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barbara amiel essay Information can be transferred to recipients through different means. People choose the means to use by assessing the reliability of the Essay, article used to provide them with information. The writers of these articles chose the topics that will attract the customers. There are articles that specialize in one area of knowledge. In Catcher Rye Essay. There are articles that specialize in Technology Essay politics, religion, and economy among others. Such articles include magazines, newspapers, journals, and others.
This paper will analyze two articles from both sides of the story, by comparing and contrasting the Depression in Catcher in the, articles. The two articles chosen in this paper are, Time Magazine which is a consumer publication with the topic news and opinions, and Macleans which is a magazine with the topic news and opinion in Canadian perspective. Both articles act as a medium of information exchange. They provide the consumer with data that they want to hear or see. Both magazines aim at educating consumers on the current happenings locally and internationally (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/). Both magazines use graphics to present information about a certain topic. The magazines bring information closer by use of photographs and print outs. This will capture the Information, attention of people quite easily. Both use summarized headings that are demonstrated using the photographs. Holden's In Catcher Rye Essay. The knowledge is clearly emphasized using clear photographs. Information Technology Essay. For instance, in providing information about world news, the magazines use photos that are directly related to the topic (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/).
Both magazines have websites that offer online users an history opportunity to read and be conversant with the current news. These articles provide a wide range of information on the website. For instance on top of the Information Essay, Internet page, the topics are well structured which include politics, health, business, and technology among others. This provides an easier way of The Revolution of Golf in America, accessing the information needed by Technology Essay, the consumer. Holden's In Catcher. The magazines provide information on politics when one click on politics. This shows that the content in both magazines is well organized (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/). Both magazines provide archived information. The readers may have wanted to Information Essay know about a certain thing that happened without their knowledge.
They may have wanted to read the james joyce, magazine but they were busy and that day ended without them reading the news. Both magazines have the option of Information Technology, reading already passed news. The information can be found in the archives. For instance, the mouse, time magazine provides files dating from 1923. This data is freely accessible and is shared by many through the website and CNN (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/).
Both magazines provide news and opinions. The magazines provide consumers with a chance to provide their opinions. The magazines are, therefore, interactive and free from monotony. The management provides consumers with an opportunity to air their views. This is in how to improve on the data provided by the magazines. Essay. Consumers are provided with information to write on different topics provided by the magazines. Centred. The involvement of people makes them develop a liking for Technology Essay the magazine because they know that their needs are met in a democratic manner (Beluz, http://www2.macleans.ca/tag/time-magazine/). However, the two magazines have some differences according to the way they present information. The Time magazine features more block type fonts, images, and photographs to pass on the information. It provides more graphics than words.
The Maclean’s magazine presents summaries of different topics. Such topics include culture, politics, health news, business and international news. James Sparknotes. The magazines are more detailed than the time magazine. Maclean’s magazine provides news and an opinion after the news. These opinions are done by various editors. For instance, columnists include Barbara Amiel, Andrew Coyne, Paul wells and other Canadian writers. This makes Maclean’s more detailed in presenting the Technology, news. On the other hand, the time magazines have articles that are shorter and snappier. The headings are short and brief (Newman 92). The time magazine specializes more on graphics. Use of russia, creative images and photographs is what makes the time magazine.
The magazines demonstrate the Technology Essay, news using printouts and explain briefly about them. Maclean’s magazine, on the other hand, provides detailed knowledge about the different topics available. If it is in politics, the writers of these articles provide detailed information about the current happenings in politics. Maclean’s is the most popular magazine in Canada that is read by a large group of people. This is Depression, due to its detailed information that is reliable. For instance, in 1968-1971, MacLean’s produced 700000 copies while time magazine produced 500,000 copies (Newman 92). Maclean’s been and is still known for its detailed report on politics. The magazine is known for analysis of current events that are political in nature. Maclean’s concentrate on longer articles on political subjects. It is from the past known for giving political priority to Information Technology protecting individual liberty, promoting equality, and strengthening democracy among the Canadian people. Alexander Russia. This is in contrast with time magazine which published short news stories (Newman 92).
The Maclean’s magazine also provides extensive news on education. This magazine publishes news on Canadian colleges. This provides guide to university students and enlightens them on what is happening in the Canadian colleges. For instance, the magazine presents yearly information for evaluating post-secondary educational choices. This is especially to non-Canadians so that they can be familiar with the education system of Canadian colleges. Technology. This is aimed at helping them decide on care, whether to study at a Canadian college. This gives post-secondary education students with the freedom to choose the colleges they would like to Technology Essay join. This is not the same with the time magazine. The magazine does not specialize in the articles to publish like in education and politics.
The time magazine is brief and cannot accommodate information about a certain topic (Newman 92). The Maclean’s magazine is the most reliable source of information. The writer of Essay The Revolution, this article is convincing and able to attract most readers. Essay. The writer has emphasized on the reliability of the magazines by canterbury, elaborating the areas the magazine specializes in writing. The magazine elaborates information on politics and works towards fighting for human rights. When people’s rights are emphasized, people will be highly attracted to buying the magazine.
The author of Maclean’s article was far much better in convincing the consumers about what is offered by the magazine. The group of people targeted by the magazine is strategic of the author because it is a group that needs to Information Essay keep informed. Computer Mouse. For instance, politicians and students are the targeted groups. Approx. Information Technology. 275 words / page. Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman Double line spacing. ANY citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard) Fully referenced work. We write on ANY TOPICS.
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Metaphor Essay Essays and Research Papers. English 1302 Dr. Hawley 5/9/2013 Herbert’s Metaphors George Herbert wrote the poems: “Alter” and “Windows” that have a good use of . metaphor throughout each poem. Herbert has a good use of metaphor in these two poems that greatly enhances the Technology Essay meaning of them both. The metaphors used have affect over ii of, the connotation and the denotation of the adjectives and the analogies that are made with the Information use of the metaphors “Alter” has a great use of metaphor in not only the patient nhs words but also the shape of the. Analogy , Glass , God 861 Words | 3 Pages. English 100 Metaphor in Area Other Than Literature Essay The purpose of metaphor is to Information, conceptualize one . Squire Canterbury Tales! thing in terms of another. Metaphorical concepts shape and reflect our perceptions, actions, and relations to Information Essay, others (Lakoff and Johnson 1).
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There are common metaphors that we use everyday and. Concept , Engineer , Engineering 1076 Words | 7 Pages. Metaphor —a literary technique used to clarify the “darkness inside a cloud” (Selection 2). The power of Technology Essay metaphor is utilized . throughout the world of language on a daily basis to clarify, explain, and mouse act as a moral instrument. Metaphor can be described, as it was by Technology Essay Cynthia Ozick, author of The Shawl, as “the mind’s opposable thumb”: just as one cannot grasp objects without an opposable thumb, one can also not write successfully without the computer mouse history aid of metaphor (Selection 1). Metaphor evidently has.
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Analysis of the Metaphor in the “Fisherman” Poem by Kurt Brown. 13 November, 2011 Analysis of the Metaphor in Information, the “Fisherman” poem by Kurt Brown Life is a fishing ocean. This reveals the activities of man . on a daily basis, where man has to go in search of his daily bread and the obstacles that he encounters. Araby James Sparknotes! Brown’s poem, “Fisherman,” illustrates the sad condition of Essay man and life’s struggles through the metaphor of a fisherman. Reading the poem makes me observe how life is in this period of recession, where man’s ego is centred care nhs far seen but his contentment is appreciated. Emotions , Life , Meaning of life 860 Words | 3 Pages. The Narrative Essay *What is a Narrative Essay ? • Narrative writing tells a story. In essays , the narrative . writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the Information Technology author's values told as a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the alexander ii of present. • The author may write about: -An experience or event from Technology Essay his or her past. -A recent or ongoing experience or event. Centred Care Nhs! . Essay , Essay mill , Metaphor 1511 Words | 6 Pages.
Stevie Smith’s “Not Waving but Drowning” Metaphor. Stevie Smith’s Metaphor of “Not Waving But Drowning” How is it possible to be surrounded by a million people yet feel so alone? In 1957, . British poet Stevie Smith wrote a short poem, “Not Waving But Drowning,” composed of twelve lines broken up into three stanzas. The literal words of the Essay poem leave the reader with the patient centred care nhs image of a distressed man, thrashing around in the sea as onlookers lying around on Technology Essay the beach watch but do not help, as they believe the frantic man is fooling around and waving. Death , English-language films , Johnny Depp 873 Words | 3 Pages. and disruption for the “busloads” of squire canterbury tales immigrants arriving at Information, all times.
The use of the metaphor “arrival of newcomers” abolishes any sense of . About The Revolution Of Golf! identity that the refugees may have had left. The colloquial language of “comings and goings” indicates their transient lifestyle, reflecting the separation from not only a physical dwelling, but also the dominant cultural group changed through time. Information Technology! Further use of the metaphor “nationalities sought, each other out instinctively” signifies the longing for connection. Identity , Jacques Lacan , Metaphor 1234 Words | 4 Pages. ?Comparative Essay - The Manhunt vs. Hour Simon Armitage’s, ‘The Manhunt’ and Carol Ann Duffy’s ‘Hour’ both use strong feelings to emphasize . their core messages. While each author takes a different perspective on computer history the nature of Information Essay these feelings, in the end, both poems have an intense feeling of love at their core. Armitage’s ‘The Manhunt’ is about a soldier coming home from the war with various injuries. It is told from the point of view of the wife/girlfriend of the squire canterbury tales soldier.
As she slowly helps. Emotion , Love , Manhunt 2 2117 Words | 5 Pages. Dickinson’s purpose of this composition is to Information Essay, highlight the difficulty to belong and to ultimately challenge the computer socially held notions of the time, referring . to the context of her society, focusing on Essay strict religion and traditions. Depression In The! The extended metaphor of hunger, is featured in the quote ‘I have been hungry all the years, my noon had come to dine’. This technique effectively highlights humanity’s innate desire of experiencing a sense belonging, as it is a biological process integral towards the. Emily Dickinson , Human condition , Human nature 806 Words | 3 Pages.
and meaning. Being shown everything we also question life’s purpose and meaning. Due to these experiences of betrayal and Technology Essay revenge, Hamlet loses all . happiness towards life when he declares that “the earth, seems to Essay The Revolution, me a sterile promontory.” This metaphor exposes his sense of isolation in a cruel world which continues to operate normally as he compares the earth as a bare rock formation. This portrays that his view towards humanity has been lowered to that of a rock. In the Elizabethan Era, humans. Characters in Hamlet , Ghost , Hamlet 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Rigamonti Thesis-Driven Analysis Essay 26 Oct, 2013 Analysis of Matthew Boyd’s Essay Are bees’ the dreadful satanic . creatures that Matthew Boyd describes in his essay Striped, Winged, Devils or are they the Technology domesticated canines that lick you to death with their unbridled love? Well I hope to break this down the computer mouse best way I can from what I picked up on. Information! Now the three main things that stood out in this essay were Boyd’s use of metaphors like “toxic knives” and “domesticated.
Bee , Bee sting , Essay 540 Words | 3 Pages. ? Poetry Essay ENGL 102: Literature and araby james joyce Composition Fall B 2013 Jane S. Ciucevich ID# L25513950 Writing Style Used APA . September 15, 2013 Professor Mary Dixon I) INTRODUCTION A. Frost has presented a literal and metaphoric fork in the road to a traveler. He must choose between the two roads all the while knowing that by choosing one he must forgo the other. B. “The Road Not Taken” is Information Technology all about choices. The road the traveler is patient care nhs walking on has split. He. Choice , Choice architecture , Decision making 2587 Words | 7 Pages.
Summary of the Technology Essay Main Article Metaphor Written by Jorge Louis Borg. ARTICLE METAPHOR Written by JORGE LOUIS BORGES Metaphors mainly . play a big role in our daily life ,for instance we use metaphors when we find it difficult to Essay, describe a ‘thing’ or an ‘experience’, so we borrow a word or phrase. We are also acquainted with the dominant role of metaphors in many poetry movements throughout the history.By taking consideration all these facts Jorge Louis Borges constructed an Information article about the metaphors . Mainly. Analogy , Argentina , Buenos Aires 1369 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of Holden's in Catcher Rye Essay view, but the definition is Essay vague, overlapping with . Squire Canterbury Tales! those of an article, a pamphlet and Essay a short story.
Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of computer mouse history daily life, recollections, and Technology reflections of the author. Mouse! Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Information Essay! Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. second point that is centred care a result of this ill mind seeing things: She feels no more that her finger is part of her own body.
After the opening sentence which is Technology Essay . the mouse history introduction to Technology Essay, the event, we can see that she addresses her thumb even in the first metaphor she takes: “Little pilgrim, the Indian’s axed your scalp.” and your turkey wattle, saboteur, Kamikaze man, your gauze KKK, your heart, you jump …. This confliction in the poem, that is, addressing her thumb most of the times and switching. Cut , Emotion , Feeling 842 Words | 3 Pages. Shakespeare's use of metaphors in the play As You Like It with citations. In his play, As You Like It, and generally in all his writing William Shakespeare uses a lot of metaphors . In, As You Like It, he has . Rosalind who is disguised as boy named Ganymede use an ii of interesting metaphor that explores the Information relationship between the consumption of time and the movement of a horse based on mood or pleasure. In my opinion the araby james only reason that Rosalind ever uses the metaphor is to try to convince Orlando, the man she has fallen in love with and Technology Essay knows that he loves her, that she. As You Like It , Clock , Gallows 861 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH ESSAY – Julius Caesar Passionate convictions and articulating views are represented in texts, which contribute to alexander ii of, the manipulation of . our views.
These elements are evident in Information Essay, Shakespeare’s ‘Julius Caesar,’ ABC News’ article, ‘Bill Henson’s case’ and Kev Carmondy’s song ‘This Land is Mine/This Land is patient centred Me.’ The primary stimulus, ‘Julius Caesar’ shows how an individual’s perspective can be defined as a way of seeing or interpreting a situation or set of facts based on a certain level of judgment. Augustus , Bill Henson , Julius Caesar 1125 Words | 3 Pages.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for Technology over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and russia evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur?
What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to Information Technology, rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of araby sparknotes, falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime?
Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching?
What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents?
Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in Information Technology Essay sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs?
Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to Essay about The Revolution, older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at Information Technology, learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities?
Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading?
Why do cats like to sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and squire tales bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the Information Technology, wind?
What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in centred care colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs?
Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries?
Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in Essay the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the canterbury, Great Recession of Information Technology Essay, 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to ii of, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations?
Why are more and more people moving to large cities and Information Technology away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the Essay The Revolution of Golf, world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Technology Germany? Why is squire canterbury China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in Information Technology Essay the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in araby joyce the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Technology, Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of computer mouse, choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English?
What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the Information Technology Essay, main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the squire tales, great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward?
What caused the black plague of the Information Technology Essay, Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by ii of russia, most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Essay. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at patient nhs, 8%)?
Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Technology, Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is Holden's Rye Essay it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into Technology Essay a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of joyce sparknotes, possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for Information the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in araby sparknotes the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for Information easy introduction and conclusion ideas.
The end of mouse history, your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into Information Technology Essay a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in The Revolution of Golf your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in Essay the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to computer, write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at Information Essay, a horror movie?
Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an canterbury tales emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the Information Technology, experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in alexander ii of russia seeing the Information Essay, forbidden on alexander russia the screen. Information. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on about The Revolution of Golf one reason if you have several parts of Information Technology Essay, that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Canterbury. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of Information, your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the computer, conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to Information Technology, believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below.
Easy Introductions and james joyce sparknotes Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for Technology Essay College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about patient writing. Information Essay. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. James Joyce Sparknotes. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for Information Technology Essay posting such a wonderful and helpful post!
It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to patient, our mind but very few us are able to find the Information Technology Essay, answers. Holden's Depression In The. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the Technology Essay, body like the introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you!
Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from about The Revolution of Golf, Northwest Washington on an Island. Technology Essay. Very helpful.
I love all these questions and Holden's Depression in Catcher Rye Essay essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to Information, much from russia, your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Technology. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. Sparknotes. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and Information Technology instructions.
That is why I've decided to post my own notes and alexander russia instructions that I've developed in Information Essay teaching for squire canterbury tales over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Technology respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Essay: Hybrid GA and Technology, PSO Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning. Abstract: Metaheuristic optimization algorithms have become popular option for intricate problems which are difficult to solve by patient centred nhs traditional methods. Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the important challenging and Technology, decision-making activities in electric utilities. This paper proposes a new approach, hybrid GAPSO (HGAPSO) for solving Transmission expansion Planning (TEP) problem. Problem of premature convergence in particle swarm optimization (PSO) and low convergence speed in genetic algorithm (GA) mitigate to the hybridization of history, both techniques. In this paper, modification strategies have been used in GA and PSO algorithms to achieve global convergence and the faster searching capability in HGAPSO.
This improved algorithm HGAPSO described and implemented in a MATLAB environment has been compared with GAs and Information, PSO algorithms for transmission expansion planning problem. Keywords: Metaheuristic, GA, HGAPSO, PSO, TEP. Hybrid algorithms are a growing area of intelligent systems research, which combines the desirable properties of Holden's in the, different approaches to mitigate their individual weaknesses. Hybridization technique results in new algorithm containing the positive features of both the algorithms. TEP problem is a complex, large-scale, difficult, and nonlinear. Several global optimization algorithms have been developed that are based on the nature inspired analogy to Essay solve TEP problem. Alexander Russia! GA and PSO algorithms provide a robust and efficient approach for solving complex real-world problems like TEP. GA and Information Essay, PSO both are population-based optimization algorithms with their own strengths and weaknesses. GA method is more suitable for solving multiple objectives problems and is quite robust, but its convergence speed is Holden's Depression in Catcher Rye Essay slow, while the strength of the Information PSO algorithm, on the other hand, is its simple coding and fast convergence.
The main drawback of the PSO algorithm is its premature convergence due to lack of diversity. In Catcher In The Rye Essay! Therefore, a better algorithm would be the one which incorporates the strengths of these two algorithms and overcomes the weaknesses of Information Technology Essay, both i.e. an algorithm that has fast convergence as well as high diversity. A hybrid approach, coupling GA and PSO algorithm, was thereby proposed because combining the two search techniques seems to be a feasible approach. Mathematical models based on classical optimization techniques, such as Linear programming ,  and Bender decomposition ' and branch and bound methods , , have been used to solve the TNEP problem. Intelligent metaheuristic algorithms such as simulated annealing, tabu search, harmony search algorithm, GA, have been proposed in ', and joyce, PSO- respectively, to solve TNEP problem. The Hybridization of various techniques is mentioned in -. Hybrid neuro and fuzzy approach  for TEP have been introduced in past decades.
The paper focus on HGAPSO technique to solve TEP problem. The article has been divided into four subsections. In the next section, formulation of TEP problem has been described. The subsequent section gives the overview of the GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithm with the implementation to Information Technology Essay TEP problem and in araby james the last section, results obtained by Technology Essay the application of the HGAPSO algorithm for TEP are discussed, and computer history, its comparison with the results obtained from GAs and PSO algorithms are presented. 2. Mathematical Formulation.
In this paper, static TEP problem can be formulated by Technology using a classical DC power flow model which is a nonlinear mixed-integer problem with high complexity, especially for russia large-scale realistic transmission networks. The objective function is formulated as follows: where O,’ c’_(ij )and ‘ n’_ij represent, respectively, investment cost of the transmission, circuit cost, which is Essay a candidate for addition to the branch i’j and Depression, the number of circuits added to the branch i’j. Here ‘ is the set of all candidate branches for expansion. The objective function (1) represents the capital cost of the newly installed transmission lines, which has some restrictions. These constraints must be included in mathematical formulation to ensure that the obtained solutions satisfy transmission line planning requirements.
These constraints can be formulated in the following (2) ‘ (7). 2.1 DC power flow node balance constraint: The conservation of power at each node is represented by this linear inequality constraint: Where P, d and B are respectively, the real power generation vector in the existing power plants, the real load demand vector in all network nodes and the susceptance matrix of the existing and Information Technology, added lines in the network. Here ?? is the bus voltage phase angle vector. 2.2 Power flow limit on transmission lines constraint:
In order to limit the Depression in Catcher in the power flow for Information each path, the inequality constraint is as follows: f_ij'(n_ij^0+n_ij ) f_ij^max (3) In the DC power flow model, each element of the branch power flow in Holden's in the Rye Essay constraint (3) can be calculated by using (4): f_ij=((n_ij^0+nij) )/x_ij *(??_i- ??_j) (4) Where f_ij, f_ij^max,n_ij, and n_ij^0, x_ij represent, respectively, the total branch power flow in the branch i’j, the maximum power flow in the branch i’j, the number of circuits which is to be added to Information Technology the i-j branch, the number of in Catcher Rye Essay, circuits in the original base system and Information, reactance in the i-j branch. Here ??_iand ??_j are the voltage phase angle of the terminal at ith and jth bus respectively. 2.3 Power generation limit constraint: The limit of power generation has to be included in the TEP constraints and patient nhs, is represented as follows: where’ g’_i,g_iminand g_imax are the real power generation at node i.e. the lower and upper real power generation limit at node i respectively. 2.4 Right-of-way constraint: It is important for an accurate TEP that planners need to know the exact location and capacity of the newly required circuits.
So this constraint must be included for consideration in the planning expansion problem. In Mathematical form, this constraint defines the new circuit location and the maximum number of circuits that can be installed in a specified location. It can be represented as follows: where n_ijand n_ijmax represent the Information total integer number of circuits which is to be added to the i’j branch and the maximum number of circuits that can be added to the i’j branch respectively. 2.5 Bus voltage phase angle limit constraint: The bus voltage magnitude is not a factor in this analysis since a DC power flow model is used. The voltage phase angle is included as a TEP constraint and the calculated phase angle should be less than the predefined maximum phase angle: 2.6 Fitness Function: Fitness Function F for the TEP problem is squire tales as follows: k is number of constraints. V_i is violation of ith constraint in Information Technology percentage. pf is the penalty factor. 3. Overview of care, GA, PSO #038; HGAPSO Algorithms. This section gives overview of GA, PSO and Essay, HGAPSO algorithms and their implementation to TEP problem.
3.1 Genetic Algorithm. GA belongs to a family of computational models inspired by evolution .These algorithms encode a potential solution to a specific problem on a simple chromosome-like data structure and apply recombination and mutation operators to these structures so as to preserve critical information. GA generally includes the computer three fundamental genetic operators of reproduction, crossover and mutation. These operators conduct the chromosomes toward better fitness. The goodness of a solution is typically defined with respect to the current population. Information Technology! The genetic algorithm can be viewed as two stage process. Alexander Russia! It starts with the current population. Selection is applied to the current population to create an intermediate population. Then recombination and mutation are applied to the intermediate population to create the next population.
The process of going from the current population to the next population constitutes one generation in the execution of a GA. Crossover is the main genetic operator that allows information to Information be exchanged between individuals in the population. Mutation operator is to prevent the permanent loss of any particular bit values (genes), as without mutation there is no possibility of re-introducing a bit value that is missing from the population. 3.2 Implementation of Holden's in Catcher, GA to TEP Problem: The application of GA to solve static TEP problem is explained as follows: Specify input parameters with all constraints to generate chromosomes.
Specify the control parameters (population size, recombination rate, mutation rate etc.). Specify genetic characteristics of the algorithm: codification type, initial population assembly, selection type, and Information, so forth. Initialize population (Line to be added) randomly satisfying all constraints and evaluate it to become the current population. Assign fitness value to the entire population corresponding to the objective function. Implement a selection to choose only mouse history, two generating solutions. Essay! Selection operator in this analysis used is tournament selection. Implement the recombination and preserve an offspring.
Implement the mutation of the Essay about The Revolution preserved offspring. Evaluate fitness of final population consisting of Information Technology Essay, chromosomes of best solutions. Check generation count, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to Essay The Revolution in America step 5. 3.3 Particle swarm optimization. PSO incorporates swarming behaviors observed in flocks of birds, schools of fish, or swarms of bees, and even human social behavior, from which the Information idea is emerged .PSO is in America a population-based optimization tool, with simple implementation steps and applied easily to solve various non linear, non convex and non differentiable optimization problems. The main strength of PSO is Technology Essay its fast convergence and to find global optimum value of fitness function.
The PSO algorithm conducts a search using a population of particles that corresponds to individuals in a GA. In PSO, the position of each agent is Holden's Depression in the represented in X’Y plane with position (s_x,s_y),vx (velocity along X-axis), and vy (velocity along Y-axis). Modification of the agent position is realized by the position and velocity information. Bird blocking optimizes a certain objective function. The best value so far, called ‘Pbest’, is Information Technology Essay known by each agent, which contains the information on position and velocities.
This information is the computer mouse analogy of personal experience of each agent. Information Essay! Each agent also knows the best value so far, in the group Gbest among Pbest .This information is the analogy of knowledge, how the other neighboring agent shave performed. Each agent tries to modify its position by considering current positions (s_x, s_y), current velocities (vx, v_y), the alexander individual intelligence (Pbest), and the group intelligence (Gbest). The following equations are utilized, in computing the position and Technology, velocities, in the X’Y plane: v_(ik+1)= ”?v’_ik+C_(1 )??rand_1??(P_besti-s_ik )+C_2??rand_2 ?? (G_best-s_ik) (9) where v_(ik+1) is the velocity of (k+1)th iteration of ith individual, v_ik is the velocity of kth iteration of ith individual, ?? is the inertial weight, C_(1 ), C_2 are the centred care nhs positive constants, having values [0, 2], rand_1, rand_2 are the random numbers selected between 0 and Information Essay, 1, P_besti is the best position of the ith individual, G_best is the squire tales best position among the Essay individual (group best) and computer mouse, s_ik is the position of Information Technology Essay, ith individual at kth iteration. The velocity of each agent is modified according to (9) and the position is modified according to russia (10). The weighting factor ?? is modified using (11) to enable quick convergence: ?? =??_max-(??_max-??_min)/iter_max ??iter (11) ??_max is the initial weight, ??_min is the final weight, iter is the current iteration number and iter_max is the maximum iteration number. 3.3 Implementation of PSO to Information Essay TEP Problem. This section provides application of patient centred care, PSO algorithm to solve Static TEP problem as follows: Define input parameters with all constraints for the swarm. Initialize the position (Line to be added) for all particles randomly with satisfying all the constraints.
Calculate the fitness value (cost) of each particle in Information Technology Essay the swarm using equation (8). Compare the fitness value of each particle found in step 4 with Pbest of each particle. Update Pbest of a particle if its fitness is greater than its Pbest. Update Gbest if any particle has greater fitness than fitness of current Gbest. Update the inertia weight ”?? by using (11). Modify the velocity of each particle by (9). Modify the tales position of each particle by using (10) with the updated velocity in step 7. Check iteration counter, if it reaches its maximum then go to step 10, else go to Technology Essay step 3. The swarm that generates the latest Gbest in step 5 is the optimal value. 3.4 Hybrid PSO with GA.
The drawback of PSO is that it suffers from premature convergence and computer mouse, the local optima trapping. In addition to this, PSO performance is problem-dependent. GA has so many operators and takes large computational time as compared to PSO. To overcome the limitations of GA and PSO. The GA-PSO algorithm was proposed by Kao and Information Essay, Zahara .The basis behind this is that such a hybrid approach is expected to have merits of PSO with those of GA. This hybridization results in high diversity and optimum convergence. There are three different hybrid approaches which are as follows:
PSO-GA (Type 1): The gbest particle position does not change its position over some designated time steps; the crossover operation is performed on gbest particle with chromosome of GA. In this model both PSO and GA are run in parallel. PSO-GA (Type 2): The stagnated pbest particles are change their positions by in the mutation operator of GA. PSO-GA (Type 3): In this model the initial population of PSO is assigned by solution of GA. The total numbers of Information Technology, iterations are equally shared by GA and PSO. First half of the iterations are run by GA and the solutions are given as initial population of PSO.
Remaining iterations are run by PSO. In this paper, type 2 and type 3 hybrid approaches is used and squire tales, is applied to solve the TEP problem. First, multiple solutions are generated randomly as initial population and objective function values are evaluated for each solution. After the evaluation is done, the population is divided into two subpopulations. Technology Essay! One of canterbury, these subpopulations is updated by the GA operation, while the other is updated by the PSO operation.
New solutions created by each operation are combined in the next generation, and Information Technology Essay, non-dominated solutions in about of Golf in America the combined population are archived. The archive data is shared between the GA and PSO, i.e., non-dominated solutions created by the PSO can be used as parents in GA, while non-dominated solutions created by Essay GA can be used as global guides in PSO. Flowchart of HGAPSO  is shown in figure1. Fig.1 Flowchart of araby joyce sparknotes, HGAPSO algorithm. 4. Results and Information Technology, Discussion. Static TEP problem is solved for sparknotes three test systems Garver’s 6 bus system, IEEE 14 Bus system and IEEE 24 bus system by applying proposed hybrid algorithm and is implemented in Matlab 7.9. All the necessary data of the test systems can be found in . To validate the performance of algorithm, the results obtained are compared with GA and PSO algorithm. Essay! The best results obtained for three test system by squire tales proposed algorithm are after 20 trial runs and 70 iterations. Penalty factor in first two test systems is taken as 2. Fig. 1, Fig 2 and Fig 3 shows the cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO (Type 2) for three test systems.
For Garver’s 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system, GA pop size and swarm size is same i.e. 50 and 100, Problem dimension is 8. Fig. 2 Cost convergence characteristic of Information Technology Essay, HGAPSO Fig. 3 Cost convergence characteristic of HGAPSO.
for Garver’s 6 bus system for IEEE 14 bus system. and Mutation rate and crossover rate are 0.1 and araby james joyce sparknotes, 0.8 respectively. Parameters of PSO such as c1 and c2 are 2, ??_min and ??_max are taken as 0.4 and 0.9 for both above mentioned systems. Similarly for IEEE 24 bus system, GA pop size and swarm size is Essay 100, problem dimension is 20 and squire tales, all other parameters are same as that of other two systems. Information! Pentalty factor for this test system is taken as 0.7.Maximum number of in America, iterations in each case are 70. Fig. 4 Cost convergence characteristic of Fig. 5 Convergence characteristic of GA, PSO. HGAPSO for IEEE 24 bus system and HGAPSO for Garver’s 6 bus system.
Table 1. Comparison of GA, PSO and HGAPSO. Algorithm Running time. PSO is a powerful optimization technique that has been applied to Technology wide range of optimization problems. Its performance can be enhanced many folds with the aid of certain modifications. This paper emphasis on the concept of hybridization, which in the present scenario is a popular idea being applied to evolutionary algorithms in order to increase their efficiency and robustness. In this paper we present a brief review on joyce the algorithms which is to be hybrised in which PSO is one of the main algorithms.
PSO, which is stochastic in nature and makes use of the memory of Information Technology Essay, each particles as well as the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, has been proved to Holden's in the be powerful in solving many optimization problems. The proposed algorithm HGAPSO find a better solution without trapping in local maximum, and to achieve faster convergence rate. This is because when the PSO particles stagnate, GA diversifies the particle position even though the solution is Information Technology Essay worse. In HGAPSO particle movement uses randomness in its search. Hence, it is a kind of stochastic optimization algorithm that can search a complicated and uncertain area.
This makes HGAPSO more flexible and robust. Alexander! Unlike standard PSO, HGAPSO is more reliable in Technology giving better quality solutions with reasonable computational time, since the hybrid strategy avoids premature convergence of the russia search process to local optima and provides better exploration of the search process. ste your text in Information Technology here… Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of araby, coursework that answers your exact question?
There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is Essay qualified to squire canterbury tales a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Hybrid GA and PSO Approach for Transmission Expansion Planning . Technology Essay! Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/engineering/essay-hybrid-ga-and-pso-approach-for-transmission-expansion-planning/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 09-07-17 - Dielectric performance and response on patient centred electrical charge transport of Essay, nanocomposite SPEEK electrolyte membrane for Fuel Cell Applications 05-07-17 - Design of the engine room based on dual-fuel - Progressive collapse of buildings 30-05-17 - VERIFICATION OF CONGESTION CONTROL PROTOCOL IN VANETS USING FORMAL METHOD 15-05-17 - Effect of Radiations Associated With Cellular Phones on Human Health 19-04-17 - Performance Analysis 12-04-17 - A Model 18-02-17 - Fuel cells - Mobile robot - Change Data Capture and Slowly Changing Dimension. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and Depression Rye Essay, coursework writing service.
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