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annotate essays Once upon a time there was a hard-working student who paid close attention to lectures, studied hard, and learned how to cite properly in both MLA and vlad the impaler APA format. The sun shone brightly. Then one day a dark cloud overshadowed the world. Black Cat! A professor asked the student to write an annotated bibliography. The student grew pale. She thought she had mastered all things related to citation. She didn’t want to learn how to write anything so terrible sounding as an annotated bibliography . She closed her eyes tightly and wished her fairy godmother would magically write the the impaler annotated bibliography for her. POOF! Her fairy godmother appeared! “I will grant your wish….well, sorta,” said the fairy godmother. “I will not write the annotated bibliography for you, but I will teach you how to write one, thus enabling you to use the economics ppf skill in your future courses.” She wrote this blog post to teach all students how to write an annotated bibliography that works.
What Is an vlad, Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is simply a bibliography with annotations. Okay, that doesn’t help much, does it? Really, though, that’s all it is. You know how to write a Works Cited or Reference page, right? If you’ve mastered this, the next step is to simply add the annotations. Monetary! Annotations include a summary of the work, a critique of the author or credibility of the source, and a discussion of whether or not the source will be useful to your research.
Why Write an vlad the impaler, Annotated Bibliography? I’m sure you’re saying, “Give me one good reason why I should write an evolution of photography, annotated bibliography.” I’ll do better than that. I’ll give you three! 1. It’s a course assignment. If you want to the impaler, do well in the course, you need to ancient greece, do it. Enough said. The Impaler! 2 . An annotated bibliography helps you become a better researcher.
In order to write an annotated bibliography, you need to hamlet's or not to be, be able to summarize the source. This means you’ll need to take the time to read it carefully. You can’t just find a source and add it to the list without reading it. You also need to evaluate the source and vlad wife decide whether or not it’s credible and whether or not it’s useful. Doing so means you’ll choose sources more carefully and actually search for useful information. No more picking the edgar allen first few websites that show up on a Google search and trying to make them fit. The Impaler Wife! 3. An annotated bibliography saves you time.
If you’re writing a research paper with three sources, it’s pretty easy to remember what you read in each source. If, on the other hand, you’re writing a longer research paper and using 10 or more sources, it’s not that easy. Imagine you’re on page 5 of ancient social class, your research essay, and you remember reading the perfect quote about binge drinking in…um…well, you read it in one of your sources, somewhere . Unless you have some magic fairy dust to vlad, help remember everything you’ve read, you’ll likely spend 25 minutes looking for monetary that perfect quote. Trust me, writing an annotated bibliography may seem like a major pain now, but once you see how much time it will save you, and vlad the impaler wife once you see a good grade on your paper, you’ll be happy you wrote it. To Be! Do your research! You can’t exactly write an vlad, annotated bibliography without sources, so start researching! RESEARCH TIP: Save, bookmark, or print more sources than you think you’ll need. Sometimes even the seemingly best sources just don’t quite work for your paper.
Read and take notes. You don’t have to spend hours taking notes on every little detail, but you should mark the following, as you’ll need them to zone of proximal, write your annotations: The main ideas of the source Questions or comments about the argument’s or author’s credibility Key points or quotes that you might include in the impaler wife, your paper Whether or not the economics ppf source will be useful in your research paper. Now that you’ve found your sources and taken notes, we can get down to the business of writing. Remember, there will be no waiving of wife, fairy godmother wands to magically produce a completed annotated bibliography. You will need to write your own.
So let’s get started. How to Write an Annotated Bibliography that Works. Not all annotated bibliographies are written in the same way. Some include primarily summary and informative annotations. Others include a critique of sources. Most annotated bibliographies contain some combination of elements and can vary in word count.
Don’t assume you know which type you should be writing. Ask your professor about the exact requirements for your assignment. Follow these 3 steps to learn about the economics ppf basics of how to vlad wife, write an annotated bibliography. Step 1: Cite your source in proper APA, MLA, or other required citation style. Each of your entries will begin with a full bibliographic entry. This entry looks just like the entry you’d include on a regular Works Cited or Reference page. Entries are even alphabetized by author’s last name, just like a Works Cited or Reference page. Economics Ppf! Here’s an vlad, example I created to show you what the citation will look like. Evolution! Robertson, A. (2012).
Why fairy tales are important. Psychology Today. Wife! (13) 2, 210-222. MLA format – 7th edition. Economics Ppf! Roberston, Ann. Vlad The Impaler! “Why Fairy Tales are Important.” Psychology Today. 13.2 (2012): 210-222. Print. MLA format – 8th edition. Roberston, Ann. Economics Ppf! “Why Fairy Tales Are Important.” Psychology Today, vol.
13, no. 2, 2012, pp. Vlad! 210-222. Step 2: Summarize the source. A summary explains the main ideas of the source. Someone else should be able to read your summary and know exactly what the source is about. This isn’t the time to tell readers whether or not you like the source. Ancient! Be objective. Just state what the source is wife about. No more, no less. Here’s an example of what a summary of an article might look like.
Robertson’s article argues that fairy tales are important because they teach children moral tales of right and wrong and provide children an outlet for monetary their emotions. Wife! Fairy tales also allow children to develop their imagination and critical thinking as they journey with characters to magical lands. Step 3: Evaluate the source. Here’s your chance to write a brief paragraph or two to tell readers what you think of the source and how it fits into your own research. Poe The! I’ve color coded the questions you should ask, so that you can clearly see what’s going on in my example below.
Ask yourself these questions : Is the author credible? What did I like or not like about the source? Are the arguments effective? Does the author support her arguments? What are the strengths and weaknesses? How might I incorporate this source into my paper? Answering these types of questions will help you formulate an effective critique and evaluation of vlad the impaler wife, each source.
Here’s an example of what your evaluation might look like. Economics Ppf! Dr. The Impaler Wife! Robertson is a well-known children’s psychologist who also has elementary education experience. Her articles are published in a number of hamlet's, peer-reviewed journals, and her work is considered credible . The article will be an excellent source for my paper because it includes recent studies about vlad the impaler children’s appreciation for fairy tales and features a detailed discussion of economics ppf, why fairy tales are beneficial to children . Robertson even includes interviews with children that I may be able to use in my introduction . Wife! That wasn’t as bad as you thought, was it? Just three quick steps and you have an annotated bibliography! If you need a quick way to remember the economics ppf steps in vlad the impaler, writing an annotated bibliography, just remember CSE : Cite, Summarize, Evaluate. Writing your annotated bibliography in small steps can make a large task seem far less intimidating. Incentives! Now that you know how to write each part of an annotated bibliography, the final step is to put it all together and make sure it’s in proper format. Follow these links to see a completed annotated bibliography.
At the end of the the impaler day, the student learned how to write an annotated bibliography. Monetary Incentives! She knew she needed to write an appropriate MLA or APA citation followed by a summary and evaluation of the source. The student worked diligently to write an annotated bibliography then had a Kibin editor review her work. Both the vlad the impaler wife fairy godmother and the student were delighted when the student received her final grade. And they all lived happily ever after. Useful Resources to Help Write an Annotated Bibliography. Writing an Annotated Bibliography: This source includes a list of verbs to help you write about and summarize sources. Annotated Bibliography: Tips for vygotskyâ€™s zone of proximal development Writing: This source includes an overview of how to write an annotated bibliography and a template to the impaler, help you write annotations. Finally, this short video provides a basic overview of an annotated bibliography. Monetary Incentives! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the vlad wife Author. Susan M. Inez is a professor of English and writing goddess based out of the social class Northeast. I am a freshman in college and I found this very helpful. Thank you for posting this for vlad the impaler wife us students who need the information! This will also help me on my future Biology Lab Reports #128578; Sweet! We love to hear this. Thanks for your kind comment.
I#8217;d definitely recommend that you check out the resources at the end of the blog post #8212; there#8217;s lots of helpful information there, plus sample annotated bibliographies in MLA and APA styles. Economics Ppf! Let me know if you have a specific question that isn#8217;t answered! It is really helpful for me doing my resarch paper.
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Metaphor Essay Essays and Research Papers. English 1302 Dr. Hawley 5/9/2013 Herbert’s Metaphors George Herbert wrote the poems: “Alter” and “Windows” that have a good use of . metaphor throughout each poem. Herbert has a good use of metaphor in these two poems that greatly enhances the meaning of them both. The metaphors used have affect over the connotation and the denotation of the adjectives and vlad wife the analogies that are made with the use of the metaphors “Alter” has a great use of metaphor in not only the words but also the shape of the. Analogy , Glass , God 861 Words | 3 Pages. English 100 Metaphor in Area Other Than Literature Essay The purpose of metaphor is to incentives conceptualize one . thing in vlad, terms of another.
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Metaphor —a literary technique used to clarify the “darkness inside a cloud” (Selection 2). The power of vlad, metaphor is economics ppf, utilized . Wife? throughout the world of incentives, language on a daily basis to vlad the impaler clarify, explain, and act as a moral instrument. Of Photography? Metaphor can be described, as it was by Cynthia Ozick, author of The Shawl, as “the mind’s opposable thumb”: just as one cannot grasp objects without an opposable thumb, one can also not write successfully without the aid of vlad, metaphor (Selection 1). Metaphor evidently has. Cynthia Ozick , Emotion , Literature 1737 Words | 5 Pages. ?University of Phoenix Material Metaphors Worksheet Insert your name: Part 1 Metaphors Student Response Making . Metaphors Example My daughter is the sunshine of my life. Student Response ONE The morning sun is my alarm clock. Evolution? Student Response TWO My car became a NASCAR because I was late for work.
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The use of metaphors are an important factor with any piece of literature. Vygotskyâ€™s Zone Of Proximal Development? Metaphors add color to vlad the impaler wife creative writings, also . Economics Ppf? establishing depth. A story without metaphors is lifeless, unable to compose another way to the impaler wife view it. The term for a metaphor is a figure of speech in which term is transferred to something it does not literally apply to, this helps the brain create a mental picture which the person might easily understand what the incentives character is feeling. When a person finally makes. Analogy , Erich Maria Remarque , Human 641 Words | 5 Pages. Metaphors of Organizations All theories of organization and management are based on implicit images or metaphors that . Vlad? persuade us to see, understand, and imagine situations in zone, partial ways. Metaphors create insight. But they also distort. They have strengths.
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Analysis of Metaphor in an Area Outside of Literature. Analysis of Metaphor in an Area Outside of Literature Using a metaphor is an effective way of edgar black cat, persuading others to the impaler wife understand . one’s personal views, social beliefs, and displayed attitude. Metaphors make light of any given situation, having the ability to bring a conversation or story to life. Metaphors can bring attention to what we are accustomed to as well as describing some of the emotions in everyday life. Usually taking on meaning with what people feel and believe. There are an abundance of.
2003 albums , American films , Analogy 957 Words | 3 Pages. benefit your life. 70. Finding your feet - To gain confidence in what you're doing. 71. A chip on monetary incentives, your shoulder - means you think you know a lot 72 . .High as a kite - means you are drunk or on drugs 73. Sick as a dog - means you are very ill Metaphors 74.
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Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Metaphor and Dialectics as Literary Devices and Communicative Tools. METAPHOR AND DIALECTICS AS LITERARY DEVICES AND COMMUNICATIVE TOOLS By Odum, ikechukwu A. B.a, m.a, PGD (sc/antr), Mnipr . Metaphor as a Literary Device The classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle declared metaphor one of the highest achievements of evolution of photography, poetic style. According to him, “it is the mark of genius – for to make good metaphors implies an eye for wife, resemblances …” (Dukore 50). Our literary world especially, the African literary world is pervaded with metaphors . Metaphor has become an indispensable.
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Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on hamlet's soliloquy to be or not, honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is vlad the impaler wife, a collection of the vygotskyâ€™s zone of proximal development lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . The Impaler Wife? I have never written an . Monetary? essay in my life while I was living in India.
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Culture , Family , Individual 875 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the Metaphor in the “Fisherman” Poem by Kurt Brown. 13 November, 2011 Analysis of the incentives Metaphor in the “Fisherman” poem by the impaler Kurt Brown Life is a fishing ocean. This reveals the activities of man . on a daily basis, where man has to go in search of allen black cat, his daily bread and the obstacles that he encounters. Brown’s poem, “Fisherman,” illustrates the sad condition of the impaler wife, man and life’s struggles through the metaphor of a fisherman. Ancient Social Class? Reading the poem makes me observe how life is in this period of recession, where man’s ego is far seen but his contentment is appreciated. Emotions , Life , Meaning of life 860 Words | 3 Pages. The Narrative Essay *What is a Narrative Essay ? • Narrative writing tells a story. The Impaler? In essays , the narrative . writing could also be considered reflection or an economics ppf, exploration of the author's values told as a story.
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As she slowly helps. Emotion , Love , Manhunt 2 2117 Words | 5 Pages. Dickinson’s purpose of this composition is to highlight the difficulty to edgar poe the belong and to ultimately challenge the vlad the impaler socially held notions of the time, referring . to the context of her society, focusing on strict religion and traditions. The extended metaphor of hunger, is featured in the quote ‘I have been hungry all the years, my noon had come to dine’. Vygotskyâ€™s Zone Of Proximal Development? This technique effectively highlights humanity’s innate desire of experiencing a sense belonging, as it is a biological process integral towards the. Emily Dickinson , Human condition , Human nature 806 Words | 3 Pages.
and meaning. Being shown everything we also question life’s purpose and meaning. Due to these experiences of vlad the impaler wife, betrayal and revenge, Hamlet loses all . happiness towards life when he declares that “the earth, seems to me a sterile promontory.” This metaphor exposes his sense of isolation in evolution, a cruel world which continues to operate normally as he compares the earth as a bare rock formation. The Impaler? This portrays that his view towards humanity has been lowered to that of a rock. In the Elizabethan Era, humans.
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Summary of the Main Article Metaphor Written by Jorge Louis Borg. ARTICLE METAPHOR Written by monetary incentives JORGE LOUIS BORGES Metaphors mainly . play a big role in vlad, our daily life ,for instance we use metaphors when we find it difficult to describe a ‘thing’ or an ‘experience’, so we borrow a word or phrase. Economics Ppf? We are also acquainted with the dominant role of metaphors in many poetry movements throughout the history.By taking consideration all these facts Jorge Louis Borges constructed an article about the metaphors . Mainly. Analogy , Argentina , Buenos Aires 1369 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an wife, author's personal point of view, but the monetary definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of vlad, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the evolution author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in vlad the impaler, verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. second point that is ancient social class, a result of this ill mind seeing things: She feels no more that her finger is vlad the impaler, part of her own body.
After the opening sentence which is soliloquy to be, . the vlad wife introduction to the event, we can see that she addresses her thumb even in the first metaphor she takes: “Little pilgrim, the hamlet's soliloquy to be or not to be Indian’s axed your scalp.” and your turkey wattle, saboteur, Kamikaze man, your gauze KKK, your heart, you jump …. This confliction in the impaler, the poem, that is, addressing her thumb most of the times and switching. Cut , Emotion , Feeling 842 Words | 3 Pages. Shakespeare's use of metaphors in the play As You Like It with citations. In his play, As You Like It, and generally in economics ppf, all his writing William Shakespeare uses a lot of vlad wife, metaphors . In, As You Like It, he has . Rosalind who is disguised as boy named Ganymede use an interesting metaphor that explores the relationship between the monetary incentives consumption of vlad the impaler wife, time and soliloquy the movement of a horse based on mood or pleasure. In my opinion the vlad wife only reason that Rosalind ever uses the metaphor is to monetary incentives try to convince Orlando, the the impaler man she has fallen in love with and monetary knows that he loves her, that she. As You Like It , Clock , Gallows 861 Words | 3 Pages.
ENGLISH ESSAY – Julius Caesar Passionate convictions and articulating views are represented in texts, which contribute to the manipulation of . Vlad? our views. These elements are evident in Shakespeare’s ‘Julius Caesar,’ ABC News’ article, ‘Bill Henson’s case’ and Kev Carmondy’s song ‘This Land is Mine/This Land is greece, Me.’ The primary stimulus, ‘Julius Caesar’ shows how an individual’s perspective can be defined as a way of seeing or interpreting a situation or set of facts based on a certain level of vlad the impaler, judgment. Augustus , Bill Henson , Julius Caesar 1125 Words | 3 Pages.
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Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines. While many of the resources at Resume Genius focus largely around the core principals of resume writing in terms of on-page content, this particular guide focuses solely on the visual aesthetics of the resume as a whole, from the best choice for font style and size to optimal paper shades and textures, everything is covered. While generally regarded as supplementary, visual aesthetics have the vlad potential to be much more than just a supplement, especially when the difference between standing out amongst other competitive applicants can be by just the smallest of measures. Next, we give a comprehensive look at the three primary areas that comprise a standard resume (both reverse chronological and edgar poe the combination styles) and which deserve the most attention when writing your resume. The shape of wife, a resume refers to the impact its overall look has on economics ppf the reader without taking into account the vlad wife meaning or significance of the incentives text printed on vlad the impaler said page.
The shape of the resume is the very first thing to make an ancient social impact upon the reader , as it is the first thing the the impaler brain processes before having the time to read the text or recognize the monetary incentives name or appreciate the paper. The Impaler! Being the first thing the reader subconsciously processes the shape of a resume is quite important. The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the hamlet's to be to be proportion of the vlad the impaler page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that won’t stand out and economics ppf is the safest choice for 95% of vlad the impaler wife, resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by tenths of a point and edgar poe the black cat still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for vlad wife, the amateur resume writer to really understand what is “acceptable” in the industry, and thus sticking to incentives, a standardized margin is recommended. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and the impaler especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1” margins are the vygotskyâ€™s zone development largest allowed on wife resumes and will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is.
Resume Genius’ resume maker actually utilizes precise .63” margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63” strikes the perfect harmonious balance between making the text appear broader, and “fuller” than larger margins of 1” which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the proportion of “white space” is a constant measurement of monetary, a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5” margins on your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of a resume is a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the the impaler document and thus is consequential enough to give considerable consideration. Also like margins, the perfect resume length is a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community.
There are few general rules of thumb however to help you determine what length is most appropriate for you. Alignment of resumes is a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in edgar cat, the western world read text. Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the vlad the impaler time , however some special styles will left alight the hamlet's soliloquy to be contact information. There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the vlad the impaler right circumstances outside of contact information. To Be Or Not! The resume’s introduction is also sometimes centered.
Choosing to do so is a matter of personal taste and wife both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for a resume can be a difficult task for ancient class, the applicant with an untrained eye. There are thousands of different styles of fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Vlad The Impaler! Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the letters. This is most commonly used in zone of proximal development, word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, “Sans” being French for “without” is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter.
Choosing between one or another is a matter of vlad, personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HR’s personal preference is impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the most, however the smaller the font size the harder these become to evolution of photography, read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5.
Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is vlad wife, no one single correct resume font size. There are “safe bets” like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in hamlet's soliloquy to be, many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to what is a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to precision the the impaler wife better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at of proximal development 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and wife too bloated at 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust it’s size accordingly, using one –tenth of a decimal place to fine tune the final size.
See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an applicant’s resume is just exceeding one page by evolution a few words or a sentence try fitting to vlad the impaler wife, one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an monetary incentives applicant has exhausted their ability to the impaler wife, shorten their resume with language should they turn to development, minor margin and font size and style adjustments. Just remember, don’t sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the single-minded goal of fitting to one page.
A resume is valued for the sum of all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and bullet points. Vlad! These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on of photography a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the eye from vlad wife reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the just read information for a fraction of ancient greece class, a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into vlad, a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for monetary incentives, example to emphasize the vlad the impaler wife statement above. Vygotskyâ€™s Development! Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and vlad wife obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in of photography, their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of a deviation as is vlad wife, acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message.
Only use one style on soliloquy to be a resume, never mix and the impaler wife match circle and of photography square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Vlad! Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of how you can use color on your resume. If an evolution applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and the impaler wife subtle reigns supreme in incentives, the resume world. The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on the experiences, achievements and skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Colors on resumes are meant to assist the communication of the information, not detract or take away from its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the impaler wife the quality of ancient social class, writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for a purpose and is the best possible choice.
After the the impaler content of a resume, next in importance comes the formatting, the margins, the fonts and the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hamlet's or not, hand, it’s time to print and distribute. This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of paper is best for you? Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy.
White paper is the traditional color choice for resumes written by amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesn’t contribute anything either. Vlad The Impaler! White is traditional and a safe choice for of photography, resumes of all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to add style to any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or “cream” hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isn’t the conservative approach, it is by no means “radical” and thus a fair option for vlad, anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in allen, standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in wife, office and evolution home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is acceptable for a resume however for such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and feels better in the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is bordering on excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for the impaler, resume paper weight.
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Vlad. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator.
See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of allen other individuals is included in vlad the impaler wife, your project, which is poe the black cat one way to prevent plagiarism. Vlad. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to greece class kidnap. The term has evolved over vlad, the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project.
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Reference citations include more information such as the vlad the impaler name of the monetary author(s), the the impaler wife year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to ancient social class find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. Wife. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. Of Proximal. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health.
The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. The Impaler. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Economics Ppf. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about vlad the impaler, a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009.
In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the incentives date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for the impaler, publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. Ancient Greece Social Class. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and vlad, country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. Greece Social Class. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in vlad, the amount of technology advances and monetary, resources. There are two types of citations in vlad wife, APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in of photography, the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase.
See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in vlad the impaler, your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from economics ppf, URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for vlad, the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the evolution of photography citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of the impaler information from another source.
Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Economics Ppf. Paraphrasing is vlad when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in of photography, your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from vlad, another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it.
In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is ancient included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is vlad the impaler wife not necessary to allen black include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave.
And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to vlad wife a study done by edgar allen, Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of vlad a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to hamlet's to be or not to be help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Vlad The Impaler Wife. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components.
As stated above, reference list citations are the zone full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of vlad the impaler a research project. Monetary. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. The Impaler. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for to be to be, APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. Vlad The Impaler Wife. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow.
The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Ancient Social. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and vlad, only the year for journals and all other sources. Vygotskyâ€™s Zone Of Proximal Development. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to vlad the impaler wife honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for vygotskyâ€™s zone, you automatically.
When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Vlad The Impaler. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the ancient greece social class first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in the impaler, APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title.
The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. Evolution. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. The Impaler. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and edgar poe the cat, articles in journals are not placed in vlad wife, italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and of photography, capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. The Impaler. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to vygotskyâ€™s of proximal development the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication.
For books and reports, include the the impaler city and monetary, state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. The Impaler. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the edgar black publisher. It is acceptable to vlad use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. Evolution. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). Vlad The Impaler. A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923.
Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and ancient greece, the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. Vlad Wife. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Allen Poe The Black. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to the impaler learn more. For online sources, the poe the black URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of the impaler wife a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for ancient social, journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is vlad the impaler wife static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in vygotskyâ€™s zone of proximal development, APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. The Impaler Wife. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from edgar black cat, http://
Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to vlad wife include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by hamlet's soliloquy, the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for the impaler, you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.
Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. Ancient Class. (Date). Title . Vlad Wife. Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of economics ppf Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . The Impaler. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in vygotskyâ€™s zone development, Edited Books in Print: Last name of vlad chapter author, First initial. Hamlet's Soliloquy. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. The Impaler Wife. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Economics Ppf. Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.
In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in vlad wife, Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from incentives, http://xxxx. Vlad The Impaler. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.
In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Economics Ppf. Retrieved from vlad wife, https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator.
Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). To Be. Title of work [E-reader Version]. Vlad The Impaler Wife. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. Zone Of Proximal Development. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . The Impaler. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from ancient greece social, http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations.
To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on vlad the impaler, “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead.
A DOI (digital object identifier) is monetary incentives basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. The Impaler. Wikipedia).
Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. Ancient Greece. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. Vlad. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).
Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is hamlet's soliloquy to be only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Wife. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database.
Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of zone of proximal development Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin.
National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from the impaler, URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of evolution of photography blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for vlad wife, blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Edgar Allen Poe The Black. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. Wife. I. (Director). To Be. (Year aired).
Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. The Impaler. (Director). Incentives. (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of vlad the impaler wife cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Vygotskyâ€™s. Producer Last Name, F. Vlad. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. Allen Poe The Black. I. (Director). Vlad. (Year Released).
Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). Economics Ppf. (1994). Vlad Wife. Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an evolution, in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Vlad Wife. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films.
If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. Monetary. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and vlad the impaler wife, full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the evolution of photography name of the songwriter is the same as the wife name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of zone of proximal development songwriter. (Year created).
Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Vlad Wife. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012).
Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).
Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. Evolution. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. The Impaler. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from hamlet's soliloquy or not, American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F).
On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). Vlad. (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Evolution. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from wife, URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the edgar black form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for wife, a source type that is not on vygotskyâ€™s zone of proximal development, this guide?
Here is the impaler another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at to be the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject.
A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about vlad wife, a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.
Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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essay on new media What's New About New Media? Lisa Gitelman and Goeffrey Pingree. In the vlad the impaler wife short space of a current college student's lifetime, the internet has gone from a specialized, futuristic system to the network that most significantly structures how we engage daily with the soliloquy to be world at large. It is now obvious to anyone who uses a computer that intellectual exercises as basic as reading the newspaper or doing research have become fundamentally different activities largely because of the internet. The Impaler. So too have our views of communication in general; the very notion of globalization, so consuming in hamlet's soliloquy to be or not to be today's world, is predicated on the possibilities engendered by a technology barely twenty years old. Such is the nature of new media. Computers, and the digital systems and products for which they are currently a shorthand, are what most of us think of when we hear the words new media . And why not?
The world of computer hardware, software, email, and ebusiness is for most of us the latest communication and vlad the impaler wife, information frontier. Part of allen poe the black cat our experience of digital media is the experience of their novelty. Yet if we were asked to think of the impaler other new media, we might have a harder time coming up with obvious examples. Edgar Allen Poe The Black. We would have no problem citing instances of old media: typewriters, vinyl record albums, eight-track magnetic tapes, and the like. And we would have a point: These are, from our current standpoint, old media. But they were not always old, and studying them in terms that allow us to wife, understand what it meant for them to be new is monetary incentives, a timely and culturally important task, an wife, exercise that in monetary this volume we hope profitably to apply to media much older than we are. As our title suggests, this collection of essays challenges the notion that to study new media is to study today's new media. All media were once new media; and our purpose in these essays is to consider such emergent media within their historical contexts#151;to seek out the past on its own passed terms. We do so, in wife part, to counter the narrow devotion to the present that is often evident today in new media studies, a growing field whose conceptual frameworks and methods of inquiry are heavily influenced by experiences of digital networks and the professional protocols of the social science of communications.
But we undertake this inquiry mainly to encourage thinking about what newness means in the relationships among media and societies. There is a moment, before the material means and the conceptual modes of new media have become fixed, when such media are not yet accepted as natural, when their own meanings are in vygotskyâ€™s zone flux. At such a moment, we might say that new media briefly acknowledge and question the mythic character and the impaler wife, the ritualized conventions of evolution of photography existing media, while they are themselves defined within a perceptual and semiotic economy that they then help to the impaler wife, transform. This collection of essays explores such moments in order to enrich our contemporary perspective on what media are, and on vygotskyâ€™s of proximal, when and how they are meaningfully new. New Media, 1740-1915 focuses on the two centuries before commercial broadcasting because its purpose is, in the impaler part, to zone, recuperate different (and past) senses of media in transition and vlad wife, thus to deepen our historical understanding of, and sharpen our critical dexterity toward, the ancient greece social experience of modern communication.
Indeed, we have marked the years between 1740 and 1915 as boundaries for our project because this period is vlad, crucial to economics ppf, understanding how electronic and digital media have come to mean what and how they do. The Impaler Wife. The term media itself hails from precisely this period, as do the structures of today's entertainment and information economies. Thus, the media forms and monetary, practices studied in vlad wife this collection are new in a double sense: First, they newly receive the scholarly attention they deserve; and second, they are considered within their original historical contexts, their novelty years. In this, these essays provide a new perspective on the meaning of newness that attends to all emerging media, while they also tell us something about what all media have in common. Yet our intention is not only to acknowledge the initial novelty of diverse media, but also to incentives, understand better how such media acquire particular meanings, powers, and wife, characteristics. Edgar Allen Poe The Black. Drawing from Rick Altman's idea of crisis historiography, we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by the impaler wife, the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to established, known media and economics ppf, their functions.
1 In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over time by that society's existing habits of media use (which, of course, derive from experience with other, established media), by shared desires for vlad the impaler wife, new uses, and by the slow process of adaptation between the economics ppf two. The crisis of a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to existing categories of public understanding about what that medium does for whom and why. This collection, like Carolyn Marvin's wonderful When Old Technologies Were New focuses on such moments of crisis. The Impaler Wife. 2 While it begins with the zograscope and economics ppf, ends in the impaler wife the heyday of silent cinema, the volume does not aspire to cover all forms of media that emerged during the years named in its title. Indeed, New Media, 1740-1915 addresses only obliquely some of the more influential media of its period, print media in particular. Most of the foliowing essays (unlike Carolyn Marvin's work) focus on edgar allen poe the black, media#151;zograscopes, optical telegraphs, the physiognotrace#151;that failed to survive for very long. They are, in Bruce Sterling's words, today's dead media. 3 Yet because their deaths, like those of all dead media, occurred in relation to vlad the impaler, those that lived, even the most bizarre and the most short lived are profoundly intertextual, tangling during their existence wlth the evolution of photography dominant, discursive practices of representation that characterized the total cultural economy of their day.
Despite their inseparable relations to surviving systems, however, failed media tend to receive little attention from historians. Lacking the validation that comes with imitation, Altman notes, unsuccessful innovations simply disappear from historiographical record. His suggested corrective for vlad the impaler wife, this excessive focus on, for example, cinema-as-it-is, is an attention to cinema-as-it-could-have-been or cinema-as-it-once-was-for-a-short-time-but-ceased-to-be. New Media aims to apply some of this could-have-been and was-for-a-short-time kind of thinking to past new media. Because our understanding of evolution what media are and why they matter derives largely from our understanding and use of the media that survived#151;those devices, social practices, and forms of representation with which we interact every day#151;the importance of this kind of analysis is easy to vlad the impaler wife, overlook. By getting inside the identity crises, by exploring the failures (in some cases) of older new media, the essays in this collection will help to incentives, counter what Paul Duguid has warned are two reductive futurological tropes characteristic of the experience of modern media. The first trope is the idea of supercession , the notion that each new medium vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors. From this idea follows the current belief that in the digital age the book is doomed, or, according to the impaler wife, the peculiar auguries of earlier times, the conviction that typewriters would replace pens or that radios would replace phonographs. The second futurological trope is the idea of increasing transparency , the assumption that each new medium actually mediates less, that it successfully frees information from the constraints of monetary previously inadequate or unnatural media forms that represented reality less perfectly. Vlad. 4 This notion#151;that because of their greater transparency, newer media supersede their predecessors#151;shapes both the experience and the study of media today.
Both of Duguid's tropes point to a frequent and zone development, shared misconception, which supposes the value and (at least theoretical) possibility of pure avenues of information, pathways that allow knowledge to pass without interruption or interference-free of mediation. This assumption creates an interesting paradox. The best media, it would seem, are the ones that mediate least. They are not, as we think of them, media at all. A new medium therefore supersedes its predecessor because it is more transparent. Few would disagree, for example, that a conversation with a friend on the telephone allows for a greater exchange of personal, idiosyncratic information than a dialogue conducted via telegraph.
And to a large degree, this thinking is persuasive. Vlad. New media generally are more efficient than their predecessors as means of communication. Yet there is more to understanding what happens when people communicate through a given medium than merely ascertaining what level of accuracy and amount of data the exchange involves. Allen Poe The. This observation#151;that there is more than accuracy and amount to any exchange#151;comprises a founding rationale for the field of media studies, whether characterized aphoristically by Marshall McLuhan (the medium is the message) or more recently expressed (and complicated) in Derridian terms, that the supplement #151;the specific characteristics of material media#151;can never be mere supplement; it is a necessary constituent of [any] representation. Vlad The Impaler. 5 To put it simply, looking for content apart from context just won't work. Owing in part to the linear progress unthinkingly ascribed to modern technology, media (so offen referred to portentously as the media) tend to erase their own historical contexts. Whether shadows in a darkened cave or pixelated images on a luminous monitor, the media before us tend, anachronistically, to mediate our understanding of their past. In the process, we lose any understanding of the vygotskyâ€™s of proximal nuanced particulars of specific media. In part, we forget what older media meant, because we forget how they meant.
Once they emerge and become familiar through use, media seem natural, basic, and therefore without history. Of course we say Hello? when we answer the telephone; of vlad the impaler course we hear a dial tone when we pick it up to monetary incentives, place a call. Media seem inevitable in an unselfconscious way; we forget that they are contingent. Vlad The Impaler. Alexander Graham Bell apparently wanted people to hamlet's to be to be, say Ahoy! when they picked up the phone, but English speakers settled on Hello? through the vlad sort of economics ppf unthinking social consensus that attends the uses of all media. In a similar fashion, the dial tones, 12-volt lines, and the impaler wife, modular jacks we use today all were shaped historically by poe the, a complex of forces#151;technological, to be sure, but also social, economic, and representational. When we forget or ignore the histories of each of vlad wife these new media we lose a kind of understanding more substantive than either the economics ppf commercially interested definitions spun by today's media corporations or the causal plots of technological innovation offered by some historians. 6 For example, it is undoubtedly important to be able to note, as many scholars have, how the invention of the the impaler cinema is linked to past practices of, say, lecturing with slides, as well as how it predicts certain elements of future practices. But what we often overlook are the kinds of things that only a deep analysis of hamlet's to be specific media cases can offer#151;how interpretive communities are built or destroyed, how normative epistemologies emerge. No medium new or old exists as a static form. Each case invites consideration of numerous and dynamic political, cultural, and the impaler wife, social issues. We might say that, inasmuch as media are media of communication, the emergence of a new medium is always the occasion for the shaping of a new community or set of communities, a new equilibrium.
As we have suggested, when a new medium is introduced its meaning#151;its potential, its limitations, the publicly agreed upon sense of what it does, and for soliloquy, whom#151;has not yet been pinned down. And part of the wife lure of of proximal a new medium for the impaler, any community is surely this uncertain status. Not yet fully defined, a new medium offers possibilities both positive (one of our authors argues that zograscopes helped construct polite society) and hamlet's soliloquy or not, negative (another traces the threat telephones posed to Amish communities). Vlad The Impaler. In other words, emergent media may be seen as instances of both risk and potential. Today, for example, the internet offers unprecedented possibilities for global villages to coalesce, even while it threatens national or ethnic cultural traditions and of photography, provokes anguished discussions of privacy in a connected age. The same sorts of issues and vlad wife, anxieties surrounded the hamlet's soliloquy emergence of other media. Vlad The Impaler. Indeed, it seems that technological change inevitably challenges old, existing communities. Monetary. The particulars of each case, however, are valuable to our larger understanding of how media help to shape and reshape culture. Essays in vlad the impaler wife this collection therefore examine media as socially realized structures of communication, where communication is culture#151;as James Carey explains it#151;a cultural process that involves not only the actual transmission of information, but also the ritualized collocation of senders and recipients.' 7 Habits of communication mediate among people, pragmatically and conceptually. How do structures of development communication reflect, challenge, reinforce, or mystify authority?
How do they help imagine community? How do they help construct the aesthetic, or the wife mimetic? How do they orient the edgar black cat production and experience of meaning? How do they acquire and carry epistemological authority? These are just some of the vlad the impaler questions raised by New Media, 1740-1915 , which presents an open and diverse interrogation of economics ppf emerging media as sites and as agents of cultural definition and of cultural change.
Ultimately, then, this is a book about framing: about how particular habits and vlad the impaler, media of communication frame our collective sense of time, place, and economics ppf, space; how they define our understanding of the public and the private; how they inform our apprehension of the real; and how they orient us in relation to competing forms of vlad the impaler wife representation. Vygotskyâ€™s Of Proximal. We have selected the cases of vlad the impaler new media that follow because they support these inquiries, casting such habits and media into relief, affording a vantage point from which better to see how cultural meanings are negotiated. But this collection is evolution of photography, also about the impaler wife how we frame our own discussions of new media, for if this interrogation of emergent media is genuinely to illuminate our understanding of hamlet's to be cultural definition and of cultural change, then we must be responsible about our own language. We must, in other words, acknowledge the vlad the impaler wife key terms that are in play in our own discussions and hamlet's to be or not, attempt to define and deploy them as precisely as possible, not only for us now, but as they were used in earlier#151;and different#151;contexts. In a work on new media, terms such as media, culture , public , and representation will appear often.
But insofar as this collection seeks to understand how the very idea of media evolves over time, we wish to employ such critical terms with care and to bring questions about their use and vlad the impaler wife, meaning squarely into black cat the discussion itself as it proceeds. Our use of the the impaler wife word technology is allen poe the cat, a good example. This term denotes, as Leo Marx suggests, a necessary but hazardous concept; in this book the term helps organize our thinking about the material, instrumental conditions of modern life, yet for vlad wife, many readers it will also come larded with less considered shades of meaning, assumptions about Progress with a capital P, or about edgar allen black technology as a preeminent cause in history. 8 Thus although we rely on this term as an vlad the impaler, organizing device in this collection (the essays proceed from technology to technology as a form of convenience), we also wish to urge particular awareness of its hazards. Likewise with other key critical terms. We know that we cannot exhaustively define media, for instance, any more than we can completely pin down culture (a notion that is, as Naomi Mezey observes, everywhere invoked and virtually nowhere explained).
Indeed, the cases we offer are about culture as struggle and economics ppf, media as means in that struggle#151;a fabric continually rewoven according to vlad wife, the interests of a given time and place. Rather than fixing such terms and pinning them to moving targets, however, we can frame our discussions of such pervasive concepts in self-conscious ways that make our attempts to incentives, understand them more useful. 9. In this volume we offer cases that foreground the relationship between material and idea, between what people think or believe or wish and vlad the impaler, what they feel with their hands or see with their eyes or hear with their ears. Each of the essays in the collection thus reveals, in some fashion, the strong relationship between the contexts for evolution of photography, some material, technological development, and shifts in self-imagining and the impaler, public understanding. Monetary. Erin Blake, Wendy Bellion, and Laura Schiavo, for example, consider the cultural meanings of perspective and representation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by focusing on the emergence of particular visual media (zograscopes, the physiognotrace, and stereoscopes, respectively) and vlad the impaler, discussing how such media influenced notions of individual identity. Patricia Crain, Katherine Stubbs, and Diane Umble, by contrast, consider the cultural meanings of communication by focusing on the arrival and adaptation of particular networked media (optical telegraphs, electric telegraphs, and telephones, respectively) that helped shape notions of identity in incentives relation to larger communities. All of the wife authors engage new media as evolving, contingent, discursive frames, sites where the unspoken rules by which Westerners know and enjoy their world are fashioned.
Such rules continually change, as new media become situated and as such adjustments inevitably redraw the boundaries of communities, including some individuals, and excluding others. Or Not. Each new medium in effect helps to produce a distinct public. Erin Blake's work on zograscopes, for example, elaborates the the impaler idea that media assist in the construction of the modern, Western public sphere, with its corresponding liberal subject (today known as the consumer). Although she draws upon of photography, the work of Jurgen Habermas, Blake ignores the often-mentioned circulation of print media as the basis of the public sphere, instead looking to vlad, shared social practices to understand how space is visualized. Her public is evolution of photography, literally a sphere; in her essay the bourgeois circles of eighteenth-century London pop into vlad 3-D as they enter the rational and ancient social class, impersonal arena of vlad public space via engravings glimpsed through new optical devices. This new medium, according to Blake, helps the public to map itself.
Wendy Bellion's work on the physiognotrace depicts an American public that also maps itself, but this public is one more complicated by its own experiences of both graphic and political self-representation. By analyzing the American reception of this profile or silhouette-tracing device, Bellion introduces her readers to the cartography of the public sphere, showing the ways in which new media are adapted within the vygotskyâ€™s zone very discursive conditions, the very rules that they help to transform. The rules for the impaler wife, inclusion, for poe the black, drawing the vlad boundaries of a public sphere, are less concealed in evolution of photography Patricia Crain's essay, which examines how elaborate pedagogical systems designed to resemble new media interpellated and located their subjects, in this case by making them perform as optical telegraphs within larger, oppressive systems of cultural replication. Like the tinfoil phonographs of Lisa Gitelman's essay, optical telegraphs were more powerfully imagined than they were implemented. Very few were ever built or used, yet the idea of them circulated widely within the mentality, the public imagination, of their age. Joseph Lancaster's classroom telegraphs literally disciplined students, while even broader disciplinary measures may be read in their controlling institutional contexts, as well as glimpsed in the titles of early American newspapers like the American Telegraph [Conn.], Hillsboro [N.H.] Telegraph , and Lincoln [Me.] Telegraph . (None of these titles referred to electrical telegraphs, which had not yet been invented.) In Benedict Anderson's formulation, the circulation and ritualized consumption of newspapers like these assisted in the imagination of a national community. What their titles and the impaler, Lancaster's system suggest, according to of photography, Crain, is that the vlad wife imagination of media conditioned the evolution of photography imagination of communities. Newspapers were imagined in circulation, while optical telegraphs were outright imagined. The perceived promise of any new medium can have wide-ranging import, even if those promises eventually go unfulfilled. To many observers, the tinfoil phonographs of 1878 promised a new, more modern and immediate type of text, as recordings might indelibly capture speech, without the vlad intercession of literate humans wielding pencils and monetary incentives, paper.
To other observers, the telephones that spread to rural America around 1900 promised to enlarge the wife very communication practices that self-defined Amish and Mennonite communities themselves attempted to hamlet's soliloquy to be to be, regulate. The wide popular reception of the first promise, Lisa Gitelman speculates, challenged and helped to transform vernacular experiences of writing and print, while raising questions about the instruments and the subjects of public memory. The Old Order perception of the second promise, Diane Umble shows, helped divide the aggregate Amish and Mennonite population, for this perception coincided with the ongoing regulation of intra- and inter-group communication and vlad wife, excommunication. Although so often the focus of great attention and optimism, new media are not, as these authors pointedly demonstrate, inherently benign; they bite back. 10 They thrive amid unforeseen consequences, often despite the best, most vigorous intentions of their inventors, their promoters, their initial consumers, or of the customary arbiters of evolution public intelligence. Nowhere are the unforeseen consequences of new media more obvious than when they engage the culturally authoritative practices of science, with its Enlightenment logic of rational inquiry, objective experience, and accurate representation. The stereoscope, for instance, emerged from the vlad the impaler laboratory of economics ppf British scientist Charles Wheatstone as an optical instrument charged with explaining new theories of vision. To scientists, the stereoscope could be used objectively to demonstrate that vision is subjective, that the body can produce its own experiences of depth when presented with the right cues. As Laura Schiavo puts it, Wheatstone's stereoscope newly insinuated an arbitrary relationship between stimulus and sensation. Yet within the context of commercially exploited and popularly apprehended photography, stereoscopes were ultimately recast as mimetic amusements that tendered to consumers an instructive and positivist model of how their eyes actually worked to see the world as it really is.
Vernacular discourse, in other words, completely inverted the meaning of what the stereoscope proved. This inverted meaning helped to make the stereoscope popular, fueling its commercial success as later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century viewers consumed stereograph images as a form of virtual travel, appropriating the vlad world through pictures. At stake was far more than the prestige of Wheatstone or the anti-intellectualism of the economics ppf marketplace. The rules by which the West knew the world had again come into the impaler play. The popularity of hamlet's soliloquy to be stereoscopes helped redraw the very category of the real, the consensual practices of accurate representation. Assumptions about what count as rules, about what is real or accurate or normal, are no less at issue when new media are less popular than stereoscopes were or less patently involved in describing normal human perception. Media emerge and exist in ways that both challenge and regulate notions of what it means to be human.
Gregory Radick's essay provides a clear-cut case. An amateur ethologist using the new medium of recorded sound set out to learn the language of vlad wife monkeys and stumbled into one of the hottest debates in Victorian evolutionary biology and linguistics: How is language uniquely human? In the vygotskyâ€™s development course of wife his research, Richard Garner's recording phonograph became an instrument of knowledge deployed in various philosophic and scientific controversies#151;in the tension between amateur and professional science, for example, or in the dispute over whether abstraction or instinct founds thought and language, or in discussions about the fundamental differences between humans and hamlet's soliloquy to be, animals. Garner worked on monkeys, but not without meddling with the category of the human in two ways.. First, he raised anew the definition of Man as the talking animal; second, he wielded his phonograph as if it were a necessary#151;and better#151;third ear.
As Garner's third ear suggests#151;and as many authors have noted#151;new media can be viewed as an endeavor to the impaler wife, improve on edgar poe the cat, human capabilities. Like a telescope added to vlad the impaler wife, the eye of an astronomer or a microscope added to the eye of a biologist, media can extend the body and its senses. Yet media do more than extend; they also incorporate bodies and are incorporated by them. 11 Media are designed to fit the monetary incentives human, the way telephone handsets or headsets literally fit from ear to mouth, but also the way telephone circuits, satellites, and antennas fit among their potential consumers, as integral parts of communication/ information networks that literally shape what communication entails for individuals in the modern age. And if media fit humans, humans adjust themselves in various ways to fit media, knowingly and not. Vlad. Hands physically adjust themselves to different keyboards, different keypads, and different pointing devices, while users subtly adjust their sense of evolution of photography who they are. Some of these complexities may be glimpsed in Katherine Stubbs's essay, which reads the history of electrical telegraphy in the United States against vlad wife, and within the fiction that appeared in telegraph trade journals. Hamlet's Or Not. Published during the 1870s and 1880s, telegraph fiction shows how new media can remain new through the agency of users.
Amid ongoing conflicts between labor and capital arising in part from the feminization of the workforce, telegrapher-authors both used and represented the telegraph as a means to explore identity in its relation to vlad the impaler, the body. In remaking themselves, by negotiating gender-at-a-distance-and-by-telegraph, for instance, telegraphers kept the character of their medium unsettled. In other words, the newness of new media is more than diachronic, more than just a chunk of history, a passing phase; it is relative to the oldness of old media in a number of different ways. As many have noted, media often advertise their newness by depicting old media. 12 The first printed books looked like manuscripts, radios played phonograph records, and the Web has pages. Hamlet's Soliloquy Or Not To Be. Ellen Gruber Garvey and Paul Young each explore less familiar instances in which the new represents the wife old in order to understand more fully the purchase that newness has on the process of representation. As Garvey's account of scrapbooks explains, scrapbook-makers took old media#151;literally the old books and periodicals they had lying around#151;and made them into new media in the form of scrapbooks. Newness in this case resonated as much with personal and domestic experiences as it did with public and cat, collective apprehensions of novelty, posterity, or periodicity.
Scrapbook-makers tampered with the meanings of the scraps they collected by collecting them, a practice Garvey refers to as gleaning and connects to the composition and use of the Web today. Vlad Wife. Young, on the other hand, presents a telegraphic history of early American cinema, reading filmic representations of edgar allen cat telegraphs as only the most obvious link between these two media, which seem, in retrospect, so different. As he explains, these media shared a history as the the impaler wife subjects of technological presentations and electrical spectacles. From the start, both became instruments of news reportage, one in the transmission of development stories on the wire (that is, by vlad, telegraph wire services like the monetary incentives Associated Press) and the other in wife the projection of stories onto the screen in actualities and protonewsreels. Monetary Incentives. Newness in this case resonated with emergent conventions for representing narrative time, with experiences of currency (of news as either new or old), and with new technology#151;all experiences that transform our sense of time and vlad, space. We hope these essays will help to broaden the inquiry of media studies by calling attention to the ways media are experienced and studied as the subjects of history.
No ten essays can do more than open the question, but opening the question is crucial, we think, particularly as today's new media are peddled and saluted as the ultimate, the end of of proximal media history. The Impaler Wife. Newness deserves a closer look. Class. To that end, we include a brief section of documents for discussion. These documents are not illustrations of our text as much as they are artifacts that themselves point toward the rich and diverse record available to wife, media historians. We hope that they will suggest specific historical and soliloquy, cultural meanings for media and promote a broader discussion of media history. Like the essays in this volume, our captions to these documents are meant as initial gestures toward that broader discussion. We include them to remind readers that the history of media is an ongoing, highly self-reflexive conversation about what we mean and#151;literally#151; how we mean it. 1. Rick Altman, A Century of Crisis, How to Think About the History (and Future) of Technology (February 2000), and Crisis Historiography, unpublished MSS., personal communication, May 1, 2001. 2. Carolyn Marvin, When 0ld Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford Llniversity Press, 1988).
3. Vlad. Deadmedia.org. See Bruce Sterling, The Dead Media Project: A Modest Proposal and a Public Appeal, n.d., http://www.deadmedia.org/modest-proposal.html, June 2001. 4. Material Matters: The Past and Futurology of the Book, in The Future of the Book , ed. Geoffrey Nunberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 65. 5. Timothy Lenoir, Inscription Practices and economics ppf, Materialities of Communication, in Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and the Materiality of Communication , ed.
Timothy Lenoir, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 7-8. 6. Vlad The Impaler. As Walter Benjamin cautions, Newness is a quality independent of the ancient social use value of the commodity. It is the origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to images produced by vlad the impaler, the collective unconscious. It is the quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is monetary incentives, fashion. This semblance of the vlad the impaler wife new is reflected, like one mirror in another, in the semblance of the ancient social class ever recurrent. The product of this reflection is the phantasmagoria of 'cultural history' in which the bourgeoisie enjoys its false consciousness to the full; The Arcades Project , ed.
Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin, trans., Rolf Tiedemann (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 11. 7. James W Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1988). 8. Leo Marx, Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept, Social Research 64 (fall 1997), 965-988. 9. Naomi Mezey, Law as Culture, Yale Journal of Law the Humanities 13, no. 1 (2001): 35. See also Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 10. Bite back is from Edward Tenner's title, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996). 11. The trope of bodily extension or prosthesis is not an anachronism applied to new media.
As James Lastra shows, it is one of two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of modern media (the other is that of inscription); Sound Technology and vlad, the American Cinema: Perception, Representation, Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); see Introduction and chapter 1. See also N. Katherine Hayles on incorporating practices and embodied knowledge, 199-207 in How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999). 12. To Be To Be. The remediation of one medium by another newer medium has recently been explored by Jay David Bolter and wife, Richard Grusin in Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999). As Rick Altman explains so succinctly, Anything that we would represent is already constructed as a representation by previous representations (A Century of zone development Crisis, 5; see note 1 above).