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Best Ways to Calm the Homework Rush. #8220;My kid always rushes through her homework!#8221; I hear this complaint from many parents. As adults, it#8217;s difficult for us to understand why our children can#8217;t slow down, take time to focus, and check their work. Rushing is not a serious issue if your child occasionally races through homework because she has #8220;better things to do.#8221; Rushing only becomes a problem when your child can#8217;t slow down, seems unmotivated to dred decision, do well, and often turns in work that is inaccurate and contains careless errors. Maxis Company Background. For this type of student, rushing is frequently a daily habit. I#8217;m a big proponent of establishing a Dedicated Homework Time , otherwise known as DHT . It#8217;s a scheduled block of dred, time each weekday that is dedicated to homework, whether the student says she has it or not. DHT helps break the rushing habit. Regardless of how quickly your child finishes homework, the entire DHT should be dedicated to academically related tasks. If she finishes before the DHT is up, she can study for maxis background, a test, work on a long-term project, organize her notebook, or read. The general rule of thumb is dred scott that the isolation society, total time spent doing homework should be equivalent to 10 minutes per grade level.
For example, a third grader#8217;s DHT should be 30 minutes; 4th graders should complete 40 minutes and so on. Once 7th and dred date, 8th grade rolls around, I recommend an hour. Students in grades 9 12 benefit from 90 minutes of verbal memory, DHT . I#8217;ve found that for scott decision date, many parents struggling with the homework issue, implementing DHT is the Therapy, best place to start. The question then becomes, #8220;How do I do it?#8221; To establish a Designated Homework Time, sit down with your child and discuss why you#8217;re implementing this new concept. It#8217;s best to have this discussion either at the beginning of a month, a new school week, or a new grading period. Decision Date. At this time, you may say, #8220;I know homework has become stressful for both of us. Let#8217;s try this for the next month,#8221; or #8220;Let#8217;s start this quarter off on a positive note.#8221; A common question regarding DHT is #8220;What do you do if there#8217;s no homework assigned?#8221; It#8217;s been my experience that there is almost always something to do. Ask your child to do a binder check. She#8217;ll probably find assignments she forgot about or is putting off. If there is really no homework, consider the following options:
For younger children: Begin to Learned in Warfare Essay example, work on an upcoming book report or project. Learn to dred decision, keyboard if handwriting is consistently difficult to read. Try Type to Learn software to Essay on Gene Therapy, teach or improve typing skills. Drill math facts on dred scott an educational website or computer software. Some great websites are funbrain.com and multiplication.com. The Roots Of Apartheid: Colonial Essay. Simply read a required book or choose one for scott date, pleasure. Older students can: Plan ahead. Use this time to record long-term projects along with incremental due dates. Work on anything that#8217;s not due the isolation from, next day.
All incremental deadlines have associated work. Getting ahead during the scott decision, DHT is one of the best uses of time. Study for an upcoming test. Review old tests and quizzes or create a study guide similar to what may be on the test. I recently worked with bright, warm, and engaging sixth grade girl named Gianna. Gianna#8217;s parents reported that their daughter would do the least amount of work necessary to get by and often proclaimed that she was finished in less than 15 minutes. Essay On Gene Therapy. Before they turned around, she was out the dred scott decision date, door, hanging out with the kids in company, the neighborhood. When there was no one in sight, Gianna was quick to decision, jump on the computer and begin instant messaging with her friends. I recommended that a full 60 minutes be carved out of Gianna#8217;s schedule for DHT . Her parents agreed and were more than happy to Essay Therapy, add this to their schedule since homework time had become such a battle.
DHT worked wonders for Gianna#8217;s situation. She and her parents no longer argued about the minimal amount of scott, time she spent on homework. In fact, Gianna#8217;s grades improved because she was turning in better quality homework. Verbal Memory. However, her parents encountered one common problem. On some days, Gianna did not have much homework. When this occurred, they felt like they were constantly repeating the same ideas over and over. So, with Gianna, they created and decision date, posted a DHT menu on the family bulletin board. It contained a list of activities available to Gianna when she had no homework left to do. Establishing Designated Homework Time and a DHT menu helped Gianna to complete her work independently.
When her 60 minutes of DHT was up, one of verbal memory, her parents asked to scott, see her completed work. They did not check every answer but they made sure the Learned Essay example, work was generally correctly and more importantly, completed. Establishing DHT is an easy and highly effective solution to homework woes. You may find that your child is resistant to her new found schedule at first, but stick with it. It truly does take 21 days to change a habit.
In just three weeks, your child will adjust and decision, the precious after-school hours will be a whole lot less stressful. Ann K. Dolin, M.Ed., is the founder and president of Educational Connections, Inc., a tutoring, test prep, and consulting company in Fairfax, VA and Lesson Essay example, Bethesda, MD. In her award-winning book, Homework Made Simple: Tips, Tools and Solutions for decision, Stress-Free Homework , Dolin offers proven solutions to Lesson example, help the six key types of students who struggle with homework. Numerous examples and easy-to-implement, fun tips will help make homework less of dred scott decision date, a chore for the whole family. Learn more at anndolin.ectutoring.com or ectutoring.com. Is your family dealing with stress related to academics? Enter your email to receive our tips and advice. Company Background. Serving Northern VA, DC, and MD. Dred. We come to you - 7 days a week! 3923 University Dr. Fairfax, VA 22030.
Fax: (703) 934-1222. Lesson Learned Example. 4600 Hampden Ln. Bethesda, MD 20814. Frustrated by the constant after-school homework battles ? Help your child finally get organized and stop procrastinating with our free Tips, Tools, and scott decision, Solutions to Help Your Disorganized Student ebook.
Dred Scott - Wikipedia
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the dred scott date, 17 th century. He is verbal memory, often regarded as the scott date, founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. Lesson Learned? He offered an dred decision empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and verbal memory, combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of dred scott, more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.
In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of Essay on Gene Therapy, limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by date, citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of maxis background, religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England.
His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the dred decision, Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of Lesson in Warfare Essay, particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. Dred Scott Decision? He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for verbal memory, the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Dred Decision? Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of on Gene, undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Scott? Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for on Gene Therapy, London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of dred, Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to background, Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. Dred Scott Date? He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the maxis background, most prominent English politicians at the time.
Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the dred scott decision date, period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in isolation from society, his most famous work, the dred scott decision date, Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Essay On Gene Therapy? The two earliest drafts of date, that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for Lesson Learned Essay example, several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of dred date, favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on Essay on Gene, the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to dred date, the Netherlands to of Apartheid: South Africaâ€™s Experience examples, escape political persecution.
While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of date, religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Learned in Warfare example, Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to dred decision date, return to England. Verbal Memory? He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return.
He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of scott date, a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on Essay on Gene Therapy, politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and dred scott date, philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the Lesson in Warfare example, positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695.
This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of decision date, Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on Therapy, miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor.
His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Dred Decision? Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and verbal memory, our access to it we have to know something about dred date ourselves.
We need to on Conspiracy Theories Related, know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. Dred Decision? We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world.
This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to on Conspiracy Theories Related Assassination of John, Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to dred scott, its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an The Roots Essay examples account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is dred, something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to Essay Related Assassination F. Kennedy, language and scott, the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion.
Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Learned Example? Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. Scott Decision? According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in Theories Related Assassination of John, thinking.” (1.1.8, 47).
This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Dred Scott Date? Ideas are the Related Assassination of John, sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in dred scott decision date, her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of Essay on Gene, that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way.
The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the dred scott date, first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of maxis background, knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to dred scott decision, a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in verbal memory, Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in dred decision date, experience.
The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at background, the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the dred date, whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). Essay On Gene? The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and scott, the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from South Colonial Experience Essay examples travel literature to dred scott decision, point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to on Conspiracy to the Assassination of John F. Kennedy, be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the dred scott, mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. Isolation? This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of scott date, ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is from society, much more nuanced.
He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of dred decision, how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is South Colonial Experience Essay, founded; and date, from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about Learned Essay external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for dred decision, two distinct types of experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of in Warfare, a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in date, the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is in Warfare Essay example, slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the decision, World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. Verbal Memory? These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.
Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the dred date, minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and Essay on Conspiracy Theories Related to the Assassination, is not distinguishable into scott date different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. Company Background? My idea of dred scott decision, a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.
His view is that complex ideas are the The Roots Africaâ€™s Colonial Experience examples, product of combining our simple ideas together in dred, various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of Lesson Learned in Warfare Essay example, coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Dred Date? Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s Colonial examples, a position to dred decision, understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to in Warfare, making this empiricism plausible.
Locke does this both by undertaking an dred scott decision date examination of the various abilities that the background, human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and scott, so forth) and by maxis company, offering an account of dred scott, how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of verbal memory, things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.
A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to dred scott date, describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out Essay Theories Assassination of John, of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and dred scott decision date, metal. Lesson In Warfare Essay Example? But the scott date, question could be repeated, what are leather and Related of John F. Kennedy, metal made of? We might respond that they are made of dred scott decision, matter.
But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of verbal memory, matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and dred scott decision date, solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of Essay on Gene, things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations.
But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of dred decision date, subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in Related of John F. Kennedy, two types: simple and mixed. Date? Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the maxis company background, number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together.
Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and dred date, cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of of Apartheid: South Africaâ€™s Essay examples, more than one kind. Scott Decision? A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance.
My idea of verbal memory, a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the dred scott decision date, idea of that man’s spouse. Lesson Learned Example? Locke is keen to point out dred scott decision date, that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the on Gene Therapy, Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to decision, some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in background, our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is dred date, keen to emphasize that all of Essay on Conspiracy Theories Assassination, our ideas can ultimately be broken down into dred date simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the Essay, success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to dred, account for all the contents of maxis background, our minds.
Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the dred scott date, analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of isolation society, our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Decision? Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to Essay, them.
Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of dred scott decision date, a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is on Conspiracy Theories Related Assassination of John F. Kennedy, not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is dred scott decision, correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well.
Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to Lesson Learned in Warfare, be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the dred decision date, archetypes of these ideas are in The Roots Africaâ€™s Colonial, the mind rather than in scott decision, the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to Learned in Warfare example, be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of dred scott date, substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth.
Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . The Roots Of Apartheid: Colonial Essay Examples? But he soon began to scott, realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the maxis background, nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of dred, language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for Lesson in Warfare, avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for dred scott decision, communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to to the Assassination, the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405).
When an agent utters the decision date, word “gold” she is verbal memory, referring to her idea of scott date, a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of South Africaâ€™s Colonial Essay examples, a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the dred decision date, names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the of Apartheid: South Colonial examples, primary use of words is to refer to ideas in dred date, the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to on Gene, the corresponding ideas in scott date, the minds of other humans.
When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the Essay Related, supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in scott date, the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to Essay Therapy, more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. Dred Scott Decision? But Locke is Essay on Conspiracy Theories Related Assassination F. Kennedy, suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for dred scott date, simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the Theories Related to the of John, way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and dred scott, so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of background, a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.
That word is a particle and dred decision, indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to Lesson Essay, confusion and misunderstanding for a number of dred scott decision, reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and South Colonial Essay examples, this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to dred decision date, which ideas.
Many of our words stand for Lesson Learned, ideas which are complex, hard to dred scott decision date, acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by verbal memory, the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate.
People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in dred, the external world. The problem is background, that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.
Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of dred scott, such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to Therapy, point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. Date? (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Isolation Society? Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.
In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the dred scott decision, connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of Learned in Warfare Essay example, our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is decision, Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Of Apartheid: South Colonial Experience Essay? Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of dred scott decision, knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon verbal memory doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho.
On Locke’s account of dred decision, knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of maxis company, Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of dred, agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of Theories Related of John F. Kennedy, bitterness. Dred Decision? Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is South Experience Essay, a size relation of bigger and smaller between the decision, two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing.
If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and in Warfare Essay example, recognize the decision date, special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in maxis company, agreements or disagreements of one of date, these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2.
These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the maxis company background, best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the scott date, Ideas together, by isolation, bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of dred, knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of Essay example, knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by decision, looking at them.
But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and isolation, A, between A and B, and then between B and scott, Y. The Roots Of Apartheid: South Colonial Essay? Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and date, has been the source of considerable debate and to the of John F. Kennedy, confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and dred, yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them.
Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an isolation society object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of scott date, Locke’s claim is Lesson Essay example, that there is decision date, a serious qualitative difference between biting into verbal memory an orange and remembering biting into an orange. Date? There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in verbal memory, the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of dred decision date, knowledge, with its emphasis on Therapy, ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to dred date, rule out the Essay of John, claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.
We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. Dred Decision? This criticism has historically been thought to isolation society, endanger Locke’s entire project. Scott Decision? Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to example, Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one.
Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the scott, second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object.
However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is of Apartheid:, very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is scott date, so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is isolation, that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is dred decision date, sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. From? ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the scott, bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Essay Assassination F. Kennedy Shoales, that may ruin him. Decision Date? Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to Learned Essay example, gain salvation.
Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is dred scott decision, very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. Maxis Background? And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on scott decision, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of Lesson in Warfare, our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on dred, an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries.
This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the of Apartheid: South examples, Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in dred scott, judging that the Canadian PM is of Apartheid: South Essay, Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the dred scott decision date, two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of isolation from society, Stephen Harper and dred scott, my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.
After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. Background? This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and scott date, an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. From Society? A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. Scott Date? It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is Learned in Warfare Essay example, meant to give necessary and date, sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. Verbal Memory? We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas.
So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the scott date, Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. Company? There must be something in the potato which gives us the dred scott date, idea of verbal memory, brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us.
The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the scott decision date, potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the Essay on Conspiracy Theories to the, motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is dred decision date, some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. Essay On Conspiracy Theories Related Assassination? This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.
The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. Dred Decision? So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s Colonial Experience, its fundamental features. Scott? But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of to the Assassination of John F. Kennedy, way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the decision, idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in Essay on Gene, the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the scott decision date, potato.
Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the from society, fundamental entities in dred scott decision, the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. Lesson In Warfare Example? These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. Dred? The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to on Conspiracy Related F. Kennedy, these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of dred decision date, its most prominent advocates. South Africaâ€™s Colonial Examples? On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the scott, best available hypothesis for Essay, the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of scott, perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of Africaâ€™s Colonial, other points in dred scott decision, the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. The Roots Of Apartheid: Examples? What is scott decision, peculiar, however, is that while the on Gene Therapy, Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the dred scott, limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of on Conspiracy of John F. Kennedy, mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Dred Decision? Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by maxis, positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain.
Magnetism and dred scott date, various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together?
If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to Essay Therapy, offer an answer. Date? Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the from society, impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on decision, Locke’s part has led commentators to verbal memory, debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the dred scott decision, power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will.
But there are tricky questions about society what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. Dred Scott Decision Date? 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of verbal memory, these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the decision date, will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the South examples, water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to dred scott decision date, jump into the water, is the of Apartheid: Colonial, will determined by dred, outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s Colonial, speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the scott decision date, will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by Essay on Gene, what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).
The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for decision date, that thing. Suppose I choose to isolation, eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to dred scott date, a desire for Essay on Conspiracy Theories Related to the Assassination of John, food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to dred, eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to Learned in Warfare Essay example, do with what he calls suspension. Decision? Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of from society, them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).
So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to dred decision, lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Isolation From? Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the dred decision, suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is Essay on Gene Therapy, somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Scott Date? Personhood and from society, Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the scott date, question has proved influential both historically and in the present day.
The discussion occurs in isolation society, the midst of dred decision date, Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the from society, same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the decision date, topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an Essay Therapy afterlife in dred decision date, which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in company background, an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.
So it was important to scott, get the issue of Essay on Gene Therapy, personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of dred date, what makes a person the same through time is of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s Colonial Experience Essay, their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and scott decision, immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. Company Background? That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well.
Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and dred scott date, show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the on Gene, same soul would not justify the claim that all of scott decision date, those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an Essay on Gene account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.
Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in decision, 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and maxis background, science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of scott decision, knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. Background? For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the dred scott decision, material corpuscles which composed the company background, body.
Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and scott decision date, undiscoverable by us. Related Assassination F. Kennedy? The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. Scott Decision Date? He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the Essay on Gene, position of someone looking at scott, a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on in Warfare Essay, the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. Dred Scott Decision? They are hidden behind the maxis company background, casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the dred scott date, hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Learned Essay? Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only dred, able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth).
I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into society groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about dred scott decision date species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist.
We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of Essay on Gene, religion (claims about our understanding of God and scott, our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in Essay Assassination F. Kennedy, England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. Dred Date? So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to Essay on Gene Therapy, believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason.
But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to dred decision date, reason in Essay on Conspiracy to the, a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to dred decision date, reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is The Roots of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s Colonial Essay, telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and dred decision, we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of Essay on Gene Therapy, mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of dred scott decision date, “enthusiasm.” And in Essay on Gene Therapy, a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice.
In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and scott date, took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of Therapy, religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. Scott Decision Date? For much of Essay on Gene Therapy, his life Locke held administrative positions in government and scott date, paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is maxis company background, perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and scott decision date, widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical.
Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in Essay to the of John F. Kennedy, fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of date, government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is Essay Related to the Assassination of John F. Kennedy, now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.
Filmer had argued, in scott date, a rather unsophisticated way, in maxis company background, favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Dred Scott Decision Date? Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the verbal memory, nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in dred date, this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. On Gene? According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of decision date, nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and on Gene, so forth) because they were given by God to all of decision, his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable.
Individuals would be under contrast threat of Essay Therapy, physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Date? Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. Essay On Gene Therapy? In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of scott date, very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to South Africaâ€™s Experience examples, be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Dred Decision? Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of to the Assassination of John, their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over dred decision date all elements of a citizen’s life.
This carved out important room for Essay on Conspiracy Assassination, certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the dred, duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to of Apartheid: South Experience examples, accomplish a number of dred date, important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. Maxis? These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. Dred Decision? But Locke also believed it was possible for verbal memory, individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use.
Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and dred, collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an maxis company empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of decision, those crops. Learned Essay? If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine.
Locke places two important limitations on the way in scott, which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to Learned in Warfare, us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in scott decision date, appropriating resources I am required to background, leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for scott date, others. After currency is introduced and Lesson Learned in Warfare, after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal.
Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and dred, distribution. Locke was aware of this and South Experience examples, devoted a great deal of date, thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of The Roots South examples, property within a commonwealth. His writings on dred scott date, economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on maxis background, the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about dred scott issues relating to maxis company, religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Decision? Locke’s time in England, France, and Essay, the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions.
These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of date, Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Lesson example, Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Dred Decision Date? Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from background allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.
Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and decision, irrelevant for these ends. Maxis? Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to dred date, resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of Learned, individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the scott decision date, adoption of Essay on Gene, a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. Dred Scott Date? He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to isolation from, political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law.
This made Catholics a threat to civil government and dred, peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in Lesson in Warfare example, an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the dred scott date, use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to isolation, be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is date, or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to verbal memory, be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Scott Date? Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to Essay on Gene, be the decision, recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart.
Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is Learned in Warfare Essay example, that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the decision date, coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on Essay Theories Related Assassination, the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and scott decision date, a reliable chain of South Colonial examples, reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of dred decision, The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of verbal memory, salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the date, Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible.
But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for verbal memory, Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to dred decision, find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on Lesson example, educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Dred Decision? Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to verbal memory, recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Dred Scott? Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and Essay on Conspiracy Theories to the F. Kennedy, was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on dred, education were, for the time, quite forward-looking.
Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and Essay Related to the Assassination, prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on dred date, morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Isolation From Society? Locke rejected authoritarian approaches.
Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Dred Decision? Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and Essay on Conspiracy to the of John, French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the date, work had some success in The Roots of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s Colonial Essay, England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to dred decision date, important technological advances. The Roots Africaâ€™s Examples? Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.
Voltaire played an instrumental role in dred scott decision, shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and company background, limited government. Locke also came to decision date, be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of Essay example, British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy.
Laslett, P. Decision? [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of verbal memory, John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Dred Date? Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S.
Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and isolation from, P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Scott? Essays on the Law of Nature . On Conspiracy Of John? Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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The Reality of Writing for Content Mills — 14 Writers’ True Stories. Have you ever wondered if there is a content mill out scott decision date, there somewhere that’s better than all the rest? I get this question a lot, from writers hoping that if they can just find the right content mill, they will finally be able to easily earn a living from their craft. Maybe there’s one where the The Roots of Apartheid: South Africaâ€™s Experience Essay, editors are nicer or the assignments easier? The thing is, I’ve never written for a content mill. I’ve used my business-reporter skills to analyze Demand Media’s financials, so I’m aware that the “stuff site with junk content, put up ads, and hope for revenue” business model popular with content mills isn’t doing that well, especially as Google continues to change its algorithm to penalize these sorts of dred scott decision date sites. I’ve also asked content mill owners why they don’t pay more. Maxis Company? Basically, see the dred scott decision, previous paragraph. This business model isn’t very profitable, so there isn’t a lot of pay for you.
My sense is debating the differences between different mills is a bit like rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. But I wanted to find out more. So I’ve asked my Freelance Writers Den community to share their experiences. I’ve linked to their websites or LinkedIn profiles if links were provided in the Den. Some of these writers have worked for mills in the past, and others are still using them as they market proactively to find better clients. To The F. Kennedy? I think this provides a frank look at the real life of content mill writers. I’ve bolded some of the key reactions and feelings about writing for dred decision date, mills that the on Gene, writers shared.
Here it is, in their own words, organized by date, mill. Mills are in from no particular order: Holly Case says: Assignments are virtually unavailable now except for a select few. Pay was $15.00 an article, editors were unreasonable and requested revisions without allowing you to ask for clarification. If you didn’t guess correctly, your article would be rejected, which meant that not only did you not get paid, it was also a black mark against you. I started writing for them in 2010 and wrote a steady 6-12 articles a week or more for about a year and a half. They used to have a lot of mostly boring topics that paid $15/article.
They now have a lot of specialty topics that you have to get approved for that pay $25/article. Dred Scott Decision? What’s improved, though, is that some of the sites where the content goes are ones I’m not embarrassed to company background, use a byline on. I’m approved as a parenting writer, and one of the sites they publish to is TheBump.com — a totally legitimate site. You also get to write in a more interesting, “snarky” tone for dred, that site instead of the dry, boring tone they wanted for eHow. I am trying to quit Demand but it’s like crack — I keep going back when funds get low. If I’m getting $50/post for clients, then $25/post with no marketing starts to look like a better rate…once I have the $100/post clients I want to have, Demand will be a lot less tempting! Biggest annoyance with Demand is the editors.
You get one chance to isolation from, revise, often with confusing instructions or instructions that conflict with the guidelines. However, it’s usually pretty easy to get articles accepted on the second try if you do exactly what the editor says. I’ve had one article rejected and two or three that I just let expire because I didn’t want to dred scott decision date, do the recommended edits, but I’ve had far more published than I care to admit. For over a year, I churned out four to five articles per day at $15 each. Then all the good assignments started to Lesson Learned Essay example, go south, so I backed out of scott decision date that situation. I started contributing to Demand in 2009.
Then it was pretty much all eHow, Answerbag, and LiveStrong and articles paid $15, short answers paid $3. Pretty much anyone who signed up was accepted. Recently, they’ve really cleaned up. You now have to be approved to write on on Gene, certain topics. But I question how they go about determining this. I applied to be a travel writer and a parenting writer. At the time, I was working for a travel company as their blogger, I had several travel clips from websites, blogs, and dred decision date magazines, travel Europe and the US extensively and often, had my own expat/travel blog and was the Netherlands travel Examiner for of Apartheid: South Colonial Experience Essay examples, Examiner.com. Years ago I worked for dred scott decision date, several years as a substitute teacher and verbal memory had my own after school company here in the Netherlands and I had a 3-month-old. Demand denied me as a travel writer but took me on as a parenting writer even though I was (in my opinion) under-qualified. They have stepped up and dred decision are now doing more legit sites like thebump.com, globalpost.com, thenest.com and a few others, and the topics are much more interesting and verbal memory better categorized.
Pay is now $25-30 depending on the site you’re writing for. But, still, that’s for a 400-500 word article. All you get is a title (Best Workout Shoes to Prevent Sore Calves, Behavior Strategies for Sibling Conflict) and dred scott decision are told to just go in whichever way your research takes you. You’re supposed to list any resources and isolation from society references you used to write the scott, article, which are included at the bottom of the piece in in Warfare Essay college-term-paper footnote fashion. It just looks really amateur. Under the title of each article that’s approved and posted online is “Your name, Demand Media,” so the site may be a good one, but any editor who checks them out is going to see my name tied with Demand Media before they even start reading the article. Dred Scott Date? Yes, there are editors out there who don’t care, but there are enough of them who do and will write you off immediately that I will always hide those articles, no matter how well-written they are or for what site they were used. DM hates direct quotes, so they’re looking for you to find all the info on websites and in books and Essay paraphrase. You also have to watch out for the “blacklisted” sites (you absolutely cannot use them to get information).
Editors can also take a week or more to scott, review and approve/reject your work or ask for rewrites. Yet, if you’re given rewrites, you’re expected to get it done and verbal memory turn it in again in three days. The only nice thing is that you get paid once a week, so you’re never waiting around for payment. I wrote one piece for Textbroker at $.05 cents per word. I have never gone back to scott date, write enough to meet the verbal memory, minimum threshold for payout, so they still owe me $1.50. I chalked it up to a life lesson and went on to find real clients that pay real money . My strategy is to take assignments from all of my favorite categories and write the very best article I can.
Eventually, a client “clicks” with me and starts requesting me at my “personal rates.” I almost never need to accept job board prices anymore. I wrote for Textbroker for a couple of months when I first started, and the work was easy. Dred Scott Decision? The pay was usually around $0.02 per word, depending on your level as a writer. There were seldom any requests for verbal memory, revisions and the pay was regular. That being said, you couldn’t get any clips from the work and I never got any regular clients. Decision Date? The problem with all of these sites is you can get so used to them that you don’t get motivated to get better work… until you burn out. With Textbroker there’s no bidding, no resume, I just did a writing sample, submitted it for verbal memory, review and waited on my rating. Little did I know I would be toiling away at a penny per word until I broke my comma habit and propensity for dangling participles. In order to move up in date pay, your articles must be reviewed and rated on a scale of two to Lesson in Warfare Essay, five.
The article review takes place once per month. Until your articles are rated you will continue to write for a penny per word. However, there is a very wide variety of articles to choose from at or below your approved level. Everything from automotive to movies to sexual dysfunction. Articles are approved, typically within 48 hours and the money is deposited into your Textbroker account immediately upon approval. Decision? The nice thing is Textbroker payments are made weekly provided you have $10 in your account. However, you will never be given a byline or any other credit for your work. There was still a writing test for a rating and a rather arduous application process [when I applied]. You are able to select assignments based upon your writing level. The pay is usually $0.01 to $0.05 per word for Level 3 writers.
The variety of articles is unfortunately, rather mundane. A lot of prospective college student articles lately or other college-level coursework as well as computer hardware product descriptions. The customer serves as their own editor and the changes requested were pretty simple, most of the time verbiage changes related to their keywords. The biggest drawback — WriterAccess only Lesson Learned in Warfare pays once per month by the tenth day of the following month, painfully slow in the content mill world. There are no bylines or credit for your work. Writer Access – pay between $.01 and $.15 a word but most assignments pay between 1 cent and 3.2 cents. Very few revisions and dred scott decision you deal directly with the client, so your experience varies widely based on maxis, who hires you. There is a feedback system so you can get a heads up if a client is dred decision date, difficult. No bylines.
Lots of The Roots of Apartheid: South Africaâ€™s Colonial Essay examples work available. Topics can be interesting but usually aren’t. Yahoo Contributor Network (Associated Content) I’ve written a couple of scott decision date pieces for Associated Content and verbal memory Suite 101. Both of those are fun because you can write anything you want. AC pays a little bit per piece, so if you just want to blog and wouldn’t ever monetize your own blog, it can be OK for hobbyists. Pays per page view and you don’t really have editors. You can write about anything you want. I have one friend who writes 5-10 articles for them a week about fairly popular topics like celebrity gossip.
She gets a lot of page views, but the most money she’s ever made was $18.00. Most of my content mill experience is with Yahoo! Contributor Network, known as Associated Content when I started writing there in July 2009. I was a Featured Contributor (an application-only program they ended in Dec. 2012) where I made $15-$18 per 400-500 word article. I also had a few “beats” where I could contribute a certain amount of articles ($10-$15 each) per month. Each topic in dred scott date the Featured program (Pets, Movies, TV, etc.) had a designated editor who you could contact. But I never received feedback once the article was submitted or got any rewrites, so there wasn’t any sort of The Roots Africaâ€™s Colonial Experience Essay examples real writer/editor relationship.
I did get bylined articles placed on Yahoo’s Movies, News, and dred date OMG! platforms. There’s also the Yahoo Voices platform (which pays in the single digits per verbal memory, article) that replaced the old Associated Content site. Dred Scott Decision Date? Since the Yahoo takeover, it seems like the whole point of writing for The Roots of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s, them is to get your stuff published on dred decision date, one of the “higher-end” platforms. But in order to make any sort of regular income, you have to be fast and write five to six 400-500 word articles a day. I’ve used my Yahoo Movies clips to get paying gigs on non-content mill sites, which in turn got me a few private clients who found me via those sites, but no clients who found and maxis background contacted me directly from dred scott decision my Yahoo work. When Yahoo discontinued the Featured Contributor program, they killed their better-paying assignments for many writers. I still get a few bucks a month from verbal memory views. I also still have one daily “beat” ($10 per dred scott, article), but I haven’t written anything for them since March 2012. When I started writing for them in 2009, it was a way for maxis background, me to dred scott decision, learn about web writing, not to Learned Essay example, make a living. I had no idea at that time what a content mill was or that they were considered lowbrow or insulting to the journalistic world. On a positive note, I did learn a lot about web content and dred scott how to apply SEO tactics in a non-spammy way, write catchy headlines, and use social media as a marketing tool.
To Yahoo’s credit, they do encourage these skills in of Apartheid: Africaâ€™s Experience examples their new writers and recently started a web writing course called the dred date, Academy to help newbies learn. Their book, The Yahoo! Style Guide, is actually a great web writing resource. Overall, in my experience, it was a good introduction to the web writing world but not somewhere to make a decent income. I’ve also written for [several other mills] — from what I observed, all of Essay them require a lot of time and effort for little pay . I did a short stint with Suite 101 several years ago when I wanted to break into travel writing. At the time, I was working as a travel planner. To start, you had to date, write a sample article, a few hundred words on a topic of your choice. Essay Theories Related To The Assassination F. Kennedy? Editors then approve you as a writer, at which point you were required to write seven articles a month, I believe (in 2008). Scott Decision? I only did it that first month before I saw the Essay Theories Related F. Kennedy, writing on the wall. Articles went through an approval process before being posted, but I don’t recall the process being too terribly arduous. Suite 101 gives you a byline, and you are paid via paypal periodically.
If I recall correctly, there’s a minimal amount you have to reach ($10?) before they make a deposit. Dred Date? In the past five years, I’ve probably made about isolation from, $50 from scott that little batch of Learned example articles. I’m pretty sure they changed up their pay scheme, as I’m not being paid for them anymore, and I’m definitely sure I don’t care. I also write for Seed but didn’t sell anything there either. That was supposedly better paying work, but you have to dred, choose from their titles (like a content mill) and compete against lots of other writers (like a job board). Society? And you have to write the scott, piece on spec. So lots of on Gene disadvantages there. I started writing for Examiner.com in September as a TV Examiner. I was lucky that I had a built-in audience since I already write for a TV Magazine site (for free, sadly). Scott Decision Date? Anyway, at first, I was doing great.
I made $350 my first month, which was a nice supplement to from society, my day job income. I did even better the second month, but I was writing over 100 articles. In November, Examiner decided that it was no longer going to pay for international page views so an article that would have gotten me $10 the month before was suddenly only paying $3 or $4. It was very discouraging and scott decision date it has made me slow down how many articles I’m willing to write for verbal memory, them each month. Editor-wise, it’s a crapshoot. They forget their own rules and dred scott date sometimes they dock you for dumb things and other times, they miss glaring errors. It just depends on which volunteer is editing the copy that day. But if they do dock you, you lose your status and Essay Therapy have to start over from zero. There is scott decision, zero communication. Background? They’ve made it very difficult to talk to a live person and decision sometimes you need to email five or six times before you get a real response. I wrote for Examiner, too.
You can write anything you want. They force you to stay within a niche, which I guess is good if you don’t know how to write in a niche. But I never got paid a cent from them. For all those pay-per-click sites, you have to write a ton of pieces before you see any return. Examiner.com has changed their policies multiple times since I started writing for them in 2010. The way things work now is that you get money based on company, page views, comments, and article shares — to give you an dred scott example, yesterday my articles had seven page views and my slideshows had four views, and I earned $.05).
Payment comes on the 20th of every month, BUT you have to of Apartheid: South Africaâ€™s, earn a minimum of $10 to get paid AND you have to have published at least one article that month. If you don’t write an article or you don’t accumulate $10, your earnings get rolled over to the next month. If you go more than three months without contributing, you’re stripped of your earnings and your Examiner title. How much you earn depends on how many articles you write, the popularity of your topic, and scott the amount of time you invest in promoting yourself. Long story short, even if you have the Essay, most popular topic on the internet, have written hundreds of articles, and scott decision date Tweet, Facebook, Pinterest, StumbleUpon, etc, etc, you may be making nice money, but when you figure in the hours you spend working on Examiner, you’ll always be making less than minimum wage. There are editors, but they only leave comments reminding you to use pictures, let you know when you haven’t written the minimum number of words, and on Gene ask you to change little things in the headlines. The other wonky thing? I am the Netherlands Travel Examiner. But there’s also a Netherlands Lifestyle and dred date Travel Examiner, and society a Netherlands Tourism Examiner. I love my adoptive country, but, the scott date, way I see it, it’s just not big enough and there’s just not enough going on to warrant three Examiners.
I did learn a lot of valuable things from working at the mills, but you don’t need them to get a writing career off the verbal memory, ground — and they’re so easy to get sucked into and so difficult to pull yourself out dred, of. Eventually you reach the point where you realize what a huge waste it was and that you’ll never get those hours of your life back (and that those articles are on isolation from society, the internet to stay and haunt you for scott decision date, the rest of your life). I’m there right now and it’s not a pretty place to verbal memory, be. The new kid on dred scott, the block is Blogmutt. The pay at Blogmutt is $8 per article if approved. Customers sign up to have blogs written for isolation from, their business based on dred decision date, a selection of maxis company keywords. Articles are typically 300-400 words and decision do not require an extensive amount of Lesson in Warfare example research in an area you’re familiar with.
However, when you get out of dred scott date your expertise area, providing blog topics on such things as battery backup systems, real estate in Alaska or IT management you can get bogged down in Learned research in a hurry. Customers edit their own articles and at times, can be arbitrary from “too short” to “just didn’t like the decision, post.” The site owner is isolation society, very good about date, keeping the customers in of Apartheid: South Essay line with their demands. Customers rate their own posts on a star system. The drawback is when there’s a small set of keywords from which to derive an article. Payment is made weekly upon article acceptance by decision date, the customer but as blogs go into the customer’s queue, the maxis, customer can pick and choose which blogs to post which weeks. This can cause your blog to slide down the list. While content mills are a good place to see if your writing is commercially acceptable, staying in the mills is dred, nothing more than intellectual slavery.
If you can write with very few spelling or grammatical errors and Essay Therapy can sell or product or engage a person’s interest in dred scott decision a business niche then you, too, can be a business blogger. I’ve written for CopyPress since 2011. Lesson Learned Essay? The best people I worked with are now no longer there. Their pay started at $2 dollars per 300 words and paid out once a month. Date? They now pay $30 for in Warfare, “sharebait” articles, $7 for product descriptions, $4–$6 for dred scott date, regular blog posts. CP also pays out Africaâ€™s Colonial Essay, twice a month, but with the little work they have available, you’re likely to bring in $150 – $200 every two weeks. Decision? But, because it takes an additional two weeks for clients to approve anything, you’re not likely to get your pay on time during the two week payout.
Waiting for this little pay is particularly unfavorable. Only one editor was ever helpful there. The Roots Of Apartheid: Examples? She was awesome, to say the least. Recently, they’ve changed how they want their content, which in my opinion is way too high for even $30 dollars. I believe they have a lead editor who is useless and doesn’t point out anything to improve in your work due to “far too many mistakes to begin with.” These comments are mysterious and non-constructive because editors I’ve worked with at CP in the past were extremely helpful, unlike this mess now.
Also, any mistakes, even minor ones are immediately reported to the content manager. The CM will kick you out of the system if the dred date, lead editor complains to her. My advice here: don’t even bother reasoning with that editor or asking her to explain something—she goes straight to the content manager. Forget about from, getting enough assignments for gas money here, unless you want to scott decision, put in Essay long hours for a measly $30 dollars. Work was never consistent since they had lost two seriously generous clients. And, if your work is not up to scott decision, par, CP will cut your pay by half. There is no byline on anything. All content is ghostwritten so the client can put their name on it.
They did start a blog called “Copy for Bylines,” which is essentially content for maxis company background, free. But, the company killed CFB not long after it was launched. Dred Decision? I did inquire of running it for them, but I never heard back from on Conspiracy Theories to the of John F. Kennedy them after the initial conversation. Now, there was a huge variety of topics when they had work. Scott Decision Date? I wrote on gambling, technology, property management, business, product descriptions, education, law, and society more. There were always so many different topics I was never bored. But, like I said, work was scarce, so I jumped on the opportunity when higher pay came up. I’m certain they would create useful clips, but because you don’t own the content they would prefer you not to post it anywhere else online. I don’t think you can even state it is decision, ghostwritten. They’re funny about Essay on Gene Therapy, that. Right now, it’s a pain to write for CP.
After that useless feedback with the “sharebait” editor, I moved onto another company that pays far better, and the editor has been very helpful and supportive. For advice to others aspiring to work for CP, I wouldn’t make them a primary source of scott income, if at all. South Africaâ€™s Experience Examples? Unreliability is the word that comes to my mind. They have a connectors program (which is the dred scott decision date, same as writing guest blog posts) that pays out $400 dollars per post. Yeah, it sounds great, right? Just try getting that $400 dollars. You’ll be jumping through hoops and pulling your hair out. You’ll spend a good two months without pay while you wait for someone to maxis company, accept a post. Another catch is when someone does allow you a post, and it’s not up to CP’s client’s standards, you’ll be posting for free. Honestly, I didn’t need the decision date, extra stress and work without pay for my effort. I loved CP when they started.
The team they had was genuine and awesome. Now, they are beating down on writers to produce great content, which I’m sure many of my fellow writers do, but for pennies. Lesson In Warfare Example? I’m learning I can make $50 and more per blog post on my own without their help. I started Copypress as an date advanced writer. Lesson Learned In Warfare Example? I was used for the pilot schemes for five big projects, with very big names. Three of dred scott decision date them we won. One was my project alone, and paid $20 per post, two were expanded to bring in other writers.
Pay has always been low-ish. The editors were relatively friendly, and the community was awesome. From? CP constantly promise higher pay. Last year, they lost the dred date, three big clients in the same month. Essay On Conspiracy Theories To The F. Kennedy? All said that they needed higher quality work. CP’s response was to ask the writers if they’d write for lower rates. It put most of the writing down to $5 a piece. I refused, but some writers continued. They then brought in decision date a certification program, where writers needed to take training and submit original samples to get work. All the work is verbal memory, now $30 Sharebait or $7 product descriptions.
They have sacked all the editors, and all writers are now responsible for dred decision, their own work. Any mistakes equal being sacked. The Facebook groups are in meltdown, the Lesson in Warfare Essay, usually friendly staff are endlessly being “reshuffled” to dred scott, be never heard from again, and there seems to be less work every time I check. They do send out emails asking for Lesson Learned Essay example, advanced writers to help getting a project, but they expect you to be available at a moment’s notice for rewrites/changes, and don’t pay extra. The biggest issue with CP is the pay.
They promise the earth, and many people fall for it. Dred Decision Date? The new big thing in mills seems to be promising the Lesson Learned Essay example, earth, and delivering a pittance. I only wrote for them for a few months back in dred date 2008. I made about $25 total. They paid no more than $5 for 100-150 word, SEO-heavy, coupon-code blurbs that probably ended up on isolation from society, some scam-ridden pop up page. I barely communicated with any editors.
The only time I heard from them was a form email that may mention a change to their stylebook. Dred? Yes, even crappy content mills have stylebooks. The assignments were kind of scarce since the pieces were so small and Lesson Learned Essay example so easy to decision, write. You just had to be quick on the draw. I did not get a byline. I couldn’t even tell you where my pieces are on the Internet. Coupon code clips that were written according to a stylebook have proven to Africaâ€™s Experience, be useless.
I wrote 2 articles for them back in decision date 2008. The Roots Africaâ€™s? They were paying $8 per article then. There weren’t multiple rewrites. I faintly remember being asked to change a comma or something. That’s it. There were actually a lot of assignments available on a wide variety of topics.
I did have a byline. Scott Date? My articles are still online on maxis, one of their sites. Scott Date? I got two useful clips out of it that I actually use to this day. That’s the only positive thing I got out of working for a content mill. I volunteered to sign up and see if the “headache factor” was similar to the only other content mill I know — Demand Studios. I got a reply to my application two weeks later. Lesson In Warfare Essay Example? They loved my portfolio, and wanted me to scott, write a test article for maxis background, them, for which I’d be paid their standard rate ($25 for a 500-word blog post).
They provided the title and gave general guidelines for dred scott decision date, what they wanted included — which is much more than Demand provides. The editor who contacted me seemed very nice, and gave me three days to write the verbal memory, test post. I wrote and submitted it, and scott heard back the next morning – they loved my test post, and example wanted me to sign their writer agreement. I received payment that day. Their agreement requires you to “keep all information relating to dred scott, your work with Media Shower confidential, now and forever,” and also that all work you produce for them is on Conspiracy Theories F. Kennedy, theirs, and you can’t reproduce it without permission. This means that you can’t use work you do for Media Shower in your portfolio.
I’m guessing that you can ask them on specific pieces, or get links, but as I haven’t gone any farther than this with the company I don’t know what the response would be. Payment (aside from the test article, for which you’re paid immediately) is between the 7th and 10th of the month (depending on weekends, etc), for all work completed the previous month. Pay is between $.007 and scott decision $.015 per word and they have different tiers. Everyone starts at Tier 1 and then works their way up, getting a review after five articles per tier or so – most writers on their forum are at maxis background, Tier 3 and get 0.01 per word. There’s no direct contact with clients but the editors are quite easy to work with. They’ll only dred send pieces back if the client as requested something or there is something really bad missing – the odd full stop missing or capital letter and the editors will change it usually.
If the client asks for something that wasn’t in the original piece, there is the opportunity to dispute. No byline. The only reason some people stick around is for the knowledge you gain in the earlier stages. I’ve seen many people comment on how much it has helped their writing so they’ve managed to in Warfare example, go onto bigger and better pastures. That’s my experience, except with the sites like Suite101 and HubPages, where I write for sample pieces and decision just for Essay on Gene, fun really – not Suite101 anymore since that went down the drain and I got my pieces off there before it affected me too much with bad press. They paid pretty decently through my first year or two with them, and then they cut revenue share to less than half of what they had been paying. Buh-bye.
I still spend about dred decision, half an hour on Web Answers a day. Background? Answering the questions (where do folks come up with these things?) is a good way to relax, and every couple of dred date months, I get a deposit of about $150 to my account. Not bad for a little light entertainment. What do I take away from of Apartheid: South Colonial examples all this? I’m struck by how many stories are about sudden changes in dred scott decision date pay and working conditions.
If you write for mills, remember it’s writer beware — especially if you have all your eggs in The Roots South Colonial Experience Essay examples one mill basket.
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Custom Cholera Disease essay paper. Cholera is an acute intestinal disease. The disease is caused when a person consumes food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae (Barua and Greenough 1). After infection, the dred result is a painless watery diarrhea that dehydrates a person’s body. Verbal Memory. Patients with profuse amounts of diarrhea risk death due to dehydration. People who have ingested the bacteria develop serious diarrhea within five days. Severe cases of the disease require immediate medical attention to control body fluids and receive the dred decision date necessary treatment.
Patients are advised to take a lot of background fluids and date oral re-hydration salts so that their bodies can maintain the required levels of body fluids. Cholera is an Essay on Conspiracy Theories to the uncommon disease in the United States of America and other well developed countries. People who are at high risk are those traveling abroad where the epidemic is very common and decision people who eat undercooked foods from questionable environments. Cholera germ is transmitted in the stools. It spreads when a person consumes foods and drinks contaminated by human waste of a cholera patient (Barua and Greenough 144). Maxis Background. This happens in decision the developing countries where there are insufficient water supplies and poor waste disposal services. The disease spreads very fast in institutions like schools and prisons if not detected early enough. Doctors and medical professionals advise that immediate treatment and attention is on Conspiracy Theories Related Assassination of John F. Kennedy, necessary to dred scott decision date avoid loss of lives.
To contain the epidemic, the people at society, risk are expected to first understand the modes of transmission to dred decision date enable them be cautious when executing their daily hygiene practices. In developing countries, the disease causes deaths in Essay on Conspiracy Theories every outbreak making it a serious health concern. Signs and Symptoms. People who have ingested cholera germs develop diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting. The immediate signs are a loose diarrhea that includes whitish flecks with fishy smell. Date. Diarrhea rate can be massive, meaning that the body can suffer dehydration very fast. When a person is infected by the cholera disease, a development of the following signs and symptoms occur as explained below.
Vomiting coupled with nausea which is example, a symptom for an infection. Vomiting is an scott decision date aggressive emptying of the tummy due to disturbed normal mechanisms of the stomach. Lesson Learned. The vomiting is date, caused by varying reasons like stomach infections, general diseases, problems with the central nervous system and unusual ingestion. From Society. Vomiting and nausea are also caused by diseases that have no direct involvement with the stomach. Side effects of medications cause vomiting. Loss of skin elasticity and dry mucous membranes are the direct effects of dred date severe dehydration. The Roots Of Apartheid: Experience Essay. Medical attention is extremely required in such conditions. Rapid heart rate is experienced. There are horrible feelings of irregular forceful pounding of the heart. The heart rate irregular beating is dred, caused by the increased force of tightening of the heart muscle. Irregular heart beating rates are noted, from the heart pounding very fast and on Gene Therapy very slow.
People need immediate re-hydration to dred decision stop these indications from ongoing because these symptoms show that a patient has dehydrated. A dehydrated patient will eventually develop severe infection because of vomiting and diarrhea. Background. Children, elderly people and a community with poor nutrition have a higher risk of severely dehydration, causing serious effects like acute renal failure, coma and most seriously death (Barua and Greenough 219). The severe dehydration mostly occurs during the first four to nine hour after the scott decision first watery stool and a person risks death if untreated for a period of one day to from society a few days. The cholera epidemic erupts in developing countries where sanitation is poor and there is scott decision date, a shortage of either medical assistance or medical supplies. In Warfare Essay Example. The mortality rate can be as high as fifty percent or slightly higher. Causes and Transmission. Cholera is caused by a bacterium known as Vibrio cholerae.
The bacterium has a flagellum that aid in movement, and hair like structures known as pili which help the bacterium hook up to tissue (Keya and Chatterjee 22). There are many types of the cholera germ that cause cholera symptoms. Severe cholera symptoms are caused by the O group germs which are O1 and O139. These cholera germs generate toxins. The bacterium uses the hair like structures to embed into human cells.
Once the Vibrio cholerae germs are on the human cells, they cause extraction of water and electrolytes mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. Dred Scott Date. The extracts are pumped into the intestinal lumen where they are excreted in diarrhea (Keya and Chatterjee 55). That is why a person who has diarrhea ends up been dehydrated after several diarrheal stools. The bacteria are transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food. Undercooked Sea foods also transmit the bacteria if the source waters of the seafood were exposed to raw sewage. History of cholera. Cholera has been with human beings for various centuries. In India, there were reported cases of South Colonial Experience examples cholera like disease in scott date the early 1000 AD. The term cholera was derived from the maxis company greak work khole, meaning a sickness from bile and was later renamed to colere in dred French back in the 14th century, and finally renamed in English to choler (Barua and Greenough 38).
The term cholera was a term used in the 17th century to explain a severe gastro intestinal infection involving vomiting and diarrhea (Barua and Greenough 2). During these early times, there were numerous outbreaks of the cholera epidemic and in The Roots South Colonial Experience Essay the 16th century, some cases were severe that they were noted in history. In the 18th century, England had one notable case where in 1854, an estimated five hundred people died in ten days, all having the symptoms of cholera. During this England case, one Dr. John Snow conducted a classic medical investigation which revealed the main cause of the dred date England epidemic. The infection came from a major source of water used by London inhabitants also known as the Broad street pump (Coleman 33). In response to the deaths, the Essay on Gene Therapy medical professionals decided to stop the flow of water to the residents and removed the pump handle. After this action, it was noted that the deaths and rate of dred scott date new infections slowed down and stopped (Hamlin 182). The doctor did not ascertain the root cause of the cholera germ. He showed how a possible transmission can occur and how an outbreak can be contained (Coleman 33).
The real scientific study of the cholera epidemic started then. Similar severe outbreaks happened in other parts of the of Apartheid: South world like in the United States of dred scott decision date America between the eighteenth and the nineteenth century. There have been seven severe worldwide cholera pandemic outbreaks since the early eighteenth century. In the 21st century, multiple outbreaks have been noted in Iran, India, Vietnam and numerous African countries. In the last two years, severe outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and from society Haiti. Date. From Dr. Snow’s studies, provision of safe water and food is the Essay on Conspiracy Theories Related of John F. Kennedy only of stopping the bacterium from being transmitted because the dred scott date germ is easy transmitted in water and food.
Medical response to a person with watery diarrhea starts from Essay Theories, measurement of the scott date possible volume of vomit and stool. The process is done to determine the amount of fluids lost and replacement needs. In cases where severe there is Therapy, a watery diarrhea and vomiting with signs of scott date dehydration, recent travel to cholera prone environments and recent consumption of sea foods, a diagnosis of cholera bacteria is advised. Laboratory test that include stool gram stain culture, stool PCR and dark field microscopy must be done immediately (Barua and Greenough 229). When all these tests are ongoing, general treatment should be done to the patient like provision of oral re-hydration salts solutions to avoid occurrence of maxis company dehydration.
Identification of positive cholera bacteria presence means there is a contaminated water source which should be treated immediately to contain the bacteria. Preliminary analysis is done by a professional caregiver. The caregiver collects the patient’s medical history and observes the persons diarrhea for distinctive characteristics like rice-water diarrhea, particularly if a cholera disease outbreak has been reported. Scott Decision Date. A medical professional needs a laboratory to identify the cholera germ. The bacterium is coma-shaped and thus distinctively identified.
Definitive diagnosis helps to differentiate cholera from on Gene Therapy, other diseases with similar symptoms and other protozoal, bacterial, or viral microorganisms that cause dysentery(Barua and Greenough 232). Most cholera infections are mild, with 75% of infected persons not developing any signs and decision symptoms. Conversely, the infected persons continue to Related Assassination F. Kennedy spread the cholera germ back into the surroundings, risking infecting others with severe cholera disease. In such persons, the huge amounts of watery diarrhea help wipe out the decision germs, resulting to a reduced infection. Essay On Gene. However, in such cases, dehydration remains as a deadly threat to the infected persons when untreated, especially among the vulnerable like the elderly and children.
The risks of losing life among healthy adults within hours remain a threat. Date. A recovery from a cholera bacteria infection results to a long-term immunity against the same. More Cholera Mysteries. Cholera bacteria have been mysterious and scientists and Essay on Gene medical professionals worked tirelessly to understand why the virulence of the dred decision date germ was diverse in many strains (Coleman 67). A recorded number of strains failed to indicate illness. The cholera germ is a toxin that attaches to the tissue and causes dehydration. This toxin was ultimately discovered to be the main factor behind virulence allied to strains that cause acute diarrhea. Rice water stool is an acute state caused by cholera toxin. The appearance is because the entercytes in the almost clear watery stool appear like rice grains.
A supportive therapy of isolation from society oral re-hydration salts is recommended because it has saved millions of lives. Antibiotics are administered in severe conditions to reduce period of diarrheal when infected. Decision. With proper re-hydration measures, the cholera organism fades out in five to society six days and the infected person recovers uneventfully. Studies conducted by marine scientists in scott the last decade have showed that open ocean is a favorable environment for the development of a wide range of viruses. The number of viral particles examined indicates that not all of the viruses are infectious because most of them are inactivated by ultra violent radiation in the ocean’s photic zone. However, a small portion of the viruses escape the radiation and infect several species of organisms (Coleman 67).
How Cholera Epidemics Start. Cholera was non existence in human population until the epidemics started. Research has shown that there is no identified human carrier as the origin. The cholera organisms grow best at temperatures that are above 170 C, and in a broth of sodium chloride, well lower than that of open ocean, although above that of fresh water (Barua and maxis company Greenough 107). Those conditions are present during spring and are the ecological settings that favor an outbreak. Modern intensive field and decision laboratory studies have led to a discovery that Vibrio cholerae is The Roots South Africaâ€™s Colonial, harbored in estuaries of zooplankton communities that have many species of copepods that consist of myriad assemblages. Their egg sacks and in gut tracts is the breeding environments of these Organisms, including cholera germ. These discoveries helped scientists have a better description, and understanding of the natural science of the cholera group of microorganisms (Barua and Greenough 107). Cholera is easily preventable through cautious hygienic sanitation, treatment of water, before using for drinking and cooking, and, hygienic handling of food.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends boiling water and treatment with chlorine before use. Another way is to consume bottled water which is professionally treated. Food that is thoroughly cooked is safe and a person should peel their own raw food to ensure extreme hygiene before consumption. During an outbreak, a person is highly advised to avoid raw foods, ice and dred date ice cream from street vendors. Proper sanitation is the first step to safeguarding the community from company, dangerous bacteria. A person should dispose dead bodies away from water sources and carefully washing hands after such disposal.
Construction of emergency sanitation amenities at a safe distance from any water supply is dred decision, recommended. The amenities should have proper hygienic washrooms for the people who use the facilities. Food should be cooked thoroughly with safe water and consumed hot. Verbal Memory. Sea food which has high risks of having the cholera bacteria should be washed with treated water and cooked thoroughly (Coleman 100). Avoiding a mixture of cooked food and raw food is very important. Exclusion of infected persons from preparing food is important. People should avoid sharing food together in communal containers because the cholera germ can be easily transmitted from one person to all the others. Foods that are taken raw like fruits and dessert vegetables must always be washed with treated water and dred decision peeled by a person who has thoroughly cleaned hands. There is a vaccine called Dukoral which is oral. The vaccine is available in some countries, but the Center for Disease Control and Prevention does not recommend it because it has incomplete defensive effects.
Countries that use the vaccine advise all travelers to use it as a precautions measure. Company Background. The most vital preventive measure is dred scott date, avoiding uncooked foods and using water from unknown sources. To ensure that the water is Essay Theories of John F. Kennedy, safe, a person needs to use treated water and packaged drinks. Ecological Awareness Aimed at Controlling of Cholera. Realization that cholera disease is dred date, transmitted through contaminated water supply has driven scientists to employ massive technology for microorganisms detection. The importance of technology involvement was because the epidemic has recorded massive deaths worldwide and can infect a large population that depends on a particular water source. An occurrence of a case of Vibrio cholerae has potential of contaminating the on Gene Therapy local water source and at times entire coastal regions (Barua and Greenough 107). With the advancement of technology, earth monitoring satellites are employed to simultaneously identify changes in climate patterns. These earth monitoring satellites are also used to monitor land and sea temperature patterns. With collection and availability of decision environmental data, medical professionals are in The Roots of Apartheid: South Essay examples a position to predict a possible cholera epidemic and dred decision take preventive measures before the Lesson in Warfare Essay happening and in turn save millions of dred decision lives. In developing countries where cholera is common, health experts have taken awareness campaigns closer to the people.
This is done by putting up warning billboards near open water bodies and in turn providing alternative water supply from a treated source to discourage unhygienic water usage. Again, local water treatment formulas are supplied to villages, to enable people treat their own water from home. Company. Since sea food is at high risk of being contaminated, people near large water bodies are continuously being educated about the dangers of undercooked sea foods to scott decision date ensure that they properly cook their food before consumption. Other important awareness initiatives being taken are provision of regular water bodies’ contamination checkups. The checkups are funded by the government to company background help communities use tested water and avoid mass contamination by decision, cholera germs. Cholera bacteria are deadly because they dehydrate the body. The first treatment is through oral re-hydration therapy.
The person who is infected should take a lot of isolation drinks. The therapy consists of huge amounts of water mixed with a little sugar and salt. Mixtures of blend sugar and salt are packaged in sachets and are commercially available (Barua and Greenough 258). Consumption of huge volumes of oral re-hydration salts help flash out the bacteria. Commercial mixtures of re-hydration salts are not available everywhere. In such cases, there are homemade oral re-hydration salt recipes using the available household ingredients. Dred Scott Decision Date. In severe cases of cholera infection, huge volumes of fluid replacement are necessary to maintain the body’s fluid content. In such cases, antibiotics are administered to shorten the Essay on Conspiracy Theories of John disease but re-hydration is extremely necessary even when the antibiotics are administered.
Food should be given to the patient as soon as the person can eat. The food should be coupled with more drinks to dred scott decision date keep the intestines full. Re-hydration can be used to prevent and treat dehydration. The intake of numerous volumes of drinks into of Apartheid: South Africaâ€™s Experience examples the body does not cure cholera but gives enough allowance until the dred decision date disease go away by itself. Research has shown that infections of cholera fade away with time if an infected patient takes a lot of fluids to flash out the germ from the Lesson in Warfare example body. Medical professional advise against taking anti diarrheal drugs because they interfere with flashing of scott decision germs from the of Apartheid: Experience Essay intestines. Cholera disease is a deadly disease that is transmitted through water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. The disease is not common in developed countries because there is sufficient supply of scott decision clean treated water and Lesson Learned in Warfare Essay hygienic sanitation systems. In Developing countries, the disease remains a threat because unlike developed countries, they don’t have enough clean and dred treated water for background human consumption.
Other than clean water, there are no proper mechanisms for waste disposal and sanitation. The governments of developing countries are unable to provide treated water to all people due to economic constrains. On the other hand, people who are near water bodies like rivers, lakes and oceans use the available water without boiling or treating. The other major reason why cholera epidemic infects masses is decision date, that an infected person will be unknowingly spread the germs back into the environment before noticing any signs and symptoms. The main mode of transmission being contaminated water sources, a large population sharing a water source risks being infected unknowingly. A healthy adult will have a mild infection in from society the first and second day of infection and will have spread the bacteria to dred scott date many other people by the time the severe signs and symptoms develop. In developing countries, medical assistance is not locally available and people are not well informed of the dangers of verbal memory such diseases. The unawareness results to mass spread of epidemics before medical teams move in to contain an outbreak.
The best simple way of preventing cholera disease from spreading is by using clean treated water and eating thoroughly cooked food. The other recommended action is to report diarrhea cases immediately to the nearest medical health center (Hamlin 249). Scott. This is to ensure that a possible spread is verbal memory, contained and patients are treated early before a severe infection occurs.