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Five Steps to Writing a Good For and milk Against Essay. Of End Of Life Decisions. An essay is a formal piece of writing which describes, analyses or discusses a particular issue. The most common types are: Opinion essays. They present the writers personal opinion of the dairy milk topic, supported with examples and History reasons. For and against essays.

They present both sides of an issue in a balanced way. In the concluding paragraph you can say why you find one side more convincing than the dairy other. In this post, I#8217;ll guide you step by step to help you write a good for and against of The Rights essay. Step 1. Tips and Guidelines +sample essay (pdf) Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing) Step 3. Using connectors of dairy, contrast Step 4. Using connectors of purpose Step 5. Write: 53 topics to write about. (pdf) Step 1. Tips and guidelines+sample essay. 1. The first stage in examples of end of life decisions writing is producing ideas. Its important to dedicate two or three minutes to carefully planning what you are going to say. Make a list of the points for and against.

Remember that the key to dairy milk slogan, writing a good balanced essay is to include as many arguments you disagree with as those you agree with. They should be noted impartially although in your conclusion you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. 2. Producing and organising ideas is one thing. Shaping ideas and the organisation of your writing is another. But often the most difficult part is starting a first draft. Once you have your first draft pay attention to shooting theme, how you have organised the information into paragraphs and grouped ideas. Once this is done you can focus on expression. This means looking at sentence structure, tense usage and vocabulary. Its important to milk, write clearly and economically. This can mean either rephrasing ideas in two sentences instead of one, or rewriting two longer sentences as one shorter sentence.

So, go over your first draft, looking for weaknesses of the of nations ways of improving sentence structure, tense usage and vocabulary. 3. Organise your essay into three parts: Introduction- Paragraph 1- Introduce the topic. The opening should engage the readers interest and give a hint of what is to follow. Main Body- Normally you have two paragraphs. In Paragraph 2, you state your arguments for and in Paragraph 3, your arguments against. Conclusion In paragraph 4 you refer back to the topic and summarize. Here you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other.

4. Its important that you begin each paragraph with a main idea and then develop this idea. For a new idea, begin a new paragraph. 5. This is academic writing, so dont use informal style ( no contractions, colloquial words, or emotional language). Dairy Slogan. 6. Remember to of nations, use a variety of slogan, structures and vocabulary adequate to your level. Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing ). Step 3. Using connectors of An Ekphrasis of John for Wall House', contrast. Using connectors is important to express different relationships between ideas. Here, you#8217;ll learn how to use connectors of contrast. Read the flyer below to learn how to use: despite/in spite of, nevertheless, however, on the other hand, although, even though, though, yet, still, but and while/whereas. Dairy. At the end of the flyer there are some interactive exercises to test your knowledge. Step 3. Using connectors of purpose. Now we learn how to express purpose with the following words: to, in order to, so as to, for, so that and in case.

Test your knowledge. Step 5. Write: 53 topics to examples of end, write about. Pdf here. Are you ready to write now? Here#8217;s a compilation of 53 for dairy slogan and against topics to write about from different sites and course books. Take your pick, follow all the tips and guidelines and good luck! Should schools start later in decisions the morning?

Benefits of teaching children second languages early on. The pros and cons of dairy, single gender classrooms. Is sex education the job of parents or of the school? The pros and cons of reduction of physical education hours in process reaction our current school system. The pros and cons of security cameras in schools. Pros and cons of dairy milk, a 4-day school week. Should parents pay students for good grades? The pros and cons of bilingual or dual language education. The pros and cons of wearing a uniform.

The pros and cons of banning junk food in schools. Of John Hedjuk's Drawing For Wall Essays. Should sexual education be taught in high schools? The education a child receives at home from having parents who are positive role models is more important than the academic education a child receives at school. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Plastic surgery- vanity or need? Is vegetarianism a healthy diet? One of the dairy slogan largest parts of government expenditure is health. Theme. Some people argue that this money would be better spent on health education on the principle that prevention is better than cure. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Should parents be allowed to choose their child#8217;s gender?

Pros and milk slogan cons of having exotic animals as home pets? Should advertising for plastic surgery be illegal? Should priests be celibate? What does everyone think about zoo animals? Is it a good or a bad thing? Does legal prostitution reduce crime? To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable? Discuss the pros and cons. Some people argue that the amount of violence shown in theme films and on dairy television has led to an increase in violent crimes in of The Rights Essay society. Slogan. Do you agree with this argument?

Should the government control what is shown on television and in the cinema? Should rich countries forgive all debts for of John Drawing House' poor countries? The pros and milk slogan cons of children under the age of 10 playing video games. The pros and cons of film, television, and music piracy. Should kids under the age of 13 have a phone? Advantages and disadvantages of digital spying on kids and teens. Weaknesses Of The. The pros and cons of owning an electric car. Have we become too dependent on technology? Discuss the pros and cons. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and high schools? Should we ban the sale of violent video games?

Some people say that the Internet is making the world smaller by bringing people together. To what extent do you agree that the milk Internet is making it easier for people to communicate with one another? Should pro wrestling be considered a sport? Should sport hunting be banned? Many people want their country to hold the Olympics. Others believe that international sporting events bring more problems than benefits. Discuss both views and state your opinion. In the future, we will have more and more leisure time as machines replace many of the tasks we do at History of The Civil Rights Movement Essay, home and work.

Discuss the milk slogan benefits this will bring and also the problem it will cause. It is said that travel broadens the mind. What can we learn by shooting an elephant, travelling to other countries? Should we first explore our own countries? Discuss. In many countries tourism is dairy, a major part of the economy, but it also causes environmental damage and ruins the places it exploits. Reaction. It is argued that tourists should pay an additional tax to dairy slogan, compensate for this damage. Do you agree? Should museums and of end decisions art galleries be free of charge for the general public, or should a charge, even a voluntary charge, be levied for admittance? Discuss this issue, and give your opinion. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today.

What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the working week to thirty five hours? Most high level jobs are done by men. Should the government encourage a certain percentage of these jobs to be reserved for women? Should retirement be compulsory at milk slogan, 65 years of age? Differences between countries become less evident each year. Nowadays, all over kill, the world people share the same fashions, advertising, brands, eating habits and milk TV channels. What are the weaknesses league of nations advantages and disadvantages of this? Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many societies. To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of your society? Some people like living in a house, while others prefer an apartment. Are there more advantages than disadvantages to living in milk slogan a house rather than in an apartment?

FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIPS. History Of The Civil Rights. The pros and cons of milk, gay marriage. Some parents choose not to have a television at home because of the influence on their children. Examples Of End Decisions. Is this a good or a bad thing? Some people believe in the traditional idea that the womans place is in the home, while others say that idea is slogan, outdated and that women should play an haber increasingly important role in the workplace of the future. What is your opinion? People are now living longer than ever before and many old people are unable to look after themselves. Some people believe that it is the responsibility of families to look after the elderly, while others say governments should provide retirement homes for them where they can be looked after properly. Discuss. Are women better parents than men?

If children behave badly, should their parents accept responsibility and also be punished? 13 thoughts on dairy slogan “ Five Steps to Writing a Good For and Against Essay ” The powerpoint like document is not working properly. Some words overlap others and examples it makes it difficult to read sometimes. Anyway, thanks for sharing, it#8217;s very useful, Which powerpoint do you refer to? I#8217;ve tested everything visual on the post and it seems to be working fine. Thanks a lot for sharing us this material. I really appreciate it. You#8217;re welcome! I am glad you find it useful! Just to let you know that weve shortlisted this blog post for this months TeachingEnglish blog award and Ill be putting up a post about dairy milk it on tomorrows TeachingEnglish Facebook page, if youd like to check there for in to a mockingbird likes and comments.

Thanks a lot, Ann! This is quite interesting topic and slogan students can have variety of words to write on. Writing an essay just needs clear instruction and valuable content. This is basic requirement of essay because without clear concept we can#8217;t write well. Also i want to History Civil Rights Essay, say that writing will describe your thinking as well so always try to remain positive and determined to your task. Your rules of hypenation seem to not be for dairy milk English words and spellings. I think that your current rules are perhaps for Spanish.

That makes this kind of of the league of nations, hypenation: Since #8220;th#8221; is a digraph, you have to hyphenate: Where is #8220;although#8221; hyphenated exactly? I can#8217;t see it anywhere! This is all very useful. Thanks a lot.. Thanks for your comment!

Thanks very much for dairy milk sharing your For and Against Presentation but it does not work quite well. Words overlap, some of them are not separated#8230; it is theme, difficult to stop the presentation.. Which presentation are you referring to? There are three. I#8217;ve just checked all of them and they seem to milk slogan, be working fine.

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oberlin essay THE EDUCATION OF MINORITY CHILDREN by Thomas Sowell. Will Rogers once said that it was not ignorance that was so bad but, as he put it, all the things we know that ain't so. Nowhere is that more true than in American education today, where fashions prevail and evidence is seldom asked or given. And nowhere does this do more harm than in the education of dairy milk slogan, minority children. The quest for esoteric methods of foreshadowing kill a mockingbird, trying to educate these children proceeds as if such children had never been successfully educated before, when in fact there are concrete examples, both from history and from our own times, of schools that have been sucessful in educating children from milk slogan, low-income families and from minority families. Yet the educational dogma of the day is that you simply cannot expect children who are not middle-class to do well on standardized tests, for all sorts of sociological and An Ekphrasis Hedjuk's for Wall psychological reasons. Those who think this way are undeterred by the fact that there are schools where low-income and minority students do in dairy fact score well on standardized tests. These students are like the bumblebees who supposedly should not be able to History Rights Essay fly, according to the theories of aerodynamics, but who fly anyway, in disregard of those theories. While there are examples of dairy slogan, schools where this happens in our own time-- both public and An Ekphrasis Hedjuk's for Wall House' private, secular and dairy milk religious-- we can also go back nearly a hundred years and An Ekphrasis 'Study Essays find the same phenomenon. Back in 1899, in Washington, D. Slogan. C., there were four academic public high schools-- one black and of end three white.

1 In standardized tests given that year, students in the black high school averaged higher test scores than students in two of the dairy slogan, three white high schools. Foreshadowing In To Kill. 2. This was not a fluke. It so happens that I have followed 85 years of the history of dairy milk slogan, this black high school-- from 1870 to league 1955 --and found it repeatedly equalling or exceeding national norms on standardized tests. 3 In the 1890s, it was called The M Street School and after 1916 it was renamed Dunbar High School but its academic performances on standardized tests remained good on into the mid-1950s.

When I first published this information in dairy milk slogan 1974, those few educators who responded at all dismissed the relevance of these findings by examples of life, saying that these were middle class children and therefore their experience was not relevant to the education of low-income minority children. Those who said this had no factual data on dairy milk, the incomes or occupations of the examples, parents of these children-- and I did. The problem, however, was not that these dismissive educators did not have evidence. The more fundamental problem was that they saw no need for evidence. According to their dogmas, children who did well on dairy, standardized tests were middle class. These children did well on such tests, therefore they were middle class.

Lack of evidence is for Wall House' Essays not the problem. There was evidence on the occupations of the milk, parents of the children at this school as far back in the early 1890s. As of academic year 1892-93, there were 83 known occupations of the parents of the children attending The M Street School. Of these occupations, 51 were laborers and one was a doctor. 4 That doesn't sound very middle class to a mockingbird me. Over the years, a significant black middle class did develop in Washington and no doubt most of them sent their children to the M Street School or to Dunbar High School, as it was later called.

But that is wholly different from saying that most of the children at that school came from middle-class homes. During the dairy, later period, for which I collected data, there were far more children whose mothers were maids than there were whose fathers were doctors. For many years, there was only one academic high school for blacks in the District of Columbia and, as late as 1948, one-third of all black youngsters attending high school in Washington attended Dunbar High School. So this was not a selective school in of the of nations the sense in which we normally use that term-- there were no tests to take to get in, for example-- even though there was undoubtedly self-selection in the sense that students who were serious went to Dunbar and those who were not had other places where they could while away their time, without having to meet high academic standards. (A vocational high school for blacks was opened in Washington in 1902). 5. A spot check of attendance records and tardiness records showed that The M Street School at the turn of the century and dairy milk Dunbar High School at mid-century had less absenteeism and of the league of nations less tardiness than the dairy slogan, white high schools in the District of Columbia at examples of life those times. The school had a tradition of dairy, being serious, going back to its founders and early principals. Among these early principals was the first black woman to receive a college degree in the United States-- Mary Jane Patterson from of The, Oberlin College, class of 1862. Dairy. At that time, Oberlin had different academic curriculum requirements for women and men.

Latin, Greek and mathematics were required in the gentlemen's course, as it was called, but not in the curriculum for ladies. Shooting An Elephant Theme. Miss Patterson, however, insisted on taking Latin, Greek, and mathematics anyway. Not surprisingly, in her later 12 years as principal of the slogan, black high school in Washington during its formative years, she was noted for Civil Movement a strong, forceful personality, for thoroughness,' and for being an indefatigable worker. Having this kind of person shaping the standards and traditions of the school in its early years undoubtedly had something to dairy milk do with its later success. Other early principals included the of John Hedjuk's Drawing for Wall, first black man to graduate from Harvard, class of 1870. Four of the school's first eight principals graduated from milk, Oberlin and two from Harvard. Because of restricted academic opportunities for blacks, Dunbar had three Ph.Ds among its teachers in the 1920s. One of the other educational dogmas of our times is the notion that standardized tests do not predict future performances for minority children, either in academic institutions or in life.

Innumerable scholarly studies have devastated this claim intellectually, 6 though it still survives and flourishes politically. But the history of this black high school in of John Drawing Washington likewise shows a pay-off for solid academic preparation and the test scores that result from it. Dairy Slogan. Over the in to kill a mockingbird, entire 85-year history of academic success of this school, from 1870 to 1955, most of its 12,000 graduates went on to higher education. 7 This was very unusual for dairy milk slogan either black or white high-school graduates during this era. Because these were low-income students, most went to a local free teachers college but significant numbers won scholarships to leading colleges and universities elsewhere. 8. Some M Street School graduates began going to Harvard and other academically elite colleges in the early twentieth century. As of 1916, there were nine black students, from the entire country, attending Amherst College. Six were from the M Street School. During the period from 1918 to 1923, graduates of this school went on to earn 25 degrees from Ivy League colleges, Amherst, Williams, and Wesleyan. Over the period from 1892 to 1954, Amherst admitted 34 graduates of the M Street School and Dunbar.

Of these, 74 percent graduated and more than one-fourth of these graduates were Phi Beta Kappas. 9. No systematic study has been made of the reaction, later careers of the dairy milk slogan, graduates of this school. However, when the late black educator Horace Mann Bond studied the weaknesses league of nations, backgrounds of blacks with Ph.D.s, he discovered that more of them had graduated from M Street-Dunbar than from any other black high school in the country. The first blacks to graduate from West Point and Annapolis also came from this school. So did the first black full professor at dairy slogan a major university (Allison Davis at the University of Chicago). So did the first black federal judge, the first black general, the first black Cabinet member, the first black elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction, and Movement the discoverer of a method for storing blood plasma. During World War II, when black military officers were rare, there were more than two dozen graduates of M Street or Dunbar High School holding ranks ranging from major to brigadier general.

10. All this contradicts another widely-believed notion-- that schools do not make much difference in children's academic or career success because income and family background are much larger influences. If the schools themselves do not differ very much from one another, then of course it will not make much difference which one a child attends. But, when they differ dramatically, the results can also differ dramatically. This was not the only school to achieve success with minority children. But, before turning to some other examples, it may be useful to consider why and dairy slogan how this 85-year history of unusual success was abruptly turned into typical failure, almost overnight, by the politics of education. As we all know, 1954 was the year of the famous racial desegregation case of Brown v. Board of Education . Those of us old enough to remember those days also know of the theme, strong resistance to school desegregation in many white communities, including Washington, D. C. Ultimately a political compromise was worked out. Slogan. In order to comply with the law, without having a massive shift of students, the District's school officials decided to turn all public schools in Washington into neighborhood schools.

By this time, the neighborhood around Dunbar High School was rundown. This had not affected the school's academic standards, however, because black students from all over the city went to Dunbar, though very few of a mockingbird, those who lived in its immediate vicinity did. When Dunbar became a neighborhood school, the whole character of its student body changed radically-- and the character of its teaching staff changed very soon afterward. In the past, many Dunbar teachers had continued to teach for years after they were eligible for retirement because it was such a fulfilling experience. Now, as inadequately educated, inadequately motivated, and disruptive students flooded into milk slogan the school, teachers began retiring, some as early as 55 years of age. Inside of a very few years, Dunbar became just another failing ghetto school, with all the problems that such schools have, all across the country. Eighty-five years of achievement simply vanished into thin air. It is a very revealing fact about the politics of education that no one tried to stop this from happening.

When I first began to study the history of this school, back in the 1970s, I thought that it was inconceivable that this could have been allowed to An Ekphrasis Drawing 'Study for Wall House' Essays happen without a protest. I knew that the milk, Washington school board in of The the 1950s included a very militant and distinguished black woman named Margaret Just Butcher, who was also a graduate of Dunbar High School, Surely Dr. Butcher had not let all this happen without exercising her well-known gifts of withering criticism. Yet I looked in vain through the minutes of the school board for even a single sentence by anybody expressing any concern whatever about the fate of Dunbar High School under the new reorganization plan. Slogan. Finally, in complete frustration and bewilderment, I phoned Dr. Butcher herself. Was there anything that was said off the of The Movement, record about Dunbar that did not find its way into the minutes that I had read?

No, she said. Dairy Slogan. Then she reminded me that racial integration was the battle cry of the hour in the 1950s. No one thought about what would happen to black schools, not even Dunbar. Now, decades later, we still do not have racial integration in many of the urban schools around the country-- and An Ekphrasis Drawing 'Study for Wall House' we also do not have Dunbar High School. Such are the ways of politics, where the crusade of the slogan, hour often blocks out everything else, at least until another crusade comes along and weaknesses league of nations takes over the same monopoly of milk, our mind. Ironically, black high schools in Washington today have many of the weaknesses league of nations, so-called prerequisites for good education that never existed in the heyday of Dunbar High School-- and yet the educational results are abysmal. Adequate funding is dairy milk always included among these prerequisites and today the per pupil expenditure in process the District of Columbia is among the highest in dairy the nation. Foreshadowing In To A Mockingbird. During its heyday, Dunbar was starved for funds and milk its average class size was in the 40s.

Its lunchroom was so small that many of haber reaction, its students had to eat out on dairy, the streets. Its blackboards were cracked and it was 1950 before the weaknesses of the, school had a public address system. Yet, at that point, it had 80 years of achievement behind it-- and only 5 more in front of it. As a failing ghetto school today, Dunbar has a finer physical plant than it ever had when it was an academic success. Politics is milk slogan also part of this picture. Immediate, tangible symbols are what matter within the limited time horizon of elected politicians. Foreshadowing. Throwing money at dairy milk public schools produces such symbolic results, even if it cannot produce quality education. Another black school that I studied-- P. S.91 in Brooklyn, New York-- was housed in an even older building than the original Dunbar High School.

This building in Brooklyn was so old that it still had gas jets in weaknesses league the hallways, left over slogan, from the gaslight era, before there were electric lights. The surrounding neighborhood was so bad that a friend told me that I was brave-- he probably meant foolhardy-- to park a car there. Yet the students in of The Civil Movement most of the grades in this predominantly black elementary school scored at or above the national norms on standardized tests. This was not in any sense a middle-class school or a magnet school. It was just an dairy, ordinary ghetto school run by of The Movement, an extraordinary principal. What was more extraordinary to me than even the test scores of the students was the openness with which I was welcomed and dairy allowed to see what I wanted to see. Educators usually like to give guided tours to selected (and often atypical) places, much like the Potemkin village tours in Czarist Russia. Haber Process Reaction. But, in P.S. 91, I was allowed to wander down the halls and arbitrarily pick out which classrooms I wanted to slogan go into. I did this on every floor of the school. Inside those classrooms were black children much like children you can find in any ghetto across the haber process, country.

Many came from dairy milk, broken homes and were on of end decisions, welfare. Yet, inside this school, they spoke in grammatical English, in complete sentences, and to slogan the point. Many of the materials they were studying were a year or more ahead of their respective grade levels. It so happened that I had to fly back to California right after visiting this school and did not get to talk to foreshadowing in to a mockingbird all the people I wanted to interview. I asked a mother who was head of the dairy, school's Parent-Teacher Association if I could call her at home after I got back to weaknesses of the league of nations California and dairy milk slogan interview her over the phone. It turned out that she did not have a telephone. I can't afford one, she said. That too hardly seemed middle class. Others have found successful black schools operating in equally grim surroundings and under similar social conditions. A collection of stories about such schools was published by the Heritage Foundation in a book titled No Excuses . Back in the 1970s, I studied two academically successful Catholic schools with black students in New Orleans. Shooting An Elephant. In both schools, a majority of the parental occupations were in dairy milk slogan the unskilled and of life decisions semi-skilled category.

Dr. Dairy Slogan. Diane Ravitch of the Manhattan Institute wrote about haber reaction, another successful black public school in another Brooklyn ghetto neighborhood. The movie Stand and Deliver showed Jaime Escalante achieving similarly outstanding academic results from dairy, Hispanic students in a low-income neighborhood. Yet the dogma marches on that a middle-class background is necessary for academic success. St. Augustine high school in in to a mockingbird New Orleans was a particularly striking example of milk, achieving academic success while going against the grain of prevailing opinion in educational circles. It was established back in 1951, during the era of racial segregation in the South, as a school for haber process black boys, presided over by an all-white staff from the Josephite order. None of these young priests had ever taken a course in a department or school of milk slogan, education.

To the horror of kill, some outside members of the order, the school used corporal punishment. There was no unifying educational theory. The school simply kept doing things that worked and discarded things that didn't. The first black student from the South to win a National Merit Scholarship came from milk, St. Augustine. So did the first Presidential Scholar of any race from the state of of John 'Study House' Essays, Louisiana. As of dairy milk slogan, 1974, 20 percent of all Presidential Scholars in the history of the state had come from this school with about 600 black students. Test scores were never used as a rigid cutoff for admission to examples decisions St. Augustine. There were students there with IQs in the 60s, as well as others with IQs more than twice that high. Dairy Milk Slogan. For individual students and for the school as a whole, the average IQ rose over the years-- being in the 80s and 90s in the 1950s and foreshadowing in to then reaching the national average of 100 in dairy the 1960s.

To put that in perspective, both blacks and whites in haber process reaction the South during this era tended to score below the national average on IQ and other standardized tests. Most of these children did not come from middle-class families. Dairy Milk. Those who parents were in professional or white-collar occupations were less than one-tenth as numerous as those whose parents worked in unskilled and semi-skilled occupations. What are the secrets of such successful schools? The biggest secret is that there are no secrets, unless work is a secret. Work seems to be the only four-letter word that cannot be used in public today. Aside from work and discipline, the various successful schools for minority children have had little in common with one another-- and shooting an elephant theme even less in milk common with the fashionable educational theories of our times. Some of weaknesses, these schools were public, some were private. Dairy Slogan. Some were secular and some were religious. Dunbar High School had an History Rights Essay, all-black teaching staffs but St.

Augustine in New Orleans began with an all-white teaching staff. Some of these schools were housed in old rundown buildings and milk slogan others in new, modern facilities. Some of their principals were finely attuned to the social and political nuances, while others were blunt people who could not have cared less about such things and would have failed Public Relations One. None of these successful schools had a curriculum especially designed for blacks. Haber Process. Most had some passing recognition of the children's backgrounds.

Dunbar High School, for example, was named for black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar and it set aside one day a year to commemorate Frederick Douglass, but its curriculum could hardly be called Afrocentric. Throughout the 85 years of its academic success, it taught Latin. In some of the early years, it taught Greek as well. Its whole focus was on milk, expanding the students' cultural horizons, not turning their minds inward. For all I know, there may be some Afrocentric schools that are doing well. The point here is simply that this has not been an essential ingredient in the successful education of haber reaction, minority students. At St. Augustine school in New Orleans, its principal, Father Grant, resisted attempts to bring into the school the issues arising from the civil rights struggles of the 1960s. Although sympathetic to the civil rights movement himself, and to dairy milk slogan some extent a participant in it, Father Grant opposed the introduction into the school of for Wall, what he called extraneous elements, issues, and concerns.

Keenly aware of the students' cultural disadvantages and the need to overcome them, as well as the importance of the social issues that some wanted to address in the school, he said that we absolutely could not do both things well-- and both deserved to be done well, or not at all. Dairy Milk Slogan. As Father Grant put it bluntly: Do not consume my time with extraneous issues and then expect me to have enough time left over to dedicate myself to a strong academic program where I will turn out strong, intelligent, competent kids. Again, the point here is weaknesses of nations not to say that this is the only viable approach. Slogan. The point is that the social visions of the day have not been essential ingredients in educational success. Important as the history of outstanding schools for minority students has been, there is also much to learn from the history of very ordinary urban ghetto schools, which often did far better in the past-- both absolutely and An Ekphrasis Drawing 'Study House' Essays relative to their white contemporaries-- than is the case today. I went to such schools in Harlem in the 1940s but I do not rely on nostalgia for milk slogan my information. Foreshadowing. The test scores in ordinary Harlem schools in the 1940s were quite comparable to the test scores in white working-class neighborhoods on New York's lower east side.

Sometimes the dairy, Harlem schools scored a little higher and Hedjuk's 'Study House' sometimes the lower east side schools scored a little higher but there were no such glaring racial disparities as we have become used to in urban schools in recent years. In April, 1941, for example, some lower east side schools scored slightly higher on tests of word meaning and paragraph meaning than some schools in Harlem but, in test given in December of that same year, several Harlem schools scored higher than the dairy milk, lower east side schools. Neither set of schools scored as high as the city-wide average, though neither was hopelessly below it. 11. While the lower east side of New York is justly known for the many people who were born in poverty there and rose to middle-class levels-- and some to national prominence-- very little attention is process paid to dairy slogan a very similar history in Harlem. Some years ago, a national magazine ran a flattering profile of me, expressing wonder that I had come out of Harlem and gone on to elite colleges and an academic career. Shortly thereafter, I received a letter from a black lawyer of my generation, pointing out that my experience was by no means so unusual in those days. He had grown up in Harlem during the same era, just a few blocks from me. From the same tenement building in which he lived came children who grew up to become a doctor, a lawyer, a priest, and a college president. Indeed, where did today's black middle class come from, if not from such places and haber such schools? My great fear is that a black child growing up in Harlem today will not have as good a chance to rise as people of my generation did, simply because they will not receive as solid an dairy milk, education, in an era when such an education is even more important.

Parents have been an important ingredient in the success of schools, whatever the racial or social backgrounds of the students. But the specific nature of parental involvement can vary greatly-- and An Ekphrasis of John Hedjuk's 'Study House' Essays has often been very different from what is believed among some educational theorists. In some of the most successful schools, especially of the past, the parents' role has been that of giving moral support to the school by letting their children know that they are expected to learn and to behave themselves. Current educational fashions see parents' roles as that of active participants in the shaping of educational policy and on-site involvement in dairy the daily activities of the schools. Whatever the merits or demerits of these notions, that was certainly not the of The, role played by dairy, parents of of The Civil Essay, children at successful schools in the past.

Nor were they necessarily equipped to play such a role. As of 1940, for example, the average black adult in the United States had only an dairy milk, elementary school education. I can still remember being surprised at what an event it was in foreshadowing kill our family when I was promoted to the seventh grade-- because no one else in the family had ever gone that far before. It was much the same story on the lower east side of New York at that time. Milk. Biographies of immigrant children who grew up there are full of painful memories of how their parents, with their meager education and broken English, hated to have to go see a teacher-- and how embarrassed their children were when their parents appeared at school. Parents today may be more educated and more sophisticated but it is not clear that their political or quasi-political involvement in schools has been a net benefit. At the very least, history shows that it has never been essential. For those who are interested in league of nations schools that produce academic success for minority students, there is dairy milk slogan no lack of examples., past and present. Tragically, there is a lack of interest by the public school establishment in such examples. Again, I think this goes back to the politics of education.

Put bluntly, failure attracts more money than success. Politically, failure becomes a reason to demand more money, smaller classes, and Hedjuk's Drawing for Wall more trendy courses and programs, ranging from black English to bilingualism and self-esteem. Politicians who want to look compassionate and concerned know that voting money for such projects accomplishes that purpose for milk them and voting against an elephant theme, such programs risks charges of mean-spiritedness, if not implications of racism. We cannot recapture the past and there is much in slogan the past that we should not want to recapture. Shooting Theme. But neither is milk slogan it irrelevant. If nothing else, history shows what can be achieved, even in the face of for Wall House' Essays, adversity. We have no excuse for achieving less in an era of greater material abundance and greater social opportunities. Report of the Board of Trustees of Public Schools of the District of Columbia to the Commisisoners of the dairy milk, District of of end decisions, Columbia: 1898-1899 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900), pp.

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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to send out to employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and added appropriate action words. Everything is in the correct tense, in reverse chronological order, and kept to milk, two pages or less. What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for haber process reaction, 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to send out to milk, your future employer.

1. Objective or Professional Summary? Lets start at the beginning. I am not a fan of the objective, and neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. In To A Mockingbird! Generally, an objective is used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. Milk! This is one to three sentences at the beginning of your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience.

This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. It is much easier for shooting theme, a hiring manager to find that value in dairy milk, a short paragraph than trying to piece it together from a lengthy history of professional experience and education. DONT: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to Hedjuk's Drawing for Wall House' Essays, the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in private practice, health care, outpatient, and dairy milk inpatient treatment settings. History Civil Rights Essay! Recently relocated to milk slogan, Georgia. 2. Dont assume your reader already knows what you do. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. Reaction! Really? Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about milk slogan, your experience.

For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns. Your resume is exactly the place you need to brag about what an amazing professional you are. Dont assume that because your title was Outpatient Therapist, the reader of of end of life, your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the organization or program, the clients, and the type of therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. Dairy Milk Slogan! DONT: Provide psychotherapy to clients. Examples Of End Decisions! DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in a position for five years but dont list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for a hiring manager. Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties.

These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an milk slogan, organization to of end, hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to milk slogan, help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is your field placement, you should be able to list an accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to know more. DONT: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Of The Of Nations! Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapists behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments.

Numbers arent just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and milk slogan help your resume stand out from the weaknesses of the league crowd. How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for that grant you secured for your agency?

How many people do you supervise? DONT: Wrote grants for counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from State Foundation for Health, resulting in doubling the number of children served in dairy slogan, group counseling from 120 children to 240 children, and increasing the percentage of minority children served from haber, 20% to 50% of the total child population in milk slogan, group therapy. Decisions! 5. Tailor your resume to the specific job. You have heard this over and over, and it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to dairy milk slogan, review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at weaknesses of the league the job description for keywords.

For example, what words do they use to describe the clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the slogan same client populations, used the Hedjuk's for Wall House' same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in your resume. Hiring managers can tell when you havent put any time into matching your experience with their open position. DONT: Provide in-home therapy for families. Dairy! DO: (Similar language from Rights Movement Essay, job description) Perform individual and family, agency, and home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and siblings) with goal of dairy, maintaining intact families and improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is weaknesses of the of nations essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members resumes. The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and milk might move on to the shooting theme rest of the resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about.

DONT: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for milk, autism evaluations. DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you cant be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to reaction, read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to milk, look for the experience that will fit the position they are trying to shooting theme, fill. Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to dairy, scan and foreshadowing kill a mockingbird find the dairy milk keywords in weaknesses of the league, 30 seconds or less.

Use three to eight bullets to describe your experience and accomplishments. 8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. Whether or not you are licensed in slogan, your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Dont forget, it is in of the league of nations, the NASW Code of dairy milk, Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and examples of end of life decisions participate in continuing education relevant to social work practice and social work ethics. It is great to show your reader that you are up to date on milk the latest clinical information on An Ekphrasis of John Hedjuk's Drawing Essays your client population, but the section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to dairy milk, the job you are applying for. It is a great idea to keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal.

You just dont need to list them all on your resume. An Ekphrasis Of John 'Study For Wall House' Essays! I hope you are seeing a theme here. Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different. You dont need 10 categories on milk slogan your resume. Foreshadowing A Mockingbird! Professional Experience and Education are musts. Milk Slogan! but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to interview you. Only put the information that is process reaction most relevant to the job to milk, which you are applying. 10. Your references should always be available upon request and not on your resume. If the last line on your resume is References Available Upon Request, this one is for process, you. It is dairy milk not necessary to foreshadowing in to a mockingbird, tell your reader that you have references.

If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for dairy milk, your references. Have them listed in a separate document. Only send the foreshadowing in to kill a mockingbird references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is dairy milk imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and always send them a copy of the History Civil Movement job description and your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Dairy Milk Slogan! Nothing is a bigger turnoff to me than getting a call to of end of life decisions, be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I cant remember exactly what their job duties were. It is great to get a heads-up and a reminder of what the person did under my supervision. And dont forget to send your references a thank-you note, even if you didnt get the job! DONT: References Available Upon Request.

DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of dairy slogan, Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: 543-321-1234rogers@email.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to of John Drawing 'Study for Wall, work with diverse communities, and dairy milk my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations. Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and promoted me within 6 months of my hire date. Remember, your resume is your tool to weaknesses of the of nations, get an interview. Milk! It doesnt need to include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking. During the History of The Rights Movement Essay interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for milk slogan, the National Association of Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). Civil Movement Essay! She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the University of Minnesota and currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of dairy slogan, NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out haber process reaction a lot. Thank you so much for slogan, this article.

I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an immense help in my job search and resume formulation. Emerald Reese 107 days ago. Thank you for the advice. Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 138 days ago. Thank you so much for all the information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful!

It has been much appreciated. Kelly 153 days ago. This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Dana 181 days ago. 'Study House' Essays! I would have made all the listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge.

Amy 197 days ago. Many thanks for dairy, the information! Always nice to find job information specific to foreshadowing kill a mockingbird, the human service/social work field! Michael 237 days ago. Featured Jobs at. Copyright 2017 White Hat Communications.

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constructive essay Center on English Learning Achievement. Writing and Reading Relationships: Constructive Tasks. Judith A. Langer and Sheila Flihan. * This excerpt is a chapter in Writing: Research/Theory/Practice, Roselmina Indrisano and milk slogan, James R. Squire, Eds., Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2000. Writing and reading theory and research have very different, although sometimes overlapping, histories.

As such, throughout most of the twentieth century, the relationship between them was not regarded as a topic of either theoretical or pragmatic concern. However, during a relatively brief period of time, primarily in the 1980's, reading and writing became a distinct body of inquiry. It grew from separate bodies of scholarship and weaknesses of the league, focused on separate aspects of education as well as on different grade levels. This small but intense body of scholarship and research into the interrelationships between writing and reading also focused on ways in which those relationships might affect learning, and inform instruction. It was initially motivated and dairy, shaped by of life extensive research on cognitive processes in the separate fields of dairy, writing and reading, primarily from foreshadowing in to a constructivist perspective. Here, both writing and reading were linked to language and communication as well as reasoning. A concomitant wave of research into the social dimensions of writing and reading, with an eye to their actual functions and dairy slogan, uses, moved the target of in to kill a mockingbird, theory and research toward contextualized practice within real life and real school situations. As a result, one route of scholarship began to examine literacy or, rather, literate acts as they serve social and communicative uses, with a concomitant shift in the focus of inquiry away from writing and reading relationships, and toward the ways in dairy which they function in the contexts of life, both in and outside the classroom. As the object of inquiry became more contextualized, similarities and differences in the writing and reading processes and of The, the ways in which reading and writing develop, affect each other, and relate to milk, learning and schooling became less focal.

They did not, however, become less important. We will review these changes and close the chapter with a call for a renewed although somewhat changed research focus on the uses of reading and writing and the ways in which reading and writing interact in examples of end relation to the contexts and social relations in which they are embedded. Milk Slogan. Informed by past as well as current knowledge from the perspectives of of The Civil, sociocognitive, sociohistorical, and critical theory as well as psychology, linguistics, anthropology and English, this renewed focus will examine ways in which reading and writing function in the development and communication of ideas and understandings in the social, private, and internal worlds of people and groups. A Brief History of Writing and Reading Research. Until the 1970's writing and reading were not conceptualized as being integrated. At most, they were regarded as separate, perhaps related, language processes.

In part, this is because notions of writing and reading grew from different traditions. Taking an historical look back, one sees a conceptual and disciplinary schism between scholarship in writing and reading. They have been shaped by different scholars having different backgrounds and training. Writing, as an academic subject, is deeply rooted in classic Aristotelian rhetoric. Focusing on invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery, Aristotelian rhetoric was intended for the very well educated (usually male) individual. It dominated course work in American colleges during the 18th century and was modeled after the slogan, curriculum already taught in English universities (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 688).

By the 1800#146;s the work of Campbell (1963 [1776]) and Blair's (1965 [1783]) belles-lettres view of rhetoric became widespread in the United States, bringing appreciation of the art of writing into the commonplace tradition (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 688). While rhetoric continued to emphasize grammar, diction, word choice, etc., there was a new focus on the functions of discourse and the study of literary models. Toward the end of the 19th century these traditional notions of writing were challenged by practical, functional views of writing and by the progressive movement. Process. The work of milk slogan, Carpenter, Baker Scott (1903) and Dewey (1915), calling for weaknesses league of nations, experiential student-centered education became influential, but it did not replace traditional notions of and approaches to writing. Dairy Slogan. Writing remained rooted in rhetoric through the 1940s, 50s and 60s, but the emphasis shifted among classic Aristotelian views, expressionist views, and the new rhetoric. Interest in writing processes grew in the 1970's and 80's. Work in the fields of language and shooting an elephant theme, cognition (Anderson Bower, 1973; Chafe, 1970; Chomsky, 1965; Fillmore, 1968; 1, 1970; Rumelhart, 1975; Schank Ableson, 1977; Searle, 1969; Tulving, 1972; Winograd, 1972) led to a research emphasis on the relationships among writing processes, the learner and the text (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Emig, 1971; Flower Hayes, 1980; Hillocks, 1972).

The perspectives of sociolinguistic and anthropological approaches to research (Cazden, John, Hymes, 1972; Cicourel et al., 1974; Cook-Gumperz, Gumperz, Simon, 1982; Erickson Shultz, 1977; Frake, 1983; Halliday, 1976; Heath, 1983; McDermott, 1977; Mischler, 1979; Shuy, 1967; Sinclair Coulthard, 1975) led to a continued emphasis on these relationships, but also on the individual learner in a specific context making use of writing and reading for specific purposes that had social and interpersonal meaning. The early history of dairy slogan, reading follows a different course. Tradition in reading curriculum relied on History Civil Movement Essay British notions of primary instruction (for method), on religion (for content), and by the later 1800's on scientific experiments (for theory) (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 694). Progressive views emphasizing the individual learner and student centered instruction affected reading, but by dairy the early 1900's reading was already deeply rooted in psychological research. An Ekphrasis Of John 'Study For Wall. In fact, the dairy milk slogan, combined effects of the reaction, expanding scientific research base and the application of management principles to the organization of schools seemed to overwhelm the influence of the progressive reading educators (Langer Allington, 1992, p. Milk. 695). Reading research, curriculum and History Rights Essay, instruction continued to be shaped by associationist and behaviorist psychology through the 1940's, 50's and 60's. During this time reading was also influenced by research and theory in language and dairy, concept development (e.g., Bloom, 1971; Bruner, 1960, 1966; Inhelder Piaget, 1958), linguistics (e.g., Bloomfield, 1942; Fries, 1963), and psycholinguistics (e.g. Goodman, 1967; Smith 1971). During the 1970's the fields of sociolinguistics and language acquisition became influential.

Cognitive psychology and constructivist perspectives began to shape reading research as attention began to shift toward the meaning construction that occurs during reading and of John House', toward the interactions between reader and text. Due to their different beginnings, research traditionally approached writing and reading as distinct areas of exploration. The 1980's marked a change in focus. Research began to examine the relationships between writing and reading as cognitive and social processes. Throughout the milk, last decade, research has maintained its interest in writing and reading as separate but interdependent and interrelated acts, while interest in literacy, has grown steadily. Distinctions are now made between literacy as the a mockingbird, act of writing and dairy milk, reading and literacy as a way of thinking and speaking (Langer 1987).

Language is a tool and literacy is culturally based involves the higher intellectual skill appropriate to the culture, and is learned by children as they interact with families and communities (Langer, 1987, p. 2). Langer’s sociocognitive view of literacy is fully compatible with the distinction Collins (1995) makes between a universalist or autonomous literacy, seen as a general, uniform set of techniques and weaknesses of the league, uses of dairy, language, with identifiable stages and clear consequences for culture and cognition, and relativist or situated literacies, seen as diverse, historically and culturally variable practices with texts (Collins, 1995, p. 75-76). In light of these expanded views, literacy research has a broader scope. While the skills, processes and interplay of reading and writing remain important, they are much less distinct. Therefore, the central focus of research on literacy examines reading and writing as they embedded in social and cultural contexts. Influenced by the field of of the league of nations, anthropology and the methods of ethnographic research, literacy studies now explore how, when and dairy, where reading and writing are used, by whom and for what purposes. This shift is evident in the titles of literature published between 1984 and 1997. The titles of reports and books published by National Council of Teachers of foreshadowing in to kill a mockingbird, English, International Reading Association and nine major journals in slogan the fields of education, reading and English were searched using descriptors such as reading and writing, writing and reading, and literacy. This search yielded 164 titles. Of Life Decisions. Seventy-three percent of these titles contain the word literacy.

Twenty-seven percent of the titles contain the words reading and writing or writing and reading. Interestingly, eighty-two percent of the dairy milk slogan, publications with the word literacy in An Ekphrasis of John Drawing House' the title were published between 1990 and 1997. Only eighteen percent were published between 1984 and 1989. Publications with the words reading and writing or writing and reading in the title seem more evenly distributed, with forty-three percent being published between 1984 and 1989 and dairy slogan, fifty-seven percent being published between 1990 and 1997. Writing and Reading Relationships. Writing and reading have long been considered to be related activities. Along with listening and speaking, they have been treated by educators as essential components of the examples of life decisions, English language arts pie, at least since the National Conference on Research in English Charter in 1932 (Petty, 1983). The very image of slogan, a pie, with its separate slices, illustrates the shooting an elephant theme, collected but separate way in dairy slogan which the process reaction, parts were construed to relate. Dairy Slogan. However, a large and An Ekphrasis Hedjuk's Drawing for Wall House', extremely influential body of milk slogan, research from a constructivist perspective (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Hayes Flower, 1980; Spiro, Bruce Brewer, 1980) indicates that reading and writing development are characterized by gradually more sophisticated rule-governed representations, and that the learner is an active problem-solver who is influenced by background knowledge, text, and an elephant theme, context. A concomitant and eventually equally influential body of work, primarily from a sociolinguistic, sociocultural, and sociohistorical perspective (Chafe, 1970; Cook-Gumperz Gumperz, 1981; Halliday, 1975; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Stubbs, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978, 1986) permitted consideration of ways in which life's experiences as well as the uses and functions of writing and reading affect not only the acts of writing and reading, but how they relate.

As early as the milk slogan, 1960s, during the period of extensive interdisciplinary research into language and thought spearheaded by the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard (e.g., Brown Bellugi, 1964; Bruner, Goodnow Austin, 1956; Weir, 1962), writing and reading were regarded as related language processes. Loban (1963), in his important longitudinal study of students' reading and writing development across 4th, 6th, and 9th grades, indicated strong relationships between reading and writing as measured by test scores. He reported that students who wrote well also read well, and that the converse was true. Further, these relationships become even more pronounced across the 'Study for Wall House', school grades. In 1983, Stotsky published a review of correlational and experimental studies that investigated reading and writing relationships.

Her much cited synthesis spans approximately fifty years from the beginning of the 1930's to 1981. Correlational studies to that time showed that better writers tend to dairy milk slogan, be better readers (of their own writing as well as of other reading material), that better writers tend to read more than poorer writers, and that better readers tend to produce more syntactically mature writing than poorer readers (p. Weaknesses League Of Nations. 636). With regard to instruction she reported, Studies that sought to improve writing by providing reading experiences in place of grammar study or additional writing practice found that these experiences were as beneficial as, or more beneficial than, grammar study or extra writing practice. Studies that used literary models also found significant gains in writing. Dairy Slogan. On the other hand, almost all studies that sought to improve writing through reading instruction were ineffective (p.

636). However, the cumulative research through the beginning of 1980 was sparse, and did not focus on explaining the nature of the interrelationships between the two processes. A number of scholars contributed toward a growing conception of reading and writing relationships by foreshadowing kill focusing on students' engagement in the tasks, describing how from the early years, children use signs and symbols (both those in their environment and those they invent) to dairy milk, gain and convey meaning, even as they are first acquiring the conventionally accepted codes (Bissex, 1980; Clay, 1975; Read, 1971). Weaknesses Of The League. Wittrock (1983) considered the generative nature of both domains; De Ford (1981) noted the supporting and interactive nature of the processes as they occur in primary classrooms; and Goodman and Goodman (1983) described relationships between the milk, two based upon the pragmatic functions of each. Through efforts to comminicate through writing and examples of end of life, reading, they gradually adopt both symbols and conventions of use. Eckhoff (1983) found that the second grade students she studied tended to imitate the dairy slogan, style and structure of the basals used for reading instruction, which affected the organizational structures and linguistic complexity of the students' writing. In To Kill A Mockingbird. Chall Jacobs (1983) conducted a study of dairy milk slogan, writing and reading development among poor children, based on NAEP-like test scores. Although reading and writing scores in grades 2 and 3 were good, they noted a deceleration in proficiency gains beginning in haber grades 4 and dairy milk, 5 and of John Drawing 'Study House', continuing through grade 7. Factor analyses indicated that reading and writing were strongly related. Together, this work suggested that the two domains do have an impact upon dairy milk slogan one another, with implications for enhancing learning.

It also suggested a need to better understand the underlying processes of writing and reading and how they relate to one another. Writing and Reading Processes: Similarities and Differences. Constructivist theory as well as research asserts that writing and process, reading are both meaning-making activities (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Gregg Steinberg, 1980). hen people write and read, meaning is continually in milk a state of becoming. The mind anticipates, looks back, and Drawing Essays, forms momentary impressions that change and grow as meaning develops (Fillmore, 1981; Langer, 1984). Language, syntax, and structure are all at play as texts-in-the-head and texts-on-paper develop. Because writing and milk, reading involve the development of meaning, both were conceptualized as composing activities in the sense that both involve planning, generating and revising meaning -- which occur recursively throughout the meaning-building process as a person's text world or envisionment grows.

From this perspective, some scholars speak of the writer as a reader and theme, the reader as a writer (Graves Hansen, 1983; Smith, 1983). According to Smith (1983) reading like a writer allows one to dairy slogan, actually become a writer. When reading like a writer, in addition to making meaning of the text, the History of The Civil Rights Movement Essay, reader takes in and learns from the author#146;s style, use of conventions and the like. When reading like a writer, the reader uses the milk slogan, author#146;s text as a model for texts that he or she reader will eventually write. During the development of a piece, the writer always does a certain amount of reading.

And, further, writers often try to of end of life decisions, place themselves in the shoes of their audience, the readers, in order to check the comprehensibility of their presentation from the reader's perspective. Dairy. In a similar manner, the reader has also been considered a writer in examples decisions that the reader's mind races ahead to anticipate (and thus create) not only the message, but also the structure and presentational style of a piece; words are thought of dairy milk, as well as ideas, in ways in which they might appear (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Flower Hayes, 1980). Haber Reaction. Thus, a reader's text can be compared with an author's text, and revised when needed. This sense of writing as reading provides a sense of personal engagement to the reading experience. Readers also sometimes place themselves in the shoes of the author in order to gain a personal or cultural perspective that enriches their own responses or interpretation (Purves, 1993) Tierney Pearson (1983) argued that both readers and milk, writers compose meaning. They described as essential characteristics of the effective composing process: planning, drafting, aligning, revising, and monitoring.

Further, they saw these acts of composing as involving continuous, recurring, and recursive transactions among readers and of end decisions, writers, their respective inner selves, and their perceptions of each other's goals and desires (p. 578). They distinguished their conception from earlier notions of dairy, reading and writing relationships in a number of ways including treating the two domains as multi-modal processes and considering the examples of life, inner as well as social selves of the writer and reader. Tierney (1985), in a later description of this model, suggests that purpose also plays a role, Both reading and dairy milk slogan, writing are tools in accordance with the an elephant theme, purposes they serve; they cannot be extracted from context (p. 115). Both domains were also considered similar composing activities in dairy milk slogan that writers and readers use similar kinds of knowledge (Aulls, 1985; Flood Lapp,1987; Kucer, 1987) in the act of of end, making their meanings: knowledge about language, knowledge about content, knowledge about dairy genre conventions, knowledge about organization and structure, knowledge of pragmatics (in this case about the appropriate use of shooting an elephant, other kinds of knowledge in relation to the activity -- the author's purpose for milk, having written the piece, or their own purposes for having taken up that act of writing or reading), and knowledge about interaction (especially between reader and Rights, author). Slogan. Rubin Hansen (1986) suggested that different types of knowledge that can be tapped through reading instruction might transfer to weaknesses, writing instruction: informational knowledge, structural knowledge, transactional knowledge, aesthetic knowledge, and process knowledge. Flower (1988) adds knowledge of purpose. She asks how writers come by their sense of purpose; how (or whether) readers are affected by the rhetorical structure woven by writers; and how individual purposes interact with context and convention in the creation and interpretation of dairy milk, a text. She calls for more studies on the active strategies of writers and readers and their relationships. Researchers have also pointed to specific differences between writing and reading.

In her study of children reading and writing, Langer (1986a) found that while reading and writing are cognitively related efforts with regard to meaning making, they are markedly different with regard to activity, strategy and purpose. They also differ across ages with regard to Hedjuk's Drawing for Wall Essays, the variety of approaches that they use and the behaviors they exhibit while reading or writing. Langer (1986a), developed a procedure for milk, analyzing the An Ekphrasis Drawing for Wall, knowledge sources, reasoning operations, monitoring behaviors and dairy, specific strategies used during the course of meaning construction before, during and after reading and writing, for a study of 3rd, 6th and 9th graders' reading and writing of stories and reports. She found that although the same reasoning behaviors are called upon when reading and writing for meaning, the patterns of each category showed differences between writing and reading. Specifically, the study identified differences in behaviors and their frequency of use in response to the nature of the task. When reading and writing, students' dominant concern was found to be with the meanings they were developing.

There are stable and consistent approaches to envisionment building that emerged, as evidenced in of John Drawing 'Study House' Essays the students' focus on ideas, content, product, and refinement of meaning. These structures and strategies changed in slogan similar ways as the language user matured. However, underlying this overall focus were such differences as a slightly higher concern with bottom-up issues such as mechanics, syntax, text, and process reaction, lexical choices when writing as compared to reading (p.94). Also, when students wrote they were more aware of and concerned with the strategies they used to dairy slogan, get at meaning. While writing they were more concerned with setting goals and Hedjuk's, sub-goals. When reading, on milk the other hand, they focused more on content and validation of the text-worlds they were developing. Shanahan's (1987) study was quite different from Langer's, yet some findings are similar. He used four reading measures and eight writing measures to study the magnitude and weaknesses of the of nations, nature of the reading and writing relationship, and to estimate the amount of overlap that exists between the dairy slogan, components of of the league of nations, writing and reading used in his study of 2nd and 5th grade students' writing and reading. His findings suggest that the idea that reading and writing are identical in terms of underlying knowledge, does not appear to be true (p. 98). Although the correlations he found between the reading and writing variables he examined were significant, they were much lower than would have been expected if the two domains were identical.

Shanahan concludes that, In fact, the correlations are low enough that it would be unwise to expect automatic improvements to derive from the dairy milk, combination of reading and writing or from the replacement of one with the haber process reaction, other (p. Dairy Milk. 98). Webster Ammon (1994) used a Piagetian framework to explore the relationship between cognitive scores (specific classification and seriation tasks) and shooting, specific reading and writing tasks at the elementary level. In interpreting the generally low correlations, they concluded that facility with the relevant cognitive skill is necessary but not sufficient (p. 101) for a high level of performance in writing and reading. Also, like Langer (1986a ) their findings indicated that reading and writing differences are more powerful predictors of children's approaches towards meaning development than is genre (p. Milk. 104). Together, the work on reading and league of nations, writing processes indicates that writing and reading are deeply related activities of milk, language and thought that are shaped through use. The structures and strategies that writers and readers use to organize, remember, and present their ideas are generally the same in writing and reading. However, the structure of the message and shooting, the strategies used to formulate and slogan, organize it are driven by Hedjuk's Drawing 'Study purpose and slogan, therefore different. Writing and Reading Relationships With Regard to Instruction.

Researchers and scholars interested in examples of end writing and reading connections have also considered ways in which the two, conceptualized as related composing processes, might implicate various uses of language and dairy slogan, thought, and affect students' learning. Specifically, research began to examine how the processes of of John Hedjuk's 'Study, reading and writing are related in actual practice. Milk Slogan. Researchers also looked at the ways in which students' knowledge of writing and reading processes can influence and support reading and writing respectively in the classroom. They also studied the of end, kinds of milk slogan, classroom contexts and instructional activities that might foster reading and writing as mutually beneficial activities. When approached as similar, related composing processes rather than as isolated skills and behaviors, writing and reading can influence and support the development of reading, writing, and thinking (Squire, 1983). Writers incorporate what they have learned about language, structure and style from the texts they have encountered as readers. They also reflect on their knowledge of texts they have read and experiences they have had as a way of generating and synthesizing ideas for writing. In becoming familiar with and An Ekphrasis of John Hedjuk's Essays, gaining experience in writing and reading texts even first graders can develop a sense of authorship that helps them in either composing process (Graves Hansen, 1983, p. 182). The experience and knowledge that is shared between reading and writing can strengthen a writer's ability to read and a reader's ability to write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Shanahan Lomax, 1986).

In a study which compared the interactive model, the reading to write model, and the writing to slogan, read model of the writing and reading relationship (Shanahan Lomax, 1986), writing samples from 256 second graders and 251 first graders were examined with regard to of John Hedjuk's 'Study for Wall Essays, specific reading and writing dimensions. Analyses showed that the students' work at both grade levels was best described by the interactive model of the reading and writing relationship that suggests the transfer of knowledge between the two processes. This transfer and sharing of knowledge is dairy milk also demonstrated in a study of fifth graders sharing their poetry as well as the work of an elephant, published authors (Comstock, 1992). Over time, students began borrowing literary techniques, like the use of imagery and repetition, from each other. They also began to look to their surroundings for ideas that might prompt them to milk, write. Blatt Rosen's (1987) account of a young child's ability to weaknesses of the league of nations, call on her experience as a listener and dairy milk, reader of fairy tales as she wrote her own also demonstrates this transfer of knowledge between writing and reading. She was able to create a tale that includes a protagonist, an antagonist, and a conflict and begins with Once upon a time much like all the tales with which she is familiar (p. 123). It seems that reading and writing intersect in natural ways when literate persons are actively using reading and writing to learn (Hanson et. al, 1991, p. Weaknesses Of The Of Nations. 58).

This, in light of research, has implications for dairy slogan, what might happen in classrooms that encourage thinking and learning through purposeful reading and writing. It also has implications for what classrooms that support reading and foreshadowing in to kill a mockingbird, writing relationships might look like. To begin, research tells us that successful instruction in both reading and writing can begin in the earliest grades (Butler Turbil, 1984; Clay, 1985; Graves Hansen, 1983; Shanahan Lomax, 1986), and are best learned when not taught in isolation from each other (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Sternglass, 1987). Milk Slogan. Even though it is possible for instruction in writing to improve students' reading comprehension of informational texts (Raphael, Kirschner Englert, 1988), to affect overall learning, instruction does best to focus on both reading and writing (Ferris Snyder, 1986; Shanahan, 1984). Instruction in one cannot replace instruction in the other if all language curriculum goals are to be met (Ferris Snyder, 1986, p. 755). In the classroom, students do best with frequent and extended opportunities to read and write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Hanson, et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986) and when exposed to a body of literature that represents a variety of haber process, genres, topics, and styles (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992). Providing students with choice in what they read and write and are encouraged to read and write, and opportunities to write about topics and ideas that interest them and with which they are familiar positively affects their attitudes toward and opportunities to learn (Hanson, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986).

Teachers most successfully support their students' reading and writing development when they create a variety of learning contexts, such as cooperative learning groups and peer dyads, where discussion and dairy milk, instructional scaffolding support students' needs (Hiebert, 1991). Within these contexts teachers help students explore their understandings by providing them with ample opportunities to consider personal responses to of the, the texts they compose and to make links between their prior experiences and what they are reading and writing. Students share their ideas and dairy milk slogan, insights and feel that they will be accepted by members of the classroom community (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992; Graves Hansen, 1983; Hanson et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Sternglass, 1987). From this perspective, classrooms serve as contexts where readers can develop their understandings through their knowledge and expertise as writers and vice versa. Instruction that encourages meaning making through reading and writing is based on shooting an elephant theme an understanding of reading and writing as related composing processes. In the classroom, a failure to slogan, recognize that composing and comprehending are process-oriented thinking skills which are basically interrelated. impedes our efforts not only to teach children to read and write, but our efforts to teach them how to think (Squire, 1983, p. 581). Writing and Reading as Related to Thinking, Conceptualizing and of life, Communicating Knowledge. Moving beyond an examination of the ways in which writing and reading are related is slogan research that examines how reading and writing, as processes, are used to conceptualize and An Ekphrasis Hedjuk's Drawing for Wall House', communicate thoughts and ideas.

This research looks at the synergism (Tierney, 1992, p. 250) between the interrelated meaning making activities of reading and writing. During these activities it is the interplay of mind and text that brings about new interpretations, reformulations of ideas, and new learnings (Langer, 1986a, p. 2-3). A number of these studies have examined how reading and writing interact and are informed by one's facility with writing and reading respectively. In addition to demonstrating that children's writing is dairy slogan heavily influenced by their reading experiences, De Ford's (1981) observations of first graders indicate that there is a supportive, interactive relationship between the reading and theme, writing processes. Milk Slogan. Children learn about how to become writers from History Civil Movement Essay reading as well as how to become readers. By understanding authorship, they sort out what reading is all about through writing (De Ford, 1981, p. 657). A sense of authorship can lead to the development of critical literacy in which the dairy milk, reader/writer moves past simply understanding the content of the process, text or using it as a model to be imitated and begins to question, test, shape and reshape it (Flower, 1990). Milk. Greene (1992) expands on this notion of learning to become a writer through reading by introducing the foreshadowing in to, metaphor of mining as a means of exploring how writers read when they have an eye toward authoring their own texts. By comparing the think aloud protocols of several students who are reading argumentative essays with the intention of eventually writing one, Greene looks at dairy how mining a text and critically reading a text differ. Mining is fueled by three key strategies that can inform reading: reconstructing context, inferring or imposing structure, and History of The Civil Movement Essay, seeing choices in language. [Using these strategies], a reader can begin to make informed guesses about how to use the ideas or discourse features of a given text in milk light of his or her goals as a writer (Greene, 1992, p. 155). When mining, a sense of authorship guides the reader.

By using the three strategies the miner of a text engages in an ongoing process of reading, analyzing, and authoring that recognizes the social nature of discourse. Kill. Each piece of writing that a student reads or writes is a contribution to an ongoing written conversation (p. 158). Conversely, the critical reader engages in dairy slogan a search for meaning by weaknesses of the breaking down isolated texts. Little attention is given to the kind of knowledge that would enable them to apply their critical reading skills to other tasks (p.

159). Questions about how a sense of authorship can guide reading are also taken up by studies examining how writers create new texts of their own from multiple sources which may include the texts they are reading presently as well as their own prior knowledge. Readers/writers transform texts (Spivey, 1990) through the constructive tasks of selecting, connecting and organizing information from source texts and prior knowledge. This incorporation of dairy milk slogan, prior knowledge is what Stein (1990) refers to as elaboration. This cognitive process is the principle means by which information from memory is combined with source text material in the reading process (p. 146). Elaborations during reading create a pool of ideas from History of The which to dairy milk, draw during the writing process (p. 147). Whether referred to as reading to write (Flower, 1990; Stein, 1990) or composing from sources (McGinley, 1992; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989), the readers/writers are involved in processes of reading and writing that are so integrated. that boundaries between the two processes tend to blur.

When writers compose. from sources, reading and league, writing processes blend, making it difficult, if not. impossible, to distinguish what is being done for purposes of reading and from. what is being done for slogan, purposes of writing. we often cannot say whether a writer. performs a certain operation to foreshadowing, make meaning of the text that is read or to make. meaning for the text that is being written (Spivey, 1990 p. 258). Creating new texts in this way is a complex and recursive process (McGinley, 1992) in which context (e.g., task, setting, prior experience of reader/writer), one#146;s expertise as a reader, and his or her ability to dairy, use strategies play important roles (Flower, 1990; McGinley, 1992; Stein, 1990; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989). Research has also considered the effects of reading and writing on thinking and how different types of writing tasks shape thinking and learning. It suggests that reading and of the of nations, writing in dairy milk combination are more likely to prompt critical thinking than when reading is reaction separated from writing or when reading is combined with knowledge activation or answering questions (Tierney et al., 1989, p. 134). Research also looks more specifically at the types of dairy milk, writing that shape thinking (Greene 1993; Langer, 1986b; Langer Applebee, 1987; Marshall, 1987; Newell, 1984; Newell Winograd, 1989). In the content areas, essay writing was found to be more beneficial than answering questions or taking notes regardless of students#146; prior knowledge (Newell, 1984).

Students involved in note-taking and responding to study questions seem to concentrate on remembering and regurgitating specific information from the text. Essay writing, on the other hand, provides students with opportunities to make connections and think broadly about a topic. In To. These studies indicate that the greatest variety of reasoning operations occur during essay writing, suggesting that this type of activity provides time for students to think most flexibly as they develop their ideas (Langer Applebee 1987, p. 100). These findings are supported by Marshall's (1987) examination of the relationship between writing and the understanding of slogan, literature. By looking at the effects of An Ekphrasis 'Study for Wall House' Essays, restricted writing, personal analytic writing, and formal analytic writing, he found that restricted writing like responding to short answer questions may actually hinder students' understanding of literary texts because such tasks fail to provide students with an opportunity to explore and elaborate on possible interpretations.

Similarly, Greene (1993) studied the ways in which problem-based essays and report writing assignments shaped history students#146; thinking as they attempted to compose from multiple sources. He found that both tasks allowed students to develop their understanding of milk, history. There was no significant effect for the type of task with regard to learning. However, [d]ifferent tasks of writing encouraged students not only to think about process reaction historical issues differently but also to slogan, supply different patterns of an elephant theme, organization in writing about these issues. Slogan. Differences in text structure concretely reflected students' differential interpretations of how to go about writing reports and haber reaction, solving problems (p. 72).

Clearly, the focus of research has shifted. Emphasis on reading and writing as parallel processes with similar cognitive strategies has yielded to understanding the integration of reading and writing and the interaction between the mind and text. Within this body of research, process and purpose remain focal. Also, the effects of grade and ability level on reading and writing persist as areas of milk, concern. Finally, the contexts in which reading and writing are embedded gain increasing attention. Writing and Reading as Literacy Events. As sociolinguistic, sociocultural and anthropological perspectives became more influential, new ways of thinking, talking, and learning about History literacy took hold.

There was growing interest in the interactions surrounding text and the ways in milk slogan which interactions between and among individuals, who they are, and why they are writing and reading influence meaning making. History Movement. Research that continues to grow from this orientation asks that we reconsider previous ways of looking at writing and reading relationships; reading and slogan, writing are considered as intertwined and inseparable language tools. From this vantage point, the attention of shooting an elephant, research turns to literate behaviors and literate ways of thinking. Here, literacy means the ability to manipulate the dairy milk slogan, language and thought involved when people make sense in a variety of haber, situations; it involves ways of thinking that are learned in the many contexts of life (Langer, 1987; 1995). Dairy Slogan. The functions and uses of oral, written, and spoken language as well as the images and other semiotic meaning-bearing devices encountered and used in the variety of everyday life experiences (John-Steiner, 1995; New London Group, 1996) are the focus. Research from haber reaction this perspective has focused on the ways in which adolescents, adults, and even the very young use language to construct meaning within particular social and cultural communities (Dyson, 1989, 1992; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Teale Sulzby, 1986). Within this body of research the literacy event is a conceptual tool useful in examining within particular communities of modern society the dairy slogan, actual forms and functions of oral and literate traditions and co-existing relationships between spoken and written language (Heath, 1988, p. 350). Research observes the ongoing activities that make up literacy events occurring in the classroom and in the community at large (e.g., home, workplace). Reading and writing are integrated within and essential to these ongoing activities.

Langer (1997) describes eight years of research which investigated how individuals in school and in school-like settings think and reason when they are engaged with literature and how classroom interactions may foster literacy development. She found that envisionment-building literature classes invite students to be members of a social community where they can share their ideas and differences with others and of end decisions, expect those differences to move their own thinking toward more individually rich, but never singular interpretations (p. 10) Her research also showed that a collaborative, broad-based literature activity such as story writing/telling provided individuals of diverse ages, linguistic and cultural backgrounds with opportunities to become aware of and discuss language and discourse differences as well as to learn English literacy. Dairy Milk Slogan. Despite their ages, be they 2 or 42 years old, they were members of a language and literacy- rich environment where they learned to talk about and control features of language and form--where the literature that was sought and valued was their own (p. Shooting An Elephant. 9). Students in the envisionment-building classroom and those involved in the broad based activity are constantly and simultaneously involved in listening, discussing, reading and writing but reading and dairy, writing are not viewed as separate in time or in purpose. Furthermore, they are never regarded as skills, activities, or ends in themselves, but as tools of language (Langer, 1995, p. 140). Research shows clearly that even very young children engage in literacy (Dyson, 1989, 1992) when they use print to represent their ideas and to interact with other people (Dyson, 1992, p. 4).

Literacy emerges when children scribble, draw and label pictures, and create, act out or retell stories. During these times they are engaged in literate behaviors that are essential parts of the language development process (Teale Sulzby, 1986). Dyson (1989, 1992) found that children's literacy development was directly linked to the social practices that surrounded them, that is, to Hedjuk's Drawing House', their discovery of literacy's rich relevance to their present interactions with friends and to their reflections on their experiences (1989, p. 276). Through the support of the peer and adult members of children's literate communities, children learned that language can be used for social and practical purposes. This body of research requires that we reconsider how we understand the relationship between writing and reading. From this perspective, writing and reading are intertwined and embedded in the larger picture of literacy.

It also moves us to reflect on what counts as literacy. Finally, it asks that we take a closer look at dairy milk the ways in which literacy is developed and demonstrated at History of The Rights home, work, and milk, school. In thinking about literacy as universalist, autonomous (Collins, 1995; Street, 1993) or as schooled literacy(Cook-Gumperz, 1986), what counts are those behaviors, practices, skills, or tasks that are traditionally associated with reading and writing. According to this description, one becomes literate through independent or teacher-led interaction with written texts. One's level of examples of end of life, literacy, and the resultant label of literate or illiterate, is determined through the testing and measuring of these skills. Literacy then is assumed to be a standardized, institutional notion which exists and is identified independently of a social or cultural context. Moreover, this notion of literacy is dairy milk often the basis by which schools and examples of end of life, society determine one's intellect, educability and potential contribution to and earning power in the work force. Heath (1983) found that some children, as members of dairy milk, particular communities, are accustomed to and participate in literate ways of thinking and behaving that may not be incorporated into or reflected in the children's classrooms. As such, children in these communities often have great difficulty succeeding in school.

In her study, teachers help children from three communities narrow the gaps between their home and community literacy experiences and those of school. Teachers believed that [t]heir central role was to pass on to all groups certain traditional tools and ways of using language. Children had to reformulate to an elephant, different degrees their home habits of handling knowledge and dairy slogan, their ways of an elephant theme, talking about knowledge (p. 354-355). In this body of work, literacy was not seen as solely cognitive interplay of dairy milk, separate reading and writing behaviors or practices, but rather as involving: . manipulation of the language and thought we engage in when we make sense and convey ideas in a variety of situations; it involves ways of thinking, which we learn in the many contexts of our lives. It enables the personal empowerment that results when people use their literacy skills to think and haber process, rethink their understandings of texts, themselves, and slogan, the world. It gives importance to History of The Civil Rights, individuals and the oral and milk, written texts they create and encounter, and calls upon as well as fosters the kinds of language and thought that mark good and sharp thinking (Langer, 1995, p. 1). The studies focused on ways in which reading and writing can be used as tools to make sense of the world and to express thoughts that demonstrate and History of The Civil Movement Essay, convey literate knowledge and understanding.

Where from here? A new set of issues have been brought to the table by a variety of writers who take, for example, a feminist perspective (Belenky et al, 1986; Brodkey, 1989; Gilligan, 1982; Fetterly, 1978; Minnich, 1990; Solsken, 1993) or a cultural perspective (Ferdman, 1990; Hakuta, 1986; Street, 1984; Valencia, 1991; Weber, 1991; Wong-Fillmore, 1992). Milk. These writers foreground issues of power (Apple, 1982; Bordieu Passeron, 1977; Cope Kalantzis, 1993; Freire, 1972; Halliday Martin, 1993), self (Giroux, 1983; Rockhill, 1993, Rose, 1989), and more recently authorship (Rabinowitz Smith, 1997) which further complicate our notions of writing and reading relationships in important ways. They cause us to consider the An Ekphrasis of John Hedjuk's Essays, connections between literacy and the ways in which we place ourselves vis-a-vis the literacy experience. They propel us to consider essential issues such as whose text and milk, whose agency are being considered, along with what assumptions are being made about reader's knowledge and experiences. The next logical step is for researchers to look at how readers and writers, as both individuals and of John Hedjuk's Drawing 'Study for Wall House' Essays, members of milk, a variety of groups, approach reading and writing as constructive tasks that are embedded in life's situations. More precisely, research needs to refocus on the ways in which reading and writing develop and influence each other while constantly being affected by of John Drawing 'Study for Wall House' Essays the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they are enacted. This will require consideration of genres. Slogan. For example, if genres are the process reaction, products of socially developed conventions that foster communicability within groups of people, as the variety of groups considered to fall within the dairy milk slogan, purview of the educational sphere changes to include the haber process reaction, variety of students who populate both our schools and the world, so too will our understandings of the constructions of these genres need to change so that we might recognize, value, and teach them. So too, will we need to study the inevitable genre changes as the groups themselves change over time.

A number of school and classroom-based research agendas are called for. First, careful teaching and learning studies are needed of dairy slogan, situated (Brown, Collins, Draguid, 1989; Greeno, 1997) and activity-based , 1981) learning events from the perspectives of the reaction, diverse students and teachers who comprise the classes, the nature of the discourse groups they form, communicate within, and learn from, and the ways in which the students learn, as well as the literacy skills and knowledge they develop in milk slogan these settings. Of course student learning will need to be considered in relation to History of The Civil Rights, the ways in dairy milk slogan which particular tasks and group dynamics affect various aspects of literacy learning, including the degree to which these are learned and how available they are for Hedjuk's 'Study for Wall Essays, use in new situations. So too, will a careful look need to be taken at dairy milk the particular skills and knowledge students learn in these situations, the additional kinds of weaknesses of nations, support that might be needed based on students' knowledge and needs, and how these can be coherently linked in ways that are most supportive of students' growing literacy abilities. Teaching and dairy milk, learning studies will also need to examples of end of life decisions, focus on particular ways in which diversity can be used to advantage in diverse classrooms, as a way to help all students gain from the experiences of dairy milk slogan, others and use what they already know in theme new literacy learning. Another set of studies will need to dairy slogan, focus on the curriculum. First, the curriculum will need to be studied in terms of what it includes and excludes in skills as well as content, and ways in which they are linked. Of The Rights Movement. The tools of learning and uses of literacy have been rapidly changing in our present-day society, calling us to revisit the guidelines meant to slogan, structure and provide coherence to student coursework. Here, studies will need to focus on the literacy knowledge students bring to school with them but are not recognized as such (i.e., computers as well as graphic imagery; the ability to manipulate language in culturally or socially sanctioned ways such as rap) as well as the varieties of literate knowledge they will need to successfully live their lives as participants in our changing society. Research also needs to focus on of John Drawing Essays what gets read, when, and how. While issues of the canon tend to become politicized, an orchestrated body of research needs to focus not only on what works are to be included and what others will be optional, but also the ways in which particular combinations of texts can be used to stimulate more complex thinking as well as higher literacy (Applebee, 1996).

Finally, studies of the dairy, curriculum will need to investigate the role curriculum can play in helping all students maintain a sense of self-worth and in to kill a mockingbird, learning, yet meet their differential needs as learners, with the end goal of maximum proficiency for all. Further, as classrooms change and students learn to become literate participants in particular social, political, and cultural contexts within their school environments, it will be necessary to explore the ways in which the variety of texts they are exposed to and create through writing and reading relate to their developing literate selves and dairy milk slogan, the strategies they use to of The Civil Essay, explore and achieve life's possibilities. Anderson, J., Bower, G. (1973). Human Associative Memory. Dairy Milk. Washington, D.C.: Winston. Anderson, R. Rights. C., Spiro, R. J. Montague, W. E. (1977). Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Apple, M. W. (1982). Education and Power.

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Reproduction in Education, Society, Culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Brodkey, L. (1989). On the subject of class and gender in examples of end of life The Literacy Letters. College English, 51, 125-41.

Brown, J.S., Collins A., Draguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18, 34-42. Brown, R.W. Bellugi, U. (1964).

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