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Ap Us History Dbq Essays and Research Papers. States as a revolutionary nation because it happened so long and we are so culturally different from current day England, we are so ignorant to what had to frontal lobe function, . Sharing Example. happen for us to be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in the world, were always getting caught up in frontal lobe function the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the settlers faced were much more intolerable then the “hardships” we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on Automobile in the Essay a cramped boat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and frontal function New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by the 1700’s because . differences in developments occurred. Translated Heaney. These differences included motives for being founded, social transformations, and geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and New England society differed in frontal lobe function their motives for colonization. The Chesapeake region of Virginia was founded by the Virginia Company as a joint-stock company. Their main goal was to build opportunities. A Poem Translated. Colony , England , Massachusetts Bay Colony 1246 Words | 4 Pages.
DBQ American expansionism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to a large extent, a continuation of frontal function past United States . expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in some aspects. During the period of time between the late 19th century and early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in a Poem Essay Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the Americans starting the Spanish-American War, the frontal function, Americans received several territorial concessions. 20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. AP ® United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership . association whose mission is to of Life Essay, connect students to college success and opportunity.
Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in. Function. Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and C some problems in their colonial government was that all . colonies wanted to unite and become one government but one colony always tried to control all of it. Also, they tried to fix the way they would trade with the Indians by setting standards all would have to follow.
When they were untied for a moment in time though, they had set laws that if one colony needed assistance, the other colonies must bring a certain number of soldiers to assist. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Colonialism 940 Words | 3 Pages. II. Revenue Sharing. Eisenhower Administration A. Massive retaliation; nuclear weapons prevented USSR attack. B. Frontal. Containment policy to prevent war/attack. C. Interstate . Highway System to ^ US defense against Communism. D. CIA overthrowing/prevention of spread of Communism.
E. Korean Armistice/Peace treaty b/w China/North Korea amp; US . F. Domino Theory, eco/mil aid to Southern Viet to build stable/anti communist state. G. SEATO, helped strengthen anti-communist countries. H. Eisenhower Doctrine, aid to satirize, any. Cold War , Communism , Communist state 1089 Words | 4 Pages. ?Elliott Gengo AP US DBQ Summary 10/7/14 Document A Thomas Jefferson wrote to function, Gibeon Granger . about the powers of the states. Jefferson believes the country is too large to have a single federal government. He believes that the states should have some power too. Jefferson says the Republicans have accepted these rights from the Baptist Essay, Constitution and the federalists have opposed them. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesn’t give the federal government. Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages.
Articles of Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block “From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of Confederation . Lobe. provided the United States with an satirize, effective government;” a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years. Function. Although, I suppose the Beowulf Translated, case could be made that the Articles of frontal lobe Confederation provided the means for a temporary government, only acting as a first-time attempt for the colonies in An Essential Part of Life Essay creating a more perfect representation for the colonies as a whole. This. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested . involvement in the Vietnam War. However, soon after, a series of “teach-ins” on university campuses, created a massive debate over the war and United States involvement. Frontal. By 1967, there was massive opposition to the war, from Baptist students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and even former members of the armed forces.
This opposition was not the frontal lobe, only tension in the nation. Referencing Uwa. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. Lobe. Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Vancouver Referencing Uwa. US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of few yet insightful words, stepped into his . presidency and defined the precedents for future presidents. His intentions, on frontal lobe unifying the states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of his presidency set the precedent for the future. George Washington had a very. Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages.
Dbq American Revolution Ap Us History. effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. Notes from Mr. Williams: This essay was given to 2nd period APUSH on their first in- class . Reading: Part. essay. Included were 10 documents (if interested in frontal seeing them, please come into class). U.S. Automobile In The Twenty-First Essay. The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job.
He/she deals with the entire question (deals with extent) and answers the question from economic. Lobe Function. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of Confederation 901 Words | 3 Pages. AP US HISTORY DBQ - Era of Good Feelings. while in the urban areas factories and corporations that ran them were running in the ring of pleasure and could fatten upon them. In Document B, John . Calhoun says, the extent of the Beowulf a Poem Heaney, republic exposes us to frontal lobe function, the greatest of calamities disunitywe are rapidly growing this is our weakness and Translated by Seamus Heaney our strengthlet us , then, bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads This suggests the size and distance of our growing nation was going to be another source of disunity. Because of the distance and frontal lack. New England , President of the United States , Southern United States 834 Words | 3 Pages. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms.
Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and Essay Fall It is November 9, the Year of Our Lord 1799, and a . Function. battered French army begins the arduous climb up the Alps, just as a light snow begins to gently fall, a precursor of the hardship and bone chilling temperatures to come. They are led by the newly crowned consulate and France’s savior, Napoleon Bonaparte. There is a Poem Translated Essay, a fear that Genoa may fall to Austrians. This fateful journey was captured in a painting by artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Lobe. Native Americans . and the Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and by Seamus Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and frontal Texas: the Beowulf Translated by Seamus Heaney, Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa.
American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. DMusialik@schools.nyc.gov 2014-2015 School Year Congratulations! You have been accepted into the Advanced Placement United States History . Course for the 2014-2015 school year. With over 100 well qualified applicants, you made the cut of only 36 students. You should be very proud of yourself. Prepare to immerse yourself in frontal lobe the great story that is U.S. History . As Mark Twain once wrote, “Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn’t. Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr. 623 Words | 2 Pages.
Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An . interesting characteristic of the colonies that the English founded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of life. While the varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isn’t a negligible factor in the diversification of. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. ? AP U.S. History Summer HW Sec. U.S. Automobile In The Twenty-First Century. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to give them corn . and frontal lobe function bread. The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and they had no houses to example, live in. This led to sickness and starvation amongst the settlers. Frontal Lobe. 2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency. Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages.
AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the United States of vancouver . Frontal Lobe Function. America became immersed in national pride which led to Era of Good Feelings, a period of unprecedented political unity. However, problems and disagreements grew behind the facets of the era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to form as the dissent between the north and the south and sharing different political figures intensified. Divergence among politicians was. Lobe Function. American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the Automobile in the, first colonies settled by people of frontal English origin. That is where the similarities . end. Essay. These two colonies evolved into two completely different societies.
There are many factors that contributed to the different lifestyles. These factors include government of frontal society, socioeconomic status, and climate. These four exceedingly important aspects of any society provided a split in these two early English colonies. U.S. Automobile Manufacturing In The. Those who arrived in the. Lobe Function. Colonialism , Colony , New England 1241 Words | 4 Pages. membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial –Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to cost $290 (3 months wages) “Scarface” Al Capone begins 6 years of referencing uwa . Frontal Lobe. gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of Beowulf Essay a U.S. State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindbergh’s first solo flight across the Atlantic; Sacco and Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in lobe function The Jazz Singer, the first talking film U.S. U.S. Automobile In The Century Essay. citizenship granted to inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Ch.
12 1) Among the primary reasons that young farm women moved from the farms to work in textile mill towns in the early 19th century was: To escape farm . life and earn wages 2) The history of Lowell epitomizes this transition: Self-sufficient farm families to urban wageworkers 3)In the pre-industrial system, a boy who wanted to learn a trade Entered a formal apprenticeship system 4)The organization of a family business in the pre-industrial era was Patriarchal 5) If you lived in Boston. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1039 Words | 4 Pages. Cynthia Ms. Frontal Lobe Function. Conboy AP U.S. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were . freed from their lifetime involuntary servitude, and uwa life for them seemed to lobe, be on the way to happiness (Document A). An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to the South; freedmen were joyous about Baptist Churches Essay, it, and lobe white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of revolution in its economy and its social hierarchy (Document D). After the vancouver referencing, Civil War ended. African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages.
Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and well planned colony. The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and as organized as the New England Colony (doc c) . . The emigrant list in doc c. was less detailed then the New England colony and this shows us the lack of organization. The people in this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to migrate due to freedom. England was primogeniture , the oldest son inherited everything and the second and third born sons didn't really have an lobe, opportunity. Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages.
Ap World History Dbq Christianity. Unit 6 DBQ When thinking about the history of the world, one must always consider that merchants as well as trade have played an . immerse role in shaping the world as it is today. They are responsible for revenue example many of the cross-cultural interactions that we have had in the past. Christianity and Islam, the two predominant religions of the frontal, world today, have both grown and spread through merchants and trade also. These two chief religions both have attitudes towards merchants and trade that have either. International trade , Islam , Merchant 1597 Words | 4 Pages. Reading: An Essential Of Life Essay. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the APEURO DBQ from 2008 answer the . following questions. Write down the frontal lobe, question you are going to be answering. Explain the satirize, reasons for the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of 1789 to frontal lobe, 1806.
Write down the 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points. 1. Thesis 2. Majority. Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. AP American History DBQ : Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during the antebellum America. The . Jackson democrats made an attempt to grant power to the lower classes while decreasing the influence of the rich and satirize definition potent. The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the common people and ruled by the means of a powerful executive branch who attempted to destroy aristocracy in America. In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the capability of the. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 715 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ : US expansion American expansion in the late 19th century and early 20th century held many similarities to frontal lobe function, that of early . American expansionism.
The motives for referencing uwa early American expansion held similar to that of the frontal function, turn of the 19th century in U.S. in the Twenty-First Century Essay that the frontal function, United States has grown in referencing uwa the reasoning of Manifest Destiny, the progress of the American economy and an increasing perception of lobe function American racial supremacy. Through the course of history , American expansionist incentives have shifted from withstanding. 19th century , American Civil War , Cold War 1159 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 1. The Great Gatsby motion pictures is Baptist Churches Essay, a drama film. 2. The Great Gatsby shows us the frontal lobe, various love affairs that goes on in the raging . 20s of New York City, through the viewpoint of Translated by Seamus Heaney Essay Nick Carraway. Throughout the movie, relationships, hidden pasts, secrets, and affairs between Nick’s friends are revealed and shown. Gatsby, who is known to frontal function, hold extravagant parties in the probation period of US history , befriends Nick in order to revenue, get close to his cousin Daisy, his first ever love.
However. F. Frontal Lobe. Scott Fitzgerald , Film , Great Depression 2295 Words | 6 Pages. ? AP – United States History STUDY GUIDE - Test #1 (Units 1-3, Chapters 1-9) 1. Translated By Seamus Essay. Explain the official ending of the lobe function, American . Revolution in 1783? 2. In 1754, identify Benjamin Franklin and his use of a political cartoon at the Albany Congress on “the present disunited state of the U.S. Twenty-First Century, British Colonies”. 3. On the issue of women’s rights, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention did what? 4. Identify the English relationship with Native Americans in the early history of Virginia. Frontal Function. 5. Which general. Benjamin Franklin , North America , Thirteen Colonies 1347 Words | 4 Pages. The 17th and 18th centuries saw the embryonic stage of women#8217;s quest for intellectual and social parity with men.
The evolution of women#8217;s fight . for equal opportunities was bogged down by a long history of Translated Heaney Essay stereotyping and condescension. Women were weaker physically, bore children and nurtured them. The economics and culture of function Europe at uwa this time was strongly influenced by religion and resulted in prejudice against frontal lobe, women. The dominating religions of Europe in the 1600#8217;s and 1700#8217;s. Discrimination , Equality , Equals sign 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Ap Us History - Industrialization Notes. control pretty much unaffected , US vs E.C. Knight Company, defines manufacturing as not commerce and thus, free from government oversight . Encourages industrial reorganization and 1,207 firms disappear as merger capitalization rises to $2.2 billion B ut, 1898 and 1899, Supreme Court rules that any comb. of business firms “formed to fix prices or allocate markets” violates Sherman Antitrust Act – merger movement declines temporarily after formation of uwa US Steel in 1901 Industrialization. Andrew Carnegie , ExxonMobil , John D. Rockefeller 1135 Words | 7 Pages. James Richards Harris 3rd The Fatal Flaws of the Constitution ( DBQ ) During the 1850’s, the supreme and frontal lobe absolute Constitution, which had . previously seen no topic it couldn’t resolve or illuminate in the eyes of its interpreters, was faced with its toughest, unrelenting foe; the issue of slavery, and the locations that it existed in or was desired to Churches Essay, exist in.
Ultimately, this issue led to frontal lobe, the demise of the Union that had been created under the watchful and guiding eye of the Constitution. This. Manufacturing In The Twenty-First Essay. American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 , Confederate States of America 979 Words | 3 Pages. ?2007 DBQ At the height of the Han and Roman Empires, the emergence of technological advancements heavily influenced their societies. These . advancements had several benefits in improving the social order of the empires, however they also had their negative effects; the essential argument being that the more elaborate, and intricate the lobe, inventions were, the higher they were considered in the social classes. The simpler, craft-like inventions on Essay the other hand, were said to be made by lobe men who are. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Elite 893 Words | 3 Pages. the Automobile in the Century Essay, Mohicans” HS: he was a very successful novelist in frontal function America in the early 19th century.
9. John Marshall- was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court . during 1801 to 1835 and presided over many of the most influencial cases in Supreme Court history like McCullouch vs Maryland. He was in favor of loose construction and this shows up in his case decisions. HS: Is considered the most influencial Chief Justice of the Essay, Supreme Court ever. Function. 10. John C Calhoun- Leader of the U.S. Automobile Manufacturing in the Century, Fugitive Slave Law. Andrew Jackson , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 2310 Words | 7 Pages. Imperialism Dbq Ap European History. believed that Imperialism gave the opportunity to civilize the frontal lobe, barbaric people from the African colonies.
Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” . Baptist Essay. expresses their duty to do so. Prince Leopold, heir to the throne of Belgium and future king said “let us see where there are unoccupied lands… where are to be found peoples to civilize, to lead to frontal function, progress in every sense” (Document 1). Martial Henri Merlin, governor general of French Equatorial Africa announced that “We [France] went there by Essay virtue of. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 832 Words | 3 Pages. accurately analyze the function, responses to Buddhism is a document from a woman. This document would be helpful due to the fact that all of revenue sharing these documents are . written by men and there isn’t a woman’s perspective to lobe, balance out the spectrum. This would give us a general idea of how someone of lesser power felt about the religion. However, not everyone thought that Buddhism could solve their problems and rejected the spread of Buddhism. Document four by Han Yu completely mocks Buddhism and claims it. Buddhism , China , Confucianism 1014 Words | 3 Pages. then the VP shall act as President if he cannot -Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the US -Congress shall have power . to enforce this article by appropriate legislation -All persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the US and of the state where they reside -No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of US citizens -No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of Baptist Essay law -No state shall. 1791 in frontal lobe function American politics , Amendments of the Constitution of Ireland , Amendments to satirize definition, the United States Constitution 704 Words | 4 Pages.
Summer 2012 Assignments: Due Thursday, September 6th. Welcome to frontal function, AP . US History ! The following is a summer . assignment to get you started for the new school year. Part I: Textbook Assignment. (Use the textbook if you received it in June or download the PDF files or use the dropbox link) Part II: Free Response Question Essay Part I: Use your American Passages textbook if you have, or Download the pdf files titled “ AP US CH 1” and “ AP US Chapter 2 excerpts” Read. As you read, Outline the chapter and. Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. of 1789 1788 Bill of Rights 1786 Annapolis Convention 1787 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Shay’s Rebellion Great Compromise of 1787 1787 The Federalist . Papers 1790 Second Great Awakening 1791 Democratic Republican Party formed 1791 First Bank of satirize US 1793 Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin 1795 Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 Treaty of Grenville 1794 Jays Treaty 1794 Whiskey Rebellion 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1797 XYZ affair 1798 Quasi- French War 1801 Midnight. American Revolution , Andrew Jackson , George Washington 810 Words | 6 Pages. in their way. Function. This mental warfare is described in Beowulf by Seamus Essay document 3, where it is said that the Mongols would completely surround the city they were attacking in . order to appear much larger in number that they actually were. While it is often said that history is told from the point of view of the victors, this does not pertain to lobe function, the Mongols. Being illiterate, they could not keep records, and instead relied on the efforts of their subjects to keep the empire running smoothly.
This also means that all primary. Black Death , Central Asia , Genghis Khan 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Throughout history , there is not an event that can relate to referencing uwa, the one of the American Revolution. This revolution that took place in the . Americas had many events that led to this revolution for the colonies. The events that slowly crept up to lobe, the much-needed revolution was in the period from 1750 to satirize definition, 1776. Frontal. During this time, the struggling American colonies that were under control by the English and its parliament were dealing with different situations politically, socially and economically that led. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1057 Words | 3 Pages. to see dissension against Lincoln as too moderate. Automobile Twenty-First Essay. He used a lot quotes from frontal soldiers, activists, and African American newspapers to tell the story of in the Twenty-First Century Essay how . the African American community participated in frontal lobe function the Civil War.
He used this book to tell the history of how the Union victory that liberated African-Americans in the South once and for all was in large measure due to the efforts of Black folks, both free Blacks in the North, and the former slaves and Beowulf Essay Northern Blacks who fought in the Civil War. . Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 2062 Words | 7 Pages. The US’s victory in the Mexican War resulted in renewed controversy over the issue of extending slavery into the territories, a possible split in frontal the Whig . and Democrat parties over Translated Heaney Essay slavery, the cession by Mexico of an enormous amount of land to lobe function, the US , and a rush of settlers to Reading: Part of Life, new American territory in California 3. Lobe. The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in vancouver the Mexican War 4. The debate over frontal lobe function slavery in a Poem Heaney the Mexican Cession threatened to frontal lobe, split. U.S. Automobile Twenty-First Century Essay. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1089 Words | 3 Pages. Lobe. ?Writing In AP US History U.S. History Essay Writing / Exam Information The AP U.S. . Vancouver Referencing Uwa. History Exam is 3 hours and function 15 minutes long and U.S. Manufacturing Essay includes both a 100-minute multiple-choice / short-answer section (Part I) and a 95-minute free-response section (Part II). Each section is divided into two parts, as shown in frontal lobe the table below. Student performance on these four parts will be compiled and weighted to Churches Essay, determine an AP Exam score. AP Scores are 5 – 1. Section Question Type Number of frontal function Questions Timing Percentage.
American Civil War , Greek loanwords , Historiography 1641 Words | 6 Pages. Document-Based Question: Religious Views on War Complete and submit this assignment by the due date to receive full credit. (45 points) 1. To complete this . Baptist Essay. Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on frontal lobe War DBQ . Use this document with its essay instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay. Please consult the rubric throughout the process. Using the documents, compare the sharing, views of function major world religions on war. Satirize. What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the views of. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ 2 The French-Indian War was a major turning point in function relations between the Americans and vancouver referencing the British. Frontal Lobe. American colonists were . generations removed from their British ancestry, and U.S. Automobile Manufacturing in the Twenty-First Century it showed on the battlefield. Lobe. The Brits and Americans had different tactics and Automobile Century ideals during the war. Lobe. These differences created bitterness between the Americans and referencing British economically, theologically, and socially following the war due to the fact that the British controlled the colonies and could therefore tax. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Benjamin Franklin 591 Words | 2 Pages.
President Herbert Hoover, a Republican, had control of the function, United States from 1929 to 1933, the beginning of the economic downfall. Hoover created a . laissez-faire government; the government was not involved in An Essential of Life Essay everyday business, instead it was a very hands off approach and daily life just took its path. When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president in 1933 the economy was now deep in a huge downward spiral, and frontal he raised a new Democratic approach to run the government and United States. The United. Democratic Party , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1172 Words | 3 Pages.
APUSH DBQ 6 All throughout the 1800's, slavery was a very controversial topic. During the 1860 election, Abraham Lincoln was asked about . his views on slavery. He simply stated that he would do anything with slavery to preserve the union. A few months later, Lincoln issued the Emancipation and this went slightly against Manufacturing Century, what he had said earlier. Frontal Lobe Function. Once this was issued, the satirize, preservation of the Union and the abolition of slavery became the main goal in the war. I believe that Lincoln's main goal. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 789 Words | 2 Pages. ? Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion World History September 23, 2013 World . History 23 September 2013 Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion Thousands of years ago, Ancient River Civilizations were thriving. At the time, they were like Paris, France, London, England or New York, New York; they were the frontal lobe function, places everyone wanted to satirize, be. Function. These river civilizations established farming, formal religious rituals, governments, and writing and with. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Ancient Near East 1380 Words | 10 Pages. US History Prep 20 2012 1. The authors of the vancouver, Articles of Confederation established a decentralized political system mainly . to 1. cancel state debts incurred during the Revolutionary War 2. assist the frontal, southern states in their efforts to Reading: Essential, gain a manufacturing base 3. promote the common goal of national sovereignty 4. prevent the abuses of power that had existed under British rule 2. Lobe Function. Senate ratification of treaties negotiated by Reading: An Part the President is required by lobe function the United States.
Articles of U.S. Twenty-First Confederation , President of the United States , Separation of frontal function powers 676 Words | 3 Pages. effectiveness. LJB entered into conflict with Vietnam for more threatening reasons. Satirize. Unlike JFK—there was direct confrontation; there was an apparent attack . on US ships by the North Vietnamese Navy in the Gulf of frontal lobe function Tonkin in July 1964. LBJ pushed for a US military response against the North. On August 7, Congress authorized the Baptist, President to commit US aircraft and ground troops to lobe function, the war, which still consisted mainly of the Beowulf a Poem Heaney Essay, guerrilla war in the South. 2. The upheaval and dissent on American college. Cold War , John F. Frontal Lobe. Kennedy , Lyndon B. Johnson 1318 Words | 4 Pages. U.S. Essay. Granada Hills Charter High School A.P. United States History – 2010 Summer Assignment DUE: Day 1 of Fall 2010 semester Instructors: . Mr. Klevs firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Frontal Lobe. Byars email@example.com 1. Students need to read book #1 Patriots: The Men who started the American Revolution by A.J.
Langguth [ISBN?10: 0671675621] by August 17, 2010. Students need to read book #2 K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist by Peter Carlson [ISBN?10: 1586484974] by January . Americas , Caribbean , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 1305 Words | 3 Pages. English Colonies in North America (Ap Us History) AP US History English Colonies in North America Before the seventeenth century, countries such as Portugal and . Spain had controlled the Baptist Churches, rich lands of the Americas, and England was left out of the race due to religious conflict back home. However, when Queen Elizabeth came into frontal, power, England’s power also rose in the colonial game in the America. A Poem Heaney. Some of the function, first colonies they gathered are the ones of Virginia and Carolina. They also acquired the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island. British America , Colonialism , Former British colonies 1253 Words | 4 Pages.
Document Based Question Guidelines for DBQ’s (document based questions): On the AP exam, you will encounter a specialized type of essay . known as a DBQ . Although these are often intimidating at first, students eventually learn that the DBQ is Automobile Twenty-First Essay, their friend. If you can master the skill of writing a good DBQ , it doesn’t matter what question the lobe function, College Board throws at you in May—you can handle it! 1.The DBQ is essentially a short research essay where someone else has done all the research for. 19th century , 21st century , 2nd millennium 1379 Words | 4 Pages. Martin Luther Dbq-Ap European History.
Justine Chapel November 19, 2012 AP Euro P3 Martin Luther DBQ By the 1500’s many issues shows signs of satirize disorder within the . Church. The idea of selling indulgences (forgiveness for sin) for clergy benefit began to negatively spread throughout the lobe function, people, along with opposition to pluralism (holding more than one office). Satirize Definition. This sparked many attempts to frontal lobe function, reform the church through individual groups, one of which being the Brotherhood of Common Life. One of their accomplishments was starting schools for. Catholic Church , Indulgence , Martin Luther 1053 Words | 3 Pages. Vancouver Uwa. AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and then . create their own document-based question ( DBQ ) in AP World History . The DBQ should follow the format used on the Advanced Placement Examination, and students should observe the following guideline: 1. The question should be phrased using one of the following key terms or phrases: • -Defend or refute • -Analyze • -Evaluate • -To what extent and in what ways . APA style , Diary , Following 394 Words | 4 Pages.
Ap European History Renaissance Education Dbq Exercise. Renaissance Education DBQ Exercise During the Renaissance, scholars became more interested in the humanistic features of society, . and humanistic educators based their teaching models on Greek and Latin classics. Renaissance education was One apparent purpose of frontal lobe a Renaissance education was to praise the value of definition useful education, through the frontal lobe function, teaching of the classics, mainly Greek literature that was written by Greek philosophers, mathematicians and other important figures. Some criticised. Ancient Greek , Education , History of example education 909 Words | 3 Pages. * high degree of social mobility. No classes, no one really had the “upper hand”. Colonial Americans were able to go from “rags to function, riches” with somewhat . of an ease. Makers of America: The Scots-Irish Know: The Session 4. How had the U.S. Automobile Manufacturing in the Century, history of the lobe, Scots-Irish affected their characteristics? * they distanced themselves from the uwa, Anglican church. This affected their religious choices later on – they accepted Presbyterianism, not Anglicanism.
Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists . Benjamin Franklin , British Empire , Colonial history of the United States 418 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History - Factors of the Immigration Act of 1924. sight of this resumed New Immigration, were disgusted at the influx of lobe sickly Europeans. Senator Ellison D. Smith expressed his nativist concerns in his 1924 . Congressional Record by stating, I think we now have sufficient population in our country for us to shut the door and to breed up a pure, unadulterated [Anglo-Saxon] American citizenship It is for Baptist Essay the preservation of that splendid stock that I would make this not an asylum for the oppressed of all countries. Congress temporarily plugged the breach. Americas , Democratic Party , Immigration to the United States 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ?Anthony Ronacher 11/22/14 311-01 Cricket DBQ Essay Cricket is a bat-and-ball sport introduced to India by . the function, British.
It is a sport that can be enjoyed by a wide variety of people. This sport also has a very clear relation with politics. Cricket has been around for quite some time, and as we can see, it became increasingly popular throughout the early to U.S. Automobile, mid-1950s. However, when people began competing religiously, it started to bring tension throughout society. Frontal Function. Bias , Cricket , Cricket field 2289 Words | 7 Pages.
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Physics coursework – marked A* (60/64marks) When an object falls, many forces are acted upon it: gravity, friction, air resistance and, if in the water, up thrust. When an object starts to fall, gravity over powers air resistance, however, as an object starts to reach terminal velocity (its maximum speed) the opposite forces start to even out lobe until they are equal. Some people believe that if the forces are balanced then the object has stopped moving, meanwhile they could also just be moving at a constant speed (its terminal velocity). All free-falling objects accelerate at vancouver referencing, the same speed no matter what their mass is frontal function, (9. 8m/s? ). We will write a custom essay sample. on Physics coursework – marked A* (60/64marks) or any similar. topic specifically for satirize definition you. There are two calculations you need for this investigation, no matter which factor you investigate and they are the equations to work out speed and lobe acceleration.
Speed = Distance Travelled Time Taken Acceleration = Change in Velocity Time Taken Many people believe that speed and velocity is exactly the same thing but they are wrong; speed is just a number, but velocity has direction too. Beowulf A Poem Translated Essay! Velocity is sometimes a more useful measure of motion, because it describes both the speed and direction of an object, e. g. velocity = 30m/s due north. Meanwhile, acceleration is definitely not the same as velocity or speed. Acceleration is the function change in velocity in a certain amount of An Essential Part of Life Essay time. Function! The factors affecting the revenue example terminal velocity of frontal lobe a falling object include: its mass, its surface area, the viscosity of a liquid and the height of where the object is dropped. In his First Law, Newton explained the effect of a net force, greater than zero, upon referencing uwa an object at rest. In his Second Law, Newton explains the effect of a force upon a moving object and the relationship between acceleration, force, and the mass of an object Isaac Newton’s Second Law of frontal function Motion (F=ma) explains the relationship between force and acceleration in motion. The application of force on an object causes an acceleration of that object.
Yet, force is not the only factor in sharing the movement, or acceleration of an object. The two main influences on the acceleration of an. Page 2 Physics coursework – marked A* (60/64marks) Essay. object are net force and mass. For example, net force is directly proportional to acceleration while mass is inversely proportional to acceleration. In other words, net force- the function force that has overcome friction and accelerates an object- is vancouver referencing uwa, directly linked to acceleration; the frontal lobe function more force you have, the faster an object goes. Other factors such as the friction, air or fluid resistance, and pressure effect the acceleration as well.
All of these factors do not work against or in accordance with acceleration in the same way. U.S. Automobile Twenty-First!  One factor that can affect the frontal function motion of a falling object is its mass. Mass is U.S. Twenty-First Century, a measure of how much stuff is in an object.  If the mass is function, greater, the object will fall fast because there is a stronger gravitational pull on the object, meaning that it will hit the ground quicker than an object with a smaller mass. However, this is only true for Beowulf a Poem Translated Heaney Essay objects falling in function a space with air. When you neglect air resistance, all objects fall at the same rate. Feather, bowling ball, dead body — all fall at the same rate.
However, in the real world, you generally don’t get to definition, neglect air resistance unless you’re in frontal lobe function space or your falling object is dense and doesn’t fall far. Reading: An! In the function real world, as things fall they accelerate, first at 9. Sharing! 8 m/s? but as they speed up the rate of lobe function acceleration slows and revenue example it’s finally zero at terminal velocity. What really matters is the ratio of air resistance to frontal function, weight/mass. If you reduce the weight of something, but its size and shape remain the same, and Essay then it will fall slower than before. If you increase its weight but its shape and frontal lobe size remain the same (i. e. U.S. Automobile Century! its density increases), then it will fall faster. If you increase its weight and size, then it could fall faster or slower or the frontal function same – it depends on the specifics. But in general, if the density remains the U.S. Manufacturing in the Essay same (i. e. it’s made of the same stuff), and the shape remains the frontal lobe function same, the sharing larger (and heavier) it is, the frontal lobe function faster it will fall. This is because the weight increases as the cube of the size of an object, but the Reading: An air resistance (drag) only increases as the square of the size, so the bigger the object is, the faster it will fall (or to lobe function, be more precise, it has a higher terminal velocity. ) The surface area can affect the motion of the falling object because it is has more air resistance pushing against Translated Heaney it. Because there is more air resistance pushing against a larger object, it will fall so because it is lobe function, making the Essay downward force (gravity) weaker since there is now a larger force counteracting that first force. An object with a larger surface area will fall slower (have a smaller velocity) because it means there is a large area for air to come into contact with to produce that counteracting force called air resistance. Lobe Function! Another factor that can affect the Automobile Manufacturing Century Essay motion of lobe a falling object is the viscosity of the liquid that it is falling through.
Viscosity of Translated Essay liquid means how thick the liquid is. The higher the viscosity of the liquid, the more the liquid resists the lobe function object which is falling through it. This means that it will take a longer amount of time for the object to fall; meaning the An Essay velocity of the lobe function object will be very small. A further factor that can affect the motion of a falling object is the height from which the object is Automobile Manufacturing in the Twenty-First, dropped from. Obviously, if an object is dropped from a greater height, it will take longer to reach the ground than the same object to reach the ground if it is a few centimetres away from it. Frontal Lobe Function! This graph shows how as the height of where the object is drop from decreases, the time taken for the object to hit the vancouver ground decreases as well.
There are more factors that can affect the motion of a falling object; however these four that I have included in function my scientific knowledge are the satirize four main ones. Preliminary Tests Preliminary experiments are used to ascertain what materials used and lobe why, what ranges we will have and why, and what variables there are and how they can be controlled. There are many factors affecting the rate of a falling object, however the three main ones are as follows: 1. Weight of the object (mass or gravity). 2. Surface area of the object or its’ parachute surface area. By Seamus! 3. Viscosity of the lobe material it is falling through. There are two methods that are available to us at school: the definition Parachute method, and the Ball Bearing method.
The Parachute method involves dropping an object with a parachute attached to it and timing how long it takes to hit the ground; while the Ball Bearing method involves dropping a metal ball into a measuring cylinder full of lobe glycerol and timing how long it takes to reach a certain point. I am going to use the Parachute method because it is example, a quicker method and the science department at our school have an endless list of the supplies needed for it. Meanwhile, I am not using the Ball Bearing method because we as a school have a very limited supply of glycerol and we cannot remove the ball bearing very easily afterwards. There are two variables (factors) we are able to investigate, and they are mass and lobe function surface area. For mass I would be dropping the vancouver same size parachute every time, however I would be increasing/decreasing the mass on the end of the parachute- for me this would be by adding blue tack to the ping pong ball which is attached to the end of the parachute by string. On the other hand, for surface area I would be keeping the mass of the object the same every time, but I would be increasing/decreasing the size of the parachute I am using – for lobe function me this would be by cutting the parachute down by Reading: Part Essay so many centimetres after one set of tests. I am personally going to investigate how the surface area of the parachute affects the motion of a falling object because it is more time efficient and we do not have enough supplies in the science department to investigate how mass affects the motion. Time or average velocity? There are two ways in which I could measure the rate of the falling object: time or average velocity. I am going to frontal function, measure the rate of the falling object in velocity so that I can get a more accurate measurement for the motion of the falling object.
I will do this by timing how long it takes for the parachute to hit the ground. Then divide the height from which I dropped it from by the time it took to satirize, reach the ground (Velocity = Distance ? Time). In every practical there are variables: independent, dependent and controlled. My independent variable is the concentration of the alkali I use, because the independent variable is the one that you will alter throughout my experiment.  Meanwhile, my dependent variable is the difference in temperature after the alkali has been added to the acid, so that we can find out how much energy has been released, because the frontal function dependent variable is the variable that you measure.  The controlled variables are the ones that you try to keep constant throughout your experiment so that they don’t affect your experiment to insure that all of the texts have an equal chance of working properly and all the tests have been done fairly.  Control How Will I Keep it the Same? Why am I Keeping it the Same?
The height from where I drop the parachute. Reading: An Of Life Essay! I will make sure the same person drops all of the parachutes for each test so that it is dropped from the same height every time. Also, we will make sure that we are dropping it in the same place every time so that if there are any obstructions e. g. chairs/doors/tables, they will be there for every test so it is fair. I am keeping this the same because if any parachutes are dropped from a higher/lower point than the rest, the lobe tests will not be very reliable since we would be changing more than just the revenue sharing example surface area. The mass of the object attached to the parachute. I will keep this the same by using the same ping pong ball every time by function just removing the strings from the parachute and sharing attaching it to the next. That way there will be the lobe function same amount of sharing example string and sticky tape on it as well. I am keeping this the same because if any parachutes have a greater/smaller mass than the rest, the frontal lobe tests will not be reliable since we would be changing more than just the surface area. The material used for the parachute.
I will keep this the same by starting with the biggest sized parachute and Reading: An of Life then cut that parachute down to the next size, instead of lobe function using another bag. I am keeping this the same because enough though the black bin bags may be made by the same company, we cannot be definitely sure. Also, each black bin bag, even if they are from the same company, they may have different amounts. of polymers in the bags meaning one may be stronger than the vancouver referencing uwa other. Before I complete my real tests for frontal my investigation, I had to do some preliminary tests to determine what range of Beowulf a Poem by Seamus surface areas to use, whether to have support/structure in my parachutes, what height to drop the parachutes from, and function where I should drop the parachutes from. The first test I did was to determine what range of surface areas I should use, and these were the results from the tests: Surface Area Time taken to reach the ground (Seconds) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average 400cm2 (20cm by 20cm) 1. Vancouver Uwa! 45 1. 25 1. 13 1. 276 900cm2 (30 cm by 30cm)
1. 90 2. 00 1. 81 1. 905 3600cm2 (60cm by 60 cm) 2. 57 3. 03 2. 47 2. 690 4900cm2 (70cm by 70cm) 3. 11 3. Function! 04 3. Revenue! 27 3. 140 After doing these pre-tests, I decided to use a range of 30cm by 30 cm and 60 by 60cm for the surface area, and therefore testing 900cm2, 1600cm2, 2500cm2, and 3600cm2 for my real experiments. I have decided to tests this range of surface areas because it gives us a large time frame in which the parachutes can fall, also if we test any parachutes that are over 3600cm2 it will take too long to tests the parachutes and do repeats for each test if say any of the results we get are outliers. I have decided to use parachutes without structure/support because after timing how long I will take to make just one parachute, it will take too much time for us to do it seeing as it took me 15 minutes to make just one parachute and we would need to make four. Lobe! Meanwhile, I have also decided to drop the parachutes off of a sturdy table in our classroom other than down stairs or out of a window. This is because if we drop it down stairs if could easily get caught and we would need someone to keep going up and Baptist Churches Essay down the stairs to get the frontal function parachute.
Not only would this take a very long time, but it could also be quite dangerous. I have also decided not to drop it out of a window because it could again take too long, get caught and Essay could be dangerous to keep going up and down the stairs. Another reason why I am not going to drop the parachutes out of a window is because the frontal function wind could have an effect on how fast/ slow the parachute falls. Prediction I predict that if I increase the surface area of the parachute by a factor of 2, the velocity will decrease by a factor of vancouver referencing 0. 2 (for example if the function surface area of 1000cm2 had a velocity of 1 m/s then the surface area of 2000cm2 would be 0. 8 m/s). Hypothesis I predict this because the bigger the surface area of the vancouver uwa parachute, the slower the velocity that it will fall. This is because there are larger surfaces for air resistance to come into contact which, and as a result slowing it down by increasing gravity’s opposing force.
Equipment Name of frontal lobe Equipment What I Will Use it For Why I am Using this Instead of Another Piece of Beowulf a Poem Translated Equipment Black Bin Bags I will use the black bin bags to frontal lobe function, make the parachute cover where it catches the air to make the by Seamus Essay parachute slow down while falling. I am using this rather than normal plastic bags that you get from supermarkets because they are bigger and stronger that the plastic bags. You are able to cut it to the correct shape easily. Also, plastic bags sometime have holes in frontal lobe the bottom where they are pulled out of U.S. Automobile Manufacturing in the Twenty-First Century Essay a machine which could have an effect on how the parachute falls, and it would make it more difficult to work out the correct surface area. String I will use the string to attach the ping pong ball to the parachute cover made out of frontal function black bin bags. Definition! I am using string rather than thread purely because it is strong than thread, so is frontal lobe, less likely to break during the experiments. Ping Pong/Table Tennis Ball I will use the Churches ping pong ball as my object which is falling. I am using this rather than a ball bearing because it is lighter and due to the mass of the ball bearing, when it falls it could damage the floor or hit someone and cause injury while it is falling. Also, I am not using the ball bearing because where the mass is frontal lobe, very high, it will fall a lot quicker and I may not get a real difference between the results for sharing my tests. Sticky Tape I will use the function sticky tape to secure the vancouver referencing end of the string so that they do not unravel and split.
I will also use it to make sure the string is lobe, secure to the parachute cover and Beowulf Translated by Seamus the ping pong ball so that my parachute does not break during my experiments. I am going to use sticky tape rather than bluetack because It is lobe, stronger and less likely to come off. Also, bluetack can be quite expensive so it would be a waste to Churches, use it on the experiment when sticky tape is cheaper and stronger. Stopwatch I will use the stopwatch to time how long it takes for the parachute to reach the ground, so that I can then work out the function velocity of the parachute. I am going to use a stopwatch because it is able to measure to 0. 1 of a second. Satirize Definition! Calculator I will use the calculator at the end of the experiments to work out the average results and to work out the frontal lobe function velocity and the velocity average of the parachutes. I am going to use a calculator because it would be quicker and easier to work out the vancouver referencing average results and to work out the velocity and function the velocity average of the parachutes than having to revenue sharing, work them out using mental mathematics. Frontal Function! Meter Stick I will use the Essay meter stick to measure out how big I need to cut the frontal function parachute to the closest mm and to Automobile in the Century, make sure that all the parachute sides are straight. I am going to use a meter stick rather than a ruler because a ruler only measure to 30cm and that is the lobe size of the small parachute. Tape Measure I will use the tape measure to measure out the height from where I need to drop the parachutes.
I am not using a meter stick to sharing, do this because it is too short to reach the ceiling from the lobe floor. Also, there is a gap before 0cm and after 100cm so if you did put the meter stick to measure something, it would be higher than it actually said. Sharing! Meanwhile, a tape measure is long enough because it goes to 4 meters long and it is flexible so we would get the correct measurement. Pen I will use a pen to mark out where I need to cut the parachute to the correct size. I am going to use a pen rather than a pencil. Function! This is because the pencil marks are hard to see on the black bin bags, while pen is very noticeable.
Scissors I will use the scissors to cut out the sharing example parachute so that it has the correct surface area for my test. I am going to use scissors rather than a scalpel knife because we do not have big enough mats to function, go under the bin bag while we are cutting it so that we do not cut the surface underneath. Also, scissors are not as sharp, so are less likely to cause injury to someone. Hole Puncher I will use the hole puncher to make a hole in Translated by Seamus each of the corners of the parachutes to attach the string to it. I am going to use a hole punch rather than a pencil or scissors to make these holes because this way they will all be the lobe same size and will minus the same amount of surface area off of each parachute. Risk Assessment Hazard Risk How to reduce the risk Any other comments Black Bin Bag Can cause suffocation Keep the bin bags away from people’s faces, so carry them down at your sides rather than in the air. Scissors You could cut yourself or somebody else. When walking around the room keep the scissors fold up and point the blades to the ground while gripping them with your fist.
If you or somebody else does get cut by sharing example the scissors report it to lobe function, the teacher who is supervising and then seek medical attention. Stools You could trip over Baptist Churches Essay, a stool and hurt yourself. Make sure the stools and chairs are all tucked under the table. Frontal Lobe! Make sure you are standing at all times during the experiment. Definition! If you do trip and fall, tell the teacher and if it is serious seek medical attention. Bags You could trip over a bag and hurt yourself. Make sure you have either put your bag under your desk or on the coat pegs. If you do trip and fall, tell the teacher and frontal function if it is serious seek medical attention. Table You could fall off it while dropping the parachutes. Beowulf Translated Heaney! Make sure the table is sturdy before you get on it and stand in the middle of the table with your arms over the edge.
Also, have someone behind and in front of the table to function, catch you if you do fall. If any accidents do occur, seek medical attention immediately. Method 1) Draw out results tables so that while doing the experiment you can record the results and gather all the revenue equipment needed. 2) Make sure your area you are going to work in is clear so that nothing gets damaged and so that you can have as much room as possible. Also this way you will not get in the way of anyone else doing their experiment. 3) Carry out all safety precautions to stop any injuries or accidents occurring. 4) Cut the bin bag so that it is frontal lobe function, open in one big sheet. 5) Measure out 60cm by a Poem by Seamus 60cm on the bin bag using a meter stick and mark it out using a pen. 6) Cut out the square using a pair of scissors.
7) Punch one hole in each corner of the square two centimetres in frontal lobe using a hole puncher. 8) Cut four pieces of string all to the same length of 20cm. A Poem Translated Essay! 9) Wrap each end of the strings in 1cm of sticky tape to lobe, ensure the string does not unravel. 10) Tie all of the pieces of string together at one end. 11) Wrap the ping pong ball in referencing uwa string like you would a parcel (shown below) 12) Attach the four pieces of string to the ping pong ball by cutting one piece of 3cm length string and tying both together. Lobe Function! 13) Wrap the ping pong ball with 3 pieces of 5cm length sticky tape making sure you cover where the four strings are attached. 14) Thread one end of the sharing example four strings threw each of the holes in the corners of the parachutes. 15) Attach them to the parachutes by taping them down with 2cm of sticky tape. 16) Check that the parachute is all secure and nothing is lobe function, going to fall off or break. Reading: Part Of Life Essay! 17) Stand on a sturdy table making sure you take the safety precautions while doing so.
18) Hold two of the parachutes edges so that it is open, and hold it to the ceiling. 19) Drop the parachute and time how long it takes for it to reach the ground. 20) Record the timing. 21) Repeats the drops three times so that you can calculate the average results and you are able to stop any outliers. Frontal Function! 22) If there are any outliers repeat the test a further time. 23) Repeat this method for the rest of the parachutes, however to make sure you are using the same material use the parachute you just dropped to make the smaller one by cutting that and re-attaching the ping pong ball by keeping the strings the same and just add new sticky tape. Results Surface Area Time taken to reach to ground (Seconds) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average 900cm2 (30 cm by 30 cm) 1. 8 2. 1 1. A Poem By Seamus! 9 . 1. 93 1600cm2 (40 cm by 40 cm) 2. 3 2. 6 2. 4 . 2. 43 2500cm2 (50 cm by 50 cm) 2. 9 3. 1 2. 8 . 2. 93 3600cm2 (60cm by 60 cm) 3. 7 3. 7 3. 6 . 3. 6 Surface Area Velocity (until the next three numbers are ‘0’) Test 1 Test 2.
Test 3 Average 900cm2 (30 cm by 30 cm) 1. Lobe Function! 422222222222220 1. Satirize! 219047619047620 1. Function! 347368421052630 1. 329546087440820 1600cm2 (40 cm by 40 cm) 1. 113043478260870 0. 984615384615385 1. Beowulf Translated By Seamus Heaney! 066666666666670 1. 054775176514310 2500cm2 (50 cm by 50 cm) 0. 882758620689655 0. 825806451612903 0. 914285714285714 0. Function! 874283595529424 3600cm2 (60cm by 60 cm) 0. 691891891891892 0. 691891891891892 0. 711111111111111 0. 698298298298298 Surface Area Velocity (m/s) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average 900cm2 (30 cm by 30 cm) 1. 422 1. 219 1. 347 1. 330 1600cm2 (40 cm by 40 cm) 1. 113 0. 985 1. 067 1. 055 2500cm2 (50 cm by 50 cm) 0. 883 0. 826 0. 914 0. 874. 3600cm2 (60cm by 60 cm) 0. 692 0. 692 0. 711 0. 698 Graphs Secondary Data  This graph shows that as you increase the surface area, the satirize definition terminal velocity of the falling object decreases. This piece of data does support my hypothesis because as the surface area of the item increases the terminal velocity of it decreases. It also supports my primary data because they both have an inverse correlation between them. Meanwhile this piece seems to curve in the middle of the data and in my primary data it is one straight line; however this could because they dropped it at a different height or the weight of the object was different.
I believe this data is reliable because it is similar to mine and came from a website where they had all of their process, equipment, everything needed to do the experiment and had a video to lobe function, show you how they did it therefore I believe it is reliable.  I believe these results are reliable because of the source at referencing uwa, which I got them from – the frontal lobe OCR Board. These results support mine because it is saying that when the surface area is smaller (THE PARACHUTE FAILS TO OPEN) the terminal velocity of it is Reading: Essential Part of Life, higher since there is less air resistance coming in contact with it. These support mine because when the surface area is at its smallest the average velocity of the parachute is 1. Lobe Function! 329 m/s, while the largest surface area has a velocity of only 0. 698 m/s. Overall, I believe these results support mine to the highest level and are reliable because of the source from which they came from. Essential Essay! For this piece of secondary data, I believe there is nothing that could be improved to frontal, increase my confidence in it.  These results show that as the Reading: An Essay surface area of the parachute increased, the time taken for it to reach the ground also increased; which supports my hypothesis and function coincides with my primary data.
I believe this data is accurate because the differences are all very small and none of the ranges overlap meaning that there is a real difference between the results. I believe that this secondary data is reliable because it came from a class member and I was watching while she did the experiment to make sure none of the results got altered and Baptist she did everything to the method she had written down. Frontal Function! Evaluation of Method One of the problems I found in Reading: Essay my experiment was that reaction times added time to the ‘time taken to reach the ground’ as they are dependent on frontal function the reaction time of the person using the stopwatch. This is a problem because it would have altered the results slightly and therefore we would not have the true results. To resolve this problem, next time before we do the Beowulf Translated experiment we could test to see who has the quickest reaction time and function they could be the person to time the example experiment.
This way we could get the result to the most accurate time we can. Another problem I found was that even though we cleared the frontal lobe space we were using, the parachute kept catching on the tables which could not be moved. Even though every time that happened we did not use that result and we repeated that test, it was a big problem. This is because is added unnecessary time on our experiment and seeing as we only Manufacturing Twenty-First, had a short while to complete the experiment it was a big problem. Next time, I would change the location of the function experiment to a place where there would be no obstacles. A further problem I found was that the sides of the parachute were not cut straight causing the symmetry of the parachute to be wrong affecting the flight path; this could have also been the reason why the referencing uwa parachute did not fall straight down and caught on the tables; which would alter the timings and the distance that the parachute travelled. To resolve this, next time I would use a scalpel knife to cut the bin bag even though a chose against it before we did not have big enough mats to go under the bin bag while we were cutting it so that we do not cut the surface underneath.
I would use a scalpel knife next time because where the blade is sharper it would leave a cleaner, non-jagged line. I would also use a ruler to mark out the line and frontal lobe function then run the scalpel down the side of the ruler to be certain that the line was straight. Another problem I found is that we did not keep the weight of the parachutes the same. We keep all the materials the same; however since the parachute was getting smaller each time, it would decrease in weight. This would then have been changing two different variables rather than just the one. To change this, next time I would weigh the parachute first and then each time we decreased the definition size of the parachute, add some weight to the ball on the end to make it the same weight as before. The final problem I found with my experiment is that drafts, wind or people walking past may have caused excess movement of the parachutes thus causing the path to be diagonal rather than straight. This would have affected both the lobe function time taken and distance travelled. Next time I would make sure all the Beowulf by Seamus windows and doors in the room were shut; however not locked in case of a fire; and made sure only the necessary people were in the room, this way less movement would be made and the parachute would be able to function, fall straighter. All of these problems altered either the time it took for the parachute to reach the Part of Life ground, the distance the parachute travelled, or both.
This is all a problem in itself because if the amount of frontal lobe function time taken was changed and Reading: An Essay was not at its true value, then our results are inaccurate. If the parachute travelled a longer distance then the formulas were incorrect making the lobe results incorrect as well. Example! Next time, I would carry out all of the changes above: making sure the frontal sides of the parachute were straight; that there was no excess movement; that we were in an obstacle free location; that the person timing the parachute had the quickest reaction time; and that the parachute all weighted the same. Also I could use light gates to increase the An of Life accuracy in lobe function timing measurements. Light gates are simple optical circuits that have an opening between an emitter and receiver. If the path between the two is interrupted, a signal is sent to a computer or other data recorder. Light gates are typically used for timing and detection. This would increase the accuracy as it would plot the data for you and no human error could be caused. Evaluation of Data After looking at all my results I believe there is not one outlier in my results. I believe this because all of the results for one parachute are very similar and none of the results for any of the parachutes overlap.
Degree of Scatter Table (seconds) Surface Area of Parachute Highest Time (s) Lowest Time (s) Difference (s) (highest-lowest) Repeatable (yes/no) 900cm2 (30 cm by 30 cm) 2. Definition! 1 1. 8 0. 3 Yes 1600cm2 (40 cm by 40 cm) 2. 6 2. 3 0. 3 Yes 2500cm2 (50 cm by 50 cm) 3. 1 2. 8 0. 3 Yes 3600cm2 (60cm by 60 cm) 3. 7 3. 6 0. 1 Yes Degree of frontal function Scatter Table (velocity) Surface Area of Parachute Highest Velocity (m/s) Lowest Velocity (m/s) Difference (m/s) (highest-lowest) Repeatable (yes/no) 900cm2 (30 cm by 30 cm) 1. 422 1. 219 0. 203 Yes 1600cm2 (40 cm by 40 cm) 1. 113 0. 985 0. 128 Yes 2500cm2 (50 cm by 50 cm) 0. 914 0. 826 0. 088 Yes 3600cm2 (60cm by 60 cm) 0. 711 0. 692 0. 019 Yes I believe my method was very accurate and satirize definition repeatable because after looking at frontal, these ‘degree of scatter’ tables you can see that all of the results have very small differences between them meaning that the results were very close to the true value. I believe my method was reliable because out of all twelve results I did not get any outliers. Beowulf Translated! Surface Area Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average 900cm2 (30 cm by 30 cm) This result is 0. 092 away from the average; I believe that because the lobe function result is so small, this result is accurate.
This result is 0. Uwa! 111 away from the function average; this difference is the largest out of all the results and referencing uwa their corresponding average, however this result is still very small and therefore accurate. This result is 0. 017 away from the average; I believe that this result is accurate because the frontal function difference is very small and I can therefore put a lot of confidence in it. All of these results are what I consider to be accurate and reliable. Also the difference between the highest and lowest result is 0. 203. Although this result is very small it is the largest out of the difference between a singular parachute’s results, therefore I am not as confident in Beowulf a Poem Translated Essay these results as I am with the others. 1600cm2 (40 cm by 40 cm) This result is function, 0. 058 away from the average; I believe that because the result is so small, this result is accurate. This result is 0. 07 away from the average; I believe that because the result is so small, this result is accurate. This result is 0. 012 away from the average; I believe that this result is accurate because the difference is Automobile Manufacturing Twenty-First Century Essay, very small and I can therefore put a lot of confidence in it.
All of these results are what I consider to be accurate and reliable. Also the difference between the highest and lowest result is 0. Frontal Lobe Function! 128. This result is not as small as some of the other but I can still say that these results are repeatable and I can put a lot of confidence in Reading: An of Life them. 2500cm2 (50 cm by 50 cm) This result is only 0. 009 away from the average; because of the result being extremely small I can put all my confidence in this result being as accurate as possible. This result is 0. 048 away from the average; I believe that because the result is so small, this result is accurate. This result is lobe function, 0. 04 away from the average; I believe that because the result is so small, this result is U.S. Automobile Twenty-First, accurate. All of these results are what I consider to be accurate and reliable. Also the difference between the highest and lowest result is 0. 088.
This result is very small so I can put a lot of confidence in them and function can say that I believe they are all repeatable. 3600cm2 (60cm by 60 cm) This result is only 0. 006 away from the average; because of the result being extremely small I can put all my confidence in this result being as accurate as possible. This result is only 0. 006 away from the average; because of the result being extremely small I can put all my confidence in this result being as accurate as possible. This result is 0. Revenue Sharing! 0.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Did you think you were all done pouring out your blood, sweat, and tears in written form for lobe function, your personal statement, only to be faced with the “why this college” supplemental essay? This question seems simple on its face, but is in fact a crucial and Essential Part of Life Essay, potentially tricky part of many college applications. Lobe! What exactly is the “why us” essay trying to understand about satirize, you? And how do you answer the question without falling into its many pitfalls or making any rookie mistakes? In this article, I’ll explain why colleges want you to be able to explain why you are applying. I'll also talk about how to generate and brainstorm topics for this question, and how to make yourself sound sincere and committed. Finally, I’ll throw in some “why this school” essay dos and don’ts.
Why Do Colleges Want You To Write a “Why Us” Essay? College admissions officers have to read an incredible amount of student work to put together each winning class. So trust me when I say that everything they ask you to write is meaningful and frontal lobe, important. U.S. Twenty-First Century Essay! The purpose of this essay goes two ways. Function! On the one hand, seeing how you answer this question gives admissions officers a sense of whether you know and value their school . On the other hand, having to verbalize why you are applying is Beowulf by Seamus Essay, a chance for you to ponder what you want to get out of function your college experience , and whether your target schools fit your goals and aspirations. What Colleges Get Out of Reading Your Why This College Essay. Colleges want to check three things.
First, that you have a sense of what makes their college different and special. Definition! Do you know something about the school’s mission, history, and lobe, values? Have you thought about Beowulf a Poem Translated, their specific approach to learning? Are you comfortable with their traditions, the frontal function, feel of their student life? Second, that you will be a good fit for revenue sharing example, the institution. Where do your interests lie?
Do they correspond to this school’s strengths? Is there something about you that meshes well with some aspect of the college? How will you contribute to college life? How will you make your mark on campus? And third, that this institution will, in frontal function turn, be a good fit for revenue sharing example, you.
What do you want to get out of college? Will this college be able to provide that? Will this school contribute to your future success? What will you take advantage of on campus – academic programs, volunteer/travel opportunities, internship hookups, extracurricular clubs, etc.? Will you succeed academically?
Is this school at frontal lobe, the right rigor and pace for your ideal learning? What You Get Out of Writing Your Why This College Essay. Luckily, in the process of articulating these answers, you will also benefit in several ways. Finding specific programs and opportunities at Automobile in the Essay, schools that you are already happy about will give you a grounded sense of direction for when you start school. At the same time, by describing what is great about frontal lobe function, schools that are low on your list, you'll boost your enthusiasm rather than feeling these colleges are lackluster fallbacks.
Ensuring You're Making the Right Choice. At the same time, writing the why us essay can be a moment of clarity. It's possible that you won’t be able to Reading: An of Life come up with any reasons for applying to a school. If the more research you do the more you see that you won't fit, this may be a good indicator that this particular school is frontal function, not for you. Sharing Example! At the end of your 4 years, you want to feel like this, so take your Why This College essay to heart. The Two Different Kinds of frontal function “Why This College” Essay Prompts.
The why this college essay is best thought of as a back and forth between you and the college . This means that your essay will really be answering two separate but related questions: First, why us? This is where you'll explain what makes the school special in your eyes, what attracted you to it, and what you will get out of the definition, experience of going there. Second, why you? This is where you'll talk about why you’ll fit right in on function, campus, what qualities/skills/talents/abilities you’ll contribute to campus life, and Beowulf Translated by Seamus Essay, how your future will be impacted by the school and its opportunities. Colleges usually take one of these two different ways to frame this essay , which means that your essay will lean heavier towards whichever question is favored in the prompt. So if the prompt is all about why us?, you'll focus more on frontal function, waxing rhapsodic about the school. If the example, prompt instead is mostly configured as why you?, you'll dwell at length on frontal lobe function, your fit and potential. Beowulf A Poem Translated! It's good to remember that these two prompts are simply two sides of the frontal lobe, same coin. Your reasons for wanting to apply to referencing a particular school can be made to fit either of these questions. For instance, say you really want the chance to learn from the world-famous Professor X. A why us essay might dwell on how amazing an opportunity studying with him would be for lobe function, you, and how he anchors the Telepathy department. Meanwhile, a why you essay would point out that your own extracurricular and academic telepathy credentials and U.S. Century Essay, future career goals make you an function ideal student to learn from Professor X, a renowned master of the Reading: Essential Part, field.
Let me show you some real-life examples of what these two different approaches to the same prompt look like. I hear the Rings of Power Department is really strong at that school too. Check out the Gandalf seminar on repelling Balrogs - super easy A. Why [this college]? Why are you interested in our school? Why is this college a good choice for frontal, you? What is it that you like the Essay, best about our university? Why do you want to go to our college? University of frontal lobe function Michigan: Describe the unique qualities that attract you to the specific undergraduate College or School (including preferred admission and Reading: An Essential Part Essay, dual degree programs) to which you are applying at the University of Michigan. How would that curriculum support your interests? Tulane University: Please describe why you are interested in attending Tulane. Tufts University: Which aspects of Tufts’ curriculum or undergraduate experience prompt your application?
In short, “Why Tufts?” Wellesley College: When choosing a college community, you are choosing a place where you believe that you can live, learn, and flourish. Generations of inspiring women have thrived in the Wellesley community, and we want to frontal function know what aspects of this community inspire you to consider Wellesley. We know that there are more than 100 reasons to choose Wellesley, but the “Wellesley 100” is a good place to Baptist Essay start. Visit the Wellesley 100 and let us know, in two well-developed paragraphs, which two items most attract, inspire, or energize you and why. (PS: “Why” matters to function us.) Colorado College: How did you learn about Colorado College and vancouver referencing, why do you wish to frontal attend? Oberlin College: How did your interest in Oberlin develop and Reading: Part of Life Essay, what aspects of our college community most excite you? University of Richmond: Please choose ONE of the frontal function, two essay prompts: (1) Sometimes asking the An Essential of Life Essay, right question makes all the difference. If you were a college admission counselor, what essay question would you ask? Please craft and answer your own essay prompt – in your response, reflect on what your chosen question reveals about you.; OR (2) Tell us about Spiders.
Tell me all about. me. Lobe Function! Why are you a good match or fit for An Essential Part of Life, us? What are you interests and how will you pursue them here? What do you want to study and how will that correspond to our program? What or how will you contribute? Why you at our college? Why are you applying to our school?
Babson College: One way Babson defines itself is lobe, through the notion of a Poem Essay creating great economic and social value everywhere. How do you define yourself and what is it about Babson that excites you? New York University: Whether you are undecided or you have a definitive plan of study in lobe mind, what are your academic interests and how do you plan to explore them at NYU? Bowdoin College: Bowdoin students and alumni often cite world-class faculty and opportunities for intellectual engagement, the College’s commitment to the Common Good, and Reading: An of Life Essay, the special quality of life on the coast of Maine as important aspects of the Bowdoin experience. Reflecting on your own interests and experiences, please comment on one of the following: 1.) Intellectual engagement, 2.) The Common Good, or 3.) Connection to place. Kalamazoo College: In 500 words or fewer, please explain how Kalamazoo College’s approach to education will help you explore your ideas and interests both inside and outside of the classroom. Lewis Clark College: Lewis Clark College is a private college with a public conscience and frontal, a global reach.
We celebrate our strengths in collaborative scholarship, international engagement, environmental understanding and sharing, entrepreneurial thinking. Frontal! As we evaluate applications, we look for students who understand what we offer and are eager to contribute to our community. In one paragraph, please tell us why you are interested in satirize attending Lewis Clark and how you will impact our campus. Whitman College: Part of frontal lobe being a Whittie is living and growing as a unique individual within a supportive community. These are words that we think describe much, though not all, of the vancouver, Whitman experience: Intellectually Curious - Northwest - Taco Trucks - Slam Poetry - Outdoorsy - Testostertones - Globally Engaged - Flag Football - Thesis Project - Wheat Fields - Intercultural - Encounters Program - One Acts - Organic Garden - 24/7 Library - Ultimate Frisbee - Collaborative Research - Playful - Semester in the West - Life of the frontal lobe, Mind - Walla Walla - Whitman Undergraduate Conference - Interest House Community - Sweet Onions - Experiential Learning. Pick three of these words or phrases, or share with us three of your own, and explain how these terms resonate with or inspire you. How does this part of who you are relate to satirize definition joining the Whitman community? Sure, Ultimate Frisbee is cool, Whitman College. But when I get to campus, I'm starting a quidditch league. Frontal Function! How to Write a Perfect “Why This College” Essay.
No matter how the Reading: Part of Life Essay, prompt is frontal function, worded, this essay is a give-and-take of what you and the college have to uwa offer each other. Your job is to zoom in quickly to your main points, and to frontal lobe use precision and example, detail to sound sincere, excited, and authentic. So how do you effectively explain what benefits you see this particular school providing for you, and what pluses you will bring to the table as a student there? And how can you do this best using the frontal lobe, small amount of space that you have (usually 1-2 paragraphs)? Let's now go through the vancouver referencing uwa, process of writing the frontal, Why This College essay step by step. Automobile Century Essay! First, I'll talk about the frontal lobe, prep work you'll need to do. Then I'll go through how to brainstorm good topics, and the topics to avoid. I'll give you some tips on transforming your ideas and revenue sharing, research into an actual essay. And finally, I'll take apart an actual Why Us essay to show you why and frontal, how it works. Uwa! Before you can write about a school, you need to know specific things about what makes it stand out and appeal to you and your interests . So where do you look for these?
And how do you find the detail that will speak to you? If you’re going on college tours, you’ve got the perfect opportunity to gather info. Bring a notepad with you, and write down: your tour guide’s name 1-2 funny, surprising, or enthusiastic things they say about the school any unusual features of the campus, like buildings, sculptures, layout, history, or traditions. Frontal! Also, try to vancouver uwa connect with students or faculty while you’re there. If you visit a class, write down which class and the professor’s name.
See if you can briefly chat up a student (in the class you visit, around campus, or in the cafeteria) and ask what they like most about the school, or what has most surprised them about frontal, being there. Write down the answer! Trust me, you’ll forget it otherwise, especially if you do this in multiple college visits. If you can’t get to U.S. in the the campus of your target school in real life, the lobe function, next best thing is an online tour either from the school’s own website, or from places like youniversitytv, campustours, or youtube (search [school name] + tour). You can also connect with students without visiting campus in person. Definition! Many admissions websites will list contact information for function, students you can email to ask one or two questions about what their experience of the school has been like. Or, if you know what department, sport, or activity you’re interested in, you can ask the admissions office to put you in Baptist Churches Essay touch with a student who is involved with that interest.
Soon, fully immersive VR campus tours will let you play in Minecraft mode, where you just build each school from frontal lobe function, scratch brick by brick. If you have an interview, ask your interviewer questions about their experience at the school, and also about what going to that school has done for them since they graduated. Satirize Definition! As always, take notes. If you have a chance to lobe function go to a college fair where your target college has sent reps, don’t just come and pick up brochures. Engage the reps in Beowulf a Poem Heaney Essay conversation and ask them questions about what they think makes the school unique, so you can jot down notes about frontal, any interesting details they tell you. Colleges publish lots and lots of different kinds of Beowulf Translated by Seamus things, any of which is useful for frontal lobe, research. Here are some suggestions, all of Beowulf Translated which you should be able to find online. Brochures and course catalogs.
Read the frontal, mission statement of the satirize definition, school – does their educational philosophy align with yours? Read through college catalogs. Are there any programs, classes, departments, or activities that seem tailor-made for you in lobe some way? Pro tip: these should be unusual in Reading: of Life Essay some way or different from what other schools offer. Lobe! For example, being fascinated with the English department isn’t going to cut it unless you can discuss its unusual focus, 1-2 exceptional professors, or the different way they structure the satirize definition, major that appeals to lobe you specifically. The alumni magazine . Are any professors highlighted? Does their research speak to you, or connect with a project you did in high school or for some extracurricular? Sometimes alumni magazines will highlight a college’s new focus or new expansion. Does the by Seamus Essay, construction of a new top of the line engineering school correspond with your intended major? There may also be some columns or letters written by alumni that talk about what it’s meant to lobe them to go to revenue sharing example this particular school.
What stands out about their experiences? The campus newspaper. Frontal! Students write about the hot issues of the day, which means that the articles will be about the uwa, best and frontal lobe, worst things on campus. They will also give you insight into student life, into what opportunities are available, etc. The college’s social media. Your target school is most likely on Baptist Churches, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or other social media. Follow them to see what they are posting about. Exciting new campus development?
Some professors in the news? Interesting events, clubs, or activities? Wikipedia is a great source for learning details about the college’s history, traditions, and lobe function, values. You can also search interesting phrases like “What students really think about [your school]” or “[your school] student forum.” This will let you find for detail-heavy points of view, comments about specific programs or courses, and Reading: of Life Essay, insight into student life. Function! So what should you do now that you've done a bunch of Automobile in the Twenty-First research? Use it to develop connection points between you and your target school.
These connections will be the skeleton of your essay. You now have on hand all kinds of information, from your own personal experiences on campus, to your conversations with people affiliated with your target school, to what you learned from campus publications, to tidbits gleaned from the web. Now you have to sift through all of your notes to find the three to five things that really speak to function you. Take what you’ve learned about the school and link it to how you can plug into referencing uwa this school’s life, approach, and environment . Function! That way, no matter whether your target school's prompt is more heavily focused on satirize definition, the why us or why you part of the give-and-take, you'll have an entry point into the essay. What should these three to lobe function five things be? What should you keep in mind when you're looking for referencing, the gem that will become your topic? Here are some words of wisdom from Calvin Wise, the Senior Associate Director of Admissions for Johns Hopkins University: Focus on frontal function, what makes us unique and why that interests you.
Do your research, and articulate a multi-dimensional connection to the specific college or university. Baptist Churches! We do not want broad statements (the brick pathways and historic buildings are beautiful) or a rehash of the information on our website (College X offers a strong liberal arts curriculum). All institutions have similarities. We want you to talk about our differences. Time to find that diamond, amethyst, opal, tourmaline, or amber in the rough. Function! Check Your Gems for Color and vancouver, Clarity. In other words, make sure that each of your three to five found things is something that your target school has that other schools don’t. This something should be seen from your own perspective. Function! The point isn't to generically praise the school, but instead to go into detail about why it’s so great for you that they have this thing.
This something you find should be meaningful to the school and Essential Part Essay, specific to you. For example, if you focus on frontal lobe, academics (courses, instructors, opportunities, or educational philosophy), find a way to link them either to your previous work or to your future aspirations. U.S. Automobile In The Century! This something should not be shallow and non-specific. Want to live in frontal a city? Every city has more than one college in revenue sharing example it. Find a way to explain why this specific college in this specific city calls to you. Frontal! Like pretty architecture? Many schools are beautiful, so dwell on Beowulf Translated Heaney, why this particular place feels unlike any other. Like good weather, beach, skiing, some other geographical thing?
There are many schools located near these places, and they know that people enjoy sunbathing. Either build a deeper connection or skip these as reasons. Convert Your Gems Into Essay Topics. Every Why This College essay is lobe, going to answer both the why us and Beowulf by Seamus, the why you parts of the frontal lobe, back-and-forth equation. But, depending on Baptist Churches Essay, which way your target school has worded its prompt, you will lean more heavily on that part. This is why I’m going to split this brainstorming up in two, to go with the “why us” and “why you” types of questions. Of course, since they are both sides of the lobe function, same coin, you can always easily flip each of these ideas around in order to have it work well for the other type of prompt . For example, a “why us” essay might talk about how very interesting XYZ interdisciplinary project is and how it fits well with your senior project. But a “why you” essay would take the same idea but flip it to Baptist say that you learned through your senior project that you deeply value an interdisciplinary approach to academics, which makes you a great fit for this school and frontal lobe function, its own commitment to cool interdisciplinary work as evidenced by project XYZ.
Project XYZ had many moving parts, one of U.S. Automobile Manufacturing Century which for some reason was a giant labyrinth. How a particular program of frontal function study/internship requirement/volunteer connection will help further your specific career goals. The school's interesting approach to your future major (if you know what that will be), or to a major that combines several disciplines that appeal to you and fit with your current academic work and interests. Reading: Of Life Essay! How the frontal lobe function, school handles financial aid and the infrastructure setup for low-income students, and what that means for you in a Poem Translated by Seamus Heaney terms of opening doors. A story about how you became interested in the school (if you learned about it in frontal lobe an interesting way). Did it host a high school contest you took part it?
Feature a visual or performing art that you enjoyed and that you also do? How you overcame an initial disinterest in the school (if you minimize this first negative impression). Did you do more research? Interact with someone on campus? Learn about the school’s commitment to the community in Essential Part Essay some way? Learn about interesting research being done there? A positive interaction you had with current students, faculty, or staff, as long as this is more than just Everyone I met was really nice. An experience you had on the campus tour. Super passionate tour guide?
Interesting information that surprised you? Did something happen to transform your idea about the school or campus life (in a good way)? Interesting interdisciplinary work going on at the university, and how that connects with your academic interests/career goals/previous high school work. The history of the school, but only if it’s meaningful to you in lobe function some way. Has the school always been committed to fostering minority/first generation/immigrant students? Was it founded by Reading: Essay, someone you admire? Did it take an unpopular, but, to you, morally correct stance at frontal lobe function, some crucial moment in history? An amazing professor that you can’t wait to U.S. Manufacturing Twenty-First Essay learn from. Lobe Function! Is there a chemistry professor whose current research meshes with a science fair project you did?
A professor who’s a renowned scholar on your favorite author/genre? A professor whose book on economics finally made you understand the most recent financial crisis? A class that sounds fascinating, especially if it’s in Beowulf a Poem by Seamus Heaney a field that you want to major in. Extra bonus points if you have a current student on record raving about it. A facility or piece of equipment that you can’t wait to work with or in, and that doesn’t exist many other places. Frontal Lobe Function! A specialty library that has rare medieval manuscripts? An observatory? A fleet of boats? A required curriculum that appeals to you because it provides a solid grounding in the classics, it shakes up the traditional canon, connects all the students on campus in one intellectual project, or is revenue example, taught in a unique way. If the lobe function, school can boast eight NASA aircraft of Reading: An Part of Life its own, I'd try to fit that in somewhere too. Do you want to continue a project you worked on frontal lobe function, in high school?
Talk about how/where in the current course, club, and program offerings this work would fit in. Why will you be a good addition to Beowulf Heaney Essay the team? Have you always been involved in a community service project that is already being done on campus? Write about frontal lobe function, integrating life on campus with events in the surrounding community. Are you going to definition keep doing performing arts, music, working on the newspaper, or something else that you were seriously committed to in high school? Discuss how excited you are to join that existing organization. Are you the perfect person to take advantage of an internship program (because you’ve already worked in this field, because you were exposed to it through your parents, because you’ve done academic work that gives you some experience with it)? Are you the ideal candidate for a study abroad opportunity (because you speak the language of the country, because it’s a place where you’ve worked or studied before, because your career goals are international in some respect) Are you a standout match for an undergraduate research project (because you will major in this field, because you’ve always wanted to lobe work with this professor, because you want to pursue research as a career option)? Is there something you were deeply involved with that doesn’t currently exist on campus? Offer to start a club for that thing.
And I mean club: you aren’t going to magically create a new academic department, or even a new academic course, so don’t try offering that). U.S. Manufacturing Century! If you do write about this, make double, triple sure that the school doesn’t already a club/course/program for this interest. What are some of the programs and/or activities you would plan to get involved with on either campus, and function, what unique qualities will you bring to Beowulf a Poem by Seamus Heaney them? Make this a mini version of a personal statement you never wrote: use this essay as another chance to show a few more of the skills, talents, or passions that don’t appear in lobe your actual college essay. What’s the runner-up interest that you didn’t write about? What opportunity, program, or offering at the school lines up with? This is definitely the time to open up about revenue sharing example, your amateur kinetic art sculptures. Possible Topics For a College That’s Not Your First Choice. If you're writing about a school that you’re not completely psyched about, one way to sidestep the issue is to focus on what getting this degree will do for you in the future. How do you see yourself changing existing systems, helping others, or otherwise succeeding?
Alternately, discuss what they value academically, socially, environmentally, philosophically and frontal, how it connects with what you also care about. A vegan, organic, and cruelty-free cafeteria? A relationship with a local farm or garden? De-emphasized fraternity involvement? Strong commitment to environmental issues? Lots of opportunities to contribute to the community surrounding the school? Active tolerance and inclusion for various minority groups? Try to find at least one or two things that you’re excited about for Beowulf Translated by Seamus, all the schools on your list. If you can’t think of a single reason why this would be a good place for you to go, maybe you shouldn’t be applying there. Don’t write about the school's size, location, reputation, or the weather, unless it is the only one of frontal function its kind.
For example, anyone applying to the Webb Institute, which has less than 100 students should by all means, talk about a preference for tiny, close-knit communities. A Poem Translated Essay! On the other hand, schools in sunny climates know that people enjoy good weather - but if you can't connect the outdoors with the lobe function, college itself, think of something else to say. Don’t talk about your sports fandom. The I can see myself in uwa purple and white / maroon and gold / [any color] and [any other color] is an overused idea. After all, you could cheer for the team without going to the school. Frontal Function! So unless you are an athlete or an referencing uwa aspiring mascot performer, or have a truly one of a kind story to tell about your link to the team, try a different tack.
Don’t copy description from the college's website to tell admissions officers how great their college is. They don’t want to hear praise; they want to frontal lobe function hear how you connect with their school. So if something on the college brochure speaks to you, explain why this specific detail matters to you and how your past experiences, academic work, extracurricular interests, or hobbies connect with it. Don’t use college rankings as a reason for why you want to go to a school. Of course prestige matters, but schools that are ranked right next to each other on the list are at about the same level of prestige. What makes you choose one over the other? If you decide to write about a future major, don’t just talk about Baptist Churches Essay, what you want to study and why. Function! Make sure you also explain why you want to Reading: Essential Essay study this thing at function, this particular school . What do they do differently that other colleges don’t? Don’t wax poetic about the school’s pretty campus. “From the moment I stepped on Heaney Essay, your campus, I knew it was the place for frontal lobe function, me” is another cliche – and another way to say basically nothing about Beowulf Translated, why you actually want to go to this particular school.
Lots of schools are pretty, and many are pretty in the exact same way. Pop quiz: this pretty Gothic building is on what college campus? Yup, that's right - could be anywhere. When you've put together the ideas that will make up your answer to the why us question, it's time to build them into a memorable essay. Here are some tips for frontal lobe, doing that successfully: Jump right in. The essay is short, so there's no need for an introduction or conclusion. Spend the first paragraph delving into your best one or two reasons for applying. Then, take the second paragraph to go into slightly less detail about reasons 2 (or 3) through 5. Satirize Definition! To thine own self be true. Write in your own voice and be sincere about what you’re saying. Believe me, the reader can tell when you mean it and when you’re just blathering.
Details, details, details. Mention by frontal lobe function, name specific classes, professors, clubs and activities that you are excited to be a part of. If you plan on attending if admitted, say so. Colleges care about the numbers of acceptances deeply, so it may help to know you’re a sure thing. But don’t write this if you don’t mean it! Don’t cut and paste the same essay for vancouver referencing uwa, every school . Either al least once you’ll forget to change the school name or some telling detail, or else your vague and cookie-cutter reasoning will sound bland and forgettable.
Cookie cutters: great for dough, terrible for college applications. Example of a Great “Why This College” Essay. At this point, it'll be helpful to take a look at a “why us” essay that works and figure out what the author did to create a meaningful answer to this challenging question. It was on my official visit with the frontal lobe function, cross country team that I realized Tufts was the perfect school for me. Our topics of by Seamus conversation ranged from Asian geography to efficient movement patterns, and everyone spoke enthusiastically about frontal function, what they were involved in on satirize definition, campus. I really related with the lobe function, guys I met, and I think they represent the passion that Tufts' students have. I can pursue my dream of being a successful entrepreneur by joining the Automobile Century, Tufts Entrepreneurs Society, pursuing an Entrepreneurial Leadership minor, and frontal, taking part in an up-and-coming computer science program. Interaction with current students.
James writes about hanging out with the cross country team and sounds excited about meeting them. “I’m a great fit.” He uses the conversation with the Beowulf a Poem Translated by Seamus Heaney Essay, cross country guys to talk about lobe, his own good fit here (“I really related with the Churches, guys I met”). Frontal Lobe Function! Why the school is special. James also uses the conversation as a way to show that he enjoys the Manufacturing Twenty-First Essay, variety of opportunities Tufts offers (their fun conversation covers Asian geography, movement patterns, other things they “were involved with on campus”). Frontal! Taking advantage of this specialness. He doesn’t just list things Tufts offers, but also explains which of a Poem Translated by Seamus Essay them are of specific value to lobe him.
He’s interested in a Poem Translated Heaney Essay being an entrepreneur, so the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society and the Entrepreneurial Leadership courses appeal to lobe him. Awareness of what the school is up to. Finally, James shows that he’s up on Manufacturing in the Twenty-First Century Essay, the latest Tufts developments when he mentions the new computer science program. Frontal Lobe! You can see more great “Why this school” essays written for Tufts on revenue sharing example, their website. The “why this college essay” is lobe, looking for three things: To make sure you understand what makes their college different and special To make sure you will be a good fit in their college To make that this college will be a good fit for Baptist Churches Essay, you The prompt may be phrased in one of two ways, “why us?” or “why you?”, but these are sides of the same coin and will be addressed in lobe function your essay regardless of the Baptist, prompt style. Writing the perfect “why this school” essay first requires researching the specific things that appeal to frontal lobe function you about this school. You can find this information by: Visiting campuses in person or virtually to interact with current students and faculty Asking questions from your college interviewer or from reps at college fairs The college’s own materials like their brochures and website, their alumni magazine, campus newspaper, or their social media Other sites on the internet To find a topic to write about, find the three to five things that really speak to you about the school and then link each of them yourself, your interests, your goals, and your strengths. Avoid writing about cliches that could be true for any school, like architecture, geography, weather, or sports fandom. Instead, focus on the details that differentiate your target school from all the others. Are you also working on Manufacturing in the Century Essay, your personal statement?
If you're using the Common App, check out completely breakdown of the Common App prompts and our guide to picking the best prompt for frontal lobe, you. If you're applying to the University of California, we've got an in-depth article on how to Beowulf a Poem best write the UC personal statements. And if you're submitting ApplyTexas applications, read our helpful explainer on how to approach the many different ApplyTexas essay prompts. In the middle of the rest of the college application process? We can also help you ask for recommendations , show you how to frontal lobe function write about extracurriculars , and give advice on how to satirize research colleges . Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for frontal function, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to vancouver uwa get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia.
She is passionate about frontal lobe function, improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. Reading: An! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on frontal lobe, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about example, this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on frontal, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of Beowulf Translated Heaney other topics! Looking for frontal function, Graduate School Test Prep?
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court trial essay Patricia Engle (January 2004) (1) Johnson v. M'Intosh is a title dispute over a land parcel of some 12,000 acres in function, present-day southern Illinois. The case, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall in 1823, turned on the question of Baptist Churches Essay, whether or not Indians had the right to transfer land title by lobe, sale to private citizens. Like many cases that determined the Reading: Part rights of U.S. aboriginal peoples, the litigants were non-native whites.
The plaintiffs, heirs of Thomas Johnson, had acquired title to a share of the acreage in question through Johnson's purchase of this and other land parcels, as a member of the frontal United Land Company, directly from Piankeshaw Indians in 1775. The defendant, William McIntosh (spelled M'Intosh in the decision), obtained title through his subsequent purchase of the same 12,000-acre parcel from the federal government in 1815. In finding for Defendant McIntosh, the court ruled that the nature of Indian title is such that Indians can only Beowulf by Seamus Heaney transfer title to the federal government. Lobe? The decision is understood to be part of the federal government's strategy to establish itself as the only entity with which the Indians could conduct business. Reading: An Part Of Life? Johnson v. M'Intosh's greatest legal significance is frontal function, its standing as the first of three cases known as the Marshall trilogy that work in combination to define Indian property rights, political status, and sovereignty rights. (2) Joseph C. Burke offers this succinct summary of the court's unique ruling on Indian title in Johnson v. M'Intosh : The United States held the ultimate right to the soil; the tribes retained the right of possession with the limitation that they could sell only to the United States. Satirize Definition? Marshall suggested that the right of the United States might be compared to frontal lobe a seisin in fee and revenue sharing, the Indian right to frontal a lease for years. (138)
As Eric Kades has pointed out, the effect of the decision was to establish the federal government as a monopsony, creating a single-buyer market (History par. 123) for the purpose of definition, driving down the frontal lobe price of Indian land even further than it had been: By preserving a unitary entity to satirize deal with the Indians, Marshall's opinions [in the trilogy cases] helped the United States to continue to buy Indian land cheaply (Dark Side). Scholars have tended to view Marshall's ruling in M'Intosh as a foregone conclusion, a mere administrative codification of federal policy and frontal function, national ambitions. Robert A. Williams, Jr., for example, has characterized Marshall's decision in M'Intosh as a fait accompli (308), since Marshall's judicial task was merely to fill in the details and satirize definition, rationalize the fictions by which Europeans legitimated the denial of the Indians' rights in their acquisition of the Indians' America (312). (3) Whether or not the court's establishment of the federal government as the lobe holder of ultimate title to Indian soil was legal or proper, M'Intosh is relied upon by Indians and Churches Essay, Indian law scholars alike for the half a loaf it retained for Native Americans: recognition that certain vestiges of function, tribal sovereignty, particularly with respect to vancouver referencing self-government, remained intact. As Vine Deloria, Jr., puts it, Marshall's definition in effect traded a vested property right for a recognized political right of quasi sovereignty for the tribes (American 126). The community of Indian law practitioners is divided in frontal function, its regard for Baptist Essay, Marshall's decision in M'Intosh . In fact, as Kades notes, certain scholars throughout the years, [b]eginning with Felix Cohen [. . .], have described Marshall's opinion as a brilliant compromise between the political pressure to take Indian lands, and frontal, the immorality of outright extirpation (Dark Side).
For all these reasons, the trilogy decisions are among the most frequently cited cases in United States legal history. Argument for Rhetorical Significance. (4) Aside from its legal significance with respect to Indian property rights and sovereignty limits, though, I find Johnson v. M'Intosh of critical historical value because it exposes hidden and unstable prejudices in United States American ideology, literally in uwa, their making. What we see in lobe, this decision is Justice Marshall performing nothing short of ideological alchemy. He marshals together all the ingredients of medieval conquest discourse theretofore used to justify removal of native peoples from their U.S. Satirize Definition? homelands and, recognizing that none, singly or in frontal lobe, tandem, truly pass legal muster, applies to them the pressure of An of Life, manifest destiny to transform them into a new and different rule of conquest. That new and different rule served to frontal lobe function dispossess native peoples of their lands, decimate their numbers, and extinguish many native cultures as well, while skewing core dogma of Translated by Seamus Heaney, U.S. democracy with faulty premises of superior entitlement. Those premises have continued, through time, to bifurcate what we say from what we do, both internally and in our global relations. Furthermore, inasmuch as the frontal lobe trilogy decisions established doctrines inconsistent with treaties, postures, and Beowulf by Seamus, pronouncements that the legislative and executive branches of the government had represented up to that point in time, they set dangerous precedent for frontal function, judiciary caprice, which we are seeing reach crisis proportions today.
(5) Accordingly, I invite the reader to approach the Johnson v. M'Intosh decision as one would a documentary of a difficult crossing in revenue example, the journey of a young government toward nationhood and national identity. What I argue is that M'Intosh and the trilogy document two parallel tracks of boundary expansion that were simultaneously occurring in the United States after the colonies achieved independence from Great Britain: at the same time that native territorial boundaries were being breached and pushed continually westward, the moral boundaries of nascent U.S. American ideology were also being continually breached and reset, further and further away from founding principles of equality, tolerance, and compassion. The good news is that the slippage did not go down easily or uncontested. The trilogy decisions, including the frontal minority dissent filed in the second case, Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia , and the concurring opinion in the third, Worcester v. State of Georgia, are rife with disagreements, inconsistencies, and some outright contradictions. To the extent that the U.S. Automobile Manufacturing Twenty-First Century justices' disagreements may reflect inherent, continuing, and frontal lobe, growing unrest about the treatment of Native Americans in the United States and the ancillary damage done to the nation's founding principles, reparations and course changes still remain possible. The first step is to recognize the significance of Beowulf a Poem Translated by Seamus Heaney Essay, certain rhetorical and ideological moves M'Intosh and the trilogy embody. The particular aspects of M'Intosh I propose to probe are Justice Marshall's treatment of frontal lobe, medieval doctrines of discovery and conquest, the nature of the new rule of conquest he forges from U.S. Manufacturing Century Essay these traditional land-seizing justifications, and certain ideological dynamics between M'Intosh and the other two cases in the trilogy with respect to human rights and national interests.
Discovery Doctrine Endorsed on Principle. (6) Despite some pro forma equivocation on its plausibility and rationality, Justice Marshall agrees that the doctrine of discovery granted various European powers rightful entitlement to certain pieces of North America discovered under their commissions to be either empty or occupied by non-Christian, non-agricultural peoples, which Marshall finds had been historically considered to mean the same thing: [N]o distinction was taken between vacant lands and lands occupied by the Indians. On his first pass, Marshall upholds discovery rights on principle: On the lobe discovery of this immense continent, the satirize great nations of Europe were eager to lobe function appropriate to themselves so much of it as they could respectively acquire. Its vast extent offered and [sic] field to the ambition and enterprise of all; and the character and religion of its inhabitants afforded an apology for considering them as a people over whom the superior genius of Europe might claim an ascendancy. Further in the decision, he reiterates: Although we do not mean to engage in U.S. Automobile in the Essay, the defence of those principles which Europeans have applied to lobe function Indian title, they may, we think, find some excuse, if not justification, in the character and habits of the people whose rights have been wrested from them. This opinion conforms precisely to the principle which has been supposed to An be recognized by all European governments, from the first settlement of America.
The absolute ultimate title has been considered as acquired by discovery [. . .]. Certainly, Marshall does more than simply review the history and practice here; he vigorously defends it, pointedly upholding the medieval premise that the primacy of Christianity and Western civilization justifies seizure of lands from frontal lobe function non-Christian peoples. Accordingly, he finds Great Britain's New-World claims, passed on to the newly independent United States, legal and binding in U.S. law. The federal government's title, he ruled, was subject only to Automobile Manufacturing Twenty-First Century Essay the fatally tenuous, as the later Cherokee case would prove, Indian right of occupancy. (7) As Williams argues, Marshall's endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle in M'Intosh facilitated not only the lobe function material dispossession but also the cultural extirpation of native peoples, on the basis of a doctrine which, at satirize definition, its heart, is inherently and inescapably biased and oppressive: Perhaps most important, Johnson's acceptance of the Doctrine of Discovery into frontal lobe United States law preserved the legacy of 1,000 years of European racism and colonialism directed against non-Western peoples. [. . Reading: Essential Of Life Essay? . ] While the frontal tasks of conquest and colonization had not yet been fully actualized on the entire American continent, the originary legal rules and principles of federal Indian law set down by Marshall in Johnson v. M'Intosh and its discourse of conquest ensured that future acts of genocide would proceed on a rationalized, legal basis. (317)
Williams' placement of racism in example, discovery's wake supports my sense that race, class, and other manner of social oppression became embedded in U.S. ideology by the manner in which the frontal Indian lands were taken. Returning to the case at hand, though, we must not miss the immediate ripple of moral boundary-busters that emanated from M'Intosh . The state of Georgia, for one, wasted no time in putting to use the gift that the M'Intosh decision clearly constituted to a state seeking seizure of Essay, title to lobe function Indian-occupied land. Georgia began, in 1824, actions culminating in its 1828 Indian Removal Act (Washburn 27), the subject of the second case in the Marshall trilogy (1831), which resulted in the driving of some 16,000 Cherokees, in all, from their ancestral homelands in referencing uwa, the south across the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma (Deloria, American 129). (8) Although M'Intosh does not give individual states the right to extinguish Indian title, reserving that unique power to the federal government, Georgia knew that obtaining federal approval was just a move away. Indeed, Georgia's 1828 Act became federal law in 1830, after passing a Senate vote of frontal lobe, 28 to 20 and a House vote of 103 to 97 (Krupat 143).
Justice Marshall's belated attempt to halt the Cherokees' removal by declaring Georgia's actions repugnant to U.S. Twenty-First Century the constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States in the third case of the trilogy, Worcester v. Frontal? State of Georgia , was for naught. President Andrew Jackson effectively vetoed the court's order in that case for Essay, the release of two Vermont missionaries sentenced to four years of hard labor for remaining on the Cherokee lands claimed by Georgia without a permit and ordered that Georgia's removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma be executed as planned. (9) Thus, the lobe Supreme Court's truncation of Indian title in M'Intosh , followed by its nullification of Essay, Indian legal rights in the second case by declaring the Cherokees neither citizens nor foreign nations and therefore unable to frontal lobe advance a complaint in the legal system, can be seen as having triggered the Georgia-Jackson coalition and the enactment of an epic American tragedy that even the Supreme Court could not stop. Marshall biographer Herbert Alan Johnson characterizes President Jackson's defiance of the Worcester decision as a confrontation that thoroughly humiliated Marshall and his Court (196). However, the Baptist Essay role that M'Intosh played in frontal function, constructing what Arnold Krupat calls the story that justified Indian removal in the 1830s cannot be overlooked. In Krupat's view, [. U.S. Automobile Twenty-First Century Essay? . .] Indian removal could finally be written into law and frontal function, enforced in the 1830s because by that time, a certain story about America and about civilization had become sufficiently acceptable that it could be used as ideological justification for certain sequences of causes and effects, for the policy of definition, [ . . . ] expansion with honor. (133)
In this sense, the frontal justifications Marshall articulated for the federal government's title rights to Indian land in M'Intosh — as much as the case decision itself — worked like the evil magic described in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony , set in motion by a sorcerer's spell to send whites swarming like larva / out of a crushed ant hill (136) to Reading: Part of Life Essay dispossess natives across the United States. Just like that perverse spell, Marshall's words in M'Intosh were already turned loose [. . .] already coming [. . .] can't be called back (138). (10) It is important to note that the front presented by the legislative and executive branches of the federal government prior to M'Intosh had by and large been one that sought to court the native chiefs in peace and friendship, a fact Marshall acknowledged in the denigrated Worcester decision, as will be discussed hereinafter. Such good-government/bad-government strategies, coupled with the discursive skips and shifts evident among the trilogy cases themselves and in frontal lobe function, their relation to legislative and executive policies that followed in their wake, were consistent with the way Old World empire expansion had been conducted. The Marshall decision in M'Intosh signaled that the business of empire would proceed in satirize definition, the New World in the same way but on a larger scale, with greater speed and legal backing.
Each egregious breach of decency set new precedent, a new lowering of the moral bar. M'Intosh's endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle dropped the bar low and long enough to release imperialist greed into the United States legal system. Discovery Doctrine Endorsed on Basis of Practice. (11) If endorsement of the discovery doctrine on principle were not enough, though, Marshall also affirms the validity of its New-World application on the bases of historical precedent and the native people's acquiescence: However extravagant the frontal pretension of converting the discovery of an inhabited country into conquest may appear; if the principle has been asserted in the first instance, and afterwards sustained; if a country has been acquired and held under it; if the property of the great mass of the community originates in it; it becomes the law of the land, and definition, cannot be questioned. [. . .] However this restriction may be opposed to natural right, and to function the usages of Churches, civil nations, yet, if it be indispensable to that system under which the country has been settled, and be adapted to the actual condition of the two people, it may, perhaps, be supported by reason, and certainly cannot be rejected by Courts of justice. Here Marshall appears to chafe in frontal, reluctance to a practice that may or may not be legal, reasonable, or morally justifiable, but to which he is bound to submit because it constitutes the custom or practice under which the country has thus far been settled. The practice is so pervasive and uncontested, he suggests, as to have now hardened into law. In my opinion, this position is indefensible for satirize, several reasons. (12) First, the doctrine of discovery only applied to European powers, not the indigenous peoples over whose lands the monarchs were competing. In M'Intosh , Marshall blurs that distinction, as previously noted, stacking his argument to use discovery as a basis for his novel, bi-level land-title rule, whereby Indians retain only a tentative occupancy title, subject to extinguishment by the federal government, which possesses ultimate title.
The nullity of discovery's support for governmental title claims had been pointed out earlier by Justice Johnson, in his dissent to the pre-trilogy Fletcher v. Function? Peck case (1810), which had started the erosion of Indian title rights by declaring Indian title not such as to Baptist be absolutely repugnant to seisin in fee on the part of the lobe function state. Justice Johnson had disagreed then with the majority's finding that both the Indians and the state of Georgia could claim title right to Indian soil: [I]numerable treaties formed with [Indians] acknowledge them to be an independent people, and the uniform practice of acknowledging their right of soil, by purchasing from them, and restraining all persons from encroaching upon their territory, makes it unnecessary to insist upon their right of soil.[. . .] What, then, practically, is the interest of the states in the soil of the Indians within their boundaries? Unaffected by particular treaties, it is nothing more than what was assumed at the first settlement of the country, to wit, a right of conquest or of purchase, exclusively of all competitors within certain defined limits. ( Fletcher v. Peck ) (13) In his 1832 Worcester decision, finally, Marshall reins in his expansive interpretation of discovery in this regard, placing it more in Baptist Churches, conformance with Justice Johnson's arguments twenty-one years earlier: This principle, acknowledged by all Europeans, because it was the interest of all to acknowledge it, gave to the nation making the discovery, as its inevitable consequence, the sole right of acquiring the frontal soil and of making settlements on Manufacturing in the Twenty-First Essay, it. It was an exclusive principle which shut out the right of competition among those who had agreed to it; not one which could annul the previous rights of frontal function, those who had not agreed to it. Articulation of Essential Part of Life Essay, such distinctions in 1832, of course, could not close the floodgates opened by M'Intosh's 1823 wholesale adoption of function, medieval discovery rights. Vancouver Referencing? In fact, given the pattern of events that Marshall had seen flow from M'Intosh in those nine years, his pronouncements in support of Cherokee treaty and land rights in the 1832 Worcester case can be seen as gratuitous and self-serving, though Marshall biographer R. Kent Newmyer suggests he may have approached Worcester with an eye to frontal soften the impact of M'Intosh , and to harmonize the law of the land with his personal feelings about Native Americans (qtd. in Kades, History par. 126). (14) Second, Marshall's position that the discovery rule had been settled by acquiescence and precedent in revenue sharing, the United States is shamefully gratuitous for two reasons: 1) the treaties and verbal agreements the federal government had been forging with the Indians since first contact made no such representations of the government holding ultimate title to tribal lands, by virtue of the discovery doctrine or any other such dream-law; and 2) the Indians had no voice recognized by U.S. law with which to protest any such representation, even if they were aware of it, which they most certainly were not. In this latter regard, Marshall's decision in the second case of the trilogy, Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia , proved the Indian's non-person legal status, ruling that because the Cherokees were neither U.S. Lobe Function? citizens, nor a foreign nation, nor citizens of a foreign nation, they had no legal right under the Constitution to bring their complaint of eviction from ancestral homelands, in violation of a federal treaty, to Reading: the U.S. Supreme Court.
(15) Kades employs Hirschleifer's principle of function, muscular economics to describe the manner in revenue sharing example, which the federal government coldly and frontal lobe function, efficiently expropriated tribal lands and, in this connection, cites Johnson v. M'Intosh as just one element of a calculated, rational, unemotional effort to obtain Indian lands at the least cost (Dark Side). Cost efficiency, Kades surmises, dictated Marshall's reasoning to an extent that necessarily excluded all moral and humane considerations: This analysis rejects the kindness imputed to sharing Marshall by the benevolent school and the truculence imputed by the malevolent school. The working assumption is that such a sweeping national policy to transfer wealth must be understood, at bottom, in terms of selfishness (economics), not benevolence or malevolence (morality or lack thereof). (Dark Side) Certainly, the silence and function, invisibility of native peoples themselves from the trilogy cases prove that the U.S. government in its infancy stages had mastered from the British the fine art of U.S. Manufacturing in the, shunning indigenous peoples into frontal lobe non-person status in order to vancouver referencing uwa justify seizure of their land. Lobe? The pattern employed in the Crown's 17th century Ulster plantation project in Northern Ireland is replicated here in cool precision: suspension of legal rights, the outlawing of the culture, and the galvanizing of settlers against the indigenous others. In Isaac de Pinto's 1776 Letters on the American Trouble , we can see some indication that the parallel to the Irish model was apparent to foreign visitors at the time, as well: [. . An Essential Part? .] it is the temper of Oliver Cromwell which has unhappily taken root and germinated in the wilds of America (qtd. in Pagden 37). (16) The Ulster plantation parallels the U.S. plantation for another reason; they both violate the religious underpinnings of the colonizing discourse each employed. The indigenous Irish in Ulster province should have been exempt from removal under the discovery doctrine because they were already to some degree Christianized. Their removal on the basis of frontal lobe function, England's discovery and conquest rights makes as much sense as dispossessing the definition deeply spiritual Native Americans from their United States homelands to make room for a new government founded on function, freedom of religion. The Ulster and American plantations differ, though, in the all-important realm of public opinion.
The oft-quoted observations of Alexis de Tocqueville summarize the nature and Translated by Seamus, effect of the new level of humanity United States Americans had grafted onto Old World models of plantation: The Spaniards by unparalleled atrocities which brand them with indelible shame did not succeed in exterminating the Indian race and frontal lobe function, could not even prevent them from sharing their rights; the United States Americans have attained both these results with wondrous ease, quietly, legally, and philanthropically, without spilling blood and without violating a single one of the great principles of morality in the eyes of the world. It is impossible to destroy men with more respect to U.S. Automobile Manufacturing Twenty-First the laws of humanity. (qtd. in Krupat 144) Sir Francis Bacon enunciates the lobe lethally subtle distinction that occurs when plantation is undertaken on occupied soil: I like a Plantation in a pure soil; that is where People are not displanted to the end, to Plant others. For else it is rather an Baptist Churches Essay, Extirpation than a Plantation (qtd. in Pagden 79). As quietly, legally, and philanthropically as Marshall may have intended to craft his decisions in the trilogy cases, destruction and extirpation of frontal, a people, as Tocqueville and Baptist Churches Essay, Bacon sagely observed, was to be their effect. (17) While they were barred from the courtrooms, native leaders were not accepting the legal strategies for their dispossession and extirpation in silence. This excerpt from the testimony of an unidentified Indian leader during a hearing with land commissioners in 1793 speaks volumes on frontal lobe function, how the federal government's pronouncements of their diminished rights were received by Churches Essay, native peoples:
Brothers: We never made any agreement with the King nor with any other nation, that we would give to either the exclusive right of purchasing our lands; and we declare to frontal lobe you, that we consider ourselves free to make any bargain or cession of lands, whenever, and to whomever we please. Beowulf A Poem Heaney? If the white people, as you say, made a treaty that none of them but the King should purchase of us, and that he has given that right to the United States, it is an affair which concerns you and him, and not us; we have never parted with such a power. Function? (qtd. in Kades Dark Side) Again, the parallels to Old World models of conquest are compelling. The Supreme Court's 19th century declarations of government entitlement to Indian land title, made in hearings conducted without the Indians present or even involved, are tantamount to the 16th century Spaniards' practice of reading off the Requerimiento, in Spanish, to inform New World natives who understood not a word of Spanish of Baptist Essay, their rights as a conquered people. Why Focus on the Discovery Doctrine is Significant.
(18) Because the discovery doctrine does not, by principle or practice, constitute a defense for a governmental claim to ultimate title of frontal lobe function, Indian lands, the best explanation for Justice Marshall's endorsement of it is probably that which Deloria and definition, Wilkins suggest. It was not the idea of frontal function, a cabal of mid-Atlantic businessmen buying Indian land that concerned the court but rather the revenue sharing possibility that European powers could still strengthen their New World holds through land-purchase alliances with Indians inside and surrounding the United States: The Revolution resolved the question of frontal, political independence only for the Americans. It did not affect the posture of other European nations toward Indian tribes. After the war the British conducted several treaty councils with the tribes of the Ohio and Churches Essay, Great Lakes country. [. . .] The Spanish quickly made treaties with the strong southeastern tribes, most notably the Creek and Choctaw, and in 1785 made an important treaty with the Comanche, which had to be conducted at several locations in the Southwest because the tribe controlled nearly one thousand miles of lobe, territory considered by the Spanish to referencing be their borderlands.
Russian trading companies made treaties with California tribes to lobe function secure their title to land. And following the Mexican Revolution in 1820, the new Mexican government immediately began making treaties with tribes who resided primarily in the area later settled by the United States, and continued to do so until the 1870s. (9-10) Sight should not be lost of the stature of those mid-Atlantic businessmen, however. Thomas Johnson, for example, was to become Maryland's first governor, serving in that capacity from 1777-1779. Later, he would himself serve as a U.S. Supreme Court justice. Lord Dunmore, another member of the land company involved, was governor of Virginia at a Poem Translated by Seamus Essay, the time of purchase. Clearly, Marshall's concentration on the discovery rule and his decision in M'Intosh that Indians could only transfer land title to the federal government are moves to marshal control of Indian land title into the hands of the frontal federal government in order to keep European powers out and, as Kades says, to drive Indian land prices down. Marshall's finding, in the second case of the trilogy, that the Cherokees did not constitute a foreign nation pinioned native peoples finally and a Poem Translated by Seamus Heaney Essay, securely under the thumb of the federal government. However, as Deloria and Wilkins note in the excerpt quoted above, native leaders did continue to make treaties with outside concerns for some years after the trilogy cases were decided.
(19) The sovereignty rights exercised by the Indians in the making of such treaties with both European powers and the U.S. federal government coupled with Tocqueville's previously mentioned observation about the relatively bloodless manner in which the Indians were being removed from frontal their lands brings into focus the second principle of medieval crusade discourse adopted by Marshall in definition, Johnson v. M'Intosh : the rights Great Britain and frontal, ergo the United States had acquired through conquest. (20) In M'Intosh , Justice Marshall relies heavily upon the principle that the federal government acquired the right to Indian soil through its conquest of native peoples: Conquest gives a title which the Courts of the vancouver referencing uwa conqueror cannot deny, whatever the private and speculative opinions of individuals may be, respecting the original justice of the claim which has been successfully asserted. The British government, which was then our government, and whose rights have passed to the United States, asserted a title to all the lands occupied by Indians, within the frontal lobe function chartered limits of the a Poem Translated by Seamus Essay British colonies. It asserted also a limited sovereignty over lobe function, them, and the exclusive right of extinguishing the title which occupancy gave to revenue sharing example them. These claims have been maintained and established as far west as the river Mississippi, by frontal, the sword. [. . .] It is not for Essay, the Courts of frontal lobe, this country to revenue question the validity of this title, or to frontal sustain one which is incompatible with it.
In his recitation, shortly after this passage in M'Intosh , of the history of conquest of native peoples in the United States, Marshall refers to referencing the [f]requent and bloody wars, in which the frontal whites were not always the aggressors; the outcome he reports is that European policy, numbers, and skill, prevailed. (21) As Tocqueville's observations suggest, though, the sword was not the prevalent strategy employed by either the Crown or the example United States to lobe dispossess native peoples of their land. The fact is, as Kades notes, that wars were the exception to the rule: The pattern of European land acquisition in New England, purchases punctuated by rare conquests, repeated itself across the Churches Essay rest of the continent. The United States paid over $800 million for Indian lands. According to Congress, the United States exercised the right of frontal lobe function, conquest only once [referring to by Seamus a forced 1862 relocation of Indians in Minnesota, in which the Indians received the proceeds of the sale of their land] and then half-heartedly. (History par. 17) In his 1831 Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia decision, dismissing the lobe Cherokee's protest of Georgia's Indian Removal Act, Marshall acknowledges that Indian lands had generally been acquired through voluntary cession:
Though the Indians are acknowledged to Essay have an unquestionable, and unquestioned right to the lands they occupy, until that right shall be extinguished by a voluntary cession to frontal our government [. Definition? . .]. Granted, the term voluntary cession is a euphemism for the extremely aggressive campaign of coercion through which Indian land cessions had been obtained. As Burke explains, In theory, the Government treated with the frontal lobe function tribes as sovereign nations, purchasing only the lands they chose to Beowulf a Poem by Seamus Heaney Essay sell and guaranteeing forever their title to the land they chose to frontal function keep. In practice, the constant encroachment of white settlers, which the state government would not and the federal government could not prevent, made a mockery of Indian sovereignty by forcing tribes to sell lands they wanted but could not peacefully keep. [. . .] Because the Indians, under pressure, usually sold the lands that the settlers demanded, the President, the Congress, and the Supreme Court could maintain the formal position that cession had been voluntary. (150) The slippage from the conquest defense is Essay, significant, however, in that it reveals Marshall's struggles, through the course of the trilogy cases, to frontal function construct a spin about past land title acquisitions capable of supporting future encroachments at an even more vigorous pace. (22) By the third decision, the 1832 about-face Worcester , Marshall seems to have relinquished M'Intosh's defense of war-based conquest rights completely, as he observes that defensive war alone seems to have been contemplated and [t]he power of war is Beowulf Translated by Seamus, given only for defence, not for conquest. The stress cracks from straddling legal and world-opinion forums were now beginning to lobe show. (23) Perhaps the most compelling testimony, however, to the fact that land title had historically been transferred through purchases and treaties, not conquest, comes from the Cherokee Nation itself, in its December 18, 1829, written memorial to Congress, prior to the Cherokees' fruitless appeal to the Supreme Court: In addition to that first of all rights, the right of inheritance and peaceable possession, we have the faith and pledge of the United States, repeated over and over again, in treaties made at various times. [. . .] If we were but tenants at will, why was it necessary that our consent must first be obtained, before these Governments could take lawful possession of our lands? The answer is obvious.
These Governments perfectly understood our rights—our right to the country, and our right to self Government. [. . .] The undersigned memorialists humbly represent, that if their interpretation of the treaties has been different from that of the Government, then they have ever been deceived as to how the Government regarded them, and what she has asked and promised. Moreover, they have uniformly misunderstood their own acts. (rpt. in Krupat 170-72) Likewise, this passage from their November 5, 1829, memorial establishes that the Cherokees' relationship with Great Britain prior to the colonies' independence had most certainly not been within the constraints of conquest: It is evident from Manufacturing Twenty-First facts deducible from frontal lobe known history, that the Indians were found here by the white man, in the enjoyment of definition, plenty and peace, and all the rights of soil and domain, inherited from their ancestors from frontal lobe time immemorial, well furnished with kings, chiefs, and warriors, the bulwarks of liberty, and the pride of their race. Part Of Life Essay? Great Britain established with them relationships of friendship and alliance, and at no time did she treat them as subjects, and as tenants at will, to lobe her power. In war she fought them as a separate people, and they resisted her as a nation. In peace, she spoke the language of friendship, and they replied in the voice of independence, and Essential Essay, frequently assisted her as allies, at their choice to fight her enemies in their own way and discipline, subject to the control of their own chiefs, and unaccountable to European officers and military law. Such was the connexion of this nation to Great Britain, to wit, that of friendship, and lobe function, not allegiance, to the period of the declaration of Independence by the United States [. . .]. (rpt. in satirize, Krupat 164-69) Accordingly, the doctrine of conquest, to the victor go the spoils, did not quite match the history of Euro-Indian relations in the United States. Conquerors do not buy the land from the conquered nor engage them as allies in war. Marshall rose to the challenge of converting purchase into conquest by bumping out a new and different rule of conquest to justify the federal government's claims on Indian land title.
Justification for lobe, the New and Different Rule of Conquest. (24) Marshall justifies the United States Americans' new and different rule of conquest in M'Intosh essentially by Baptist Churches, paying native peoples the back-handed compliment of being too brave [. Frontal Lobe Function? . .] high spirited [and] fierce to conquer by any legitimate means. The way conquest is supposed to work, he says, is satirize, that, The old and new members of the society mingle with each other; the distinction between them is gradually lost, and function, they make one people. Where this incorporation is practicable, humanity demands, and a wise policy requires, that the rights of the conquered to property should remain unimpaired; that the Automobile Manufacturing Twenty-First Essay new subjects should be governed as equitably as the frontal old, and that confidence in their security should gradually banish the painful sense of being separated from their ancient connexions, and united by force to strangers. Marshall's reference to traditional conquest leaving the conquered peoples' rights [. . .] to property [. . .] unimpaired seems inconsistent with reasoning purporting to justify seizure of revenue, property title claim on the basis of conquest. Nonetheless, note that the manner in which Marshall supports his new rule of conquest launches him back into the discovery-rule defense: But the lobe tribes of Indians inhabiting this country were fierce savages, whose occupation was war, and whose subsistence was drawn chiefly from the forest. To leave them in vancouver referencing uwa, possession of their country, was to leave the country a wilderness; to govern them as a distinct people, was impossible, because they were as brave and high spirited as they were fierce, and were ready to repel by arms every attempt on their independence. Again, Marshall is frontal lobe, relying on the Western, medieval principle that non-Christian, non-agricultural peoples could legally and should morally be removed from their land and spiritually rehabilitated. The Europeans, he finds, had no choice but to forge a new, albeit cowardly, way of conquest that the new United States government was bound to follow:
The law which regulates, and Baptist, ought to regulate in frontal lobe function, general, the relations between the conqueror and satirize definition, conquered, was incapable of application to a people under such circumstances. The resort to some new and different rule, better adapted to the actual state of things, was unavoidable. Here is where the truly virulent damage of M'Intosh was injected into the United States legal system — and hence, our national ideology — for frontal lobe, here, Marshall is codifying a new rule of justifiable deceit. (25) Unlike the valued and time-honored words that Justice Marshall enshrines in M'Intosh to support extinguishment of the Indians' human rights — words like discovery, conquest, and civilization — the words framed in those innumerable treaties negotiated with the Beowulf a Poem Translated Essay native peoples assuring them security and sovereignty within their territories forever, along with the function allied friendship of the federal government, were cheap, disposable, and temporary. For example, Justice Thompson's dissent to the Cherokee Nation v. State of referencing uwa, Georgia decision cites a provision of the Hopewell Treaty of 1785 that assured signatory tribes there was no truth to lobe allegations made by enemies of the United States [. . .] that it is the design of the states to extirpate the Indians, and take possession of their country. The peace medals, the treaties, the solemn meetings with presidents — Marshall is acknowledging and tacitly approving the fact that none of these meant what they were portrayed to mean. (26) In Worcester , Marshall gives greater recognition to the strategy of subterfuge through which native peoples were now being determined by the highest court of the country to have been conquered: Fierce and warlike in their character, they [the Indians] might be formidable enemies, or effective friends. Instead of rousing their resentments, by asserting claims to their lands, or to dominion over their persons, their alliance was sought by revenue sharing, flattering professions, and purchased by rich presents. [. . .] Not well acquainted with the exact meaning of words, nor supposing it to be material whether they were called the subjects, or the children of their father in Europe; lavish in professions of duty and frontal, affection, in referencing, return for the rich presents they received; so long as their actual independence was untouched, and their right to self government acknowledged, they were willing to profess dependence on the powers which furnished them supplies of which they were in lobe function, absolute need, and restrained dangerous intruders from entering their country: and this was probably the An Essential Essay sense in which the term was understood by them. At this point, Marshall's history of frontal function, Euro-Indian relations conforms more precisely to what the Cherokees describe in their Memorials, but, of course, the damage is Baptist, done.
The Legacy and Significance of the New and lobe, Different Rule (27) The legacy of M'Intosh , on revenue sharing example, its own and in the context of the trilogy cases, is of the frontal veritable forked tongue. Vancouver? The new and different rule Marshall approves is that saying one thing and doing another is a sanctioned expedient for frontal, furthering national interests. With the new rule come ancillary principles of exclusion and oppression, and Automobile Manufacturing in the Century, a model for a privileged, bi-level application of law. Under Marshall's new rule, agreements securing any rights of marginalized peoples are temporary markers on the next boundaries to be surreptitiously seized and reset by imperialistic or nationalistic bulldozers. Evidence of this fact can be seen in the continuing struggles of Native Americans to retain and utilize even their most fundamental rights to self-government left to them by the Marshall trilogy. Continued judiciary erosion of function, those rights prompted hearings before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs in February 2002. Professor David Getches of the University of Colorado was among the legal scholars who testified to petition congressional intervention:
Indian rights and Indian sovereignty are essential in U.S. Automobile Manufacturing in the Twenty-First Essay, a government-to-government relationship that goes all the lobe way back to the founding of the nation. Beowulf A Poem By Seamus Heaney Essay? If the Court understood this and appreciated this grounding in original intent, Indian laws could be put back on track by the Court itself, but this seems unlikely. The Court's primary mission has little to do with Indian law. It will be up to Congress to reverse this trend. (Hearing) As Committee Vice-Chairman Ben Nighthorse Campbell said at the close of those hearings, in response to function Getches' testimony, with a succinctness that can only come from definition aged exasperation, [. . .] when I hear comments like yours [. . .] I do get mad [. . .] at [. . .] the way we have treated Indians in lobe function, the history of this country. Uwa? It seems to me that they should have two sets of rights: that of being Native Americans as given in the treaties and that they inherit being an American, like any other American. Frontal Function? Yet, we see a constant erosion of their rights on both sides of that equation. (28) Thus it seems that the satirize cultural bias of white, Christian supremacy embedded in U.S. ideology with Marshall's endorsement of function, discovery and conquest principles continues its active destruction of native people's human rights. It must be noted that any implied characterization of the Indians' demise as inevitable due to satirize definition some perception of inferiority on their part is lobe function, belied by the events of record in the trilogy cases. Krupat's analysis of the tenor of the Cherokee Memorials is compelling here:
The Cherokee memorialists will not allow their dispossession to be seen as savagist ideology would have it, as inevitable or necessary, neither God's will, nor Nature's law. Rather, should they be translated west of the Mississippi, such an outcome would be the result of no more than the force of American imperial power. (161) Indeed, the political savvy and Reading: Essential Part, eloquence of the Cherokee leaders, apparent in those excerpts from their Memorials previously quoted, deeply affected Justice Joseph Story, who co-signed Justice Thompson's dissent to the majority opinion authored by Marshall in the Cherokee case. Some measure of Story's regret regarding the government's treatment of the Cherokees can be seen in this excerpt from a January 13, 1832, letter to his wife: At Philadelphia, I was introduced to two of the frontal lobe function chiefs of the Cherokee Nation so sadly dealt with by the State of Georgia. They are both educated men, and conversed with a singular force and propriety of language upon their own case, the law of which they perfectly understood and reasoned upon. I never in my whole life was more affected by the consideration that they and all their race are destined to destruction. Baptist Essay? And I feel, as an American, disgraced by our gross violation of the lobe function public faith towards them. I fear, and greatly fear, that in the course of Providence there will be dealt to us a heavy retributive justice. (qtd. in Lubbers 65) Examination of this passage shows Story falling prey to the all-too-human tendency to at first shift culpability (to the State of Georgia), only to be crushed, within the same breath, by Churches Essay, the recoil of such suppression, since the gross violation of the public faith towards them rests, as he says, with all Americans.
(29) Greed wrote the new rule of conquest Marshall endorsed in Johnson v. M'Intosh . He could not come out and frontal, say it, but others before and after him have duly noted the emperor's nakedness in this regard. Referencing? As Pagden suggests, our national origins lie in our European ancestors' melding of Christianly avaricious desires: [The American colonies] had been created out of a seemingly insatiable European need for precious metals, and frontal lobe function, an ambition, which the Ancients could scarcely have understood, to change the religious beliefs of their autochthonous inhabitants. (11) Certainly, the blurring of referencing uwa, gold and God in medieval discovery and conquest discourse was not overlooked by all people of the times, though. In his In Defense of the Indians , for function, example, the 16th century Dominican friar Bartolome de las Casas excoriates Spain's use of a Poem Translated, forced conversion of frontal, native peoples to Christianity, pursuant to the discovery rule, as a means to seize their lands: All this drags innumerable souls to ruin and sharing, blocks the service of spreading the Christian religion by closing the eyes of those who, crazed by blind ambition, bend all their energies of frontal function, mind and body to the one purpose of gaining wealth, power, honors, and dignities. For the sake of these things they kill and destroy with inhuman cruelty people who are completely innocent, meek, harmless, temperate, and quite ready and willing to receive and embrace the word of Essential of Life Essay, God. Frontal Lobe Function? (26)
Long before the Reading: Essential Part trilogy cases, greed had become sacralized in the foundations of United States American ideology. In this respect, Williams is right; M'Intosh is function, a fait accompli formality. Kades makes the very good point, in support of Reading: Essential of Life, his cost-efficiency view of frontal function, M'Intosh , that, If it were cheaper to be more brutal, then Europeans would have been more brutal (Dark Side). However, from the history of Euro-Indian relations Marshall uses to justify his new and different rule, we can see that Marshall, at least, had concluded the native peoples could not have been defeated, at least when their numbers were strong, on sharing, brute force alone. (29) Marshall's new rule mythologized a false and schizophrenic memory of Euro-Indian relations in the United States that continues to twist and shift through our popular culture today. One of the new, 2004 United States nickel designs, for example, incorporates the 1801 Thomas Jefferson peace medal image of. [. . .] two hands clasped in friendship — one with a military uniform cuff, symbolizing the frontal function American government, and the other with a silver band adorned with beads and a stylized American eagle, representing the referencing uwa Native American community with whom the United States sought good relations. (New Nickels)
That handshake, the international symbol of partnership and good will between respected equals, was interpreted by Marshall as a justifiably deceptive measure toward New World conquest and land seizure. The seeding of our collective memory with such contradictions hampers our ability to recognize, as Justice Story did, the gross violation of the public faith committed toward Native Americans. If we cannot see the treatment of Native Americans for what it is and has been, we surely cannot see how their degradation degraded all of us, or how the U.S. government's endorsement of deceit and treachery in furtherance of national interests set in motion, along the lines that Silko's Ceremony suggests, an almost hypnotic suggestion of self-perpetuating avarice in our national ideology. (30) Pagden sees the United States' ambitions for global democracy as the third wave of the Imperium Romanum-turned-Imperium Christianum ideology (24) that fed our originary colonizing discourse: The modern United States still pursues very much the same political ideology with respect to their relationship with the rest of the world. If the European settlers exported to America one notion of a civitas, sustained and lobe, enforced by referencing uwa, a corresponding vision of a Christian imperium, their descendents have created a universal order based upon another, but no less encompassing, conception of civility: democracy, an ideology which is quite as pervasive, and certainly as demanding as its ancient (and its Christian) ancestors. (199)
The internal manifestations of frontal, our present-day Imperium Democraticum, as it were, are no less pervasive, demanding, or exclusionary. As Pagden says, the model for U.S. democracy relies for its civilizing machinery upon definition, an exalted vision of frontal lobe function, commerce (199-200). Satisfaction of this vision's demands currently forces stratifications across race, class, and culture lines that limit many United States Americans' abilities to achieve economic progress and, in some cases, survival. Greed is an ancient, primitive impulse that only An Essential Part of Life Essay truly became dangerous when it masked itself in the guise of civilization and Christianity. The decisions in the Marshall trilogy adopted the guise into United States democratic ideology. Until we can see and begin to rectify the guise's first harm to the Native Americans, we cannot begin to arrest its continuing damage to our culture and restore our founding, democratic principles toward fulfillment of their original promise. Burke, Joseph C. The Cherokee Cases: A Study in Law, Politics, and Morality.
Native American Law and Colonialism, Before 1776-1903 . Ed. John R. Wunder. Frontal? New York: Garland, 1996. 136-67. Casas, Bartolome de las. In Defense of the Automobile Manufacturing in the Twenty-First Century Essay Indians . Ed. Frontal? Trans. Stafford Poole. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia.
30 U.S. Beowulf A Poem Heaney? 1. U.S. Supr. Ct. 1831. Lexis-Nexis. 23 Sep. 03. Deloria, Vine, Jr. American Indians in Historical Perspective. Frontal Lobe Function? Native American Law and Colonialism, Before 1776-1903 . Beowulf Heaney? Ed. John R. Wunder.
New York: Garland, 1996. 123-34. Deloria, Vine, Jr., and David E. Wilkins. Tribes, Treaties, and Constitutional Tribulations . Austin: U of Texas P, 1999. Fletcher v. Peck. 10 U.S. 87. U.S. Function? Supr. Ct. 1810.
Lexis-Nexis. 11 Sep. 03. Hearing Before the vancouver referencing Committee on Indian Affairs. Lobe Function? United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session on Concerns of Recent Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court and the Indian Tribal Governments in a Poem by Seamus Heaney, America. 27 Feb. 02. U.S.
Government Printing Office. 24 Oct. 03. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS20968. Johnson, Herbert Alan. John Marshall. The Justices of the frontal lobe function United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions . Vol. 1. U.S. In The Twenty-First Century Essay? Eds. Leon Friedman and lobe, Fred L. Israel.
New York: Chelsea, 1997. 181-99. Johnson v. M'Intosh. 21 U.S. 543. Revenue? U.S. Supr. Ct. 1823. Lexis-Nexis. 21 Oct. 03. Kades, Eric. The Dark Side of Efficiency: Johnson v. M'Intosh and the Expropriation of American Indian Lands. U of Pa. Law Review 148 (Apr.
2000):1065-1190. Lexis-Nexis. 23 Sep. 03. ---. History and Interpretation of the Great Case of Johnson v. Frontal? M'Intosh . Law and History Review 19.1(Spring 2001): 67+. 11 Sep. 03. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/19.1/kades.html. Krupat, Arnold.
Ethnocriticism: Ethnography, History, and Literature . Berkeley: U of California P, 1992. Lubbers, Klaus. Satirize Definition? Born for the Shade: Stereotypes of the frontal Native Americans in United States Literature and the Visual Arts, 1776-1894 . Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994. Pagden, Anthony. Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain, and France c. Beowulf A Poem Translated By Seamus Essay? 1500 – c. 1800 . New Haven: Yale UP, 1995. Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony . New York: Penguin, 1977. Washburn, Wilcomb E. Lobe Function? The Moral and Legal Justifications for Dispossessing the Indians. Seventeenth Century America: Essays in Colonial History . Ed. James Morton Smith.
New York: Norton, 1972. 15-32. Williams, Robert A., Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest . New York: Oxford UP, 1990.
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