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ap bio darwin essay 1) Individuals begin to ponder what we term as evolution during the classical era of the the invisible summary, Greeks and Romans. Anaximander developed theories on the progression of companies, scaly, fishlike forms to land forms. Empedocles believed createrurs literally fused together: for ellison summary example if men fused their heads with cattle, then a new organism would form. Most of pure culture, these combinations died but those that remained became new organisms. 2) One premise was that a population of organism, without any check, would grow exponentially. The reason that few population do in fact sustain exponential growth is explained be the second premise. This premise states that as resources dwindle, organisms compete with each other for those declining resources. Lastly, the third premise states that only the invisible man ralph ellison a few survive. Thus, natural selection allows those few individuals with beneficial traits and characteristics to survive at movie a greater rate than organism without those traits. These organisms may eventually split off from a parent species and the invisible ellison summary become their own species. 3) Carol von Linne believed that species were immutable, unchanging.

This concurred with the Biblical view that each type of on The Influence Identity, organism resulted from divine creation. Lamarck’s theory came to be known as the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Lamarck believed that organisms emerged spontaneously from inanimate matter and then evolved. This evolution was stimulated by the invisible man ralph an organism’s need for a particular characteristic. Once that characteristic was acquired, it was developed through regular use and then passed on to offspring. Disuse of a body part or characteristic leads to its disappearance from the how many references for dissertation, animal’s body. 4) Wallace, while resting during a night of man ralph, fever in movie full of grace, the Spice Islands, remembered an essay written by Thomas Maltus. Maltus’s work stated that population grow geometrically but that the food supply grows much more slowly.

Darwin, who began as a physician, joined the HMS Beagle as an informal naturalist. He collected samples of birds and upon talking to an ornithologist, realized that each bird was a distinct species. He thought for a while that since the the invisible man ralph, Galapogas were similar to the Cape Verde Islands, each should contain similar organisms. However, the organisms of the offshore companies, Galapogos were similar to South American species while the ones in Cape Verde were similar to African species. Evolution had occurred.

5) Darwin delayed publication because he realized how radical his ideas would be. He wanted to gather more evidence before he published what may would view as challenge to the religious dogma of the day. 1) Bacteria are either eubacteria or archaebacteria. Eubacteria include cyanobacteria, some of the man ralph summary, earliest living organisms. Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs and carry out photosynthesis. They first occurred 3.5 billion years ago and contributed to the development of free oxygen in the atmosphere (helping makes organisms like humans possible). Eubacteria include bacterial pathogens such as the plague, cholera, and chlamidya. References For Dissertation. Some eubacteria are also chemoauthotrophs, which derive their energy from the breakdown chemical bonds.

Important chemoautotrophs are nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which convert atmospheric nitrogen into the invisible, a form that can be used by plants. Essay Culture In Shaping Individual Identity. Archaebacteria are older and evolved during a time when the earth was a much harsher place. As a result, they tend to the invisible ellison summary live at companies the extremes. Thermophiles inhabit hot springs or the areas surrounding deep sea thermal vents. Halophiles inhabit highly salty areas, such as the Great Salt Lake. 2) Protists are a eclectic collection of taxa.

They include algae, which are mostly marine organisms. Kelp is a type of brown algae and can form massive underwater groves. Green algae comprises phytoplankton, which forms the basis of most marine food chains. The Sarcodina include amoebas (which move by use of a psuedopod) and summary foraminifera (which secrete and reside in a calcium shell). Flagellates are protiststs that have a cellular tail and whip it to move along. The flagellate Trypanasoma is responsible for sleeping sickness and Giarda is responsible for hiker’s diarrhea. 3) Plants likely arose from aquatic seaweeds, specifically green algae which might have been leafy in shape.

4) Perennial plants live for at least two years whereas annual plants complete their life cycle within one year. 5) Remaining upright (without the aid of buoyant water) is a problem as is the define, potential for desiccation (dehydration due to intense heat and wind). -vascular cambrium: a ring of active cells just beneath the the invisible summary, bark. This is where most of the define culture, growth in perennial plants occurs. -growth ring: an annual episode of growth marked by a ring of large and man ralph compact cells. It is preserved each year and serves as a useful record of a tree’s age. -sporophyte: a sporophyte is how many references, a plant that produces diploid (2n) spores and man ralph ellison summary is diploid. -gametophyte: a plant that is haploid (n) and Essay on The Influence in Shaping produces gamates (sex cells) -lignin: a chemical compound found in wood that is a major component in the secondary cell walls of plant cells. Due to lignin’s strength, the man ralph ellison summary, plant can “stand” upright. Pure Culture. -cuticle: a waxy layer that acts as an airtight sealant and helps reduce water loss from interior tissue. Summary. -apical meristem: located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots and provides primary growth (elongation of plant into soil and up into the air) -lateral meristem: provides secondary growth (increase in girth). In woody plants secondary growth is responsible for against standardized the gradual thickening of the roots and shoots formed from earlier plant tissue. The Invisible Ellison Summary. -xylem: a water and mineral conducting tissue consisting of tracheids an dvessel elements. Both are dead at functional maturity.

Tracheids are long, thin cells that overall and are tapered at the ends. Vessel elements are wider, shorter, thinner walled, and companies hiring less tapered. Water can flow freely through elements whereas in tracheids water must pass through pits. -phloem: carry food from photosynthetic leaves to the rest of the plant by active transport. Phloem consists of sieve tube members that facilitate the summary, flow of fluid from one cell to the next. These are alive at functional maturity and are attached to companion cells (which support the member, which does not contain nuclei, ribosomes, or vacuoles). -stomata: tiny pores passing though the cuticle which allow for gas exchange between the plant and environmet.

7) Alternation of full of grace, generations refers to the process of diploid and haploid individuals alternating with each other. A plant will be diploid some of the time and haploid the rest. Before meiosis, a cell holds a full complement of paired chromosomes (2n) and meiosis results in gametes with half the chromosomes (n). A sporophyte is a diploid plant while a gametophyte is a haploid plant. Gametophytes through mitosis. Gametophytes fuse to form a zygote which will become a sporophyte.

Spores (produced by sporophytes) 8) Bryophytes (mosses) lack vascular and transport tissue and thrive in dark and damp places. They also lack lignin and thus cannot support themselves. This is why they are found low to the ground clustererd in mats. Pteridophytes are ferns. Man Ralph Ellison Summary. Ferns have underground stems (rhizome) and leaves that are aerial fronds that unfurl from coiled young leaves. Spores are produced on the underside of the frond (sporophyte individual). The spores then produce a gametophyte individual, which produces egg and sperm. These egg and sperm, following fertilization, grow directly into the rhizome and fronds of the the case against standardized testing, young fern. The seed plants include gymnosperms and the invisible man ralph ellison angiosperms. They have seeds (protective cases for young embryos) and pollen ( a hardy form of sperm) that is resistant to extreme temperatures and extremes of the case against testing, moisture. The seed consists of the invisible summary, a seed coat, plant embryo, and a supply of pure, nutrients.

Gymnosperms. 9) The cell walls of fungi are made of man ralph ellison, chitin (a nitrogen containing polysaccharide) instead of cellulose. They do not have photosynthesis and do not photosynthesize. 10) Hyphae are structures that produce a feeding mat referred to as the mycelium. The hyphae continue aboveground to form the reproductive structure known as the fruiting body. Offshore. 11) Mycorrhizae is the name of symbiotic combinations of fungi and man ralph ellison roots. The root supplies sugars to the fungi while the newton, fungi facilitates the transfer of minerals from the soil to the roots. 12) Animals likely arose from the invisible ellison, protists. On The Influence And Socialization In Shaping Identity. Animals probably arose from a choanoflagellate that lived in colonies. Ellison. These flagellates were equipped with flagella and thus were able to move on their own accord and were heterotrophs. They displayed some fundamental aspects of animals.

13) Parazoans are the simplest of all animals and are sponges. Connected needlelike spicules provide support to a sessile body. They body surrounds an internal cavity lined by flagellated cells. Most parazoans are asymmetric whereas nearly all other animals display some sort of symmetry (such as the eumetozaoans). Platyhelminthes, rotifera, mollusca, annelida, nematode, arhtropoda, echinodermata, chordata are eumetazoans. 14) In protostomes, the companies, first opening becomes the mouth while in the invisible man ralph ellison, deuterostomes the first opening becomes the anus. -porifera: sponges; pass through planktonic (unattached) stage of development; sessile; asymmetric; internal cavity lined by offshore hiring flagellated cells; have needle-like spicules for support. -cnidarians: have radial body symmetry and consist of jellyfish and hydra. They only have two cell layers and also have stinging cells.

There is no transport system because every cell is in contact with the environment. They have a gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs. -platyhelminthes: compressed and ribbon like; some are free moving while others are parasitic and reside inside a host; planarians glide on cilia that cover their ventral surfaces; tapeworms are segmented. -mollusca: have a hard shell into which they can withdraw. Some (clams) have a pair of closing shells while others (snails) have a single shell. The Invisible Ellison Summary. Some are predators with sucker-lined tentacles. These include squids and octopuses. annelids: includes earthworms, which are representative of the basic segmented body plan characteristic of the phylum. As they feed, they pass the soil through their bodies, digest the organic material, and leave the inorganic material behind as feces. Leeches are annelids as well. arthropoda: They are the largest group of culture, animals, segmented, and are surrounded by an exoskeleton. The exoskeleton allows for movement because it is jointed and acts as a protective barrier.Trilobites occupied the Earth for nearly 300 million years then vanished. Arachnids (spiders, scorpions, etc) and the invisible crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, and define pure culture shrimp) are also arthropods. The largest group of arthropods are the insects, most of ellison, which are winged. echinodermata: includes starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, and ancient crinoids. They move along using sweeps of their arms or synchronized motion of tube feet.

Their embryology is similar to movie of grace that of the summary, chordates (they have bilateral symmetry during embryonic development) chordates: comprised mainly of vertebrates (organisms with a back bone). A notochord runs down the long axis of vertebrates. The earliest vertebrates were jawless fishes such as ostracoderms. Fishes with jaws followed as did the cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes. The bony fishes are the how many, largest single group of vertebrates. Amphibians were the first to the invisible man ralph employ limbs and were the first tetrapods.

Tetrapod means four footed but is understood to be a taxonomic term (snakes and whales are also tetrapods). 16) amnion = a thin membrane that encloses the gravitation newton, embryo in watery amniotic fluid. cleiodic egg = a leathery shell (in reptiles and monotremes) or a brittle shell (in birds) that contains the amnion and the amniotic fluid. The Invisible. The egg also contains the chorion (which is used for movie full respiration) and the invisible the yolk sac (food for the growing embryo). placenta = specialized tissues along the inside wall of the female uterus connected to the fetus by an umbilical cord. The placenta passes nutrients and oxygen from the mothers blood to gravitation the fetus and fetal CO 2 to the mother for elimination. 17) A habitat is an organism’s ecological address (where it lives). Its niche is its ecological profession (the habitat is where it lives while the niche is how it lives). A fundamental niche describes the full range of available resources that can be used (predators, temperature, humidity, living space, etc). The Invisible. The realized niche is the amount of resources that the organism actually uses. Offshore. 1) Nilsson-Ehle crossed true breeding red and white wheat plants, producing intermediate colored plants.

These F1 plants were then crossed with each other, resulting in seven discrete varieties. These seven forms occurred at the same ratio through multiple crossings. Ellison. This demonstrated that Mendalian genetics can produce “smooth” variation. Furthermore, the culture, presence of polygenic traits (traits controlled by summary multiple genes) can also account for Essay on The Influence Identity “smooth” variation. Individual traits can be accounted for by discrete Mendalian genetics yet still produce “smooth” variation amongst a population. 2) A polygenic trait is one controlled by multiple genes whereas a monogenic trait is controlled by the invisible one gene. Hiring. For example, height is a trait controlled by the invisible man ralph multiple genes whereas the color of flowers can be controlled by Essay Influence Culture and Socialization in Shaping Individual one gene. Summary. 3) A locus is a fixed position on a chromosome. A diploid organism has pairs of homologous. Each pair has corresponding loci. An organism may have one allele at each loci.

The alleles do not have to be the same. (For example, a heterozygous individual has allele A on one chromosome and allele a on the other at newton the same locus). 4) A population is a group of interbreeding organisms of the the invisible, same species that exist together in how many, both time and space. A gene pool consists of all the alleles found in a population. 5) Lowercase p represents the frequency of the dominant allele in a population. Lowercase q represents the frequency of the recessive allele in the population. P-square represents the proportion of individuals that are dominant homozygotes, q-square represents the proportion that are homozygote recessive, and 2pq represents the proportion that are heterozygotes. 6) A population is at equilibrium (according to the Hardy-Weinberg theory) if the allelic frequencies are not changing.

This means that the values of p and q do not change from what they originally were. The values of p and ellison q stay constant. 7) For a population to be at Essay on The in Shaping Individual Identity equilibrium it must be very large (more resistant to large changes in allelic frequency), random mating of individuals (there is no selection for certain alleles), there is no immigration/emigration (no loss or gain of alleles), natural selection is not occurring (frequencies are not increasing or decreasing), mutation is man ralph ellison summary, not occurring at a high rate (new alleles not being introduced). Certain population may be small, rarely is mating random (mates seek the best members of of grace, the opposite sex), rarely does immigration not occur in an ecological sense (influx of exotic species, climatic events cause individuals to move, etc) and natural selection often is occurring (though it may not be drastic). 8) w 2 = 0.16 so w = 0.4 so W = 0.6. so 2pq = 0.48 (proportion of the invisible summary, heterozygote individuals) 9) Heterozygote advantage refers to a situation in which natural selection maintains genetic variation by favoring heterozygote individuals. Essay On The Influence. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, children heterozygous for the sickle cell allele sometimes display the negative effects associated with sickle cell disease but are at a better advantage overall because the abnormal blood cells are harder for the malaria parasite to penetrate.

Those who are homozygous for the allele suffer too much from sickle cell disease for it to be an overall benefit while those who do not have the allele are at a considerable disadvantage. Therefore, natural selection favors the heterozygotes in this case. 10) Microevolution refers to the change of allelic frequencies within a population (such as the presence of peppered moths or the the invisible ellison, presence of the case against standardized, heterozygote carriers of the sickle cell allele). Microevolution can occur relatively quickly, in ellison summary, just a few generations. Macroevolution refers to against the large scale changes that lead to the origin of higher taxa (orders, families, phyla). These new taxa come about as the the invisible summary, result of the accumulation of many small changes.

Thus, microevolution [can lead to] leads to macroevolution. 11) The evolution of the English moth is a form of directional selection. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the population of the moths was centered around a “mean” of white color but the “mean” shifted and Essay and Socialization Individual was now centered at black (the allelic frequencies drastically changed). 12) Genetic drift is change in the gene pool due to chance. The Invisible Man Ralph Ellison Summary. If a new allele is introduced into movie full, a large population, the new allele will take a very long time (many generations) to spread into a large proportion of individuals because there is a large gene pool that it must alter. Summary. In a small population, the gene pool is small (if an allele cannonballs into the pool, a larger proportion of individuals feel the impact). 13) Both forms of change in the gene pool are random. However, the two are different.

Bottlenecks occur when a population is under pressure and of grace its size is reduced. Therefore, changes in man ralph ellison summary, allele frequency are more drastic and affect the reduced population more. The founder effect occurs when a population is Essay on The Culture in Shaping Individual, not under pressure but derives from the invisible ellison summary, a few individuals and therefore there is little genetic variability in ensuing generations. 14) For gene flow to occur, there must be an exchange of the case against standardized testing, fertile individuals or gametes. This is would occur more easily between two populations that overlap in time and space. It is harder for individuals to migrate to an isolated island or for gametes to be carries to an isolated island. 15) The Hardy-Weinberg principle allows us to calculate what would happen if natural selection were not occurring and the invisible man ralph then compare what does happen in the real world. The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to calculate allelic frequencies and thus examine the full, genetic basis for evolution because speciation begins when the the invisible man ralph, allelic frequencies of two populations begin to diverge.

1) Chromosomes are paired and each individual receives one from the father and one from the mother (within the pair). During meiosis, segments of the homologous chromosomes at the same loci (location along the chromosomes) “swap”. Even though the genes at the exchanged sites may be similar, different alleles may be present on each chromosome resulting in more genetic variation. Influence Culture And Socialization In Shaping Individual. In diploid organisms, sex results in an enormous variety of potential offspring. Because there are millions of sperm that have undergone meiosis and millions of the invisible man ralph ellison, ova that have undergone meiosis (and thus variation has increased), the resulting embryo is the case standardized, unique. Even bacteria exchange circular pieces of DNA known as plasmids, thus increasing the genetic variation among a population that reproduces through binary fission.

2) DeVries, a Dutch botanist, who worked with evening primroses passed by a field and man ralph saw of form of primrose that was new to how many for dissertation him. After experimenting with primroses and other organisms, DeVries observed that new varieties seemed to the invisible ellison occur spontaneously through mutation (he referred to these varieties as mutants). DeVries expounded the against standardized, theory that new species arose suddenly due to large mutations. Ellison Summary. Through research, it has been proven that mutations are the ultimate source of variation. 3) A point mutation is pure, one or a few alterations in the base-coding sequence of the gene’s DNA, thus producing a new allele of the gene. Ellison. Point mutations consist of insertions, deletions, or substitutions.

Even small changes in the nucleotide bases can change the newton, amino acid being coded for and thus the entire shape of a protein. In sickle cell anemia, one of the amino acids (there are 574) comprising hemoglobin results in the formation of an abnormal hemoglobin molecule. -During meiosis, unequal crossing over the invisible man ralph ellison summary occurs, resulting in a chromosome with repeated segments coding for the same genetic material. The chromosome with the duplicated segments can accumulate mutations in full of grace, one of the genes and still have a functional segment of DNA left. The segment of DNA coding for the invisible man ralph summary hemoglobin has enough material to code for Essay on The and Socialization six units but only four are present in an individual at any given time. The other two can be called upon when physiological conditions change. Man Ralph. This phenomenon arose from gene duplication millions of years ago. -Within chromosomes, sections can be flipped around within their chromosomes (inversion). Gravitation Isaac. Pieces of the invisible man ralph, chromosomes can get transplanted to other chromosomes (translocation). At times, inversions can be beneficial. Among fruit flies, certain inversions become common in colder climates and decrease in warmer climates and confer advantages to gravitation isaac flies living in colder areas.

Polyploid can also occur. Polyploidy is the presence of multiple sets (more than two) of chromosomes (4n, 8n, etc) . Polyploidy solves the man ralph ellison, “problem” of crossing over for chromosomes with gene duplications and is a major factor in plant evolution. How Many References. A polyploid plant’s “haploid” 2n gametes can fertilize with other 2n gametes and form a 4n plant (a tetraploid). 4) Homeotic genes (Hox genes) are master genes that control other genes responsible for the formation of body parts. Ellison. Major changes between animal phyla are correlated with duplications in Hox genes or in an increase in pure culture, the number of Hox genes (changing the way and order in which body parts form or adding new segments altogether). Hox genes are tuned on and off repeatedly during embryonic development, responding to the changing chemical and anatomical conditions within the embryo. They can also control individual genes that are downstream.

5) Mutations introduce necessary variation. Usually, they have negative effects because they disrupt a fine tuned system that has evolved over the invisible summary millions of years. However, for large scale change to occur, major genes must often change as well. Evolution depends upon mutation. Sex is important from an evolutionary standpoint because it introduces variation as well. Offshore. Through meiosis, each sperm or egg cell is different. Sex allos for ellison summary these to combine and produce an individual whose genetic blueprint is gravitation, unique and ellison summary who may harbor genes that could prove useful in the future (in terms of a population). Explain the difference between abiotic and biotic factors. 1)Abiotic: Physical non living factors like Climatic conditions and habitat harshness. Biotic: Factors due to competition between and predation among living organisms.

2)Define biological fitness. Offshore Companies Hiring. What role does fitness play in the invisible, selection? Fitness is relative reproductive success of individuals, within a population,in leaving offspring in the next generation (contributing to the gene pool). Offspring of fitter species are selected for of grace survival.Fitness is the the invisible man ralph summary, relative ability to survive and reproduce. 3) Compare and contrast natural and artificial selection. Give examples of of grace, each. Weeding out of organisms by biological processes without deliberate or directed human intervention. Weeding out of organisms by humans for humans. Example Brown snails are rare in Meadows but are common in Beech woodlands.

Green snails are rare in Beech woodlands and common in man ralph summary, green meadows. Example Dairy farmer breeds cows which give high volume milk and gravitation isaac newton hold back on those with low production. White water snakes on the islands of Lake Erie. The banded snakes are easily lost to predation. Oil content in corn was artificially divided by selecting only high oil content yielding corn and other successively lower in kernel oil. 4. Describe the various patterns, or types, of natural selection. Give examples for ellison summary each.

Directional Selection: When one genotype (and the resulting phenotype) replaces another. How Many. For example, in industrial England, the allele for white colored moths declined and the allele for black colored moths increased as white colored moths were selected againts (because the man ralph summary, trees became black with soot). The black moth genotype/phenotype replaced the. Disruptive selection: Disruptive selection increases the extreme genotypes/phenotypes in a resulting population. For example, in an area of light colored and very dark soil, organisms which are at the extremes of the population will be selected for whereas organisms in the middle (gray organisms, for example) will be selected against. Sexual Selection: Males with more prominent characteristics are more attractive to females. Since more attractive males contribute most to the gene pool, less attractive males (males with small horns for gravitation isaac newton example) are selected against. The Invisible Man Ralph. Male peacocks with the most brilliant displays are more likely to contribute to the gene pool. 5)Define sexual selection and describe how it relates to sexual dimorphism.

Members of one sex mostly males have greater physical powers or flashy ornamentation enjoy better success in attracting a mate and thereby benefit from reproductive success. This form of selection is called sexual selection. Secondary sexual characteristics exhibited by either males or females ,like male lions have mane and full adult male sea lions are larger in size. Males and the invisible summary females differ morphologically and exhibit different secondary sexual characteristics a condition referred to as sexual dimorphism. 6. What are the advantages and disadvantages, from an evolutionary standpoint, of full, sex? Advantages:Larger,stronger males with elaborate features fare better breed more often and pass on their secondary sexual characteristics.Secondary sexual characteristics are health certificates which ensure that the best characteristics are passed on to the next generation. Man Ralph Ellison. Sex allows for more shuffling of allele combinations, which means there is a better chance that beneficial allele combinations can arise.

The spread of a mutation within a population is also slower because a mutated allele is often paired with a healthy allele (in offspring) that may negate the effect of the mutated allele. Sex allows for much more genetic variability, which means that natural selection has a more diverse gene pool to work with. Disdvantage:secondary sexual characteristics sometimes may make the next generation of species more. Prominently visible and Culture in Shaping Identity hence vulnerable to predators (for example, the male peacock's display attracts predators as well as mates). Sex also involves considerable expendature of energy and time, whereas asexual organisms can easily reproduce by budding or mitosis. Sexual reproduction also takes more time (the process of meisosis itself is ellison summary, longer than mitosis).

A sexually reproducing population often canot reproduce as quickly as an asexually reproducing population. Chapter 6 Questions for Kardong. 1. What areas of science provide evidence for the occurrence of pure, evolution? Fossil science paleontology ,comparative anatomy,comparative embryology and vestigial and Atatvistic structures. 2. For the above fields, describe what that evidence is, and how it supports the idea of the invisible summary, evolution through natural selection. 3. Fossil science paleontology: Fossils clearly indicate that species were not created separately but ,simple bacteria evolved first and then eukaryotes then multicelluar organisms. - comparative anatomy: Different species exhibit basic underlying similarities. -comparative embryology: mammal embryos have gill slits, illustrating that mammals can be traced back to amphibians and other marine organisms which evolved through natural selection to meet the needs of living on land. -vestigial structures: humans have a coccyx bone, a remanant of a tail. This provides a link to reptiles and other organisms that had tails (showing our common descent) -atavistic structures: the reappearance of ancestral traits allows us to peer into our ancestry and provides clues as to which organisms we are related to. 4. Define the following and give examples: a. Newton. Homologous structures: Same features that can be traced back to a common ancestor. b. Example: Birds wings and mole’s arms can be traced back to common ancestor(reptiles). c. Analogous structures: Structures which perform same function but cannot be taced back to a common ancestor. d. Example wings of Bats and bees are used to fly but cannot be traced back to ellison a common ancestor. e. Homoplastic structures: Structures look alike but may not be homologous or analogous. f. Example: Wings of insects which look like leaves. g. Vestigial structures: Rudimentary structures which remain form the past. Essay On The Identity. h. Example: Hip and ellison hindlimb bones of whales (the appendinx in humans). i. How Many. Atavistic structures: Are throwbacks, return of structures typical of ancestors.

Example: Additional toes in modern horses. j. Ellison. Founder effect: Phenomenon in which rare traits are common in new and isolated locations. k. Example: Polydactyly is movie full, common among the Amish because the original families who immigrate to the US had unusually high rates of man ralph, polydactyly (and the associated allele) l. The Case Against Standardized Testing. Biogenetic law: Early events of embryonic development retain clues to evolutionary events. m. Example: Gill slits in embryonic development of the invisible ellison, mammals reinforce evolutionary connection to earlier organisms (such as amphibians) n. Preservationism: Embryos maintain earlier evolutionary non functional organ Example:Gills in mammals birds and on The Culture reptiles. o. Biogeographic realms: Land is divided into 6 biogeographic realms. p. Example: Australian realm with 20 mamalian and 7 endemic families. q. Center of origin: Region where a species is localized is called as center of origin. r. Example:Black birds have center of origin in Nearctic and Neotropic realms. s. Man Ralph Summary. Neodarwinian evolution: Advances in evidence and Culture Individual Identity biological changes 150 years after Darwin,with clear understanding of ellison, genes,DNA and natural selection. This is the modern theory of pure, evolution. t. Phylogenetic trees: Branching systems of hypothesized relations and sequences in evolution.

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Metaphysics: Philosophy and Idealism Essay. Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy that focuses on the nature of the invisible summary reality, including abstract concepts such as being and knowing. The term literally means ‘beyond the physical. Gravitation Isaac? ’ It attempts to find unity across the summary domains of experience and against standardized thought. There are five broad philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today and these general frameworks provide the base from which the various educational philosophies are derived. Idealism is the the invisible man ralph ellison view that ideas or thoughts make up fundamental reality.

Idealism is a label which covers a number of philosophical positions with quite different implications and tendencies, including: 1. Objective idealism asserts that the reality of experiencing combines and transcends the reality of the object experienced and that of the Essay on The Influence Individual Identity mind of the observer. 2 Objective idealists accept common sense realism but reject naturalism. The Invisible Man Ralph Summary? In other words, objective idealists accept the view that material objects exist but reject the offshore companies concept that the mind and spiritual values have emerged from material things. * Proponents include Thomas Hill Green, Josiah Royce, and Benedetto Croce. 2. Subjective Idealism describes a relationship between experience and the invisible ellison the world in references which objects are no more than collections or “bundles” of sense data in the invisible man ralph ellison the perceiver. How Many References? 2 Subjective idealists assert both metaphysical and epistemological idealism while denying that material objects exist independently of human perception and thus are opposed to both realism and the invisible man ralph ellison summary naturalism. * Proponents include Berkeley, the Bishop of Cloyne. Culture? 3. Ellison Summary? Transcendental idealism is gravitation, a doctrine that maintains that the mind shapes the the invisible ellison world we perceive into the form of space-and-time. 2 Transcendental idealists are strong skeptics of a mind-independent world, asserting epistemological and not metaphysical idealism. * Proponents include founder, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schelling. 4. Absolute idealism is the companies hiring view that in order for human reason to be able to know the world at the invisible man ralph, all, there must be, in some sense, an gravitation isaac identity of thought and being; otherwise, we would never have any means of access to the world, and we would have no certainty about any of our knowledge.

6 * Proponents include founder, G. W. F. Hegel. As well as several more minor variants or related concepts, including: 5. Epistemological Idealism asserts that minds perceive only their own ideas, and not external objects; therefore we cannot directly know things in themselves or things as they really are. The Invisible? The only thing we can ever have knowledge about is the standardized world of phenomenal human experience which leaves no reason to suspect that reality mirrors our perceptions and thoughts. 6. Actual Idealism is a form of idealism that contrasted Transcendental Idealism and Absolute Idealism. This system saw thought as all-embracing, and claimed that no-one could actually leave their sphere of thinking, or exceed their own thought. 6 * Proponents include Giovanni Gentile. 7. Ellison? Buddhist Idealism is the movie of grace concept in that all existence is nothing but consciousness, and therefore there is nothing that lies outside of the mind. 8. Panpsychism holds that that all parts of matter involve mind or that the whole universe is an man ralph organism that possesses a mind. Therefore all objects of experience are also subjects. * Proponents include Gottfried Leibniz. 9. Practical Idealism is a political philosophy which holds it to be an ethical imperative to implement ideals of virtue or good. Define Pure? * Proponents include Mahatma Gandhi.

Realism is the view that entities of a certain type have a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. The Invisible Man Ralph? There are many different types and offshore companies degrees of man ralph ellison summary Realism, including: 1. Platonic Realism is the view that universals exist. A universal is a property of an object, which can exist in more than one place at the same time. * Proponents include founder Plato, who formed a solution to the problem of universals. 2. Moderate Realism is the view that there is no separate realm where universals exist, but that they are located in space and time wherever they happen to be manifest. * Conceptualism, initiated by Peter Abelard, is the doctrine that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. * Modern Conceptualism, as represented by Immanuel Kant, holds that universals have no connection with external things because they are exclusively produced by our a priori mental structures and against functions. 7 * Proponents include Aristotle St. Thomas Aquinas, Jacques Maritain and Etienne Gilson. 3. Modal Realism is the view that possible worlds are just as real as the actual world we live in, and not just abstract possibilities.

* Propounded by David Lewis. 4. The Invisible Man Ralph Ellison? Moral Realism is the meta-ethical view that there are objective moral values which are independent of our perception of them or our stance towards them. Therefore, moral judgments describe moral facts. 7 * Proponents include Plato and Immanuel Kant. There are many others disciplines which are related to Realism, including: 1. Transcendental Realism is the theory that implies individuals have a perfect understanding of the limitations of their own minds. 2. Organic Realism is the metaphysical philosophy in which subjective forms complement Plato’s Forms. The theory holds that change in not illusory or purely accidental to the substance, but rather the very cornerstone of reality or Being. * Propounded by Alfred North Whitehead. Against Standardized Testing? Ontology is the invisible ellison, traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, while being the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence, or reality, as well as their relations. Ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how these entities can be grouped and subdivided according to similarities and differences. G. W. F. Hegel Wikipedia. com Wikipedia. com Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher as well as a major figure in German Idealism.

His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. 19 Without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other, he developed the concept that mind manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united. Hegel attempted to elaborate a comprehensive and systematic ontology from a logical starting point throughout his published writings, as well as in his lectures. In 1801 Hegel moved to for dissertation, Jena to join Schelling at the University of Jena, where Fichte had studied previously; although at the invisible, that time, the of grace prime of Jena idealism was over. In this same year, Hegel published his first philosophical work, The Difference between Fichte’s and Schelling’s System of Philosophy. He worked with Schelling closely and together they edited the Critical Journal of Philosophy. He wanted to develop a system of man ralph ellison science in which he displayed in his writings. Phenomenology of Spirit was considered his project and one of his main works where he speaks of his thoughts on the evolution of consciousness from sense perception to define culture, absolute knowledge. He also believed that human cognition changes from one generation to the next; as well as the idea that our experiences are what make us who we are and we make our experiences ours. His thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the general tradition that includes Plato and Kant, as well as Plotinus and Gottfried Leibniz. A common trait that these thinkers share is that they regard freedom or self-determination both as real and as having important ontological implications, for soul or mind or divinity.

His concern with Kantian topics such as morality and freedom, including their ontological implications, is omnipresent. He aimed to incorporate it within ‘true infinity’, ‘spirit’ and ‘ethical life’, rather than simply reject his dualism of freedom versus nature. He incorporated it in such as way he rendered Kantian’s duality as intelligible. He saw a relational unity as well as a metaphysical unity between Jesus and God the Father. Jesus is the invisible man ralph, both divine and human, according to Hegel. He further attested that God not only died, but that a reversal had taken place, that is to say that God maintained himself in the process and the latter is only the how many references for dissertation death of death. He claimed God rose again to life and thus things are reversed. 19 Karl Marx Wikipedia. com Wikipedia. com Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, journalist, historian and revolutionary socialist. The Invisible? His ideas had a significant influence in the development of social science and the socialist movement. He wrote and published many works but the most important of all was the Communist Manifesto.

Being born into a wealthy middle class family, he studied at the University of Bonn as well as the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the Young Hegelians philosophical ideas. After writing for movie, a couple radical newspapers and being exiled to Brussels, he became a leading figure of the Communist League. Once he returned to ellison, Cologne, he founded his own newspaper. References? Even experiencing poverty, he continued writing and formulating his theories about the nature of society and how he believed that it could be improved. His theories about society, politics and man ralph summary economics are known as Marxism and these theories hold that all societies progress through a conflict between ownership class which controls production and a lower class which produces the isaac labor for goods. His view of history, which came to be called historical materialism, certainly shows the influence of Hegel’s claim that one should view reality as well as history dialectically. However, Hegel had thought in idealist terms, putting ideas in the forefront, whereas Marx sought to man ralph summary, rewrite dialectics in materialist terms, arguing for the primacy of matter over define pure idea. Where Hegel saw the “spirit” as driving history, Marx saw this as an the invisible man ralph ellison summary unnecessary mystification, obscuring the reality of humanity and its physical actions shaping the the case standardized testing world.

He wrote that Hegelianism stood the movement of reality on the invisible ellison summary, its head, and that one needed to set it upon its feet. Newton? 21 He believed that only large scale change in the economic system could bring about real change; he criticized utopian socialists by arguing that their favored small scale socialistic communities would be bound to marginalization and poverty. Engel’s book, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, led Marx to conceive the the invisible summary modern working class as the most progressive force for revolution. In opposition to movie of grace, traditional theology, he believed that human beings had created God in their own image and the invisible man ralph ellison summary that worshipping God diverted human beings from define culture, enjoying their own human powers. He explains that religion is a response to alienation in material life and that it can’t be removed until human material life is set free, resulting in the deterioration of man ralph summary religion. Epistemology is branch of hiring philosophy concerned with the nature and limitations of knowledge. It addresses mainly the following questions: * What is knowledge? * How is knowledge acquired? * To what extent is it possible for a given subject or entity to be known? 13 Rene Descartes Wikipedia. com Wikipedia. com Dubbed the ‘Father of Modern Philosophy’, Rene Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic.

He is ellison summary, known for having made an important connection between geometry and algebra, thus allowing a solution for define, geometrical problems by way of algebraic equations. He is perhaps best known for the philosophical statement “Cogito ergo sum”, meaning I think, therefore I am. From 1604-1612 he attended Jesuit school, where he learned the standard scholastic, Aristotelian philosophy. In 1619 he embarked on the invisible man ralph ellison summary, his life’s work of rebuilding the define pure culture whole universe because he believed everything he had learned was wrong. To do this he used what is known as his method of doubt. Man Ralph Ellison? He meditated on full, various possible skeptical scenarios to help him doubt even things that seemed possibly true. First he considered that, when asleep and dreaming, everything seemed just as real and true as when he was awake. This led him to think that perhaps he is dreaming at that very moment, in which case he may not be really sitting in a chair but dreaming that he is the invisible man ralph summary, sitting in a chair. Descartes, to make his doubting even more radical, considered the possibility that God is evil and newton has the aim of deceiving him as much as possible by placing fictitious sensory inputs directly into his conscious mind. The Invisible Man Ralph Summary? This resulted in his famous statement: I think, therefore I am.

His argument for the existence of God begins with the belief that ‘I have a concept of God, as perfect and infinite. This concept is clear and distinct; therefore an idea must have a cause-even an idea cannot appear from nowhere. Essay Influence And Socialization Individual Identity? A greater object can cause a lesser one but the reverse is impossible. Thus, my idea of God, which is supremely great, can only have been caused by just such a being. Thus God, as I conceive him, must exist. Man Ralph Ellison? ’16 With his belief in how many references the reliability of ellison his senses restored, he was then able to acquire common-sense beliefs about material objects.

He went on to build an Essay Influence Culture and Socialization Individual elaborate system of mechanics, a theory of planetary motions, among many others. David Hume Oregon State. edu Oregon State. edu The most important philosopher ever to write in English and one of the the invisible summary most important figures in testing the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment was David Hume. He was also well-known in his own time as a philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist. Man Ralph Ellison Summary? Among the interesting features of Hume’s empiricist philosophy are a revolutionary view of causality, the problem of full induction, and the distinction between fact and value. Hume advocates various forms of moderate or mitigated skepticism. He was a relentless critic of metaphysics and religion. 10 Hume was born in Edinburgh on April 26, 1711 and spent his childhood at Ninewells, the family’s modest estate near Berwickshire. His family thought he was suited for a career in the law, but he preferred reading classical authors and man ralph pursuing the goal of becoming a scholar and philosopher. Movie Full Of Grace? He followed a rigorous program of the invisible man ralph reading and reflection for three years while pursuing this goal.

Hume’s Problem of Causation has remained unsolved for two-hundred fifty years and this uncertainty has greatly prejudiced our belief in the possibility of metaphysics and companies hiring the certainty of science, and has ultimately led to postmodernism. Hume explains that until we know what exists and the ‘necessary connections’ between these things that exist, it is man ralph ellison, impossible for how many, humanity to have certainty of knowledge. This in return leads to the Problem of Induction, for if we do not know the a priori cause of events then we have no principles from which to logically deduce our conclusions. Then we are simply left observing that one event follows another and somehow they seem connected, yet we don’t know why or how; therefore we must depend upon induction to determine the man ralph laws of nature. This problem of induction can be demonstrated using his simple example of dropping a stone such that when I let go of the stone it falls to earth. Define? And despite the amount of times this experiment is the invisible man ralph ellison summary, repeated does this inductively infer that the stone must fall the next time I let it go. He argued that it doesn’t, that it is simply a habit of Culture and Socialization Identity thinking that it does and that it is quite possible that at some point in the invisible man ralph the future the stone will not fall. Hume stated, ‘The supposition that the future resembles the past, is not founded on arguments of any kind, but is derived entirely from against standardized testing, habit. ’11 He believed that a priori ideas did not exist and the invisible that they are not innate but derived from experience of perceptions.

He believed these perceptions could be divided into impressions and Influence Culture in Shaping ideas. He believed that humans learned through impressions and if there are no impressions then there is no idea. Ellison Summary? He also believed that every person’s perceptions were his alone and how many references for dissertation different from other peoples. 17 For the summary argument for the existence of God, Hume began by laying down the principle that we can ascribe capacities to a God only if they are evident in the world. He believed humans have no reason to infer an almighty God from the world because the world is manifestly finite and companies imperfect and any argument from such is unwarranted. He claimed that the hypothesis of a God is useless; that there is no practical gain in positing such a being. 1. Oregon State. “Section III – Philosophical Perspectives in Education” Web. October 16, 2012. http://oregonstate. edu/instruct/ed416/PP2. html 2. Wikipedia. “Idealism” October 13, 2012. Web. Summary? October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Idealism 3. Standardized? Wikipedia. “Objective Idealism” May 5, 2012. Web.

October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Objective_idealism 4. Wikipedia. Ellison Summary? “Transcendental Idealism” September 30, 2012. Web. October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Transcendental_idealism 5. Wikipedia. “Neo-Platonism” October 6, 2012. Web. October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Neoplatonism 6. The Basics of Philosophy. “Idealism” Web. October 16, 2012. philosophybasics. com/branch_idealism. html 7. The Basics of Philosophy. “Realism” Web. October 16, 2012. philosophybasics. com/branch_realism. html 8. Wikipedia. “David Hume” October 12, 2012.

Web. October 16, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/David_Hume 9. Movie Full Of Grace? Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Invisible Man Ralph? “David Hume” May 15, 2009. Web. October 16, 2012. plato. stanford. edu/entries/hume 10. Oregon State. “David Hume” Web.

October 16, 2012. oregonstate. edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/hume. html 11. On Truth Reality. Essay Influence Culture Identity? “Meta-physics: David Hume” Web. October 16, 2012. spaceandmotion. com/metaphysics-david-hume. htm 12. Wikipedia. “Ontology” October 29, 2012. Web. October 30, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ontology 13. Wikipedia. “Epistemology” October 30, 2012.

Web. October 30, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Epistemology. 14. Wikipedia. “Rene Descartes” October 29, 2012. Web. October 30, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Descartes 15. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Rene Descartes” September 20, 2010. Web.

October 30, 2012. plato. stanford. edu/entries/descartes-works 16. “Descartes and man ralph ellison Rationalism” Web. October 30, 2012. faculty. arts. ubc. ca/rjohns/descartes_rationalism. pdf 17. Study Mode. “Descartes vs. Hume” Web. Essay On The And Socialization? October 30, 2012. studymode. com/essays/Descartes-Vs-Hume-135107. html 18. Tektonics. “Locke, Hume, Empiricism and ellison summary the Existence of God” Web. October 30, 2012. tektonics. org/guest/pslockhume. htm 19. Wikipedia. “Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel” November 6, 2012.

Web. November 8, 2012. How Many References For Dissertation? en. wikipedia. org/wiki/G. _W. _F. _Hegel 20. Man Ralph Summary? Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel” July 22, 2012. Web. Of Grace? November 8, 2012. plato. stanford. edu/entries/hegel 21. Wikipedia. “Karl Marx” November 10, 2012. Web.

November 10, 2012. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Karl_Marx 22. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. “Karl Marx” June 14, 2010. Web. November 21, 2012. plato. Ellison Summary? stanford. edu/entries/marx. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 22 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Metaphysics: Philosophy and Idealism. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and man ralph summary, the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing. The paper consists of two short essays on citation matters. The aim is to get the academy thinking about citing and referencing from a student point of gravitation isaac newton view. The first essay (on the student journey of citation) is an attempt of a framework for the academic writer, from the time they are an undergraduate student to an academic researcher. The Invisible Man Ralph! The worldview of citing and referencing is the case standardized, argued to develop in accordance to academic level. The second essay is on academic writing and the principle of summary least effort. With a few searches on Google Scholar, cyberplagiarism and the pilfering of citation context was demonstrated. With emphasis on patchwriting, the temptation of the against academic writer to the invisible man ralph corner cut is not argued as being exclusive to students but more apparent by students. Technology is also argued to create a conflict for the academic writer showing a path where they can reduce effort. Keywords: Citation, Academic Writing, Principle of companies Least Effort, Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting. It is the attempt to combine two research interests that gets me here.

The first interest lies with the effect citing and referencing has toward knowledge production. After all the references academic writers use and the context in man ralph ellison, which they cite prior work must have an effect on offshore companies hiring the end product. Within this interest, Robert Merton and the sociology of science, the social constructivist movement and information science are given priority. The second interest lies within publications on education and how citing and referencing is taught. Issues surrounding the role of technology, plagiarism and resulting academic writing styles is given priority. By combining these two interests, the focus is on the student and the environment they operate within to become accomplished academic writers. By calling the paper citation matters, there is an obvious double meaning. The opportunity to use a title of a paper to express the importance as well as get people thinking about citing is hard to resist. The Invisible Man Ralph Ellison Summary! In essence, this paper consists of two short essays on matters relating to citing and referencing. Hiring! The first paper is a suggested worldview of citing and referencing the the invisible man ralph summary student requires during the phases of undergraduate student, postgraduate student and movie of grace, academic researcher.

The general trend of these three phases is that the academic writer plays the citation game less and less straight in tandem with increasing their comprehension of the social construction of knowledge. The second essay consists of the invisible ellison a demonstration via Google Scholar of pure culture how easy it is to plagiarise from the internet. With a few simple searches, enough content was found on Google Scholar to not only pilfer ideas but to potentially spare an academic writer from reading a text by relying on the invisible man ralph the resulting citations. The ability for academic writers to copy and paste scholarship is argued to be a concern that can increase the temptation for least effort. The resulting discussion from the demonstration also argues that the initiated academic is more familiar with how to manipulate academic literature, so is less likely to get caught (when compared to the uninitiated student) . 1. The Student Journey of Citation. With an interest in define pure culture, getting students to comprehend the importance of citation matters I propose a framework I interpret as the student journey of citation. The framework is broken down into the invisible man ralph ellison summary, three phases in line with a student progressing from undergraduate to postgraduate to academic researcher.

Differences in academic discipline is acknowledged but considered extraneous because the focus is on offshore a student progressing by the invisible man ralph summary academic level. With each of these three phases, I am recommending a text that symbolises the phase. The small number of offshore references is intentional, as the aim is for the readership to consider reading the references for themselves. To elaborate on what I am meaning by a student journey of citation, I am referring to the (point in man ralph summary, time) worldview of citation practice a student should realise as an undergraduate student, postgraduate student and as a researcher. The aim is to demonstrate what I see as a minimum specification of the academic writer to be roadworthy in the context of using citations and references. Phase 1: The Undergraduate Student.

Merton, R. Offshore Companies Hiring! K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in the invisible man ralph summary, Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. While Robert Merton's interest lay with the sociology of science, he also made a significant contribution to define citation analysis. In his Foreword to Eugene Garfield's book on citation indexing, Merton emphasises peer recognition and how (what I will interpret as) capital for the scientist is measured by summary peer recognition. After all only a scientist's scholarly community are best equipped to assess the true worth of a piece of research. When considering the student journey of citation the following quote best sums things up: 'Citations and references thus operate within a jointly cognitive and moral framework. In their cognitive aspect, they are designed to culture provide the historical lineage of the invisible man ralph knowledge and to guide readers of isaac newton new work to sources they may want to man ralph summary check or draw upon for themselves. In their moral aspect, they are designed to repay intellectual debts in the only form in which this can be done: through open acknowledgement of them.' (Merton, 1983,

Typically, the undergraduate student completing assignments will be assessed according to a box ticking processes including accurate and appropriate citing and referencing. At this stage, instilling into the student why they cite and reference rather than it being something one must do to avoid an academic misconduct charge is the suggestion. It is understandable that in the higher education marketplace there are resource constraints, a dependency on student support systems and quantitative measurements for assessments. Their incorporation however could be seen as part of the problem surrounding academic writing. Do we really teach the fundamentals of companies hiring why we cite and reference or is summary, this all just a big assumption we work around? Returning to Merton's quote, emphasis on the lineage of ideas and intellectual debts when it comes to citing and referencing is quite simply a minimum specification for the scientist (or academic writer) of the future. The interpretation provides a good solid foundation to comprehending why we cite and reference. Movie! Merton's interpretation is not immune from criticism and it can be seen as idealistic and incompatible compared to the current citing and man ralph ellison summary, referencing practices that go on. Merton's unsullied proposition for citing and referencing could also be seen as too positivistic for for dissertation ones taste. If however one identifies with Merton's idealistic message, there is an acknowledgment of the the invisible man ralph summary truth we aspire to on The Influence Culture in Shaping Identity find when researching an idea. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp.

327-340. Henry Small's paper represents the contribution of information science when it comes to citing and referencing. While Small's paper adopts quantitative analysis there is a social constructivist influence to it. The core element of the paper is highlighting that citations represent symbols of concepts, methods or anything citeworthy in the text. 'This leads to the citing of works which embody ideas the author is discussing. The cited documents become, then, in the invisible ellison, a more general sense, 'symbols' for these ideas.' (Small, 1978, p.328). What Small is getting at, is the moment an author cites a document they are in how many references for dissertation, effect creating its meaning (which in Small's eyes, consists of the symbol making). Man Ralph Summary! Citations as concept symbols could in effect symbolise 'any statement which may be taken as characterizing or describing the cited document' (Small, 1978, p.329). The consequence of this thinking is that peers are the ones that determine the meaning of a document.

So as an example, Merton (1983) in a paper by Author A in full of grace, 1984 could be cited as an interpretation of citing and referencing in line with the man ralph summary times. But a paper by Author B in 2013 could interpret Merton (1983) as out of touch. When associating Small's paper with students and citation practice, I propose that the idea of citations as concept symbols be seen as a deployment tactic for against standardized testing any student doing original assignments. While this type of assignment is typically representative of postgraduate assignments there is also applicability for undergraduate dissertation students and such like. The Invisible Ellison! Both Merton and Small's interpretation need to be considered in conjunction with each other but Small's deployment tactic could be seen as a progression from the more defensive stance of Merton. For assessments, the box ticking is still going on, the citing and referencing still needs to references for dissertation be tip-top but the the invisible man ralph ellison summary progression is in the level of offshore hiring independence and citation evaluation the writer needs to have.

By using a citation as a concept symbol, the aim is also to promote interpretation and evaluation of ideas into one's own words and not just filling space with quotations. Citations represent ideas and we need to use citations to the invisible summary express the ideas we want to say. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, pp. 21-62. Bruno Latour's chapter on literature develops the idea of peers deciding the fate of research by acknowledging citation context, which he reframes according to positive and references for dissertation, negative modalities. The context of a citation can put spin on a critical paper so it appears less damaging to the reader and a lesser known paper can be embellished so it appears as fact. Further still, the 'presence or the absence of references, quotations and footnotes is so much a sign that a document is man ralph summary, serious or not that you can transform a fact into fiction or a fiction into a fact just by adding or subtracting references' (Latour, 1987, p.33). A take on Latour's thinking is that we carve the literature of others in conjunction with our own interests to impress others when it comes to saying what we want to say. Citations are just one weapon in our armoury when writing to achieve this aim. Latour sees the scientific article as a rhetorical vehicle and that whenever there is debate we get support from our allies (who I see as changeable) to give more authority to what we want to say. Movie! The student should by this stage comprehend Merton's ethos and be capable enough to incorporate Small's deployment tactic of citations.

On top of summary that, the define pure student becoming an academic researcher needs to come to terms with citation context and not be blinkered to overlook the tactical game playing that occurs in scholarly communication. 'Whatever the tactics, the general strategy is easy to grasp: do whatever you need to the former literature to render it as helpful as possible for the claims you are going to make. help your allies if they are attacked, ensure safe communications with those who supply you with indisputable instruments. oblige your enemies to fight one another. if you are not sure of winning, be humble and understated.' (Latour, 1987, pp.37-38) An example of tactical citation practice is man ralph ellison, what Latour refers to as the perfunctory citation, where citations by Influence in Shaping Individual an author can infiltrate a pre-existing citation network (also known as a citation circle). The primary concern with this perfunctory citation is that it makes some citations more meaningful than others. In an age of the invisible ellison evaluation metrics based on citation practice, the perfunctory citation risks downgrading the citation from a representation of an the case against standardized testing idea to the invisible that of a tradable commodity. Gravitation Isaac Newton! Another concern with the tactical deployment of citations is that while they can make you look a million dollars, they can also be used against you and if someone puts the the invisible ellison summary effort in, your citations can be scrutinised with disastrous results (Latour, 1987, pp. 33) Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) may not be for everyone but as an individual chapter it is a great guide in informing the researcher of the future one form of how the scholarly communication game is played.

Latour's writing in how many references, this chapter comes across as militaristic but in doing so, the message is pretty clear: Use the work of peers and anything else at your disposal to the invisible ellison summary say want you want to say but prepare yourself if there is the case standardized testing, a worthy opponent. The first point to emphasise is the invisible man ralph summary, that the proposed student journey of offshore companies hiring citation is not a theory of citation. If that is your interest, I would suggest reading Gilbert's (1977) persuasion hypothesis (who predates (Latour, 1987) in reference to rhetorical and perfunctory citations), then look at all of the man ralph papers that have cited that paper as a guide to further reading. The student journey of citation is a suggested framework for the comprehension of citing and referencing the academic writer requires from the moment they start as an define culture undergraduate student to a published academic author. The crawling, walking then running framework is unlikely to be something invested within course design but if the desired outcome is to teach students to use citations effectively and the invisible, respect referencing it is offshore companies hiring, a progressive framework to gravitate the student toward. Another observation that can be made (and the choice of texts was quite intentional for the invisible man ralph ellison summary this) is how the texts coincide with interpretations of knowledge production. There is a progression from Merton's sociology of science laying emphasis on peer recognition, to Henry Small combining information science and social constructivism to Latour's progression of social constructivism to offshore companies hiring Actor Network Theory. The principled nature of citing and referencing looks to have morphed into a 'peculiar trade in a merciless world' (Latour, 1987, p.60) where gamesmanship and rhetoric are key. The range of interpretations could be seen as a reflection of the changeable social structures of knowledge production but could simply be an outcome of increased debate within a specific field where no stone is left unturned. There are also practical considerations to consider.

We don't always have the time and means to read and reflect on the invisible man ralph ellison summary everything we want but we do manage to make the time and means to read what we need and say what we want to say. Influence Culture Identity! If we don't do that for academic writing, we could be there forever, getting lost in tangents, considering ifs and buts to protect ourselves from the same peers we seek approval from. 2. Academic Writing and the Principle of Least Effort - Supported by Some Thoughts on Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting and Google Scholar. The proposition is man ralph summary, that in current times Google Scholar can be used by academic writers as a tool to corner cut and reduce effort. Most of the readership will be aware that Google Scholar contains the bibliographic records of scholarship (and when lucky, copies of the article itself) as well as grey literature and information held in institutional repositories. Full Of Grace! While this abundance of the invisible ellison summary information creates new possibilities there is also the concern over deviant citation behaviour that can occur. Movie Full Of Grace! To test my contention, I will demonstrate how easy it is to the invisible cyberplagiarise and take the citation context off a paper. Before the demonstration I would like to clear up a few definitions. By cyberplagiarism (or cyber plagiarism, also referred to as Digital plagiarism (Barrie and Presti, 2000)) I am referring to the relationship between information on the internet and culture, a consequential type of man ralph ellison summary plagiarism behaviour. Those involved with assessments will no doubt identify with the full authors arguing that the ease of information on the internet has led to the rise in plagiarism (Eysenbach (2000); (Kralik (2003); Pupovac, Bilic-Zulle and Petrovecki (2008); Szabo and Underwood (2004)). While cyberplagiarism can entail papers being acquired from the internet (Smith (2003); Oliphant (2002)), the focus of this piece will be the form of cyberplagiarism where content from the internet is copied and pasted without acknowledging the originator.

The crux with cyberplagiarism is not only taking the the invisible ideas off another but also the citation context. The second concept of patchwriting refers to two papers by companies hiring Rebecca Howard (1993, 1995). Howard (1993, p. 233), defines patchwriting as 'copying from a source text and then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in one-for-one synonym substitutes'. The combination of the invisible man ralph Howard's papers dispute the offshore companies hiring conventional attitude towards plagiarism, whereby those that commit this form of academic misconduct are unethical or poorly socialised with citation practices. Patchwriting is associated with plagiarism, can lead to plagiarism but is its own entity.

For example, Patchwriting can be an acceptable technique when combined with a reflective or evaluative touch at the invisible man ralph the earliest stages of writing and organising ideas. It is just that patchwriting can be unacceptable when it is just glossing over the pilfering of pure texts. In my own experience, students are willing to admit to patchwriting, due to a lack of preparation and a fear of word counts. Furthermore, students informally confess to a complete misinterpretation of paraphrasing and assume that citing a text once is free reign to use whole chunks of the cited text. In this context, the student likes to think they are within acceptable boundaries, but their patchwriting becomes plagiarism. The third concept I am highlighting is the Principle of Least Effort (also known as Zipf's Law) put forward by George Kingsley Zipf (1949). Man Ralph Ellison! In the eyes of a linguist, Zipf's Law refers to word frequencies when people write or speak (most words are hardly ever used but the culture words we do use, we use often). If we focus however on the principle of man ralph ellison summary least effort itself, we can interpret it as a concept that explains human behaviour. 'In simple terms, the Principle of Least Effort means, for example, that a person in isaac, solving his immediate problems will view these against the background of his probable future problems, as estimated by himself. Moreover he will strive to solve his problems in such a way as to minimize the total work that he must expend in solving both his immediate problems and his probable future problems.' (Zipf, 2012, p.1) Thus if one is a student just expecting to pass a course in higher education (the reasons why at this point are extraneous and varied), taking a path where there is less effort spent to meet this outcome is understandable.

To start things off, I type in the book I intend to look up (so it becomes a searchable concept symbol), the author of the book as well as a keyword (representing the the invisible subject I am researching) in Google Scholar. Figure 1: Google Scholar search of Science in Action (Latour, 1987) and citation analysis. To explain Figure 1, the author (Latour) is a search term as well as the title of the book in question ('Science in Action') and the subject in question ('citation analysis'). The quotations are in place to ensure a phrase is being searched rather than words that are not adjacent to how many references each other. This search is ellison summary, intentionally structured in a way so Google Scholar retrieves any mention of define pure Bruno Latour's Science in Action as well as 'citation analysis' being mentioned anywhere in the text. At the time of man ralph this demonstration (May 2013), I retrieved 336 results. The top five results according to Google Scholar make up Figure 1.

The results in the case against standardized testing, Figure 1 satisfy my aim in retrieving citations of man ralph summary Science in Action as well as containing some mention of Essay on The Individual Identity citation analysis (which is a gamble as I have not included synonyms). Had I not included citation analysis as a search term, I would have retrieved about 14,300 results according to the invisible Google Scholar and been nowhere near knowing what retrieved documents concern themselves with Latour's thoughts on citation. To demonstrate cyberplagiarism I will look within the papers of full of grace Figure 1, use CTRL + F and provide samples of citation context where Latour (plus the publication year of the appropriate text) was mentioned: 'As Latour further indicates, citations are not put in papers to indicate to others who has influenced the production of the ellison work but to display the 'black boxed' (established) knowledge. If one does not agree with a referenced statement, one must, in offshore, essence, dispute it with the cited definitive authority.' (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 1996, p. 441) 'Latour's views, similar to those within the various new perspectives in the invisible, the sociology of scientific knowledge, emphasise that the boundaries between the social and technical in scientific practice are blurry. Latour's analysis of references pertains in particular to their role in 'the science in isaac newton, the making'.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour makes understandable the heterogeneous and apparently chaotic picture of the actual use of citations. Man Ralph Ellison Summary! In spite of the variety of uses, references have a major function in scientific texts: that of mobilising allies in the defence of knowledge claims' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour's view of the role of references (citations) in scientific texts is related to a theory of gravitation isaac newton construction of scientific knowledge, a process in which scientific controversies are settled and the invisible, knowledge claims are turned into facts.

References play a role as a rhetorical device in the textual phase of the process.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.30) 'Others (e.g., MacRoberts and MacRoberts 1987; Latour 1987) have drawn attention to against standardized the perfunctory and rhetorical functions of citations within the scientific community (Cozzens 1989).' (Leydesdorff, 1998, pp. 6) 'Latour (1987) treats references as resources for persuasion rather like battalions. But he warns that their force may vanish if readers actually read what authors cite. Neither Gilbert nor Latour, I think actually believes that reflected-glory references persuade if their true nature is discovered (Latour calls this result 'disastrous' for the author). But they apparently believe that citers often try to manipulate readers in this way. Man Ralph Summary! Scientists and movie of grace, scholars are thus portrayed less as truth-seekers than as image-managers. Man Ralph Ellison! Such a portrayal is offshore companies hiring, controversial, to summary say the least.' (White, 2004, p. Movie Of Grace! 109) Out of the five references in Figure 1, only Robins, Gosling and Craik (1999) was unsuitable for this exercise. In this specific example, Latour was cited, citation analysis was stated but the context of the citation did not match my purpose. At this point I am proposing that the sum of Macroberts and Macroberts (1996), Lukkonen (1997), Leydesdorff (1998) and White (2004) gives me not only enough ammunition to spare me from having to read Chapter 1 of Science in Action (that concerns itself on literature) but also provide me with a set of papers critiquing the same chapter.

An interesting comparison for the reader could be to compare the aforementioned quotes with my own interpretation of Latour in the student journey of citation essay (I can assure you, I have read the book and wrote this essay after the essay on the invisible ellison the student journey of citation). If we now consider the amount of the case standardized testing freely available (but not necessarily copyright cleared) scholarship that is available via Google Scholar, an individual could potentially take the citation context of an article, book or thesis and be able to ellison summary comprehend it without ever reading it. In other words, one could incorporate the for dissertation ammunition above (even dropping the the invisible man ralph summary odd direct quote from Latour) and portray the critique and legwork to be their own, as none of the other authors are cited. The authors are only used for their citation context. With a process such as this, there is an assumption surrounding a consensus of a citation being retrievable. How Many References! At this point, I return to Small's 1978 paper of cited documents as concept symbols, where he looked for a percentage of the invisible man ralph citing contexts sharing the popular view of a cited document (uniformity of offshore companies hiring usage).

In doing so, Small noticed how journals (on average) had a higher uniformity of usage compared to books. Ellison! This trend is hardly a surprise as books cover more ground than a journal article but what it gets me thinking about is the importance of using appropriate concept symbols in Google Scholar to movie retrieve a relevant sample for analysis. I return to Google Scholar. Figure 2: Google Scholar co-citation search of Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977) For figure 2, I opted with co-citation (papers citing two papers I consider seminal for my purpose; in this instance those by the invisible Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977)) as a retrieval strategy. Movie Full! Figure 2 is an attempt to retrieve papers concerned with the persuasion hypothesis (Gilbert, 1977) and Latour's thoughts on citation. Some of the first few papers are the same as Figure 1 but now having retrieved 67 papers with my precise parameters I have gone down a specific path, with information potentially catered toward more specific interests. It is the invisible man ralph ellison, worth stating that uniformity of how many references citation may not be retrievable in all samples as there are many options to consider. What is comprehendible is that obtaining the uniform use of a citation can potentially be retrieved with the correct strategy and if there is enough (but not too much) scholarship out there. Naturally using concept symbols to be as specific as possible helps but that errs towards fudging a sample to get a desired outcome based on the invisible man ralph summary set of assumptions.

Google Scholar throws a spanner in the works as it essentially relies on things typed in a box. My own experience of using the platform to look at the context of a concept symbol found many chance occurrences with no relevance when looking at the results qualitatively (Natt, 2013). In a few simple steps I was able to retrieve chunks of information that has been organised, prioritised and define culture, emphasised by peers. The extent of which this can be done ranges from an idea to an interpretation of a monograph according to man ralph ellison a particular sensibility. While I am for open access (OA), I express concern with how future generations of academic writers at the formative stages will keep track of of grace intellectual debts. There a risk of summary a realignment of offshore acceptable citation practice and a generation of academic writers pilfering the ellison contextual citations of offshore companies peers to reduce effort and get away with it.

An easy comeback is the use of software that can check levels of plagiarism but I would argue that it only catches out a certain type of plagiarist and at this point I return to patchwriting. Howard's (1993, p.236) opinion of patchwriting is that of 'a healthy effort to gain membership in a new culture' (which one could consider as academia). Howard's (1993, 1995) idealism sees the man ralph ellison summary teaching opportunity to convert patchwriters to accomplished academic writers and that is it just a stage in the student journey. While I sympathise with the offshore hiring student journey and the aim for students to become accomplished academic writers, I also see the the invisible man ralph summary principle of least effort. So if a student instead of reading, reflecting then writing is isaac, instead cramming, not making use of summary writing and producing their output in the invisible man ralph, the last minute, it produces a different kind of output as well as increase the likelihood of corner cutting. My own take on patchwriting is that it provides an opportunity to reframe the doom and gloom that surrounds discussion on plagiarism. The Case Against Standardized! By discussing patchwriting the student and lecturer can learn from summary, each other and on The Culture in Shaping Individual Identity, actually address academic writing which I still consider to be important. I also think of the paper by Pecorari (2003) that looked at the writing of postgraduate students (including PhD students) and examples of patchwriting. If the the invisible man ralph researchers of tomorrow are 'at it' what is there to on The Influence Culture in Shaping say that the researchers of today are not?

The technological innovation of the word processor, being able to copy and the invisible man ralph ellison, paste or use CTRL + F to look up a concept symbol should not be underestimated. The moment we rely on a technological supplement or tether toward convenience reading, corner cutting instantly occurs. Only the purist and most classically trained are not 'at it'. Patchwriting, reframing and references, playing the citation game are tools in the invisible man ralph, the armoury of the culture initiated. The initiated can be stealth-like and if they play the game right can be protected by the social constructs they operate within.

The uninitiated student is typically less schooled when it comes to the manipulation of academic information. They also have the disadvantage of social constructs making them the easier target when it comes to academic misconduct. Firstly, I'd like to stress that I am not condoning cyberplagiarism nor is the invisible ellison summary, this some sort of confessional. I am condemning cyberplagiarism and the demonstration is an attempt to acknowledge the elephant in the room and express concern with normative citation practice. Isaac! It is easy to pin plagiarism on the internet or the the invisible man ralph ellison summary lowering of references academic standards but while there is some validity with such judgements, there are other considerations. What I would like to emphasise is the invisible man ralph ellison, how the longer one operates within the social constructs of academia, the full of grace more socialised one becomes to not only produce quality work but to potentially corner cut and get away with it. I am not saying that everybody engages in deviant citation behaviour but rather that the values when it comes to science (Merton and Lewis, 1971) or knowledge production are and have been changeable. We do not bat straight all of the time. Ellison! We bat straight enough and Essay on The Influence Culture Identity, know when to play across the line. It gives us free reign to the invisible ellison have the odd slog now and then, thinking it is absolutely normal.

Technology and citation behaviour is one example of this change in gravitation isaac, values and while Google Scholar has the man ralph summary potential to look at a concept symbol within a paper, there is the issue of where the information comes from and how it is ranked. Open Access adds to define this issue and with the information being easier to obtain, it is also easier to manipulate. Thinking back to summary Carr's (2008) article on Google and the change in human cognition, I propose that the offshore relationship between technology and effort can create a conflict for the academic writer. The academic writer becomes aware of a new path (as demonstrated) in conjunction with all of the other paths they can comprehend and potentially go down. Plagiarism and deviant citation practice has gone on man ralph summary long before Google Scholar or the internet. It is offshore companies, just that this new path brought about by technology in conjunction with the ever expanding amount of scholarship can be counterproductive and result in behaviour associated with least effort rather than efficiency. Barrie, J. M. and ellison, Presti, D. How Many References! E. (2000) 'Digital plagiarism the Web giveth and the Web shall taketh', Journal of summary Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Carr, N. The Case Standardized Testing! (2008) 'Is Google Making Us Stupid?', The Atlantic [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Eysenbach, G. (2000) 'Report of a case of cyberplagiarism and man ralph summary, reflections on detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the Internet, Journal of Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online].

Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Gravitation Isaac Newton! Gilbert, G. The Invisible Man Ralph Ellison! N. (1977) 'Referencing as Persuasion', Social Studies of Science , 7(1), pp. 113-122. Howard, R. (1993) 'A plagiarism pentimento', Journal of Teaching Writing , 11(3), pp. Define Pure Culture! 233-246. Howard, R. (1995) 'Plagiarisms, authorships, and the academic death penalty', College English, 57(7), pp.788-806. Kralik, D. (2003) 'Editor's note: Cyberplagiarismwhat is it?', Journal of man ralph ellison summary Advanced Nursing, 43(6), p.539. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. The Case Against Testing! Leydesdorff, L. (1998) 'Theories of citation?', Scientometrics , 43(1), pp. 5-25. Luukkonen, T. (1997) 'Why has Latour's theory of citations been ignored by the bibliometric community? discussion of sociological interpretations of citation analysis', Scientometrics , 38(1), pp.

27-37. MacRoberts, M. H. and MacRoberts, B. R. (1996) 'Problems of citation analysis', Scientometrics, 36(3), pp. 435-444. Merton, R. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. Merton, R.K. and Lewis, R. Man Ralph Summary! (1971) 'The competitive pressure: the race for priority', Impact of Science on Society , 21(2), pp. 146-175. Natt, A. (2013) 'What is business information literacy and can the corporate librarian contribute anything to the discourse?', Journal of Business and Finance Librarianship, 18(2), pp. 146-174. Oliphant, T. (2002) 'Cyber-Plagiarism: Plagiarism in a Digital World', Feliciter , 48(2), pp.

78-80. Pecorari, D. (2003) 'Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic second-language writing', Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(4), pp. 317-345. Pupovac V, Bilic-Zulle L and Petrovecki M. (2008) 'On academic plagiarism in Europe: An analytical approach based on the case four studies', In Comas, R and Sureda, J. (eds.). Academic cyberplagiarism, Digithum , 10 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Robins, R. W., Gosling, S. D., and Craik, K. H. (1999) 'An empirical analysis of trends in psychology', American Psychologist , 54(2), pp.

117-128. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp. Ellison! 327-340. Essay Influence And Socialization Individual! Smith, C.B. (2003) 'Fighting cyberplagiarism', Library Journal, 128(12), pp. The Invisible Ellison! 22-23. Szabo, A., and Underwood, J. (2004) 'Cybercheats: Is Information and Communication Technology Fuelling Academic Dishonesty?', Active Learning in Higher Education , 5(2), pp. Offshore! 180-199. White, H.D. (2004) 'Citation analysis and discourse analysis revisited', Applied Linguistics, 25 (1), pp.

89-116. Zipf, G. The Invisible Ellison! K. (1949) Human behavior and the principle of on The Culture Individual least effort: an introduction to human ecology , Mansfield Centre, CT : Martino Publishing, 2012. Volume 3 Issue 2 - July 2013 Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing.

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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the the invisible ellison, alternative to coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. References. The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The Invisible. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills.

The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is movie full, possible to carry out coursework on many aspects of the course. Possible topics and man ralph ellison summary, areas of study may include: Changes in river velocity from source to mouth Changes in load (shape and size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and how many references for dissertation, wetted perimeter from source to mouth Changes in discharge from source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from man ralph summary source to mouth Changes in define valley size and gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and sand dune profile Speed of man ralph ellison summary longshore drift Changes in pure culture land use Changes in defences (compare to land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of tourists Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at man ralph, the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in cost of products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in culture wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in humidity Changes in hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in the invisible man ralph ellison summary wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in against standardized a suitable study location.

For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out man ralph, a risk assessment. How Many For Dissertation. You can make your coursework safer by doing the the invisible man ralph summary, following: Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in hiring groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the the invisible man ralph ellison, sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. References For Dissertation. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to the invisible man ralph ellison crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of pure sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. The Invisible Summary. ‘A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops’. Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the on The and Socialization in Shaping Identity, day will be between 1200 and ellison, 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to the case standardized testing be as objective as possible.

Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The Invisible. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. The Case Standardized Testing. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is the invisible, up to date (current) You know how the the case against standardized, data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is relevant to the invisible man ralph summary your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on Influence and Socialization in Shaping Identity the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to collect data It is the invisible ellison summary, hard to how many references for dissertation study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the the invisible ellison, data was collected and movie full of grace, who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and the invisible man ralph summary, not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to present and analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data.

Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an of grace area or sample group. Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in man ralph summary who gets selected. It is very simple to understand and references, carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). Summary. You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. How Many References For Dissertation. when randomly selecting names out of hat to the invisible man ralph ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling.

For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and Essay on The Culture, then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to man ralph ellison do the questions orally or give them in against testing written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is the invisible ellison, unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. Movie Of Grace. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to the invisible man ralph summary your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and how many, tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective).

Specification: Observation – Examples of using observations as an ellison summary enquiry skill to companies collect data include the man ralph ellison, recording of land-use in companies an urban area or observations of ellison summary river or coastal features. Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to references for dissertation always have an summary other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. Movie Of Grace. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only the invisible ellison, photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of against testing this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the the invisible man ralph ellison, layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the count (i.e. Offshore Companies Hiring. time, date, location and name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment.

Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. Man Ralph Ellison. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the offshore hiring, following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. The Invisible Man Ralph Ellison Summary. Description of equipment and an explanation of its use. Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to against standardized write a set of the invisible summary instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For example you might be asked to against standardized testing give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for the invisible ellison summary a 10 minute period A tally should be used for full counting because this is easy and quick At the the invisible ellison, end of 10 minutes count up the totals for each type of for dissertation vehicle.

You may also be asked about the invisible man ralph ellison summary, how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in some of the companies hiring, following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and the invisible man ralph ellison summary, indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an newton average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and the invisible man ralph summary, diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for newton you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. Man Ralph. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and Essay Individual Identity, anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and tables of results.

Reference to man ralph summary relevant geographical knowledge and newton, understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for the invisible smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the movie full of grace, general trend) When ever you refer to ellison summary trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Try and pure culture, explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the man ralph summary, evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the collected data and a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to movie of grace support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an the invisible man ralph ellison evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future.

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