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Brazil, Russia, India And China - BRIC. Bee Essay! Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) refer to the idea that China and India will, by 2050, become the world's dominant suppliers of manufactured goods and services, respectively, while Brazil and Russia will become similarly dominant as suppliers of raw materials. Due to lower labor and production costs, many companies also cite BRIC as a source of happy, foreign expansion opportunity, and promising economies in which to invest. BRIC is an acronym for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China combined, originally projected to The Sacramento be the fastest growing market economies by Jim O'Neill of Goldman Sachs first in 2001, but most prominently in a follow up paper published in 2003. It has been speculated that by 2050 these four economies would be wealthier than most of the current major economic powers.
The Goldman Sachs thesis doesn’t argue that these countries are a political alliance (like the European Union) or a formal trading association - but states instead they have the Negative Effects of Beauty on Children Essay potential to form a powerful economic bloc. The countries haven’t announced any formal trade agreement between them, but leaders of the Bee Essay four countries have attended summits together, and Do Animals Have, acted in concert with each others interests. BRIC or ‘Big Four’ is now also used as a more generic marketing term to refer to The Sacramento these four emerging economies. Columbia University has established the BRICLab, where foreign, domestic, and financial policies of BRIC members are examined. Introduction and Early Writing on BRIC. In 2001 Jim O’Niell wrote a report, published by Goldman Sachs noting that Brazil, Russia, India and in Distance Education, China’s GDP was set to rise 1.7% in the next year, and then be in a position to continue to grow. In the The Sacramento paper Building Better Economic BRICs O’Niell runs through four scenarios on measuring and projecting GDP adjusted for PPP.
In all those scenarios, the nominal GDP assumption for the BRICs rises from the 2001 measurement of 8% in USD, to external wall 14.2%. The Sacramento! While weighted heavily by China, the other countries grow relative to G7 countries. Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman wrote a report Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050, once again published by Goldman Sachs making the claim that by 2050 BRIC could grow to a size larger than the G6, and atwood, that it’s quite possible that the largest economies in The Sacramento Bee Essay the world by external wall GDP may not be the richest. This set of projections are based on the assumption that policies and institutions are established to help support economic growth, which as the report states, is by no means a guarantee. Given the amount of projected growth – by The Sacramento Bee Essay Wilson and Purushothaman’s measurements up to 300% – even falling somewhat short of the potential growth of any or all members of the BRIC group would still entail a large amount of potential growth. The report shows a projected per capita income for BRIC countries in 2050 that would be lower than G6 countries with the exception of Russia. History! The Goldman Sachs global economics exam publish, Growth and Development: The Path to The Sacramento 2050 , a 158 page report going highlighting challenges and opportunities for BRIC countries. Roughly outlined, the report highlights India’s inefficient energy grid and consumption, projects possible growth the number of people living in BRIC countries earning more than $3,000 a year up to 800 million people within a decade. Additionally the report looks at the lack of a substantial presence in global capital markets, and notes the large populations of while per capita income levels will remain lower than industrialized economies, the aggregate wealth of the BRIC countries will exceed that of the history G6 partly due to The Sacramento Bee Essay the large populations of the countries.
BRICs and Beyond is Quality Assurance in Distance, published by Goldman Sachs, a nearly 300 page report looking again at BRIC growth potential, environmental impact of the The Sacramento growing economies, and sustainability of growth. The report also looks at the Next 11, or N-11, (a term for eleven emerging economies) in relationship to external wall the BRIC nations, and ascendency of new global markets. The Sacramento! BRIC Summits and Political Cooperation. While BRIC has no publicly disclosed formal quadrilateral trade agreement, the heads of state of the BRICS countries have met regularly since 2009 at a yearly summit. The first summit was held in the Russian city of Yekaterinburg in 2009, presidents Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil, Hu Jintao of China, Dmitry Medvedev of Russia, and Prime Minister Manmohan Sing of India were all in attendance. South Africa entered a bid to join the BRIC group in August of 2010 and was eventually invited in December of that same year, and attended the April 2011 summit in the Chinese city of Sanya, effectively changing the melamine name of the group to BRICS.
While a lot has been made about the enormous potential growth of the BRIC nations, O’Neils thesis has been challenged over the years as the economic and geopolitical climate has shifted. The Sacramento Bee Essay! A couple fundamental criticisms of the the investment concept include the external wall idea perceived by some as implicit in the argument for continuous growth by The Sacramento Bee Essay raw material providers that natural resources are limitless. Those critiquing the model of growth say that it ignores the finite nature of fossil fuel, uranium, and other resources. It’s been argued by Deutsche Bank Research and Have Minds?, editorials written in The Sacramento Bee Essay Foreign Policy Magazine that China outstrips the other BRIC members economies by a huge amount, making up 70% GDP growth of the group countries, putting the country in a seemingly different category than other members of BRIC. Still others have cited human rights issues in China and Russia, as well as Russia’s annexation of Crimea and direct or indirect support of external wall, Russian separatist fighters in The Sacramento Bee Essay Ukraine as reason to doubt a fundamental tenants of the BRIC thesis.
An editorial written for Reuters and Do Animals Have Minds?, published in 2014 categorized Russia’s belligerency as evidence that globalization is not inevitable, nor is it irreversible. Criticism aside, as of 2013 combined GDP has outpaced Goldman Sachs expectations by nearly half. The Sacramento Bee Essay! The original BRIC theory will continue to evolve as time goes on as some projections fall short and external wall, others meet their mark.
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Physical Abuse Essays and Research Papers. Total Pages: 4 Words: 1578 Works Cited:4 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. At twenty years old, Will (Matt Damon) is a mathematical genius stuck between his abusive past and opportunity for greatness. Booked on assault charges, Will is allowed to Bee Essay, leave prison on two conditions, taking math classes with a professor who recognizes his brilliance and psychotherapy. Negative Of Beauty Pegeants Essay? While algebra and exponents come easy for Bee Essay, him, love and trust does not. With the help of external wall his therapist (Robin Williams), Will begins to deal with his low self-esteem, fear of intimacy, and past physical abuse , until Will uses his intelligence and goes after Skylar (Minnie Driver), a woman who loved him unconditionally, to proclaim a life worth living. Abandonment: Will had never met his biological parents.
He grew up as an Bee Essay orphan as he was abandoned by people who were supposed to love him the most. Physical abuse : Behavioral indicators of abuse : Abused children exhibit particular behaviors that are indicative of their dysfunctional environment. Some of the first behavioral indicators of abuse can be observed by atwood endings, physicians in hospital settings. One of the most striking characteristics noted in Bee Essay the child is the little confidence in his abilities. Will suffered from atwood happy physical and psychological abused during his childhood. He was removed from several foster homes, in particular Will was removed from two fosters home due to the severe abuse . Between countless physical abuses he suffered he mentioned to be burned with cigarettes, stubbed with a knife, and beating with a belt.
Bill was removed from different foster homes numerous times until he was old enough to live on his own. His foster parents used to The Sacramento, put a belt and a ranch on the table to make him choose. Despite of the harsh attitudes, it is expressed that children can keep control of the abuse ; it follows that they can control other aspects of their lives. They feel that punishment was deserved, it was their fault. Contextually, Will feels guilty for being smart and therefore he deserved to be punished. Abused children may use withdrawal as a defense mechanism to avoid further punishment. The lead character shows oppositional behavior that is often termed as aggression or over hostility by others. Abused children harbor a suppressed anger over their lack of control over their lives.
In addition they see parents using violence as a way to handling problems and taking out aggression. Fearful of failure: Children perceive abuse as a deserved retribution. We do not know when his abuse episode started; based on the information extracted from the film it can be established that the external wall, abuse occurred during middle childhood and early adolescence. In Unites States children appear to be more susceptible to nonfatal physical abuse between the ages of 6 to The Sacramento Bee Essay, 12. “Children who experience abuse have been found to report more unhappiness and troublesome behavior than children who only witness abuse ” (Sternberg et al., 1993). According to melamine in milk, L. Charlesworth (2008),” the most widely recognized developmental task of this period is the acquisition of The Sacramento feelings of self-competence.” Children search for opportunities to of Beauty Pegeants Essay, demonstrate personal skills, abilities and Bee Essay, achievement. Quality Assurance Education? Ideally, families play a critical role in supporting development of The Sacramento this sense. History Of Cricket? In this case, Will was not able to completely develop a sense of competence; in consequence he couldn’t increase his awareness of his fit in The Sacramento the network of relationships in his surroundings.
Short term consequences: “Children who experience trauma induced by either indirect or direct expose to violence may experience change in their brain chemistry” (Perry, 1997, 2006). Clearly experiencing violence adversely affect children in a number of areas, including the ability to establish social, including peer, relationship. Childhood exposure to violence increases the possibility of Negative Effects mental health difficulties and violence perpetration or re-victimization. Will was forced to believe that the world is unpredictable and violent- a belief that threatens children's natural curiosity and desire to Bee Essay, explore the social environments. Long term consequences: Will pushed people away before they can leave him; that was his defense mechanism to protect himself from Negative on Children Essay being hurt again. He stopped indulging in The Sacramento Bee Essay any activity that might bring him pleasure of any kind. Poor mental and emotional health: Long-term study shows, as many as 80 percent of endings young adults who had been abused met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at The Sacramento Bee Essay age 21. “These young adults exhibited many problems, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicide attempts” (Silverman, Reinherz, Giaconia, 1996). “Other psychological and emotional conditions associated with abuse and neglect include panic disorder, dissociative disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder” (Teicher, 2000).
“Children who are abused and neglected by caretakers often do not form secure attachments to them. These early attachment difficulties can lead to later difficulties in relationships with other adults as well as with peers” (Morrison, Frank, Holland, Kates, 1999). Unable to trust others: When Will needed to choose a therapist, he made fun of them as a barrier to talk about melamine in milk his issues; he made them look stupid. He went through five of them before he spoke for The Sacramento, the very first time with John. Trusting anybody whom he considered being outside of what he recognized as his family was impossible. Will is being a part of a group of friends; they do trust each other, and treat each other like brothers. Will had entrusted his friends with blind faith. Juvenile delinquency and happy endings, adult criminality: “A National Institute of Justice study indicated being abused or neglected as a child increased the likelihood of arrest as a juvenile by 59 percent. Abuse and neglect increased the likelihood of adult criminal behavior by 28 percent and The Sacramento, violent crime by Have Minds? Essay, 30 percent” (Widom Maxfield, 2001).
Will was arrested for Assault, resistance, 1993 assault, and assault 1995 impersonating an officer. There are faxes for this order. In the long-term, empirical evidence suggests that as many as 80% of Bee Essay young adults abused in childhood meet the formal diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder by the age of 21, including some of the most serious such as clinical depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicidal inclinations (Silverman, Reinherz, Giaconia, 1996). The full spectrum of psychological disorders to which adult victims of childhood abuse are typically prone includes panic disorder, dissociative disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and happy, reactive attachment disorder (Teicher, 2000). Title: Domestic violence and Hispanic women. Total Pages: 30 Words: 8700 Bibliography:20 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper.
This is what I have so far, so you can get an idea: Evidence Based Practice Protocol: Domestic Violence and Hispanic Women. According to A Report of the Surgeon General (1999), domestic violence is The Sacramento Bee Essay, considered one of the leading causes of serious injury to women ages fifteen to forty-four, accounting for about thirty percent of all acute injuries to women seen in emergency departments. Many victims of domestic violence do not report the crimes to endings, authorities or healthcare professionals. The severe underreporting of The Sacramento Bee Essay violence against women leads to the belief that the problem is less widespread than it is; and this false sense can hinder healthcare providers from becoming more diligent at assessing women for domestic violence. The rates of domestic violence detection in clinical settings are still low despite the fact that a high percentage of history female victims of domestic violence visit emergency rooms for treatment. Garcia (2004) states that health professionals very seldom check for The Sacramento, signs of violence or ask women about Do Animals Have Minds? experiences of abuse . The Sacramento Bee Essay? Although there is still certain argument about the Do Animals Have Essay, value of domestic violence screening in general practice and primary care, there is an The Sacramento Bee Essay increasing recognition of the importance of domestic violence screening as an effective method of identifying and responding to domestic violence cases presenting to emergency departments. As research has shown, the use of emergency room protocols for identifying and treating victims of domestic violence has been found to increase the Minds?, identification of The Sacramento Bee Essay victims by medical practitioners from 5.6 percent to Quality Assurance, 30 percent (Garcia, 2004, p. The Sacramento? 536).
Domestic Violence and Hispanic Women. The prevalence of Do Animals Essay domestic violence among Hispanic women in the United States is increasing every year which poses a high threat for The Sacramento, the development of mental illness among this population. According to Rodriguez, Heilemann, Fielder, Ang, Nevarez, Mangione (2008), Hispanic women who experience physical violence are at increased risk for mental and history, physical problems including depression, anxiety and substance abuse . It is crucial to understand the cultural beliefs and practices of Hispanic women in order to increase reports of The Sacramento domestic violence. External Wall? This knowledge and awareness will facilitate healthcare providers to specifically assess Hispanic women who present with signs and symptoms of physical abuse . Many Hispanic women still believe that their role in The Sacramento Bee Essay the family and community is inferior in comparison to males. Some of Have Minds? Essay these women are brought up in homes with male role models who are very controlling and manipulative. Some of these women also suffer sexual abuse as a child. It is common for Hispanic women to think that domestic violence acceptable since many are raised in abusive homes. Young females who get involved in abusive relationships during early adulthood often come from a family with history of intimate partner violence (Pailler, Kassam-Adams, Datner, Fein, 2007). The family is of utmost importance for Latin women; and therefore neglecting their own health needs is not unusual. According to Maternidad Latina (2008), pressure to “keep the family together” may come from family or church members, even if it means suffering more abuse . Bee Essay? Religious and societal beliefs may make a woman feel guilty if she leaves her abusive partner or acts against his will.
Hispanic women, particularly immigrants, may not be familiar with U.S. laws that protect women and in Distance Education Essay, children against The Sacramento Bee Essay violence; and in milk, these laws may differ considerably from those in other countries. They may also fear involving the law because of their immigration status. Another factor which restrains Hispanic women from seeking help is the The Sacramento, language barrier and lack of financial means. One of the most important elements for developing an evidenced based protocol for external wall, Hispanic women suffering from domestic violence and mental illness involves providing cultural sensitive interventions. Bee Essay? According to National Alliance of external wall Mental Illness, the first component is the Bee Essay, education of Effects Essay Hispanic women about domestic violence and Bee Essay, its negative effects on mental and physical health; available community resources for victims of domestic violence, treatment options and current research. Domestic Violence and Mental Health Disorders. One of the major risk factors for the development of external wall mental illness in women is physical violence. In 2006, the percentages of females with mental health disorders were higher than in The Sacramento Bee Essay males.
Furthermore, Hispanics have the highest percentage for mental illness, which was 86.9 percent in 2006 according to history, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service. The percentage of women treated for psychiatric disorders has increased each year. A large amount of quantitative data on this population is The Sacramento Bee Essay, found in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) reports. SAMHSA reports include demographic data such as gender, age distribution, race/ethnic distribution, employment status, and living situation (Table 1, 3 4). Many studies have proven that physical violence is often the number one risk factor for mental illness among women especially anxiety disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder. According to Baca-Garcia, Perez-Rodriguez, Mann Oquendo (2008), women who experience higher rates of domestic violence or sexual abuse are linked to melamine, increased risk for Bee Essay, mental health disorders, suicidal ideation and attempts. Pailler et al. (2007) state that individuals who suffer repeated physical violence report more symptoms of Do Animals Have Minds? Essay posttraumatic stress disorder and The Sacramento, depression. Therefore, it is also important to identify the risk factors which increase the probability of Negative Effects on Children Essay women becoming victims of recurring violent acts. Of 2,043 women aged 18 to 59 who participated in the 1998 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, women experiencing intimate partner violence were more than 3 times more likely than other women to have been depressed for over half of the past month and The Sacramento, approximately twice as likely to have been anxious or suffered insomnia for over half of the past month compared to women without a history of violence. A study of 84 women diagnosed with depression who disclosed intimate partner violence revealed that 18.6 percent of melamine in milk abused women reported post traumatic stress disorder, compared to 6.7 percent of The Sacramento non- abused women (Dienemann, Boyle, Baker, Resnick, Wiederhorn Campbell, 2000).
According to the same study, 53.5 percent of abused women reported sleeping problems and nightmares, compared to 23.3 percent of non- abused women. A cross-sectional survey by Coker, Smith, Thompson, LcKeown, Bethea Davis (2002) of 1,152 women aged 18 to 65 conducted between 1997 and melamine in milk, 1999 found that 36.8 percent of women who ever experienced domestic violence reported having considered suicide, compared to 25.9 percent for all the women in Bee Essay the sample. Similarly, 18.6 percent of those who ever experienced violence reported having attempted suicide, compared to 11.8 percent for all the women in the sample. Psychosocial stressors, negative environmental influences and traumatic experiences are unfortunately inevitable in the lives of some women. In Milk? The way that women deal with these experiences sets up coping mechanisms for The Sacramento Bee Essay, future stressful events. All these risk factors in women pose an Quality enormous threat not only to the development of The Sacramento mental illness but also to the progression and history of cricket, deterioration of mental health.
Healthcare providers should be meticulous in The Sacramento Bee Essay the initial physical , mental, and psychosocial assessment of women to exclude any suspicion of domestic violence and mental illness. Evidence Based Support. Survivors of abuse have reported that they support primary care professionals inquiring about history of physical abuse and mental health issues. According to Nakell (2007), asking patients about their trauma history can be useful to Have Minds? Essay, patients in Bee Essay several ways. First, when patients acknowledge their history of trauma, the healthcare provider can provide psycho-education to help patients understand their trauma and its effects, and external wall, then can recommend useful treatment. The Sacramento? Second, clinicians who understand patient’s histories of trauma and mental illness can appreciate the patient’s symptoms and therefore treat patients with appropriate care. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines on Effects of Beauty Pegeants domestic violence recommend that clinicians routinely ask women direct and The Sacramento, specific questions about abuse . The American Medical Association also recommends routine screening of intimate partner violence and referrals to Education, community-based services. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) states that family healthcare providers can offer early intervention by routine screening and identification of abuse and mental health issues.
The AAFP recommends that family clinicians be aware for the presence of family violence in every patient encounter. Recommendations are also made for working with families to prevent abuse by teaching conflict resolution skills that promote respectful and peaceful relationships. The mental health consequences of Bee Essay domestic violence are detrimental. Increased rates of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, somatization, drug and alcohol abuse , chronic mental illness, and history of cricket, suicide attempts have all been documented in survivors of domestic violence (Falsetti, 2007). American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) (2009).
Retrieved August 10, 2008. Carrasco, M. (2004). Latino Outreach Resource Manual: National Alliance on Mental. Illness. The Sacramento Bee Essay? Retrieved July 31, 2008 from. Centers for Disease Control and of cricket, Prevention: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. (1998). Retrieved August 10, 2008 from http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for Bee Essay, Health Statistics (2008). Deaths: Preliminary Data for atwood endings, 2006. National Vital Statistics report.
Retrieved July 11, 2008 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr56/nvsr56_16.pdf. Centers for The Sacramento, Disease Control and Prevention: National Center for Health Statistics (2008). Cause of Death: Preliminary Data for 2006. National Vital Statistics report. Retrieved July 11, 2008 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr56/nvsr56_16.pdf. Coker A. L., Smith P. H., Thompson M. P., LcKeown R. E., Bethea L., Davis K. E. (2002). Social Support Protects against the Negative Effects of Partner Violence on Mental Health.
Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-based Medicine, 11 (5), 465-476. Dienemann J., Boyle E., Baker D, Resnick W., Wiederhorn N., Campbell J. (2000). Intimate Partner Abuse Among Women Diagnosed with Depression. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21(5), 499-513. Falsetti, S. A. History? (2007). Screening and Responding to Family and The Sacramento, Intimate Partner Violence. in the Negative Effects of Beauty, Primary Care Setting. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice 34 (3). The Sacramento? Retrieved August 18, 2008 from in milk http://www.mdconsult.com/das/article/body/-8/jorg=journalsource=MIsp=19972184sid=/N/608462/1.html. Family Violence and Prevention Fund (1999).
Preventing Domestic Violence: Clinical. Guideline on Routine Screening. Retrived August 10, 2008 from http://endabuse.org/programs/healthcare/files/screpol.pdf. Manderscheid, R. Bee Essay? W., Atay, J. E., Hernandez-Cartagana, M. R., Edmond, P. Y., Male, E., Parker, A. Endings? C. E. (2001). Highlights of organized mental health services in 1998 and major national and The Sacramento Bee Essay, state trends. Pegeants On Children Essay? Mental Health, United States, 2000 (135– 171). Bee Essay? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Maternidad Latina (2007).
Promoting Child and Maternal Health. Retrieved August 1, 2008 from http://www.nchealthystart.org/aboutus/maternidad/vol1no3.htm. McKenzie, J. F., Neiger, B. L., Thackeray, R. (2009). Planning, Implementing, Evaluating Health Promotion Programs. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (1999). Retrieved July 11, 2008 from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/home.html. Nakell, L. (2007).
Adult Post traumatic Stress Disorder: Screening and Treating in. Primary Care. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 34 (3). History? Retrieved August 18, 2008 from http://www.mdconsult.com/das/article/body/-8/jorg=journalsource=MIsp=19972190sid=/N/608468/1.html. Pailler, M. E., Kassam-Adams, N., Datner, E. M., Fein J. A. (2007). The Sacramento? Depression, Acute Stress and Behavioral Risk Factors in Violently Injured Adolescents.
General Hospital Psychiatry, 29 (4). April 20, 2008, from http://www.mdconsult.com/das/article/body/93332740- 8/jorg=journalsource=MIsp=19665266sid=/N/594331/1.html. Rodriguez, M. A., Heilemann, M. V., Fielder, E., Ang, A., Nevarez, F., Mangione, C. M. (2008). Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, and PTSD Among Pregnant Latina Women. Quality In Distance Essay? Annals of Family Medicine, 6 (1). Retrieved August 1, 2008 from Bee Essay http://www.mdconsult.com/das/article/body/-5/jorg=journalsource=MIsp=20349779sid=/N/626290/1.html.
Health National Outcome Measures (NOMS): CMHS Uniform reporting System. Retrieved July 10, 2008 from. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (2005). United States Mental Health National Outcome Measures (NOMS): CMHS Uniform reporting System. Retrieved July 10, 2008 from. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (2004).
United States Mental Health National Outcome Measures (NOMS): CMHS Uniform reporting System. Retrieved July 10, 2008 from. The American College of Assurance Essay Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines (2009). Retrieved August 10, 2008 from http://www.acog.org/ United States Department of Health and Human Services. The Sacramento? Healthy People 2010. Essay? Retrieved July 10, 2008 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/Search/objectives.htm.
Demographic Characteristics of adults with a serious mental illness served by The Sacramento Bee Essay, a Statewide Mental Health Agency (SMHA) in the US 2006. Total number of adults with a serious mental illness served by SMHA system 3,833,500. Asian/Island Pacific: 1.6% Black or African American: 21.7% Hispanic or Latino: 86.9%
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: 0.2% White Caucasian: 61.9% Percent not in Labor Force: 56% Percent Unemployed: 26% Living Situation Private residence: 66.1% Residential care: 3.7% Crisis residence: 1.0% Institutional setting: 2.7% Jail/Correctional facility: 2.0% Homeless or shelter: 2.4% Other living situation: 3.1%
SMHA funds only (Non-Medicaid): 38% Both Medicaid and other funds: 16% Disparities for Have Essay, Focus Area 18: Mental Health and Mental Disorders, 2002. Health People 2010. Hispanic/Latino Black Non-Hispanic White Non Hispanic. serious mental illness: 18+ years 50 to 99% 50 to The Sacramento, 99% The group with the. 18+ years 50 to 99% 50 to of cricket, 99% The group with the. anxiety disorder: 18+ years Data not. available 10 to 49% The group with the. Employment: 18+ years.
With a serious mental. illness 10 to 49% 10 to 49% The group with the. Total number of The Sacramento Bee Essay adults with a serious mental illness served by Have Minds? Essay, SMHA system 3,556,280. Gender Male: 48.4% Demographic Characteristics of adults with a serious mental illness served by a Statewide Mental Health Agency (SMHA) in the US 2004. Total number of adults with a serious mental illness served by The Sacramento, SMHA system 3,174,121. Gender Male: 48.4%
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [Age specific rates are 100,000 population in specified group] Non-Hispanic White females Number Rate. Black females Number Rate. Hispanic females Number Rate. [Rates are per 100,000 population] Alzheimer’s Disease 72,914 24.4. Total suicide 32,185 10.7. Suicide by firearm 16,650 5.6. Suicide by other unspecified means 15,535 5.2. Drug induced deaths 34,678 11.6.
Alcohol induced deaths 21,513 7.2. Total Pages: 7 Words: 2442 Sources:10 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. Critique your two choices: which do you think is more accurate? Explain your answer.
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Planning and conducting a dissertation research project. This guide addresses the task of planning and conducting a small research project, such as for an undergraduate or masters’ level dissertation. It aims to help you develop a clear sense of direction early on in the project, and to support you in organising, planning, and monitoring your project. The companion guide Writing a dissertation focuses on the preparation of the The Sacramento Bee Essay written report or thesis. A dissertation is a particular kind of academic task. You will usually be asked to Do Animals Have, generate a topic for yourself; to plan and execute a project investigating that topic; and to write-up what you did and Bee Essay, what your findings were.
Important stages in the dissertation process include: choosing a topic; developing a research question; effective planning of the research; being organised and methodical while conducting your research; and reporting the research. While some students come to their research project with a clear research question to address, many others arrive at this point with several ideas, but with no specific research question. In view of the pressure to Essay, get started fairly quickly, this can cause anxiety and even panic. It is, however, a common situation to be in. There are several ways forward: Remember that a research study can: This list is not exhaustive, and The Sacramento, you need to check whether your department has a preference for particular kinds of Negative Pegeants Essay research study. Discuss your proposed topic with a member of The Sacramento Bee Essay academic staff who you think might be appropriate to supervise the project.
Provided they feel that they know enough about the subject to supervise it, and provided that it can be interpreted as falling within the broad fields of Have Minds? Essay your degree subject, academic staff are generally open to suggestions. You should think realistically about the practical implications of The Sacramento Bee Essay your choice, in terms of: For example, a project on coal mining in the North East of England may require you to visit Newcastle’s Record Office, or to interview coal miners from the region. Is this something that you are prepared and able to do? If the Pegeants on Children practical considerations associated with your research ideas are unrealistic, you need to consider whether you are willing to modify or reconsider your project. Once your topic has been accepted by your department, you need to begin the process of refining the topic and turning it into something that is focused enough to The Sacramento, guide your project. Quality Assurance Education? Try describing it as a research problem that sets out: It is Bee Essay important that you establish a research problem at, or close to of cricket, the start of, your project. It is one of the key tools you have, to ensure that your project keeps going in the right direction.
Every task you undertake should begin with you checking your research problem and asking “will this help me address this problem?”. You should be willing to The Sacramento Bee Essay, revise your research problem as you find out more about your topic. You may, for example, discover that the in milk data you were hoping to The Sacramento Bee Essay, analyse is not available, or you may encounter a new piece of information or a new concept while undertaking a literature search, that makes you rethink the basis of happy your research problem. The Sacramento? You should always talk to your supervisor before you make any substantial revision to your plans, and explain why you think you need to make the change. Effective planning of the research. A research proposal is a more detailed description of the project you are going to undertake. Some departments require you to submit a research proposal as part of the assessment of Minds? Essay your dissertation, but it is worth preparing one even if it is not a formal requirement of your course.
It should build on the thinking that you have done in defining your research problem; on the discussions that you have had with your supervisor; and on The Sacramento Bee Essay early reading that you have done on in milk the topic. A comprehensive research proposal will make you think through exactly what it is that you are going to do, and will help you when you start to write up the project. You could try outlining your project under the following headings (Booth, Williams, Colomb, 2003. The craft of research. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.): You may find that some of these headings are difficult to fill in Bee Essay, right at the start of your project. However, you can use the gaps to help identify where you need to atwood endings, begin work. If, for example, you are unsure about the limitations of your methodology you should talk to your supervisor and read a bit more about that methodology before you start. A dissertation is an extended project that asks you to The Sacramento, manage your time and undertake a variety of tasks.
Some courses schedule the dissertation at Do Animals Essay, the end, while others have it running along concurrently with other modules. Whichever way your course is organised, it is essential that you create a plan that helps you allocate enough time to each task you have to complete. It is The Sacramento useful to work out how many weeks you have until you need to submit your completed dissertation, and Education Essay, draw a chart showing these weeks. Bee Essay? Block out the weeks when you know you will be unable to history of cricket, work, and mark in other main commitments you have that will take time during this period. Then allocate research tasks to the remaining time.
It is very important to be realistic about how long each task is likely to take. Some focused thought at the beginning, then at the planning stage of each phase, could save hours later on. Write down the resources needed for each stage. It could be time in The Sacramento Bee Essay, the library; the Assurance Essay resource of your working hours; or the Bee Essay use of equipment or room space that needs to be booked in advance. Some people find that they procrastinate more than they would like. This is a common problem, so it is probably best to Quality in Distance Education, be well-prepared to identify it and The Sacramento Bee Essay, deal with it if it does start to happen. People procrastinate for history, various reasons for example: poor time management dauted by the scale of the task negative beliefs loss of motivation perfectionism difficulty concentrating need to feel under pressure personal problems. Early identification of the signs of The Sacramento procrastination will give you the external wall best chance of minimising any negative effects. Once you suspect that you are procrastinating, it can be helpful to review what you are expecting of yourself, and The Sacramento, check that those expectations are realistic.
This is where planning is Do Animals Have Minds? Essay vital. To improve the prospect of completing on The Sacramento time, and avoiding procrastination, you need to: Your research plan should also include information about what equipment you will need to complete your project, and any travel costs or other expenses that you are likely to incur through the pursuit of your research. You should also think about whether you are dependent on any one else to complete your project, and think about what you are going to do if they are unable to help you. Once you have created your plan it is a good idea to show it to someone else. Ideally you will be able to show it to a member of academic staff or bring it to the Learning Development, but talking it over Quality in Distance Essay, with a friend may also help you to spot anything that you have forgotten or anywhere that you have been unrealistic in your planning. Being organised and methodical while conducting your research. Although a dissertation is an opportunity for The Sacramento Bee Essay, you to work independently, you will usually be allocated a member of external wall academic staff as a supervisor. Supervisors are there to help you shape your ideas and The Sacramento, give you advice on how to conduct the research for your dissertation. They are not there to teach you the topic you have chosen to investigate: this is your project. They are, however, one of the resources that you can call on in milk during your research.
Academics are busy people, so to get the most out of your supervisor you will need to be organised and to take responsibility for the relationship. It is not your supervisor’s job to chase you into completing your dissertation, or to tell you how to manage the different stages of the project. To ensure that you get the The Sacramento Bee Essay most out of your supervisor you need to: If you are not happy with the in Distance Essay way you are being supervised, explain why to The Sacramento, your supervisor or discuss the issue with your personal tutor. Regardless of Effects of Beauty Pegeants Essay whether you have been given a dissertation topic or you have developed your own ideas, you will need to The Sacramento, be able to external wall, demonstrate the rationale for your research, and to The Sacramento Bee Essay, describe how it fits within the of cricket wider research context in Bee Essay, your area. To support you in doing this you will need to in milk, undertake a literature review, which is The Sacramento a review of material that has already been published, either in history of cricket, hard copy or electronically, that may be relevant for your research project. Key tools that are available to help you, include: It is a good idea to make an appointment to see the The Sacramento librarian specialising in your subject. An information librarian should be able to give you advice on your literature search, and on how to Quality in Distance, manage the The Sacramento Bee Essay information that you generate.
You will probably generate more references than you can read. Quality Assurance In Distance Education? Use the The Sacramento titles and abstracts to decide whether the reference is worth reading in detail. Be selective by concentrating on references that: Once you start reading, ensure that you think about what you are trying to get out of external wall each article or book that you read. Your notes should enable you to write up your literature search without returning to the books you have read. Refer to the guides Effective Note Making, Referencing and Bibliographies, and The Sacramento, Avoiding Plagiarism, for further help with note-making. For most research projects the external wall data collection phase feels like the most important part. However, you should avoid jumping straight into this phase until you have adequately defined your research problem, and the extent and limitations of your research. The Sacramento? If you are too hasty you risk collecting data that you will not be able to use.
Consider how you are going to store and retrieve your data. Melamine? You should set up a system that allows you to: There are many systems that support effective data collection and retrieval. These range from card indexes and cross-referenced exercise books, through electronic tools like spreadsheets, databases and bibliographic software, to discipline-specific tools. You should talk about how you plan to store your data with your supervisor, an information librarian, or a study adviser in Bee Essay, the Learning Development. As you undertake your research you are likely to come up with lots of ideas. It can be valuable to keep a record of these ideas on index cards, in a dedicated notebook, or in an electronic file. You can refer back to this ‘ideas store’ when you start to write. Negative Of Beauty Pegeants On Children? They may be useful as ideas in themselves, and may be useful as a record of how your thinking developed through the research process. A pilot study involves preliminary data collection, using your planned methods, but with a very small sample. It aims to Bee Essay, test out your approach, and identify any details that need to be addressed before the main data collection goes ahead.
For example, you could get a small group to fill in your questionnaire, perform a single experiment, or analyse a single novel or document. When you complete your pilot study you should be cautious about reading too much into the results that you have generated (although these can sometimes be interesting). The real value of Assurance Education your pilot study is what it tells you about your method. Spend time reflecting on the implications that your pilot study might have for your research project, and make the necessary adjustment to your plan. Even if you do not have the time or opportunity to run a formal pilot study, you should try and reflect on your methods after you have started to generate some data. Once you start to generate data you may find that the research project is not developing as you had hoped. Do not be upset that you have encountered a problem. Research is, by its nature, unpredictable. Analyse the The Sacramento Bee Essay situation. Think about what the external wall problem is and how it arose. Is it possible that going back a few steps may resolve it?
Or is The Sacramento Bee Essay it something more fundamental? If so, estimate how significant the problem is to Have Minds?, answering your research question, and try to calculate what it will take to resolve the The Sacramento Bee Essay situation. Changing the title is not normally the answer, although modification of atwood happy some kind may be useful. If a problem is intractable you should arrange to Bee Essay, meet your supervisor as soon as possible. Give him or her a detailed analysis of the problem, and always value their recommendations. Happy? The chances are they have been through a similar experience and can give you valuable advice. Never try to ignore a problem, or hope that it will go away. The Sacramento Bee Essay? Also don’t think that by seeking help you are failing as a researcher. Finally, it is worth remembering that every problem you encounter, and of Beauty Pegeants Essay, successfully solve, is potentially useful information in writing up your research. So don’t be tempted to The Sacramento, skirt around any problems you encountered when you come to write-up. Rather, flag up these problems and show your examiners how you overcame them.
As you conduct research, you are likely to realise that the topic that you have focused on Effects Pegeants Essay is more complex than you realised when you first defined your research question. The research is Bee Essay still valid even though you are now aware of the greater size and complexity of the problem. A crucial skill of the researcher is to define clearly the atwood endings boundaries of their research and to stick to them . You may need to refer to wider concerns; to a related field of Bee Essay literature; or to external wall, alternative methodology; but you must not be diverted into spending too much time investigating relevant, related, but distinctly separate fields. Starting to write up your research can be intimidating, but it is essential that you ensure that you have enough time not only to write up your research, but also to The Sacramento, review it critically, then spend time editing and improving it. The following tips should help you to make the transition from research to writing:
Remember that you can not achieve everything in your dissertation. A section where you discuss ‘Further Work’ at the end of your dissertation will show that you are thinking about the implications your work has for external wall, the academic community. The companion study guide Writing a Dissertation focuses on the process of writing up the research from your research project. Share this page: You can make an The Sacramento Bee Essay appointment to come and see us about any study-related queries you have. (if you are a University of Leicester student please use your university e-mail address)
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essay talmud Rabbi Yisroel Chait. Judaism is a religion which satisfies man in many ways and on different levels. The Sacramento Bee Essay? It is the purpose of these essays to show how Judaism appeals to atwood happy the intellectual and creative part of man#146;s nature. If I have over-emphasized the The Sacramento rational element in Judaism it is because I have found this element so often overlooked. It is my intent to bring into sharp relief the unique character of external wall, Judaism in this regard.
Jewish religious and cultural life has through the centuries been rooted in the Talmud. The Talmud has exerted its influence through its elaborate and complex systems of civil and religious regulations. This influence has extended beyond the practical religious sphere and has engendered a particular intellectual attitude among the people. It has further been responsible for establishing among its close adherents an appreciation of a very special type of religious thought. Bee Essay? But what exactly is Talmud? To begin with, the Assurance Essay Talmud is described as the Oral Law. The sages of the Talmud maintained that together with the Bible, Moses received a very elaborate body of knowledge whose purpose was to render the Biblical injunctions intelligible.
This latter work was not permitted to be committed to writing. The Sacramento? Only one consideration could override this prohibition, and that is the melamine danger of losing the Bee Essay body of knowledge itself. Accordingly, Talmudic scholars have convened at different times to issue permits for committing to writing various parts of the Oral Law that were considered endangered. It is happy endings interesting to note, however, that while its substance has been put into writing, the Talmud#146;s unique methodology has remained oral, being transmitted verbally from one group of scholars to The Sacramento Bee Essay another. It has thus appeared to the uninitiated as a rather confusing and unintelligible work. It is the Minds? purpose of this paper to shed some light on the basic tenets of Talmudic reasoning so that its integral role in the scheme of Bee Essay, Judaic thought be appreciated even by those who are not necessarily Talmudic scholars.
The most prominent difficulty one encounters in approaching Talmud, and by Quality in Distance Essay far the greatest obstacle to its comprehension stems from a failure to grasp the Bee Essay basic nature of its analysis. This failure is melamine a natural result of attempting to construe Talmud through the Bee Essay framework of common religious notions, rather than searching to discover its own specific principles. Contemporary religious ideas are wholly irreconcilable with the basic method of Talmudic investigation. The difference between the two can best be expressed in terms of goals and objectives. From time immemorial the value of a religious performance has rested in its ability to Minds? endow the faithful with a certain religio-emotional experience. Let us take Christianity for Bee Essay, example. Melamine In Milk? To the Christian the overriding concern is to The Sacramento Bee Essay engender certain religio-emotional states and experiences. Accordingly, religious acts are constructed in a way which the Church leaders think will best evoke these religious feelings. When approaching Talmud one expects to find the same criterion at work.
Rather than realize that his expectations are not to be fulfilled, the of Beauty on Children Essay would-be investigator tries to make the Talmud conform to his own preconceived notions. A typical example of this approach can be taken from Max I. Dimont#146;s book, Jews, God, and history . In it Dimont attempts to give a demonstration of what a Talmudic Responsa is: Let us illustrate how the Responsa worked with an example from life today. The Sacramento? Let us suppose that the yeshivas of happy, Babylon still exist and that a Jewish community in suburban St. Louis has asked one of them to solve the Bee Essay vexing problem of #145;the automobile, the Quality Assurance in Distance suburb, and the synagogue.#146; This is the dilemma.
The Torah forbids work on Bee Essay, the Sabbath. In 1900 AD a yeshiva court ruled that driving a car is work. Now, many years later, the atwood happy suburbs have developed. The synagogue no longer is a few blocks away, but miles out in the country, and the distance is too formidable to walk. The congregation is faced with the prospect of an Bee Essay, empty synagogue or committing the sin of driving to the place of worship. Negative Effects On Children Essay? What should be done? The question is The Sacramento Bee Essay turned over to the yeshiva and the problem placed on external wall, the docket.
When the case comes up, the yeshiva court will begin a hearing much as the Supreme Court reviews a case. The argument might go something like this: Certainly God did not intend to have empty synagogues, nor to have His commandments broken. But who said that driving to the synagogue was work? Certainly not God or Moses. To force the aged to walk for miles in the hot sun or in the cold of winter is a peril to The Sacramento Bee Essay health. Attending services should be contemplated with joy, not with fear and trembling. Did not the sages say that #145;he who takes upon himself a duty that is not specifically required is an Do Animals Minds?, ignoramus#146;?
And furthermore, did not Rabbi Judah ben Ezekiel, back in Bee Essay the third century, say that #145;he who would order his entire life according to strict and literal interpretation of Scripture is a fool#146;? The yeshiva court would then begin a search for precedents, just as lawyers arguing a brief before the Supreme Court would search for Effects Pegeants Essay, precedents favorable to their case. The Sacramento Bee Essay? After due deliberation, the court might decide that in their opinion the court back in 1900 had erred, and that driving a car to the synagogue is not work but pleasure, much in the same way that the United States Supreme Court in the 1890s held that equal but separate facilities for Negroes was constitutional, but in the 1950s reversed itself, holding that it was unconstitutional. Once a verdict is reached, it is sent to the other yeshivas, where similar hearings are held and a joint agreement disseminated through the Responsa to every Jewish community. In fact, no such Talmudic Responsa worthy of the name has ever been written. What are the Talmudist#146;s criteria for decision-making and how does his approach differ from the foregoing? An illustration from the world of melamine, physics may help clarify this point. Let us take the problem of falling bodies and compare two approaches. Bee Essay? We notice that when we release an object from our hands it falls to external wall the ground. What is the explanation of this phenomenon? There are two distinct paths we may follow.
We might say that it is most convenient that objects fall to the ground, since otherwise it would be quite difficult or even impossible for Man or animals to exist. Floating objects would get in our way and Man would have to invent methods of securing the objects he desired and preventing those he didn#146;t from invading his premises. God in His divine wisdom knew this, and decreed that objects should fall to earth. We might, however, give a different analysis of the situation. Bee Essay? We might say that we observe bodies fall to melamine in milk earth. We must assume, therefore, that there is some force of attraction between two masses, i.e., gravity.
The reason why we don#146;t notice the earth move towards the body is that there is so much more earth than body. The first approach is concerned with understanding the why of the Bee Essay situation, i.e., why bodies fall to earth. The second, on the other hand, is concerned only with the what of the Quality situation, i.e., what is it that is responsible for the falling of bodies. The first approach is Bee Essay philosophical or teleological; the second we recognize as scientific. Now while modern Man recognizes the validity of the #145;what approach when it comes to understanding the physical world, when it comes to religion he thinks only in terms of the why. Here at external wall, last, he feels his curiosity of the why of things should be satisfied. It is precisely on this point that the Talmudist differs.
The farthest thing from the Talmudist#146;s mind is an attempt to ascertain God#146;s will. Such an attempt would be considered presumptuous and as absurd to him, as it would be to the physicist to explain gravity by introducing God#146;s will. Such considerations are philosophical and not within the realm of The Sacramento Bee Essay, Talmudic analysis. How does the Talmudist resolve his problems if he cannot base his decisions on any inner divine intuition? He uses the same faculty the physicist uses in history understanding the universe - his intellect.
Just as the scientist studies nature, makes observations, and then proceeds to draw universal laws from these observations; so the Talmudist studies the data of the written and Bee Essay Oral Law, draws his universals from of Beauty, them, and then proceeds to utilize these principles in the resolution of his problems. Just as a scientist tests his theories against experimental data so too, the Talmudist tests his theories by checking their results against Talmudic data from other areas that may be effected directly or indirectly*. How would the Talmudist analyze a problem that has to do with the Sabbath? He would survey carefully all the facts he has before him. First he would examine the Biblical injunction which states that one shall do no work on The Sacramento Bee Essay, the Sabbath. The term work, however is vague and ambiguous, so he would have to search for its precise meaning in the Oral Law.
He would note that there are 39 categories of external wall, creative activities listed in The Sacramento Bee Essay the Oral Law as comprising work. He would discover that work has nothing to do with physical exertion. A person could exercise vigorously all Sabbath, lifting weights for hours on end, without violating the Biblical injunction regarding the Sabbath, while throwing a splinter of wood into a fire would involve a major violation. The Talmudist would study all the cases included under each of the 39 categories so that he could know them not only Have Minds? Essay descriptively but definitively as well. Plowing, for instance, is The Sacramento one of the 39 forms of atwood happy endings, work. But the definition of Bee Essay, plowing is Have Minds? not the same as the description. Raking leaves also come under plowing.
The definition of plowing, therefore, is preparing the soil for planting, not merely hoeing. Fertilizing the ground would also come under plowing. Again, we have planting as one of the 39 categories of work. Pruning a tree, according to the Oral Law, is also prohibited under the category of planting. Bee Essay? The definition of planting, therefore, is not placing a seed in the ground as one would think from its description. but rather the stimulation of growth. As pruning stimulates plant growth, it comes under the category of in milk, planting.
Watering the lawn, therefore, would involve a double violation as the watering process softens the soil making it more conducive for growing and Bee Essay it also stimulates plant growths It can be seen, therefore, that the definition may be far removed from the description since it is based on finding a universal that includes all cases of a particular prohibition. Each of the 39 categories must be known by of cricket their universals in order that the Talmudist may decide as to Bee Essay whether a particular action is to be classified under one of them. Every new situation must be evaluated in terms of the given universal definitions. If any activity does not fall under one of the 39 categories it is not defined as work and is permissible on Quality Assurance Education, the Sabbath. Dimont#146;s case wouldn#146;t even warrant a serious Responsa since operating an automobile involves combustion and The Sacramento Bee Essay combustion is clearly one of the 39 categories of Assurance Education, prohibited work on the Sabbath. What is The Sacramento Bee Essay worse about Dimont#146;s presentation, however, is that he presents a totally distorted view of the process of Talmudic analysis.
The Talmudist cannot be guided by his personal feelings about the matter. He never thinks in terms of how God would view a situation. He has at his disposal only the authorized Talmudic data and pure logical analysis; through deduction and in Distance Education Essay induction he arrives at his conclusions. If a flaw in his reasoning be discovered by himself or other scholars he must retract from his position. Not only the negative but also the positive commandments are arrived at in the same fashion. Bee Essay? We have, for instance, a commandment to eat the Pascal Lamb on the Eve of Passover together with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. This commandment was prescribed for a time when the Holy Temple is in Education existence.
Do we have to eat unleavened bread and bitter herbs today when there is no Temple and no Pascal Lamb? This question is dealt with in the Talmud. The Sacramento Bee Essay? The theoretical analysis of the problem is as follows. Do we consider the of Beauty Pegeants Essay eating of the unleavened bread and herbs as a separate commandment in its own right or merely as an accident or attribute of the Pascal Lamb, i.e. the Pascal Lamb is to be eaten with the accompaniment of Bee Essay, unleavened bread and of cricket herbs? If the Bee Essay first formulation is correct, then even today when there is no Pascal Lamb the unleavened bread and herbs would be obligatory. History? Whereas, if the second is correct then there would be no purpose in Bee Essay eating the in milk herbs and unleavened bread as there is no Pascal Lamb. The Talmud adduces evidence to support the different possibilities. The point is never which outcome one feels would be more proper, but which is verifiable in view of the evidence. The true Talmudist is as indifferent to the outcome of his investigation as the physicist is to his. His religious creed is to rationally comprehend the Talmudic precepts. But can the Talmudist err, since his conclusions are based on intellectual cognition rather than divine intuition?
The answer is that insofar as he employs the faculty of human reason he is as subject to error as any other investigator. Insofar as his religious goal is The Sacramento concerned, however, he cannot fail since he is not committed to any particular outcome, but rather, to the results of his investigation; be they correct or incorrect in actuality, he is obligated to follow the most knowledgeable position that human reason can ascertain at the time. This to the Talmudist is God#146;s will#151;to rely on his reason in interpreting the given data he has received. As a matter of fact, only reason may be used in Talmudic arbitration. Atwood Endings? Even if a great Prophet should inform a court of Bee Essay, Talmudists discussing a particular matter that he knows through prophecy which view is correct. his statements would not be admissible as evidence.
The Talmud illustrates this idea with a story in which God himself declares a decision made by the human court to be incorrect in melamine in milk actuality yet accepts it since it was arrived at The Sacramento, in complete compliance with the human system of Talmudic investigation. Now Talmudic decisions become Talmudic law and Talmudic law becomes religious observance, so that we have criteria for religious observance which are totally of a logical nature, in contradistinction to those of a religio-emotional nature. Let me give an example. There is a commandment to hear the sound of the shofar on the New Year. But the sound of the shofar is a very specific sound. The length and character of each sound and the number of Negative of Beauty Pegeants Essay, sounds has been determined by lengthy Talmudic discussion. Now a person may be filled with religious fervor and emotion while listening to the shofar on the High Holy Days and yet not fulfill the commandment if the Bee Essay sounds produced were lacking in history of cricket one minute technical detail. On the other hand, one may listen to Bee Essay the proper sounds in an uninspired manner and yet fulfill the commandment. Philosophy of Talmudic Judaism.
It is only natural for one to wonder about the philosophy of such a system. What kind of religious system is Education Essay it, that has as its center technical performances which are dictated by theoretical and logical considerations? Why must each commandment be constructed with the precision of an abstract formula? Such a system strikes one as being ill equipped to fulfill basic religious drives. The emphasis here seems misplaced.
The answer actually derives naturally from the phenomenon itself. The sages of the Talmud conceived of Judaism in a very unique way. To them it was a religion of the mind. As we have seen, even prophecy can play no role in the Talmudic decision-making process. The Sacramento Bee Essay? Only the atwood happy dictates of reason must be followed. The Sacramento Bee Essay? The value of religious performances rests essentially in that they reflect abstract concepts and as such demand a rigid precision. Ignorant performances no matter how well intentioned are of no value Halachically, in the event that one is Do Animals Have Essay not a scholar himself, he must base his performances upon the scholarship of others. The all encompassing nature of The Sacramento Bee Essay, Talmudic Law makes it impossible for man to avoid coming in in milk contact with it constantly. The Sacramento Bee Essay? The thinking individual thus always encounters questions, ideas and Halachic concepts in his daily activities. His milieu becomes one of thought and in Assurance in Distance Essay the appreciation of the beauty of The Sacramento, that thought Man comes close to God.
To the uninitiated onlookers the happy life of Halachah seems controlled and tedious. To one who understands it, Halachah injects intellectual joy into The Sacramento otherwise meaningless daily activities. Have? The perfected Jew eats and drinks like everyone else but Halachah raises questions and brings forth ideas which can make a meal an intellectual adventure. It is The Sacramento Bee Essay impossible to describe what it is like to experience the joy of Talmudic thought. Do Animals Essay? Only those who have partaken of The Sacramento Bee Essay, it can know what the Psalmist meant when he said, Your laws have been as music to me#146;; If it wasn#146;t for your law, my plaything. ; They are more desirous than gold. and are sweeter than honey and the finest nectar. The love of Talmudic thought leads one to a desire to commune with the endings source of the beautiful world of ideas, as Maimonides quotes in the name of King David, My soul thirsts for The Sacramento, the Almighty, the living God. This, then, is the uniqueness of Talmudic Judaism.
Intellect, usually the adversary of religion is here its ally and endings stronghold. Even prayer which is the service of the heart has strict Halachic formulae as to how exactly it should take place. A mere outpouring of human emotion is not only Bee Essay invalid Halachically but may even involve serious infractions. The preamble to prayer is Know before whom you stand. Prayer must be preceded by proper knowledge of God. Atwood Happy Endings? The Halachah conveys to man correct notions about the Creator so that when he prays to God his mind is properly engaged.
It is not the The Sacramento Bee Essay purpose of Halachah to remove human emotions from the religious experience. The Talmudic system molds the human personality so that it becomes a harmonious whole. Emotions are given expression but always in melamine conjunction with the guidance of human reason. The essential role that knowledge plays in religious performances promotes the The Sacramento involvement of that which is truly highest in Effects of Beauty Pegeants on Children man. It is not my intention to equate the personality of the scientist with that of the Talmudist. (Neither do I wish to lend credibility to Talmud via this analogy. The Sacramento Bee Essay? Talmudic methodology predates modern science by many centuries and needs no support.) I use the term scientist in the Maimonidean sense as an Quality Assurance in Distance Education Essay, illustration of man using his intellectual abilities to unlock the secrets of nature.
Similarly, the Talmudist uses his investigative powers to uncover the theoretical structure behind the Law. An additional word might be in order about this comparison. The scientist gains knowledge from experience in two ways: new information questions existing theories and new theories are then tested by experimentation from reality. For the Talmudist the situation is not analogous. Experience creates new phenomena which demand reformulation of concepts. His experiments against which he tests his theories, however, always remain the given data of the oral law.
So while both bodies of knowledge grow with new experience they do so in different ways. 1 According to Maimonides this prohibition was only on a public level. Scholars had in fact always kept private notes (see intro. to code). 2 We are concerning ourselves with the major part of the Talmud which deals with the analysis of religious law and The Sacramento not the Aggadic section which is philosophic in nature. Although they are both contained in one work, the two are totally different subject makers. 3 I am using the Newtonian Model rather than the Einsteinium as it is history better suited for illustrative purposes. 4 This is what the Nazarene failed to comprehend when he permitted his disciples to cut corn on the Sabbath. 5 There Is a body of Oral Law relating to every Biblical Commandments. 6 Tractate Moed Koten.
2b. 7 As to why these 39 categories are defined as work we can only say they are the 39 creative processes involved in the construction of the holy tabernacle. Why that was chosen to represent work is a why question and is in The Sacramento the realm of Effects of Beauty on Children Essay, philosophy rather than Talmud. 8 Only matters of life and The Sacramento Bee Essay death can override a Sabbatical injunction. 9 There are numerous cases where great Talmudic scholars have retracted from a former position. Atwood? (As examples see Rashi Tractate Chullin 116b, Maimonides#146; responsa quoted by Migdal Ohz Laws of fringes Chap. 2, also Rl Abodah Zarah 22A. See also introduction by Abraham son of Maimonides to Ein Yaakov regarding the incident in Tractate Pesochim 94B.) 10 End of Bee Essay, Tractate Pesochim. 11 See introduction by Rabbi M. Feinstein to his first volume on Orach Chaim, Igrot Moshe. 12 End of Effects of Beauty, Tractate Baba Metziah 59b. 13 As Rashi states in Deuteronomy 6:6 in the name of the Siphre and what is this love (of God) which is here commanded?
The next verse tells us #145;These words which I commanded thee shall be upon thy heart.#146; for through these words, i.e. (the study of Torah), you will arrive at a recognition of the Holy One blessed be He and will cleave to His ways. The Sacramento? (See also Maimonides Book of the Commandments, positive commandment number three, for a similar formulation.) 14 Psalms 119:54. 18 The term prayer derives from the verb Pilel which signifies thought. (See Rashi Genesis 48:11, also Onkelos on same.) Prayer denotes the presentation of a carefully thought out petition before the Almighty. 19 It is not here my intention to expound upon the philosophy of prayer which would require a separate paper. I merely wish to point out that the concept of prayer in happy Talmudic Judaism is quite different from what is commonly conceived of The Sacramento Bee Essay, as prayer. 20 See the incident with R. Chanina, Tractate Berachot 33b. 21 It is interesting that according to Nachmonides there is no Biblical injunction to pray daily, while the study of Torah is a constant obligation.
22 There are indeed many commandments in which emotions play a major role such as rejoicing on the holidays and laws of mourning These are. however always framed in Assurance in Distance Education a logical system of Halachah.