is considered the most essential health concerns today. The focus of meaning quotes, obesity has since shifted to concentrate on the obesity in children. Childhood obesity is on the rise at automatic essay typer, an alarming rate, especially in African American communities. The commonness of Essay Universal?, obesity in automatic essay typer African Americans children is remarkably higher that white. African American , Childhood obesity , Democratic Party 1350 Words | 5 Pages. Causes of Childhood Obesity in Australia Introduction Childhood obesity is a major health . issue in Essay Overcoming Australia. Automatic Typer? World Health Organization (WHO), 2009 has defined obesity as abnormal or excessive accumulation of examples of life decisions, fat in the body that may impair health. Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects the health and essay, well-being of a child. Appeal Advertisement? The dietary intakes build up the unnecessary fat in child’s body that ultimately affects the overall health.
Childhood obesity is a serious. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood obesity 1724 Words | 6 Pages. Childhood obesity is a number one epidemic worldwide. Essay? “ Childhood obesity rates rose in 35 States . between 2003 and 2007, according to a national survey of kids ages 10 to 17”.(p4). We really need to find a way to prevent this issue from happening for the future kids in this world. No one person is the blame for this problem nevertheless everyone can have a hand in fixing this issue. For example, we can make children aware of the bad foods that are not healthy for them. Essay About Spikes? Some children may. Barack Obama , Childhood obesity , Health 751 Words | 4 Pages. Define and discuss the importance of your topic.
Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and . adolescents. It occurs when a child is well above the normal weight for his or her age and height. Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and essay, also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of Essay Tuition Spikes, childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by automatic typer, increasing the burden of. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Body shape 1611 Words | 5 Pages. Childhood Obesity : A Bibliographic Essay Childhood obesity is an epidemic that is affecting the . lives our youth. Essay Overcoming Tuition? It has drawn national attention by many.
Even first lady Michelle Obama has started a campaign aimed to address this problem. According to typer the article Michelle on a Mission, “the initiative is about families making manageable changes that fit with their schedules, budgets, need, and tastes” (2010). There are two main reasons for my interest in meaning quotes the topic of childhood obesity . First. Bariatrics , Body shape , Childhood obesity 2241 Words | 7 Pages. ? Childhood Obesity The percentage of overweight children is automatic typer growing rapidly in the United States. With one out of vs interpretivist, three . Typer? children considered overweight or obese, childhood obesity needs to be paid attention to by people. Additionally, the Essay health effects of childhood obesity cannot be ignored.
For example, overweight children are likely to typer have more risks for positivist vs interpretivist, different types of cancer, including cancer of the automatic colon, kidney, cervix, endometrium, ovary and prostate, as well as other long-term effects. Cancer , Childhood obesity , Junk food 1852 Words | 6 Pages. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily . affecting many low- and of life quotes, middle-income families particularly in the United States. Automatic? The socioeconomic status of these families contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic.
Summary of Article 1 The article, “Beliefs about the Role of positivist, Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of automatic essay typer, Lower Socioeconomic Status” is a study that was conducted by Alison Kalinowski. Bariatrics , Body mass index , Body shape 1593 Words | 5 Pages. Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is becoming a big problem in America. In my . paper, I will discuss the many ways that parents and healthcare providers can prevent childhood obesity . I will also discuss the study and the research methods used to conduct this research. We will focus on children that are infants all the way to age 12. Childhood obesity is becoming a growing concern for meaning of life quotes, both parents and pediatricians. Automatic Essay? There's an estimate of about 10% of the children that are from. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood obesity 1103 Words | 3 Pages.
? Childhood Obesity ENG 122 English Composition II Marsha Beckwith-Howard December 13, 2010 Childhood . Obesity Our nation has a rapidly increasing issue that requires immediate attention. “Results from the 2007-2008 NHANES, using measured heights and weights, indicate that an estimated 16.9% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years are obese” (CDC, 2010). Vs Interpretivist? If this trend continues at the current rate, nearly 34% of our nation’s children will be obese. Essay? Twenty-five million, or one-third. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood obesity 2179 Words | 7 Pages. Running Head: CHILDHOOD OBESITY 1 Childhood Obesity , a Growing Concern Marjorie Student ENG122 . Tiffany Professor January 17, 2011 CHILDHOOD OBESITY Childhood Obesity , a Growing Concern There are many differences between children today and children 20 years ago. One area that is concerning, not only to researchers and politicians, but parents as well, is the increase in childhood obesity , which is reaching epidemic proportions. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adipose tissue , Childhood obesity , Health 2371 Words | 7 Pages. and Economics: Obesity in Children Obesity represents a critical health care issue in the U.S. today. Scientists and . researchers of the field of reproductive medicine are well aware of the danger that excess body fat hence body weight has to patients.
Obese patients have greater occurrences of infertility than their leaner counterparts do. The obese individuals have been noticed to be at a higher risk in vs interpretivist case of pregnancy and additional prenatal complications. Obesity is defined as an. Body shape , Childhood obesity , Health care 2225 Words | 6 Pages. Childhood Obesity Chimere Vicks ENG 122 Craig Smith January 01, 2013 Childhood Obesity The . children of our future are facing a many challenges throughout their childhood , Childhood obesity is one of the challenges that has caught my interest. Children of different ages are facing this problem. Question is, what are we doing, as parents, to automatic essay typer help prevent this problem? Children cannot buy their own food nor do they do not know how important it is to stay active. Parents have a responsibility. Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus , Hypertension 1583 Words | 5 Pages.
Obesity among Our Children Childhood obesity is an ongoing epidemic that is plaguing adults and meaning of life, children . alike. But it is affecting our children in a way that we cannot explain. Essay? Medically there is a cure for obesity . But everyone has to play there part if we are to rid this disease from vs interpretivist, our society. We have to gain information and awareness in order to defeat this disease. Defining and diagnosing obesity can vary greatly within the essay typer medical field. Positivist Vs Interpretivist? A condition characterized by the. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood obesity 2279 Words | 7 Pages. ? Childhood Obesity Tara Wright ENG122 Matthew Fox July 23, 2012 Childhood Obesity . Childhood obesity is typer a serious concern for youth today. Within the Are Human Rights Universal? past 30 years childhood obesity has more than tripled.
Four out of ten children are considered to be obese (Ogden CL 2010). Often when one sees overweight children, one will hear parents making excuses for why their child is overweight. For example one will hear a parent say “she is typer just big boned, or she will grow out of it, it’s just baby. Bariatrics , Cancer , Childhood obesity 1690 Words | 8 Pages. their children. But unfortunately, there are parents not as concerned as others. Meaning? In the essay United States, there are many contributing factors, such as poor . habits starting at home, lack of physical activity, and timeless TV or computer time, to childhood obesity that can cause future complications, such as diabetes, and of the on American, other chronic diseases. However, parents are the principle reason for their child’s weight management troubles.
No matter if it is drinking, eating, or physical activity, if parents don’t. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood obesity 1123 Words | 3 Pages. Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity : Major Epidemic Corina Alfaro, Veronica Carrillo, Eva . Cavazos, Luis Closner University of automatic typer, Texas at vs interpretivist, Brownsville A Paper Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Course NURS 6322 Moral and Ethical Issues in Nursing Dr. Essay Typer? Nora Montalvo-Liendo November, 30, 2012 Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or wellbeing. Tuition Spikes? As methods to essay determine body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is. Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus , Hypertension 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Facts and Figures on Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity represents one of our greatest . health changes and is now among the most widespread medical problems affecting children and meaning quotes, adolescents living in automatic the United States and examples decisions, other developed countries. Automatic Typer? Childhood obesity and rates have increased 3to 4 times in the U.S., reaching epidemic levels and are moderately higher than the rates in appeal advertisement Canada, Australia and Europe. Many experts believe that this current generation of children will be the first.
Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Body shape 1661 Words | 5 Pages. Efren Iniguez English 101 Professor Dority February 21, 2013 Childhood obesity in America is a growing epidemic. . Most would claim they know it is a problem in automatic typer our country, yet every year there is an increase in the amount of obese children in the United States. The medical, physical, and psychological effects associated with obesity are astounding; nevertheless, processed, high calorie, low nutrient food is to pity advertisement widely available and automatic essay, consumed on a regular basis by children. Parents, childcare. Childhood obesity , Junk food , Nutrition 819 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1 Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity is an important issue because . of the staggering proportions that this disease has reached in of end the past few years. Certain genetic factors that are paired with changing the lifestyles and culture has produced kids (and some adults) who are generally not as healthy as people were just a few decades ago. Automatic? Widespread obesity has been the extreme result of these changes. I chose this topic because I have been working with children. Body shape , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1979 Words | 8 Pages.
RUNNING HEAD: CHILDHOOD OBESITY Childhood Obesity in examples of end of life America Childhood . Obesity in automatic essay America Childhood obesity is a very serious problem in America that seems to be going unaddressed. According to the Center for about Universal?, Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than one third of automatic typer, children in America are obese. As parents we are obligated to ensure our children stay active and eat a healthy diet. I have a long history of diabetes in my family and vs interpretivist, I am committed to ending it with my children. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood obesity 1074 Words | 3 Pages. Childhood Obesity Nutrition 225 Online with Dr. Strunk 11-20-12 Work cited page Books: I used the automatic typer chapters in this . book that focused on Essay Enlightenment on American History obesity in automatic adults, adolescents, and young children.
Greatest resource used. 12th edition of Understanding Nutrition by Whitney and Rolfes | Internet sites: http://www.cdc.gov/Healthy Youth/ obesity /facts.htm | http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/meetings/workshops/child- obesity /index.htm | http://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/obesity/Pages/default. Bariatric surgery , Bariatrics , Cancer 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Childhood Obesity “The American Academy of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry suggests that about to pity advertisement 20 percent of all children . and adolescents in essay typer the United States are obese.” (1st Paragraph, 2nd sentence from Ehow.com) There are many issues that affect children who are overweight. Children who are overweight are at meaning of life quotes, a greater risk for essay, immediate and long term health issues. These kids also are at a greater risk for about Overcoming, emotional problems. Automatic Essay? Childhood obesity has gotten out of control over.
Body shape , Cancer , Childhood obesity 1391 Words | 6 Pages. Obesity is the accumulation and storage of excessive fat in the body. According to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), . Obesity is any weight that is bigger than what is vs interpretivist typically considered healthy for a given height. (CDC, 2009). Automatic Essay Typer? The imbalance between caloric consumption and expenditure is what causes obesity in children and adults. There are factors that affect obesity . Such factors are biological, behavioral, and environmental in nature. When more calories than the body is required. Childhood obesity , Epidemiology , Health 2276 Words | 7 Pages. ntroduction: Obesity has become a well known word in of the Enlightenment on American this generation. Obesity is the automatic typer condition of being grossly fat or . overweight(Dictionary). In the past thirty years, obesity rates have more than doubled in children and quadrupled in to pity adolescents(CDC). There is more than one factor that has caused this obesity epidemic.
The intake of high calorie and essay typer, high fat foods, the lack of exercise, hormone imbalance, genetics, environmental factors, and quotes, socioeconomic factors all play a role in why current. Body shape , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 2289 Words | 7 Pages. my research paper on is obesity in america. i have seen obesity become a growing problem especially childhood . obesity . Automatic Typer? Being a Nutritional Science major, studying the about Overcoming Tuition factors of obesity and also the prevention to essay typer it is very interesting subject to me. Parents being busy with work and life in general, they introduce their kids to fast food at vs interpretivist, an early stage. When kids constantly eat fast food and don't have enough physical activity during the essay typer day, being overweight, obesity and many diseases come along. Childhood obesity , Eating , Energy 1496 Words | 4 Pages. Childhood Obesity America's childhood obesity rate is at meaning of life quotes, an all time high. Many adolescents are . failing the standard for essay, healthy eating habits, which is the reason for meaning of life quotes, their obesity . As you may know, an excessive amount of saturated fat in a diet will lead to weight gain.
The amount of automatic essay typer, overweight children aged 6 to 11 years has nearly tripled in examples of end of life decisions the past 30 years, going from 7% to typer a shocking 18.8% (Krisberg). Essay On Influence Enlightenment History? Obese children often struggle with physiological troubles, such as low self-esteem and. Cancer , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 2392 Words | 6 Pages. related issues. Automatic Essay? Some people believe that this is an meaning quotes, inequality for essay typer, children and that something needs to of life quotes be done to prevent such happenings from occurring. . Along with school problems, many children face other health problems that are related to automatic typer their obesity . “it is Essay about Rights estimated that 61% of obese children have at least one additional marker for heart disease such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure(CDC,2007). Other health concerns for obese children are: bone and joint problems, sleep apnea, type. Childhood obesity , Health , Health care 1852 Words | 6 Pages. CHILDHOOD OBESITY : CAN DIABETES BE PEVENTED? Mary Lally ENG 122: English Composition II William Johnson May 1, 2012 . CHILDHOOD OBESITY : CAN DIABETES BE PREVENTED? If you could image living in this world 10 years from now how would you picture what the average person would look like? Are they fat or skinny?
Obesity is automatic essay typer becoming an epidemic that is slowly killing many people. With more and more children becoming overweight there health is getting worse at an early age. Are Human Universal?? I will show you how being. Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus , Diabetes mellitus type 2 999 Words | 3 Pages. Preparation Outline: Vitalba Evola Topic: Childhood Obesity General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my . audience of two prevalent causes of childhood obesity . Thesis Statement: While there are many causes of childhood obesity , most are, in fact, preventable. Introduction I. Essay? Attention Getting Device: Our society has become a classic case of “Battle of the Bulge,” as our society now has an alarming number of obese individuals. But this isn’t from World War II; it.
Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1326 Words | 5 Pages. ? Child Obesity Name: Tutor: Course: Number: Date: Introduction Obesity is Overcoming Spikes a serious and major health . complication contributing to 112,000 deaths annually most of which are preventable. Obesity is to automatic typer a condition where excess fat has collected in Are Human Rights the body has to typer the level of adversely affecting one’s health. Essay Are Human Rights Universal?? There is no general agreement on automatic essay the lowest explanations of obesity in adolescents and children. Therefore, most professionals accept the guidelines published on about Are Human Universal? body. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Body shape 900 Words | 5 Pages. ?RUNNING HEAD: CHILDHOOD OBESITY 1 Childhood Obesity . Typer? C. Kevin Barr SOC120 John Meeks February 8, 2013 CHILDHOOD OBESITY 2 Childhood Obesity and the Health Concerns Obesity is such a hot topic in America today and childhood obesity and the ethical arguments over obesity has greatly increased over the last 10 years. Health problems that occur from this deadly disease is about Are Human Universal? something. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1628 Words | 6 Pages.
Childhood Obesity : Environmental Effects Darren Thomas ENG Composition II Instructor: Angie Temple March 5, 2012 . Childhood Obesity : Environmental Effects The future of the country is in danger. Essay? There is an unseen attack on society that threatens to shorten the Essay Overcoming lifespan of Americans from automatic typer, all walks of life. No one is exempt. Positivist Vs Interpretivist? No one is automatic essay immune. This problem is of life quotes so real that the automatic typer first lady of the United States has gotten involved. Childhood obesity in America is growing at an alarming rate. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Fatty liver 1821 Words | 5 Pages. ?Victor Barnard Childhood Obesity One of the most vital yet vulnerable parts of our society is to pity our younger generation. An up . and coming issue today is automatic childhood obesity mostly because children in this century have been consumed more by video games and television and less by to pity, physical activity and nutrition. By targeting an audience of parents, teachers, and children, steps can be taken toward increasing the amount of automatic essay, children who grow up overweight or obese. Steps such as implementing physical.
Childhood obesity , Education , Food 962 Words | 3 Pages. Preventing Childhood Obesity as a Parent George Yang Ashford University English 122: English Composition II Professor . Janelle Jalbert 01/10/2011 In today's society, childhood obesity is considered a serious public health issue and can be classified as an epidemic. Positivist Vs Interpretivist? In the United States alone, one in seven children ages 6-17 are considered to be obese. Automatic? In the last 40 years in the United States the rate of childhood obesity has tripled. The main reason why childhood obesity has become such. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 2257 Words | 7 Pages.
Childhood Obesity Amye Cook ENG122: English Composition II Instructor: Jenna Fussell December 17, 2012 What is of end decisions . Childhood Obesity ? Childhood obesity is very important in today’s society. Childhood Obesity is essay typer when a child have excessive amount of of end of life, body weight for their age. Automatic Typer? A child may become over weight because of the amount of food that they may consume into their body. Overweight can be caused because the body may not have enough energy to appeal to pity release the calories. When a child is obesity I. Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 891 Words | 3 Pages. Childhood Obesity Tracy Garrett ENG122- English Comp 11 . Professor Hanscom June 30, 2014 Childhood Obesity Thesis In the United States today, we have an automatic essay, epidemic of childhood obesity , when.
Bariatrics , Body shape , Childhood 1272 Words | 8 Pages. Hope Jenkins COM1010 P05 Instructor Suzan November 24, 2012 Topic: Childhood Obesity General Purpose: To inform Specific . Are Human Universal?? Purpose: To inform my audience about essay typer childhood obesity . Thesis: Showing statistics of childhood obesity , the effects of it, and the steps that parents could take to reduce their kid(s) chances of becoming obese. Delivery Plan: When giving my delivery plan, I plan on appeal advertisement speaking from my heart, maintain eye contact with my audience while speaking in a serious tone voice. Bariatrics , Body mass index , Body shape 1170 Words | 4 Pages. Childhood Obesity : How to Stop it Before it Begins June 10, 2012 Childhood Obesity : How to automatic Stop . it Before it Begins In the past 20 years childhood obesity has dramatically increased in the United States. Approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children between the ages of 2-19 are obese. (Putnam, 2012). Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child’s health or wellbeing.
Unfortunately due to about Overcoming the rise of obesity in automatic essay typer children it is being recognized as a serious. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1366 Words | 4 Pages. ?Vanessa Guzman Professor Lynn Cavallaro English 100 (20209) 15 Nov. 2014 Childhood Obesity Today, it is about Are Human Rights Universal? no secret that America . is overweight. Childhood Obesity occurs when a child’s body accumulates excess body fat that eventually causes a negative impact in his/her health.
Human beings have different body sizes that should weigh proportionally with their height as illustrated by essay typer, health scientists. The percentage of children six to eleven years old in the United States who were obese increased. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 900 Words | 4 Pages. Who is to Blame for to pity advertisement, Childhood Obesity ? A Review of Literature Stephen Carl Sandhya Joshi Lourdes University . Typer? Author Note This paper was prepared for English 102, Section D, taught by Lynda Hoffman Abstract Childhood obesity is a major concern amongst our growing youth. This research project argues the various factors that cause childhood obesity . These factors include parental control, income, time management, environment, technology and positivist vs interpretivist, genetics.
It also offers information. Child , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1958 Words | 6 Pages. ? Childhood Obesity According to Burniat (2002, p.15), obesity means an excessive amount of body fat; however, no . general agreement as yet exists on the best definition of typer, obesity in Essay on Influence Enlightenment on American History children. A number of automatic essay typer, factors contribute to a child becoming obese, and these include genetics, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Childhood obesity is an increasing problem all over the world that affects an estimated seventeen percent of all children in the United States, which is three times the rate it was. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1440 Words | 5 Pages.
Childhood Obesity Johnny Hawthorne SOC203 Instructor: Nichole Boutte-Heiniluoma September 1, 2012 . Childhood obesity is Tuition Spikes widely affecting children all over the world. “ Obesity now affects 17% of all children and adolescents in the United States - triple the rate from just one generation ago” Richard J. Deckelbaum and Christine L. Williams (2001). Obese children can have high blood pressure and essay, high cholesterol, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) Ricchard J. Appeal? Deckelbaum. Bariatrics , Body shape , Childhood 2460 Words | 7 Pages. Childhood obesity : A Growing Problem in The United States One in every three children in essay typer the United States is . overweight or obese. (Solving Obesity 3) Childhood obesity has always been a problem in the United States, and continues to be a factor in the lives of many young children. This happens in many other countries around the world, but tends to Essay Overcoming be much more prominent inside the typer United States.
The growing obesity in children is posing serious problems to positivist their health, and will. Barack Obama , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1069 Words | 4 Pages. November 23rd 2012 Childhood Obesity : Parents dilemma Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, musculoskeletal discomforts are some . of the automatic typer many serious health effects that should be the nightmare we all avoid. Of Life? So why it is that in today’s society we are faced with the alarming fact of half of automatic essay typer, our population being obese, which are the causative agents to Universal? these malicious health problems? It seems as if this is an ongoing problem that may never cease to exist. Automatic Essay Typer? Why?
If the quandary of obesity isn’t realized and. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood 1854 Words | 5 Pages. ? Childhood Obesity : A growing problem in meaning of life quotes the United State Why is childhood . obesity increasing so much? Schools play a role in childhood obesity . There are ways to prevent it. Essay? I think schools should give healthier lunch, they should ban their high calorie snacks and drinks, and they should have more physical activities. If we don’t start now in a few more years 90 % off all children will become obese.
All the unhealthy things that schools provide for children increase. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Nutrition 1155 Words | 3 Pages. Running Head: CHILDHOOD OBESITY SOLUTIONS 1 . Childhood Obesity Solutions Cassandra M. Erakovic University of Victoria CHILDHOOD OBESITY SOLUTIONS 2 Prevalence of Essay Overcoming Tuition Spikes, childhood obesity has increased greatly in automatic essay the recent years, so much so that the number of children. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1809 Words | 7 Pages. If you were to walk in examples of end decisions that same park now, you would more than most likely find half the number of children and automatic, a good number of them would be considered . Essay On Influence History? overweight.
Childhood obesity is automatic essay typer a very dangerous epidemic with potential catastrophic effects on Essay about Are Human the health of our future. Automatic Essay Typer? This report will analyze what causes childhood obesity and what can be done by schools, parents, and communities to positivist help our children grow up happy and healthy. Automatic? Purpose, Scope and Limitations In a perfect world every child. Bariatrics , Cancer , Childhood 850 Words | 3 Pages. King 2 Childhood Obesity : What is Making the Next Generation Fat? By: Brigette King What is making the next generation fat? . Just a decade or so ago the to pity advertisement debate of childhood obesity was not even a matter to be discussed.
Our grandparents never even questioned the essay typer weight of their children. Their children, our parents, ate healthy foods at the family dining table and played outside all day long, but the subject of childhood obesity has gained quite a bit of interest since those days. With the meaning quotes ever. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood 1949 Words | 6 Pages. Savage 1 Trisha Savage English 015 Professor Lynn Petko February 12, 2013 Childhood Obesity Childhood . obesity in American is automatic a growing disease that has become an epidemic with lasting psychological effects, because of meaning of life quotes, advertisement of automatic typer, fast food, lack of physical activity, genetics, and parental control. All of these factors has made food become a major health issue in many young people’s lives today. Today, the main cause of obesity is certainly children eating too much and/or not performing regular. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Exercise 687 Words | 3 Pages. Travis Dwyer Topic: Childhood Obesity Take care of your body. It's the about Tuition Spikes only place you have to automatic essay typer live. -Jim Rohn There . Essay Overcoming Spikes? are so many prevalent health issues that need to be addressed in today’s society.
Since children are considered to be our hope for the future, I chose to research the epidemic of childhood obesity . As an aspiring physical education teacher or as alarmed to essay typer learn that “prevalence for overweight children aged 6-11 years has almost tripled in 25 years, increasing from Essay Rights, 6.5% to. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Education 1311 Words | 4 Pages. Comp 11 November 13, 2012 Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is a serious . health and essay typer, societal issue. Rising at extreme rates, one may call it an epidemic. Childhood obesity increases incidences of to pity advertisement, mortality later in life, causes asthma and essay typer, type II diabetes, which was only found in adults. With these ill effects, childhood obesity is an issue that should not be taken lightly.
Over the last fifteen years, obesity in children has increased fifty percent. While the Essay Are Human Universal? cause of automatic, this. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood 1238 Words | 4 Pages. Childhood Obesity In the United States today, at least one in every five children are obese. Childhood . obesity is becoming a common issue in the world today. Poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, and television along with media are some of the leading causes of obesity in children. Examples? There are countless people who believe that the obesity is caused by genetics, however it is rarely the automatic factor. In specific cases such as medical disorders is when genetic factors are the cause of excessive.
Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 784 Words | 3 Pages. Cultural and Spiritual Beliefs on Childhood Obesity Discuss cultural beliefs and influences relative to the health issue . Culture defines a human being, it is the unique experiences that each person goes through as they continue to age and most importantly, it is a learned behavior. “Culture is Essay Tuition a dynamic construct in automatic essay typer that shared understandings change over time as they are shaped or informed by the experience of individual members of Overcoming, a group or the entire group” (Caprio, Daniels, Drewnowski. Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1913 Words | 5 Pages. ? Childhood Obesity : An Annotated Bibliography Kornides, M.L., Kitsantas, P., Villarruel, A. (2011).Factors . associated with obesity in Latino children. Hispanic Health Care International, 9(3). Several factors determine the high prevalence of obesity among Latino children. The intention of this article was to reassess the typer latest literature on the factors related to overweight and obesity in Latino children furnish nursing implications, and propose direction for future. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood 646 Words | 3 Pages.
overweight because they don’t do any physical activity.” Obesity is a serious issue among children and there are complex reasons that can cause . it, principally by poor eating habits, lack of examples decisions, any physical activity and family history of obesity . Overweight in automatic essay children is not being a few pounds higher than normal, “ obesity in childhood is when a kid is 10% higher than what their weight is supposed to Are Human Universal? be”(Facts for families). Being overweight during childhood is the easiest issue to recognize talking in medical. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Obesity in automatic Children Kayla Gotch ENG 122 Instructor Tiffany Young April 2, 2012 Obesity in Children . Childhood obesity is a growing health concern nationwide. Obesity is a disorder in which the body fat content has become so high that it creates health problems and Essay of the, increased risk of health problems ( Childhood Obesity : An Overview. Children amp; Society, 21(5), 390-396). Doctors agree that there are two primary factors in creating obese children.
First, the automatic children and teenagers are not eating. Bariatrics , Childhood , Childhood obesity 2335 Words | 6 Pages. Childhood Obesity According to the University of Michigan Health System (2010), obesity means “having too much . body fat. A child is obese if their weight is more than 20% higher than the ideal weight for about Rights, a boy or girl of their age and essay typer, height.” Genes, environmental factors, and behavior/habits are often factors that contribute to obesity . Childhood obesity has become an epidemic that is reducing the life expectancy by four to nine months and is steadily increasing. Vs Interpretivist? “Current trends indicate that. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Developmental psychology 988 Words | 4 Pages. INTRODUCTION Childhood obesity has become a major issue in our society. It does not only influence one’s . childhood but it will also make an impact on essay typer one’s later adult life. For example, how will people perceive an obese person when one is looking for a job? There are many reasons for childhood obesity , for example, dietary, genetics, environment, illness, and psychological factors.
It is important to be aware of what kinds of health problems obesity will bring to us. Diseases like diabetes. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 2268 Words | 6 Pages. Research Paper Randy Scott Eng 121 Instructor Donna Mitchell 10/14/2012 Childhood obesity in . america is a medical condition that needs major attention. Obesity is defined as having extra body fat. About Rights? Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past thirty years. There are major health risk linked with childhood obesity such as cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and high cholestoral. Automatic Essay? 1 out of 3 children are condidered obese in america today.
The percentage. Barack Obama , Childhood , Childhood obesity 835 Words | 3 Pages. companies make millions of dollars a year by placing soda machines in Enlightenment on American schools. Automatic Typer? A world where obesity is killing more people than smoking. What . Essay? if I told you this world is not in your imagination but is the world we live in automatic essay today? You Can't Escape the examples of end decisions Headlines. You Can't Avoid the typer Facts. Childhood obesity has reached unbelievable heights. About Are Human? The future health of an entire generation is at automatic essay typer, risk.
Obesity is on the rise, and appeal to pity advertisement, it is becoming more and more of a national health concern. Automatic Essay Typer? The increasing. Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 2580 Words | 7 Pages.
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How to automatic essay typer Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for Enlightenment History over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Evaluation essays are just like reviews. Essay! They judge whether something is good or bad, better or worse than something comparable. We are familiar with this sort of writing if we've read book, movie, restaurant, or product reviews. Evaluation papers can be serious or funny, earnest or sarcastic.
We all love to read the review of a really bad movie or restaurant experience. To Pity! If you like to write satire, this can be a great opportunity to display your humor. Chances are you will have a great time, and so will your reader. Your topic can be something you've experienced once or many times. Keep in mind that you will write a better paper if you: Have a strong opinion—positive or negative—about this topic. Choose something you've experienced recently or that you can review again before you write your paper. Know a lot about this type of experience. Use the following list of categories to brainstorm ideas for essay what you might want to evaluate.
Finding Criteria for History Evaluation Essays. To turn your opinion into automatic essay typer, an evaluation, you will need to of the Enlightenment on American use criteria to judge your subject. What are criteria? Criteria are the parts of your topic that you will judge as good or bad, better or worse than something else. How can you find criteria? Criteria are the parts of the thing you are evaluating. Here are some examples of criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the best criteria for your evaluation: In order to do this kind of essay writing well, you need to determine what sort of a topic you are evaluating. If it is positivist a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.? Then you need to decide what would make an excellent movie in that genre in your opinion.
For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and actors you enjoy getting to automatic typer know. Appeal To Pity! Next, you will evaluate the movie you have chosen to see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy. In order to evaluate something, you need to compare it with the best example of that particular thing. So, to help you develop your topic into an essay, there are two important questions to ask when you are choosing your topic to typer evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it? Second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category?
What category is Tuition Spikes it? For the typer, best evaluation essay, you want to compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the category as much as possible. To get there, you want to keep on asking the question, What kind is to pity advertisement it? What category does McDonald's fit into? Answer to first question : Restaurant. Automatic! (What kind of restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. (Better, but what kind of Essay about Rights fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. (This is what you want!) So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to compare it to other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category?
What makes that example better than others? Thinking about what you consider to automatic be the Essay, very best example of something in the category of what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and also what judgement you can make. Automatic Essay! For example, here is a list of criteria my students have come up with for an ideal burger fast food restaurant: looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to order has great fries has options on the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of money. No two people will come up with exactly the same list, but most restaurant reviews look at the following criteria:
Answer to second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and food at a fair cost. Now you know what your paper is going to meaning of life quotes be about how close McDonald's comes to this ideal. Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the automatic essay typer, list of criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to wait a while to get your meal at about Overcoming Tuition, Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the meal is worth the automatic essay typer, wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only great service, but a fun atmosphere for eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price. Topic sentence for paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home. Food served quickly Easy to order Friendly Not pushy They get the Essay about Universal?, order correct. Topic sentence for paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there.
Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and chairs. Topic sentence for paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the typer, best in of life quotes town. Juicy burgers with lots of grease Many choices for toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and automatic essay typer, peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for of end of life decisions those who don't like burgers. Topic sentence for paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price. Quality ingredients Burgers and fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills. Using this quick outline, most of you could probably write your own essay on automatic essay typer, Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to vs interpretivist one of the best of automatic typer that genre (use something everyone would know to save time).
You will not do an extended comparison, but just use the comparison as a lead-off into your own judgment. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is especially easy to do for this essay type. Use the intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the subject, then describe how the subject was either better or worse than you expected. Frame : Use a description of the to pity, subject to frame the essay. That way you get right into the action.
Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Give your evaluation and then conclude with the end of your frame. Define Genre and Compare: In this essay, you would start out by describing the automatic essay, typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club). After describing the “typical,” you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the about Tuition Spikes, genre or deviates from the norm. Probably this type of essay typer organization is Essay Are Human best used for a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to essay break out of the normal expectations of that genre.
Analysis by Criteria: In this type of vs interpretivist paper, you introduce the subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the automatic essay, competition is, and how you gathered your data. Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in order of importance. Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of your paper. It means telling what happened in the order it happened. This is vs interpretivist particularly useful for a performance or restaurant review. Causal Analysis: This measures the effect on the audience. How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on the Visual: This organization plan works well for typer analyzing works of art and Essay about, pictures. The analysis focuses on automatic, composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and background, symbols, cultural references, and key features of that visual genre. It also notices the tools of the artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and about Overcoming Spikes, media. This paper analyzes these details in essay typer order to explain how they are related to the cultural and historical context of the work of art and then tells how they relate to the overall meaning of the piece.
Be sure to evaluate if and why this piece is effective or ineffective. Analysis Focused on on Influence of the Enlightenment on American History, the Social Context or the essay, Story : This type of evaluation takes an image and analyzes how it is effective for a particular point. Vs Interpretivist! Usually, the image is about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event. Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to typer the emotion or debate surrounding the event. It may be that the image is ironic or misleading. The only Essay on American problem with our example above is that it is so easy to write, and so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal. How can you make your essay stand out?
Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the reader feel that they have been to the restaurant with you. Use the introduction and conclusion to entice the reader. Introduction and typer, Conclusion Ideas. Use a conversation about the food. Start with your expectations and end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them).
Talk about popularity or history of the restaurant. Appeal To Pity Advertisement! Use statistics of essay people eating fast food more. Positivist! Discuss the controversy about essay fast food and obesity and health. See the chart below for more ideas. How to Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Present the Subject in an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of on American detail : Be sure to explain clearly what it is and provide enough information for the reader to agree with your judgment. Sometimes movie reviews leave the automatic typer, reader in examples suspense as to the outcome of the story. You will have to decide what you want to tell.
Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to decide if they agree. Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the summary of the typer, subject is no more than a third of your paper. Appeal To Pity Advertisement! The main part of your paper is supposed to be the evaluation, not the automatic essay, summary. It is possible to about do the summary separately and then do the automatic typer, evaluation, or you can summarize as part of your evaluation. Make sure what you are evaluating is Essay about Universal? clear: It is often effective to use an introduction which describes the automatic typer, subject or gets the reader involved in about Tuition the action quickly. 2. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to foreshadow your body by including the main reasons for your evaluation in that thesis sentence. (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for a college student's study break because of the hilarious comedy, intense action, and fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and the genre of the subject (in the automatic essay, above example, the Essay of the Enlightenment on American History, audience is automatic essay typer college students and meaning, the genre is action comedy). Create a three-column-log to help you make notes for automatic essay your paper. Separate your notes into three columns for criteria, evidence, and judgment. Meaning Of Life! Pick at least three criteria to talk about in your essay.
For example, for a mystery play, it could be three of the following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of minor characters, the pace of the action, or the unveiling of the mystery. Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to read. Use vivid nouns and engaging verbs. Automatic! Have a strong judgment about how this subject is of life either better or worse than similar subjects. Automatic Typer! Your judgment can be mixed. For example, you might say the about Rights Universal?, concert on the mall was a good mix of bands and that the automatic essay, new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the sound equipment was poorly set up and appeal, tended to make it hard to hear the singers. Order the body paragraphs from essay least to about Overcoming Spikes most important. Back up your opinions with concrete examples and convincing evidence. 3. Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of your judgments, you need to give reasons to back them up that are specific, interesting, and essay, convincing.
For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. In some cases it is effective to counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think. For example, if your subject is very popular and you think it is terrible, you may want to state what most people think and tell why you disagree. This exercise is intended to help you prepare to positivist write your paper. As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the topic (subject) you are going to evaluate? Do a short description of it in a list or paragraph. What category is automatic your topic?
Be as specific and narrow as possible. Who might be interested in this? This is your audience for to pity the paper. What does this audience already know? What do they want or expect from this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for evaluating your topic? (Think of what is most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations?
In your evaluation of your topic, what is good? In your evaluation of your topic, what is not as good? What is the best example of something in your topic? (Or what other things can you use to compare your topic with?). How does your topic compare to the best of this sort of typer thing? If I had to Overcoming Spikes put my evaluation in essay typer a single sentence, I would say: Look at examples of end, “How to Write and Evaluation Essay” Organization Strategies. Automatic! Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it. Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of these will work best for you?
frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for the subject, define the of life, genre, personal story, quote from essay someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and contrast. How will you use this introduction and conclusion idea in about Overcoming your essay? Now write a brief outline of your paper (see hamburger example above). Most of us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas. Instructors may have you work in groups to talk out your ideas. I've even had some students turn on their webcam and automatic typer, answer these questions while videotaping themselves! If your instructor doesn't have you work in a group, you can get together with some friends to answer the following questions and take notes to help you get ideas for your paper.
Take turns in your group. The main goal is to help one another prepare to write. Pay special attention to helping each other describe their subject vividly and make their evaluation clear and precise. Also, look for examples of end of life decisions good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to your group. Automatic Essay! Let the group respond and tell you what they know about it or what they would expect. You write down their answers. Explain your subject.
Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for you if you want). Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in pre-writing). Have the of life, group respond. Typer! Do these seem like the best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is your thesis). Get suggestions for appeal advertisement how to make is more effective.
Look at the different “Organization Suggestions” on automatic essay typer, the “Basic Features of an Evaluation Paper.” What type of organization would work best for this paper? Try to write a simple outline. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 150 Topics for Essays That Explain. by Virginia Kearney 10. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18.
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. A great leader is best judged by the well - being of the decisions, people of his country. Thank you for this its really helped with my college English class.
thank you gave a better explanation that my professor. Thanks! This is helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. That is an interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only visuals, and now I have it evaluate it.
I've never written an evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Hi Janelle! I have lots of automatic information on topic ideas and how to advertisement write different types of Freshman English essays. I wrote these over my 24 years of teaching and publish them here to help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out. Essay Typer! Many students find my essays on their own but I welcome instructors using links to my material, but please do not post the information to your own website or print out Essay on Influence Enlightenment on American History, my information. Thank you for this. Automatic Essay Typer! I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and meaning of life quotes, I'll use some of this material to teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality. I am trying to evaluate a hotel.
Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech. Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the automatic essay, Kindle Keyboard 3G. :) askformore lm 2 years ago. Thank you for positivist vs interpretivist a very interesting and useful hub. Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from Bangladesh.
wow!! amazing really. I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago. Thank you for this very accessible and useful information. Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks DVKR--I think this is one of the easier essays to write because we are all familiar with the review. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Typer! HubPages and appeal to pity, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on automatic typer, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and advertisement, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and automatic essay typer, respective owners.