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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at definition the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and Dental Implants your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is style, no more than 12 words in length.
Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. Got Teeth? Implants Essay. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and management style the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. Danone Uk. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page.
The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of management, this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on of islam your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at definition the very top.
Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to aphra behn, be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of definition, a journal should be capitalized; i.e. Of Islam. The Journal of style, Personality and Social Psychology.
Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. In the case where the Executive Roles Essay same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by management style, listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about danone uk, APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to style, describe the results of statistical analysis and Essay on The of Cameroon other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in management style, the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to Arabidopsis example, present, it should be described in management style definition, the text of your paper.
The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the meaning reader in style, mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Roles and Responsibilities, Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.).
For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is management definition, neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on Got Teeth? Implants Essay a separate page. Management Style. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in meaning of islam, an APA format table.
According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. Style. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Got Teeth? Implants. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is definition, large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise.
Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and danone uk confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to management style definition, discuss every element of Essay on The of Cameroon, your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. Style Definition. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. Got Teeth? Dental. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation.
Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the management style definition table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. Meaning Of Islam. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and style probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is aphra behn, about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled?
If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in management style definition, notes? American Psychological Association. Behn. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list.
Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Italicize the management style name of the meaning of islam publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by style, their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by Thaliana Essay example, a period. Management. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns.
Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of meaning, any other reference. However, you do need to include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible.
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and style a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. If a DOI is meaning, available, simply include it at the end of the management reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
Management Styles: Definition, Theory &…
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Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by style counting of growth layers in danone uk tusks. Ages of style definition marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in danone uk tusks ( n =9). Two racemization rates were estimated: one by management linear regression ( r 2 =0.98) based on Executive Roles Essay the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on management a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation ( r 2 between 0.88 and 0.98). The two estimated 2 k Asp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2 k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of behn 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 SE.
The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value, which is definition, then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the Essay of Cameroon collection of tusks and management, eyes of narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and 2 k Asp estimates obtained in this study. The tusk of the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) was previously thought to be the long horn of a mythical creature: the unicorn. It was mysteriously beautiful and oroonoko aphra behn, its horn was said to management style definition neutralize poison. The royal throne of Denmark (1662) was made of 15 “unicorn horns”, which were of tremendous value. Back then, as today, narwhals were hunted for their valuable tusks. Today, only Inuit in Greenland and Canada are allowed to Essay on The Republic of Cameroon hunt narwhals, and management style, the hunt is managed in both countries (NAMMCO 2009 NAMMCO (North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission). 2009 . Annual report 2009. TromsoNorway : North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission . [Google Scholar] ). Meaning Of Islam! Ongoing studies of migration patterns (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 2003 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Dietz R . Laidre K.L . Richard P . Style! Orr J . Danone Uk! Schmidt H.C . The migratory behaviour of management style definition narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2003 ; 81: 1298 – 1305 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), population sizes (Heide-Jorgensen et al.
2010 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Oroonoko Aphra! Laidre K.L . Burt M.L . Borchers D.L . Marques T.A . Hansen R.G . Rasmussen M . Fossette S . Abundance of management narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) on danone uk the hunting grounds in style Greenland . Journal of Mammalogy. 2010 ; 91: 1135 – 1151 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Richard et al. 2010 Richard P.R . Laake J.L . Hobbs R.C . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Essay Of Cameroon! Asselin N.C . Cleator H . Baffin Bay narwhal distribution and numbers: aerial surveys in the Canadian High Arctic, 2002–04 . Arctic. 2010 ; 63: 85 – 99 . [Google Scholar] ) and life history (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Style! Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Oroonoko Behn! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) of narwhals contribute to understanding the underlying population dynamics of this exploited species (Reeves Heide-Jorgensen 1994 Reeves R.R . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Commercial aspects of the exploitation of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) in Greenland, with emphasis on tusk exports . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 119 – 134 . [Google Scholar] ). Sustainable harvest levels are usually calculated from population dynamics models where survival and reproductive rates, based on definition reliable age distributions, are vital (Kingsley 1989 Kingsley M . Population dynamics of the narwhal Monodon monoceros : an initial assessment (Odontoceti: Monodontidae) . Journal of Zoology. 1989 ; 219: 201 – 208 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Estimation of life history parameters for narwhals has been hindered by the lack of a reliable age estimation technique. Without such a technique, it is difficult to parameterize rates of body growth, age at sexual maturity, longevity and survival rates of the whales.
Traditionally, ages of marine mammals have been estimated by counting dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) in teeth, usually consisting of an opaque and a translucent layer deposited annually (Dietz et al. 1991 Dietz R . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Harkonen T . Teilmann J . Valentin N . Age determination of European harbour seals Phoca vitulina L . Sarsia. 1991 ; 76: 17 – 21 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from of Cameroon Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . Management Definition! [Google Scholar] ; Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of danone uk Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Doidge D.W . Management! Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Suydam R . Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for validation of dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Executive Roles! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Narwhals are born with two maxillary, elongated teeth embedded in the upper jaw. The left tooth erupts through the lip in males, and as the style whale grows older this becomes a long, spiralled tusk (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Mansfield A.W . Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Of Islam! Handbook of marine mammals.
Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Style! Normally, the right tooth remains inside the maxilla in males. In females, both teeth usually stay embedded in the maxillae. On The Republic! Anomalies such as females with tusks or males without a tusk or with two tusks are reported in the literature but occur infrequently in narwhal populations (Hay Mansfield 1989 Hay K.A . Management Definition! Mansfield A.W . Narwhal— Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758 . Handbook of Arabidopsis Thaliana Essay marine mammals. Ridgway S.H . Harrison R . Academic Press . London , 1989 ; 145 – 176 . [Google Scholar] ). Management Style Definition! Besides being expensive to purchase and Got Teeth? Dental Implants, difficult to prepare for counting GLGs, tusks almost exclusively represent only the male part of the population. Attempts have been made to estimate age by counting GLGs in embedded teeth. However, due to occlusion of the pulp cavity and thereby cessation of deposition of definition growth layers, only a minimum estimate of age can be obtained from these teeth for adults; reliable estimates can be obtained only for young individuals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue.
1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . Oroonoko Aphra! [Google Scholar] ). A different method is style definition, needed to danone uk obtain age estimates for management, the mature component of the narwhal population, including both males and females. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR) technique has been used in several age estimation studies of Got Teeth? cetaceans (Nerini 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Report of the management style International Whaling Commission. 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . [Google Scholar] ; George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . Danone Uk! O'Hara T . Suydam R . Management! Age and oroonoko aphra, growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. Definition! 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . [Google Scholar] ; Olsen Sunde 2002 Olsen E . Sunde J . Age determination of minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) using the aspartic acid racemization technique . Sarsia. Executive! 2002 ; 87: 1 – 8 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). This technique relies on the fact that in management style metabolically inactive tissues, the l -form of Got Teeth? Implants aspartic acid converts to management style the d -form at a constant rate over time, a process known as racemization (Masters et al. 1977 Masters P.M . Bada J.L . Zigler J.S . Roles Essay! Aspartic acid racemization in the human lens during ageing and in cataract formation . Nature.
1977 ; 268: 71 – 73 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The age of an individual can be estimated when the rate of racemization, the initial ( d/l ) 0 value for the species and the individual d/l ratio are known. The most stable proteins of the body are found in teeth and eye lens nuclei, and that is why these tissues are often used in AAR age estimation studies (Bada et al. 1980 Bada J.L . Brown S . Masters P.M . Management! Age determination of marine mammals based on aspartic acid racemization in the teeth and lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. Arabidopsis Thaliana Essay! 1980 ; 3: 113 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ). Bada et al. Management Style Definition! ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature. 1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Danone Uk! Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . Style Definition! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used AAR to estimate ages of narwhals from teeth and Essay, eye lens nuclei. Bada et al. ( 1983 Bada J.L . Mitchell E . Kemper B . Aspartic acid racemization in narwhal teeth . Nature.
1983 ; 303: 418 – 420 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) used the human racemization rate in management definition teeth, whereas Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Roles And Responsibilities! Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in style narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated a rate based on a combination of narwhal and fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) data. Executive Roles! The rate of racemization has been shown to differ among species, mainly driven by core body temperature (Garde 2011 Garde E . 2011 . Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros . PhD thesis, Natural History Museum of style definition Denmark, University of Copenhagen . [Google Scholar] ; Rosa et al. 2012 Rosa C , Zeh J , George J.C , Botta O , Zauscher M , Bada J . O'Hara, T.M . 2012 . Age estimates based on aspartic acid racemization for bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) harvested in 1998–2000 and the relationship between racemization rate and body temperature . Marine Mammal Science. doi: 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). It is danone uk, therefore important to estimate a specific racemization rate for management style, the narwhal based directly on narwhal data. The purpose of danone uk this study was to style estimate a species-specific racemization rate for Essay, the narwhal by style definition regression of meaning of islam GLGs in tusks against aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. We anticipate that this rate will be useful in future large-scale studies of life history and population dynamics of narwhal populations. Tusks and both matching eyes from 11 narwhals were purchased from the Inuit hunt in north-west and East Greenland in the period September 2006–November 2010 (Table 1). Eye samples from two whales (ID nos. 4080 and 4084) were discarded as it was uncertain whether the tusk and eyes came from the style same individual. Eight of the remaining nine whales were males. We believe the ninth whale (ID no.
4075) was a female: the Inuit hunter that caught this individual also provided ovaries together with the tusk and eyes. Body lengths of the whales ranged from 306 to 491 cm (Table 1). Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by aphra counting of growth layers in tusks. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in style definition this study. Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were received with ca. 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the Essay on The Republic bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the tusks in the table. Also, it was uncertain whether the style neonatal line was present in tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is Roles and Responsibilities, abbreviated to GLG.
Tusk preparation and counting of dentinal GLGs. Total tusk length, external tusk length (portion protruding from the melon of the whale), tusk mass, tusk diameter at the melon front, total length of the pulp cavity and diameter of the pulp cavity at the melon front were measured (Table 1). Some tusks were purchased while still embedded in the skull, and these were removed after gentle maceration of the skull in 38°C water for five days. Each tusk was cut into two longitudinal sections using a jigsaw (Fig. 1). The surfaces were polished using sheets of very fine sandpaper, and the tusks were placed in a wooden container lined with plastic where they were soaked in 12% acetic acid for management, four–five days, after which they were rinsed with water and left to dry for one day. Example! This procedure made individual GLGs more visible by revealing troughs and ridges, thereby facilitating counting. Growth layers were counted, and their individual widths were measured with a digital micrometer in order to estimate a standard width of GLG that might help in identifying GLGs and rejecting secondary lines. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig.
1 (a) Root of proximal part of tusk no. 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of tusk no. Style Definition! 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and meaning, a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in the cementum at the origin of the dentinal GLGs (black arrows). Fig. 1 (a) Root of style definition proximal part of tusk no. Danone Uk! 4076 with a cementum layer, dentinal growth layers and a small pulp cavity. (b) Apical tip (distal part) of management tusk no. 4080 with neonatal line, first three dentinal growth layer groups (GLGs) and a large pulp cavity. (c) Detail of narwhal tusk no. 4076 showing dentinal GLGs (black ring), thin layers in cementum (white ring) and nodes or marks in the cementum at danone uk the origin of the management definition dentinal GLGs (black arrows).
It was noted whether the neonatal line, the tip and the root of the proximal part of the tusk (the part originally located within the head of the whale) were present (Fig. Roles Essay! 1a, b). A single, experienced tooth-reader trained in reading beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) and narwhal teeth (not tusks) was chosen to read the narwhal tusks as less-experienced tooth-readers of style definition harp seal ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ) teeth have been shown to of islam be less accurate and management style definition, more negatively biased (Garde et al. 2010 Garde E . Frie A.K . Oroonoko Aphra Behn! Dunshea G . Style Definition! Hansen S.H . Kovacs K.M . Lydersen C . Harp seal ageing techniques—teeth, aspartic acid racemization, and telomere sequence analysis . Journal of Mammalogy. Meaning! 2010 ; 91: 1365 – 1374 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Frie et al. 2011 Frie A.K . Fagerheim K . Style! Hammill M.O . Kapel F.O . Lockyer C . Stenson G.B . Rosing-Asvid A . Danone Uk! Svetochev V . Error patterns in age estimation of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ): results from a transatlantic, image-based, blind-reading experiment using known-age teeth . ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2011 ; 68: 1942 – 1953 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). GLGs were counted on both sides of each of the longitudinal sections, and each GLG was marked with a pencil for management, bookkeeping and to check for consistency in danone uk their classification. GLGs of each of the longitudinal sections were read several times, and style, consistent readings with the most GLGs were accepted as the best estimates.
This was done to danone uk diminish the risk of management style un-counted GLGs due to uneven sectioning of the Arabidopsis tusks. One GLG consisting of definition a small dense dark layer and a wide paler layer (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Danone Uk! Jensen J . Management! Larsen A . Teilmann J . Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . Danone Uk! [Google Scholar] ) was assumed to represent one year in management definition the whale's life, as shown for the closely related beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Meaning Of Islam! Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Often the beginning of a GLG was marked with a node in the cementum; in cases where the GLGs were less discernible, this node could be used as guidance for determining the management start of the GLGs (Fig. 1c). There was also some layering in the cementum, but the layers were less easy to count and the cementum appeared to have far fewer GLGs than the more protected dentine. Secondary lines were frequently present, and care had to be taken to make consistent readings of standard width GLGs (Fig. 1c).
Growth of the narwhal tusk is shown as a plot of tusk length (cm) versus GLGs for each of the 11 narwhal tusks used in this study. One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of growth. Eye dissection and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Eyes were frozen at ?20°C upon Implants collection. In the laboratory, eye lenses were dissected out management, of the eyes. Meaning Of Islam! The lens layers surrounding the nucleus were thoroughly removed, like layers of an onion, leaving only the nucleus for further analysis (Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Style! Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from oroonoko behn West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). One eye, rather than both eyes, from each whale was analysed, as no significant difference between eyes from the style definition same individual narwhal were found in a previous study (Garde et al. Essay Of Cameroon! 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.
2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Management Style Definition! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Hydrolysis of samples and danone uk, analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed following the procedures of Zhao Bada ( 1995 Zhao M . Bada J.L . Determination of ?-dialkylamino acids and their enantiomers in geological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with a chiral adduct of o-phthaldialdehyde . Journal of Chromatography A. 1995 ; 690: 55 – 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Style! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). Of Islam! Eye lens nuclei were hydrolysed in 1 ml 6 M HCl for 6 h at management 100°C. An Agilent 1100 Series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Walbronn, Germany) was used for the chromatography and data analysis. Detection was performed using fluorescence (excitation = 340 nm, emission = 450 nm). The column was a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18, 4.6?150 mm, with particle size of 3.5 µm. The HPLC-measured d/l ratios were calibrated using series of d/l standards: 0.5/99.5, 1/99, 2/98, 5/95, 10/90 and 15/85.
This series was run at danone uk the beginning and end of each HPLC run. The measured d/l ratios from the eye lens nuclei were recalculated using the definition calibration equations (linear regression) for the d/l standards. Narwhal racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. Eye lens nuclei d/l ratios were regressed against the number of GLGs in Essay Republic tusks to obtain a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals (Table 1). Management Definition! Included in aphra behn the regression were d/l ratios from two near-term foetuses (=0 years old) and 13 young narwhals classified to age based on management style definition length and month of death (age range: 0.5–2.5 years old; length range: 175–298 cm; Garde et al. 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Arabidopsis Thaliana! Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in style definition narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Essay on The Republic of Cameroon Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . Management Definition! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The slope of the on The of Cameroon regression line equals the 2 k Asp value, corresponding to twice the racemization rate. Style! The intercept of the line corresponds to Got Teeth? Dental Implants twice the style ( d/l ) 0 value.
A linear regression assumes that explanatory variables are measured without error. Violation of this assumption can lead to biased results and underestimation of the standard errors. The explanatory variable is age, estimated from either length or GLG counts, both subject to error. The possible bias and standard errors were quantified via bootstrapping. Executive And Responsibilities! Each bootstrap data set was created as follows: to management style definition the d/l ratios were added a normal random variable with mean 0 and SE equal to the residual SE from the ordinary regression assuming no error on the age estimates.
The age of the 15 foetuses and young whales were drawn from a uniform distribution on an interval given by danone uk the estimated age±0.5 years, and then rounded to the nearest half-integer value. For whales where age was estimated by GLG counts, simulated values were rounded to the nearest integer. The uncertainty in the GLG counts was larger and based on whether the tusk was complete or not. If the neonatal line, the tip or the base were missing (Table 1), the style definition uncertainty was increased. Uncertainty was also based on the readability of Thaliana Essay growth layers, especially concerning the two oldest tusks with many GLGs. Style! The uncertainty was evaluated for each tusk, so the Essay Republic of Cameroon bootstrap study used different uniform distributions for each whale. The number of bootstrap replicates used was 10 000. Tusk lengths ranged from 34 to 255 cm (Table 1). Tusk diameter (mm) measured at the melon front ranged from 12 to 63 mm. Length of the pulp cavity was between 56% and 100% of tusk length; the shortest tusk (34 cm) had the lowest percentage pulp cavity, and the longest tusk (255 cm) had a pulp cavity running through the entire tusk.
Tusk mass ranged from 0.06 to 7.45 kg. Six out of nine tusks were worn at the tip but were complete and included the neonatal line. Management Style Definition! The tip of the longest tusk (ID no. 4076) was broken off as well as being worn: it lacked the neonatal line and several GLGs. The tip of the second longest tusk (ID no. 956) was also worn, and behn, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was still present. However, based on how it was worn, we assumed that, at most, only the neonatal line and a few, if any, GLGs were missing. To estimate the number of missing GLGs in tusk ID no. Definition! 4076, it was compared with tusk ID no.
956, which was of almost the same length and diameter. It was concluded that the missing tip of ID no. 4076 contained 10 GLGs. Fifty GLGs were counted in the tusk, giving a total of 60 GLGs after adding the missing 10. The root of the proximal part of the tusk from whale ID no. 888 was partly destroyed during maceration, which complicated counting GLGs. Executive Essay! The count of 24 GLGs may therefore be a minimum estimate for this tusk.
The proximal parts of tusks with ID nos. 4080, 4084 and 953 were lost, having been cut off by the hunters during removal. By comparing these three tusks with other tusks, we estimated that 5 – 7 cm was missing in management definition each case (Table 1). However, for the abovementioned four tusks, we assumed only Got Teeth? Dental Essay a few, if any, GLGs were missing. GLGs were counted in all 11 tusks, and management style, counts, or age estimates, ranged from 5 – 70 GLGs (Table 1). Tusk growth in length for the 11 tusks ranged between 3.54 and 9.11 cm ?yr with an average of 6.33 cm ?yr . The two largest and Roles and Responsibilities Essay, oldest tusks were growing the least per year (range: 3.54 – 4.25 cm ?yr ). The remaining tusks grew between 5.38 and 7.73 cm ?yr except for tusk with ID no.
974 that had the fastest growth of 9.11 cm ?yr . Width of individual GLGs did not diminish with age but varied between years (range for all tusks: 0.76 – 3.96 mm). Style Definition! Tusk lengths versus number of GLGs are shown in Fig. 2. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks. Fig. Roles Essay! 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is assumed to constitute one year of management tusk growth. Fig. 2 Narwhal tusk length (cm) versus number of growth layer groups (GLGs). One GLG is Republic of Cameroon, assumed to constitute one year of tusk growth. Standard curves and linear regression equations.
The d/l standard series was used to produce two standard curves for each HPLC run. For each run, linear regression equations were calculated by regression of theoretical d/l ratios versus the style measured d/l ratios from the d/l standards. The coefficient was r 2 =0.99 for each run. Example! Individual d/l ratios were recalculated using the equation with a slope closest to 1 (range: 1.1295 – 1.2187) from each run. Estimating the racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value. The slope of the regression line (=2 k Asp value) including nine whales with tusks and 15 foetuses and young whales was estimated to be 0.00233±0.000080 SE with an definition intercept of 0.0579±0.00179 SE ( r 2 =0.98). The residual SE in the regression was 0.0073. The racemization rate and ( d/l ) 0 value were, therefore, 0.00117 ?yr ±0.000040 SE and 0.0290±0.00089 SE, respectively.
For the Essay bootstrap study, the simulated age for whales ID nos. 950 and 951 was drawn from management definition a uniform distribution centred at their estimated age±1 year; for Republic, whales ID nos. 841, 953 and 974, an uncertainty of±3 was used; and for definition, whale ID no. Arabidopsis Thaliana! 4076, an uncertainty of ±5 was used. Finally, for whales ID nos. 4075, 888 and 956, the management style definition values given in Table 1 are minimum values, with a possible underestimate of up to five years. Therefore, for these three whales a number between 0 and oroonoko, 5 was added, with linearly decreasing probability.
The average estimate of the slope was 0.00229±0.000089 SE, and the average intercept estimate was 0.0580±0.00185 SE (Fig. 3). The r 2 was in all cases between 0.88 and 0.98. We finally estimate the racemization rate to 0.00114 ?yr ±0.000044 and the ( d/l ) 0 to 0.0290±0.00093. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal ( Monodon monoceros ) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of style definition growth layers in tusks.
Fig. 3 Regression line from the bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on length. The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Fig. 3 Regression line from the bootstrap study of d/l ratios against growth layer group (GLG) counts and estimated age based on length. The slope of the regression line corresponds to twice the racemization rate (2 k Asp ) and Republic of Cameroon, the intercept corresponds to twice the ( d/l ) 0 value. Eleven narwhal tusks and matching eyes were sampled for the purpose of estimating a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regression of GLGs in tusks against d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei. Eyes from two whales were discarded, as it was uncertain whether the tusk and eyes came from the same individual. Style Definition! Thus, samples from Arabidopsis Essay example nine whales remained for definition, analysis. The sample size is less than optimal, but the costs and difficulties of obtaining whole tusks and matching eyes preclude a more extensive sampling programme.
Furthermore, a high incidence of broken tusks in adult males (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . Danone Uk! 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) impedes sampling of old and complete tusks. The tusks in this study were not all complete (Table 1), which complicated the counting of GLGs, and management style, there were some evident differences in example the readability of the tusks that were impossible to quantify. Furthermore, it could only management definition be assumed that one GLG represents one year in narwhals. A deposition of oroonoko aphra one GLG per year in narwhal tusks is supported by analogy to other odontocete species (Hohn 2009 Hohn A.A . Age estimation . Encyclopedia of management style marine mammals2nd edn. Perrin W.F . et al. . Academic Press . San Diego , 2009 ; 11 – 17 . [Google Scholar] ), and aphra, especially to the narwhal's close relative, the beluga (Stewart et al. 2006 Stewart R.E.A . Management Definition! Campana S.E . Jones C.M . Stewart B.E . Bomb radiocarbon dating calibrates beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) age estimates . Canadian Journal of Executive Zoology.
2006 ; 84: 1840 – 1852 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Lockyer et al. 2007 Lockyer C . Hohn A.A . Style! Doidge D.W . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Suydam R . Age determination in belugas ( Delphinapterus leucas )—a quest for validation of dentinal layering . Aquatic Mammals. 2007 ; 33: 293 – 304 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and until proven otherwise this is the Implants Essay most likely deposition rate. Tusk growth per management style, year differed among the 11 tusks. The two largest and oldest tusks had the lowest growth rate, which is probably because growth in length ceases with age while growth in Executive Roles and Responsibilities circumference and in weight increases (Table 1). Two racemization rates were estimated: one based on assuming that the age was known without error; and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the management definition uncertainty in the age estimation. Uncertainty of the Executive Roles Essay GLG estimation was mainly based on whether the tusk was complete or not.
The two oldest tusks had increased uncertainty because either the style definition neonatal line was not present (ID no. 4076) or it was uncertain whether it was present or not (ID no. 956), and meaning, the neonatal line needs to be visible to obtain reliable age estimates based on management style definition GLG counts (Heide-Jorgensen et al. 1994 Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Jensen J . Larsen A . Teilmann J . Meaning Of Islam! Neurohr B . Age estimation of white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) from Greenland . Meddelelser om Gronland, Bioscience. Definition! 1994 ; 39: 187 – 193 . [Google Scholar] ). Another reason was that GLGs in teeth from old animals are more difficult to Arabidopsis Thaliana Essay example discern and count due to compact layering, wear of the teeth and often broken tips (Silverman Dunbar 1980 Silverman H.B . Dunbar M.J . Aggressive tusk use by style the narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Essay! Nature. 1980 ; 284: 57 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ; Luque et al. Management! 2009 Luque P.L . Pierce G.J . Learmonth J.A . Santos M.B . Ieno E . Lopez A . Republic Of Cameroon! Reid R.J . Rogan E . Gonzales A.F . Boon J . Law R.J . Lockyer C.H . Dentinal anomalies in teeth of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena ) from style definition Scottish waters: are they linked to sexual maturation and environmental events? . Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Got Teeth? Implants! 2009 ; 89: 893 – 902 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ). The two estimated 2 k Asp values are, however, almost identical. Management Style Definition! In order to recognize the uncertainty in the age estimates based on length and GLGs, we propose the 2 k Asp value of 0.00229 and the ( d/l ) 0 value of aphra 0.0290 from the style definition bootstrap study to be used in future age estimation studies of narwhals. Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Republic Of Cameroon! Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of Mammalogy.
2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) estimated the ages of 75 narwhals using AAR with a racemization rate estimated by linear regression using age estimates based on body length from the same 15 young narwhals used in management style this study and age estimates of Roles and Responsibilities Essay 13 fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) from Nerini ( 1983 Nerini M.K . Age determination of fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus ) based upon style aspartic acid racemization in the lens nucleus . Report of the International Whaling Commission. Roles Essay! 1983 ; 33: 447 – 448 . [Google Scholar] ) based on counts of earplug laminations. Style! The combined narwhal–fin whale 2 k Asp value of 0.00209 is meaning of islam, lower than the management style present one of 0.00229. This could potentially be a result of using data from two species with different ( d/l ) 0 values, but could also be caused by a lower core temperature of fin whales (36.1°C, from George et al. 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Republic! Zeh J . Management Style Definition! Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . And Responsibilities Essay! Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . [Google Scholar] ) than that of management style narwhals. However, the danone uk core temperature of the style definition beluga whale, the narwhal's closest relative, has been measured to 35°C (Katsumata et al. 2006 Katsumata E . Furuta C . Katsumata H . Watanabe G . Taya K . Basal body temperature method for detecting ovarian cycle in captive beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas ) . Journal of Reproduction and danone uk, Development.
2006 ; 52: 59 – 63 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ), and we assume narwhal core temperature to be similar. But, this is only speculation as no records of narwhal core temperature are available in the literature. The 2 k Asp value estimated here is specific to narwhals and should as such be a better proxy for management style, the value in narwhals than one based on narwhal and on The Republic of Cameroon, fin whale data combined. Both the 2 k Asp values from Garde et al. ( 2007 Garde E . Heide-Jorgensen M.P . Hansen S.H . Nachman G . Forchammer M.C . Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization . Journal of definition Mammalogy. 2007 ; 88: 49 – 58 . 10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865 . Meaning Of Islam! [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) and management style, the present one rely on indirect estimation of ages either through difficult GLG readings of narwhal tusks, body lengths or uncertain counts of earplug laminae in fin whales; they also rest on meaning the assumption that one GLG is deposited per year throughout the management definition life of the animal. Ideally, racemization rates could be derived from Got Teeth? Dental Implants known-age animals in captivity or animals marked somehow early in their life. However, neither fin whales nor narwhals are held in captivity, nor are wild individuals being marked as young whales. Even if either of these approaches were technically feasible, a substantial number of animals would be required, ideally spanning the full longevity, to calculate authentic racemization rates. The estimated racemization rate and the ( d/l ) 0 value have different effects on AAR age estimates.
AAR age estimates of older individuals are influenced mainly by management style definition the racemization rate, while age estimates of young animals are affected primarily by the ( d/l ) 0 value (George et al. Meaning Of Islam! 1999 George J.C . Bada J.L . Zeh J . Scott L . Brown S.E . O'Hara T . Suydam R . Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus ) via aspartic acid racemization . Canadian Journal of Zoology. Style! 1999 ; 77: 571 – 580 . Essay! [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, when using the management definition AAR technique it is also significant that a reliable ( d/l ) 0 value for the species is available. Dentinal GLGs can be examined in cross-sections of embedded narwhal teeth, but occlusion means that only a minimum GLG count can be obtained from older whales (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the on The of Cameroon International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . [Google Scholar] ). However, the dentinal layers representing early years (before sexual maturity) are readable in embedded teeth and can apparently provide reliable age estimates of young narwhals (Hay 1980 Hay K.A . Age determination of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . Report of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue. 1980 ; 3: 119 – 132 . Style! [Google Scholar] ). Therefore, for on The Republic of Cameroon, future studies it is recommended that both eyes and embedded teeth be collected so that both methods of management style definition age estimation of young narwhals can be used to Got Teeth? Dental Implants derive an improved estimate of the ( d/l ) 0 value. To summarize, in management style this study we have estimated a species-specific 2 k Asp rate of 0.00229 and a ( d/l ) 0 value of 0.0290 for narwhals by regression and bootstrapping of aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against GLGs in tusks. These estimates are the first based entirely on narwhal data. Though we recognize the small sample size as well as problems associated with using incomplete tusks, we nevertheless propose that these values be used in future AAR ageing studies of narwhals. But we also emphasize the need for collection of oroonoko behn embedded teeth, intact tusks and style, matching eyes of on The Republic of Cameroon narwhals for further improving the ( d/l ) 0 and 2 k Asp estimates obtained in this study and for style definition, examining both methods of age estimation. Thanks to Jeppe Mohl for meaning, cutting and management definition, preparing the narwhal tusks, and to of islam Nynne Hjort Nielsen, Marianne Andersen and Kirsten Andersen for assistance with eye dissections and HPLC analysis.
Importation of samples into Denmark was authorized by CITES permits IM 0721-199/08, IM 0721-200/08, IM 0330-820/09 and IM 0330-819/09. Funding for this study was obtained from the style definition Greenland Institute of Natural Resources and meaning of islam, the Danish Cooperation for the Environment in management definition the Arctic. Table 1 Data on the 11 narwhals from North Greenland (NGl), West Greenland (WGl) and East Greenland (EGl) used in this study. Note that tusks nos. 4080, 4084 and of islam, 953 were received with ca. Style Definition! 5, 6 and 7 cm, respectively, cut off the bases. These missing centimetres are added to the total length of the behn tusks in the table. Management Definition! Also, it was uncertain whether the neonatal line was present in tusk no. 956 Growth layer group is abbreviated to of islam GLG. a Measured at the melon front.
b D/L ratios corrected according to regression equations. c Data not available. Registered in England Wales No. Management Style Definition! 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.
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5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech. Some will argue that Barack Obama#8217;s Inauguration speech was not his most electric speech , or that it failed to deliver on unreasonably high expectations . Nonetheless, studying the speech provides five key speechwriting lessons that can help us all be better communicators. This article is the latest in a series of video speech critiques which help you analyze and learn from excellent speeches. Speech Video: Barack Obama delivers Inauguration Speech. I encourage you to: Watch the video below (or listen to definition the audio); Read the analysis in this speech critique; Study the Got Teeth?, speech text in the complete transcript; and Share your thoughts on this presentation. Speech Analysis Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Address. Management Definition. Note that numbers in square brackets (e.g. ) refer to paragraph numbers in the speech text at the end of Essay Republic of Cameroon this article. Speechwriting Lesson #1: Start with a Strong, Simple Speech Outline.
Speech analysis by media pundits often focuses exclusively on the soundbites #8212; a few phrases here and there hole-punched out of a 17-minute speech. It is easy to forget that other words were used to management definition stitch together those soundbites into (hopefully) a cohesive whole. So, it is worthwhile to Executive Roles and Responsibilities Essay study and style definition analyze the speech outline of aphra Obama#8217;s inauguration speech, because all speechwriters can learn from the strong, simple structure which helped convey his message coherently. My own wishlist for his speech was that he would accomplish five tasks: Be frank and honest about the realities of the style, economy and wars Address the danone uk, sagging morale and lack of confidence Appear strong Offer an olive branch to the world Make a call-to-action for personal contributions (along the lines of #8220;Ask not what your country can do#8230;#8221;) I think Obama achieved all of management style definition these aims in his inauguration speech using a simple six-part structure: Some will point to Obama#8217;s mention of Thaliana Bush as mere formality, but it#8217;s more significant than that. Obama is preaching respect for the individual regardless of whether you agree with them. Thus, it is definition important he follows his own advice.
To do otherwise would damage his credibility. Honestly acknowledge the economic crisis [paragraphs 3-7] Obama was blunt and direct, using phrases like #8220; the challenges #8230; are real. Oroonoko Aphra Behn. They are serious and they are many. #8221; He didn#8217;t promise solutions in this year or the next. He didn#8217;t sugarcoat it, and I applaud him for management style that. As the economic issue is #1 in the minds of Americans, he was wise to address this first in danone uk, his speech. Management Style. Equally important, he showed great resolve and danone uk leadership with his powerful #8220; But know this, America #8212; they will be met. #8220; Americans have always faced crises and overcome them [paragraphs 8-17] In this section of the speech, Obama stays consistent with his message of hope that won him the election. He is speaking directly to millions of style definition Americans who feel the and Responsibilities, #8220; sapping of confidence across our land #8221; [paragraph 6]. He cites scripture , refers to the Declaration of Independence , and then reminds his audience of the struggles of the past which were overcome [paragraphs 12-15]. He concludes this section by reminding everyone that the core American strength still persists [paragraph 16].
Address cynics [paragraphs 18-20] This brief interlude seems to be aimed at Congress and other political forces. In an attempt to management persuade those who are skeptical of his plans, the Arabidopsis example, key phrase here is style #8220;Their memories are short.#8221; Speak about and to the World [paragraphs 21-26] This section was very, very strong. His words are strong, yet friendly. He charts a new foreign policy which is anchored on oroonoko common, human ideals. I expect that this part of the speech will be received quite favorably around the style, world. The solution lies within the determination of the people [paragraphs 27-35] Obama transitions back to the American people with remarkable skill. Drawing a parallel between the armed forces and normal citizens in danone uk, terms of embodying a spirit of service was masterful. This is the call-to-action which I was particularly looking for, and he delivered beyond expectations.
The concluding story taken from the Revolutionary war was a great metaphor, and a fine way to conclude. Speechwriting Lesson #2: Craft Impactful Lines. Style Definition. The message and outline are more important, but the soundbites are important too. If there#8217;s one weakness in Obama#8217;s speech , it#8217;s that there#8217;s no clear , unmistakable phrase which people will be quoting years from now (although only time holds the Dental Essay, definitive judgment). There was no #8220;Ask not what your country can do for you#8221;. There was no #8220;I have a dream#8221;. There was no #8220;This was their finest hour.#8221; There was no #8220;Yes we can.#8221; But that#8217;s not to definition say that this speech was lacking in wonderfully crafted and impactful lines . As I listened, several of these resonated strongly with me and I found myself thinking #8220;Oh, what a line!#8221; #8220; #8230; begin again the work of remaking America. #8221; [paragraph 16] #8220; Their memories are short. #8221;  (I particularly loved the brevity of this line) #8220; The question we ask today is not whether our government is Dental Implants Essay too big or too small, but whether it works #8221;  (He busts open the debate by style, reframing the question.) #8220; [W]e reject as false the Essay, choice between our safety and our ideals. #8221;  (A particularly sharp indictment of Bush#8217;s policies.) #8220; [W]e are ready to lead once more. #8221;  (Simply stated, but this is exactly what America#8217;s allies wanted to hear.) #8220; For the definition, world has changed, and we must change with it. #8221;  #8220; What is oroonoko behn required now is a new era of responsibility #8221;  Finally, although it wasn#8217;t a single line, I loved everything about how paragraphs 27 and definition 28 were crafted (which included #8220; a moment that will define a generation #8220;, even though it is a somewhat cliche statement).
Will any of these be quoted decades from now? It#8217;s impossible to Got Teeth? Dental tell, but my money is on #8220; the definition, work of remaking America #8221; or #8220; a new era of responsibility .#8221; Speechwriting Lesson #3: Employ the Magical Rule of Three. Finding examples of the Rule of Three in speeches by great speakers is like finding smiling kids in a candy store. Examples abound! But this does not lessen the importance of this speechwriting tactic. Quite the opposite!
If all the Executive Roles Essay, Presidential speechwriters wield the Rule of management definition Three, why don#8217;t you do it more often ? Here are just some of the examples in the inauguration speech of varying length: grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. #8221; [paragraph 2] #8220; Homes have been lost; businesses shuttered. #8221;  #8220; Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and all deserve [#8230;] pursue [#8230;] happiness. #8221;  #8220; struggled and danone uk sacrificed and worked #8221;  #8220; birth or wealth or faction #8221;  #8220; we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and management definition begin again the work of remaking America #8221;  #8220; to spend wisely, reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day #8221;  #8220; the justness of our cause, the force of Dental Implants our example, the tempering qualities of humility and restraint. Definition. #8221;  Speechwriting Lesson #4: Amplify Words by Roles Essay, Drawing Contrasts. Definition. As pointed out in the speech analysis of Martin Luther King#8217;s #8220;I Have a Dream#8221;, sometimes the best way to highlight and sharpen concepts is to introduce contrast . Here are a few examples from Obama#8217;s Inauguration speech: #8220; rising tides of prosperity and Dental Essay the still waters of peace #8221; versus #8220; gathering clouds and raging storms #8221; [paragraph 3] #8220; know that your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. #8221;  #8220; we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist #8221;  #8220; a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath. #8221;  Speechwriting Lesson #5: Thread Your Theme Throughout Your Speech. If the core message of your speech is the plot of the story, then the theme of your speech is the setting and style mood . Stated another way, your message is the what you say #8212; your theme is the how you say it . Inauguration speeches are very naturally set with themes that emphasize the continuity and progress of Arabidopsis Thaliana a nation. Whatever the management definition, concerns of the era, they can be expressed relative to the past. The theme for Obama#8217;s inauguration speech could be expressed as #8220; drawing strength from our common past #8220;. (This is Got Teeth? Dental Implants Essay consistent with Obama#8217;s intellect #8212; he is well versed in the nation#8217;s history through his studies of Lincoln and others.) This speech repeatedly drew examples from the past and even urged the people to management definition return to old values near the end of the speech: But those values upon which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and Republic patriotism these things are old.
These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is management style definition demanded then is a return to these truths. All in all, there are numerous references to the past to Implants Essay set the theme for this speech: #8220; mindful of the management style, sacrifices borne by Essay Republic of Cameroon, our ancestors #8221; [paragraph 2] #8220; Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath #8221;  #8220; faithful to management definition the ideals of our forebearers, and true to our founding documents #8221;  #8220; So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans. #8221;  #8220; passed on from generation to generation #8221;  #8220; Our journey has never been #8230; #8221;  #8220; Concord and Gettysburg ; Normandy and Khe Sahn #8221;  At seven words, this passage is wonderfully brief, yet manages to span four wars: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War II, and Vietnam War, respectively. #8220; Their memories are short. #8221;  #8220; Our Founding Fathers [#8230;] expanded by the blood of generations. #8221;  #8220; Recall that earlier generations#8230; #8221;  #8220; the fallen heroes who lie in Arlington #8221;  #8220; But those values upon Executive Roles and Responsibilities Essay which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and management style patriotism these things are old. These things are true. Got Teeth? Dental Implants Essay. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to management style these truths. #8221;  #8220; In the year of America’s birth#8230; #8221;  Verbal snapshot: Barack Obama#8217;s Inauguation Speech (larger words used more often) Barack Obama Inauguration Speech Prepared Text.  My fellow citizens:  I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for Thaliana the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the style, generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition.  Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of danone uk prosperity and the still waters of peace. Management. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms.
At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of those in high office, but because We the People have remained faithful to the ideals of our forbearers, and true to danone uk our founding documents.  So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans.  That we are in the midst of style crisis is on The Republic of Cameroon now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of management style violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on meaning the part of management style definition some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered.
Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet.  These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and statistics. Less measurable but no less profound is a sapping of confidence across our land a nagging fear that America#8217;s decline is inevitable, and Arabidopsis Essay example that the next generation must lower its sights. Definition.  Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real. They are serious and they are many. Arabidopsis Example. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. But know this, America they will be met.  On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over style definition fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord. Danone Uk.  On this day, we come to proclaim an management definition end to the petty grievances and false promises, the recriminations and danone uk worn out management style dogmas, that for far too long have strangled our politics.  We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the Thaliana, time has come to set aside childish things. The time has come to management style reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation: the God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to oroonoko aphra pursue their full measure of happiness. Management Style.  In reaffirming the Executive and Responsibilities, greatness of our nation, we understand that greatness is never a given. Definition. It must be earned. Arabidopsis Thaliana Essay. Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for style less. It has not been the path for the faint-hearted for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasures of riches and fame.
Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the Thaliana Essay, doers, the makers of things some celebrated but more often men and women obscure in their labor, who have carried us up the long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom.  For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled across oceans in search of a new life.  For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the whip and plowed the hard earth. Management Style Definition.  For us, they fought and meaning died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn. Style Definition.  Time and again these men and Got Teeth? women struggled and sacrificed and worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual ambitions; greater than all the differences of management birth or wealth or faction.  This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on oroonoko Earth. Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis began. Style. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and meaning of islam services no less needed than they were last week or last month or last year.
Our capacity remains undiminished. Style Definition. But our time of standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and putting off unpleasant decisions that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the Got Teeth? Dental Implants Essay, work of remaking America. Definition.  For everywhere we look, there is work to Executive Roles be done. The state of the economy calls for action, bold and swift, and we will act not only to style definition create new jobs, but to lay a new foundation for growth. We will build the roads and bridges, the electric grids and Essay on The of Cameroon digital lines that feed our commerce and bind us together. We will restore science to its rightful place, and wield technology#8217;s wonders to raise health care#8217;s quality and lower its cost. We will harness the sun and the winds and the soil to management definition fuel our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age.
All this we can do. And all this we will do.  Now, there are some who question the scale of our ambitions who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short. For they have forgotten what this country has already done; what free men and women can achieve when imagination is joined to common purpose, and necessity to courage.  What the meaning, cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted beneath them that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for so long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is dignified. Management Definition. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. Where the oroonoko aphra, answer is no, programs will end.
And those of us who manage the management definition, public#8217;s dollars will be held to account to spend wisely, reform bad habits, and Executive Roles and Responsibilities Essay do our business in the light of day because only management then can we restore the vital trust between a people and on The of Cameroon their government.  Nor is the question before us whether the market is a force for good or ill. Its power to generate wealth and expand freedom is style unmatched, but this crisis has reminded us that without a watchful eye, the market can spin out of meaning control and that a nation cannot prosper long when it favors only the prosperous. The success of our economy has always depended not just on the size of our Gross Domestic Product, but on the reach of our prosperity; on our ability to extend opportunity to every willing heart not out of charity, but because it is the style definition, surest route to our common good.  As for our common defense, we reject as false the choice between our safety and our ideals. Our Founding Fathers, faced with perils we can scarcely imagine, drafted a charter to assure the Dental Implants Essay, rule of law and the rights of man, a charter expanded by the blood of generations. Management Style. Those ideals still light the world, and danone uk we will not give them up for expedience#8217;s sake. And so to all other peoples and governments who are watching today, from the management style, grandest capitals to the small village where my father was born: know that America is a friend of each nation and every man, woman, and Essay Republic child who seeks a future of peace and dignity, and that we are ready to lead once more.  Recall that earlier generations faced down fascism and style definition communism not just with missiles and tanks, but with sturdy alliances and Got Teeth? Implants enduring convictions. They understood that our power alone cannot protect us, nor does it entitle us to do as we please. Management. Instead, they knew that our power grows through its prudent use; our security emanates from the justness of our cause, the force of our example, the tempering qualities of humility and restraint.
 We are the keepers of this legacy. Dental. Guided by management style, these principles once more, we can meet those new threats that demand even greater effort even greater cooperation and danone uk understanding between nations. We will begin to responsibly leave Iraq to its people, and forge a hard-earned peace in management, Afghanistan. With old friends and former foes, we will work tirelessly to lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the specter of a warming planet. We will not apologize for our way of life, nor will we waver in its defense, and for those who seek to advance their aims by inducing terror and slaughtering innocents, we say to you now that our spirit is stronger and Dental cannot be broken; you cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you.  For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and non-believers.
We are shaped by every language and management culture, drawn from Arabidopsis Thaliana every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of management style civil war and Got Teeth? Dental Essay segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace.  To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on mutual interest and mutual respect. To those leaders around the globe who seek to management style definition sow conflict, or blame their society#8217;s ills on Executive Roles and Responsibilities the West know that your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. To those who cling to style definition power through corruption and deceit and the silencing of dissent, know that you are on the wrong side of history; but that we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist.  To the people of poor nations, we pledge to work alongside you to make your farms flourish and let clean waters flow; to nourish starved bodies and feed hungry minds. And to those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to Executive and Responsibilities Essay suffering outside our borders; nor can we consume the world#8217;s resources without regard to effect. For the world has changed, and we must change with it.  As we consider the road that unfolds before us, we remember with humble gratitude those brave Americans who, at this very hour, patrol far-off deserts and distant mountains. Definition. They have something to tell us today, just as the Arabidopsis, fallen heroes who lie in Arlington whisper through the ages. Style Definition. We honor them not only because they are guardians of Executive Roles and Responsibilities our liberty, but because they embody the spirit of service; a willingness to find meaning in something greater than themselves.
And yet, at this moment a moment that will define a generation it is precisely this spirit that must inhabit us all.  For as much as government can do and must do, it is management style ultimately the faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation relies. It is the kindness to meaning of islam take in a stranger when the levees break, the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours. It is the firefighter#8217;s courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke, but also a parent#8217;s willingness to nurture a child, that finally decides our fate. Style Definition.  Our challenges may be new. Got Teeth? Dental Implants. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. But those values upon management definition which our success depends hard work and Essay honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism these things are old. These things are true. Style. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to these truths. What is Dental Implants required of us now is a new era of responsibility a recognition, on the part of management style every American, that we have duties to ourselves, our nation, and the world, duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm in Arabidopsis Thaliana Essay, the knowledge that there is management style nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining of our character, than giving our all to a difficult task.  This is the price and the promise of citizenship.  This is the source of Essay our confidence the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny.  This is the definition, meaning of our liberty and danone uk our creed why men and women and children of every race and every faith can join in celebration across this magnificent mall, and why a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath.  So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far we have traveled. In the year of America#8217;s birth, in management style definition, the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the shores of an icy river.
The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. The snow was stained with blood. At a moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in doubt, the father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people:  #8220;Let it be told to the future world#8230;that in the depth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive#8230;that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to Roles and Responsibilities Essay meet [it].#8221;  America. In the management style, face of our common dangers, in and Responsibilities, this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words.
With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Management Style. Let it be said by Essay on The, our children#8217;s children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and style with eyes fixed on the horizon and God#8217;s grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations.  Thank you. God bless you.  And God bless the United States of America. This article is one of a series of speech critiques of inspiring speakers featured on Six Minutes . Subscribe to Six Minutes for free to receive future speech critiques. Behn. This is style definition a thoughtful and insightful analysis of Obama#8217;s speech. The 5 lessons are well put and oroonoko behn useful for any writer. While in my blog I said Obama#8217;s inaugural was #8216;very good#8217; not #8216;great#8217;, nonetheless, it was artfully constructed and this blog brilliantly shows how. the speech is good to getting to the point and although its not as great and optimistic as people had expected; its truthful and realistic to the current state and difficulties in style, which the nations stand. One other thing that he did really did was the use of Dental Essay anaphora in style definition, paragraphs 12-14, each of these three paragraphs (again, power of behn three!) beginning with #8220;For us#8221;
Liked your comments, but would add lots more and indeed I think there are things to be remembered like the one I liked best: we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist. or your people will judge you#8230; thanks, I will subscribe right away to keep receiving comments and whatever. This is a suberb speech analysis, almost a complete speech writing course. For me, the word pictures are amazing: “rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace” “we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist” Fantastic, easy to understand and management style the words apply to all of us. His speech gives us the thing that we all look for#8230; hope, the thing that we all need. The verbal snapshot is very clever, how is it done? I have never read such an impressive and meaningfull speech. I was given an aasignment by my instructor to analyze different speeches of popular people around the world and my choice was President Barak Obamas. However, I couldn#8217;t find any shortcoming in the speech.
Good bless him so many so many times. Student Melkamu Bersissa. From Africa, Ethiopia, Haramay University. I really like your article. But it would be great if you did?t just explain how to write a speech but how to analyse it. Thanks from Germany. This article is danone uk very useful and wonderfully analysed. Thank you so much. There is management definition so much skill and knowledge involved to be judgemental about one of the world#8217;s greatest figures in today#8217;s society! thank you !! i have always admired MR Barack Obama speeches.am interested in speech making and i love this article. Excellent analysis! I like the rhythm created by the rule of three and use that all the time.
I love reading your blog man, every tip is comes across as practical and readily applicable, easy to read and Arabidopsis Essay comfortable to follow, marvel to understand and a delight to learn. Your blog is a gem. Keep it coming, I#8217;m going to visit your blog everyday from now on. Management. Keep up your good work, thoroughly appreciate you insight intellect. Essay Republic Of Cameroon. Excellent analysis of an management excellent speech! Very glad to have found this website- I was able to danone uk take a lot of key components of speech writing and delivery from this analysis. anyone who loves this country would love the speech. Management Style. Thanks a million for an excellent blog from a high school teacher in Copenhagen, Denmark! I love this. As a teacher it makes my job very easy. Executive Roles And Responsibilities Essay. I appreciate you offering this lesson! Blessings to style you and your family.
I usually use Obama#8217;s speeches in my classes of English. Sir, I would like to read more of your analysis of speeches. Thanks. Thanks for meaning the beautiful edition#8230;#8230;.it gav me a better idea of making great speeches#8230;#8230;on the management, other hand it would be much great if it is more illustrated.in simple terms#8230;..thanks. many thanks for the lessons you share. I not only like it as it is very academic, but I also make it the handout for my students.
Again, many thanks. This is good stuff. Thanks! Obama is jewish. Dude Obama is the worst president in American history. As trump said. Then obama burned him. Wow he got praanked.
Now trump is Dental pres. DUDE SO TRUE M8 GET PRANKED. OMG SHUT UP IM TRIGGED. 5 Speech writing Lessons from style definition Obama#39;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/E4yVNPMt via @6minutes. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#39;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/jfghBkSI via @6minutes. Here is Essay another #speech critic about Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech.
Have a look http://t.co/IBj5WkM5jA #speechwriting #lessons #ruleofthree. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/nJ0nBIC2Ff via @6minutes. #TuesdayTips Excellent speechwriting lessons from President Obama’s Inaugural Speech by @6minutes https://t.co/pxoJkrZjMu. Speech Analysis: Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/YEB809ZvlB by @6minutes. Speech Analysis: Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/MDgXhLUyJp by management definition, @6minutes. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama’s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/qzh1bcvcNy by @6minutes.
5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama’s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/7KSSx67XMw by @6minutes. Six Minutes Copyright 2007-2017 All Rights Reserved.
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Religion/ Witchcraft term paper 16651. What is Witchcraft? This question is gaining importance to management style definition, people as we approach the 20th century. To catch up with a constantly changing environment, people should be more aware and open-minded to things, especially to those that are rejected by our old traditional sets of values. We should get to Got Teeth?, know why does the Old World reject some beliefs by studying the original meanings behind those myths. The more we keep ourselves open to management definition, ideas, the more chances we have to explore ourselves and to advance our lives and our society. Each of us is a different individual. Not everybody feels right about the existing socially-accepted sets of Roles Essay, values.
Getting to know more about other alternatives simply gives us more possibilities to choose. Due to centuries of bad press, general impression of Witchcraft is all about evils, Magick, and spells. In fact, it may just be a religion that believes in Gods and the harmonic relationship between humans and the natural environment. This research paper is to redefine, in more accurate words, the truth of one of the oldest religion in the world. In this research paper, I have used information from the style, Internet such as some homepages built by some Coven and believers. I also used books that are mainly about the general structure of the Craft and its religion Wicca. I have also had an interview with one of the Witch, Robb Boyle, on the 14th of November 1998.
I asked him general ideas and some specific details about the Craft and the religion. 3.1 Brief historical background of the Witchcraft in the world. Scholars like anthropologists, archaeologists and historians believe that the practice of Witchcraft has been existed for of islam the around 20,000 to 40,000 years (Johnson). In every society, practitioners' vocations vary, like midwives or herbalists (DiLorenzo). However, fine distinctions of Witches were not made. People who believe in nature deities, and possessed fortune-telling or supernatural powers have all been considered as Witches. Witchcraft can be found in different kind of culture all over the world, like the management style definition, Celtic, Greek, African, Egyptian and Asian (Moorey 18-20). The most well known one is the Celtic tradition of the craft. It is because during the classical time, the Witches' religion and the Celtic religion have inter-influenced each other greatly (Johnson).
The ancient history of the craft mainly consists of a large part of oroonoko aphra, persecution and discrimination against the pagans by the public. This was due to the fact when Christianity grew stronger and management definition, expanded its political power; it set laws to suppress its rival. One of danone uk, its opposition was Witchcraft. The old Gods now becomes the evil of the new religion (Johnson and Our History). In 1755 . . . in style a 'Dictionary of the English Language,' defined a witch as 'a woman given to unlawful arts.' . . . The book 'Errores', written in 1450, declared, 'Witches . . . Example! often make verbal pacts and management style, promises with the Devil . . . '. During the 'Burning Times' (circa 1400-1700), those accused of witchcraft were hung, drowned or burnt whether they confessed or not . . .by 1700, at least 200,000 women and girls had been killed (DiLorenzo). Other similar cases of persecution were Pope Innocent VIII who produced the Bulls against of islam the Witches in 1484 and two infamous German monks created their anti-Witchery plan, the Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches Hammer), two years later. The Archbishop of Treves was convinced that the local Witches had caused a severe winter and management, therefore 120 men and women who were thought to be the troublemakers were burned to death in on The 1586. Witches were the most convenient scapegoats for every aspect of life. Besides religious reasons, Witches studied a lot and style definition, had a broad knowledge of botany, meteorology, anatomy, veterinary science, psychology, astronomy, and primitive physics. What we called science now was considered as magic in meaning of islam the superstitious population of that time (DiLorenzo).
Thus, many Witches were persecuted throughout history. Lists of Witchcraft craze happenings in England, Scotland, and France in the medieval time are attached with the paper (see appendix 1). In the management definition, late 19th century, as the society was getting more open to Got Teeth? Implants, ideas, Witches had started to come forward to speak of the truth of their religion. The religion was legalized in the 50's. Finally, Witches began to enjoy the freedom of management style, religion, which had been existed for quite a long time, as others (Johnson). It was around this very moment, in the 40s, when the Craft was revived and the term Wicca has officially become the name of the religion of meaning, Witches (Moorey 17). 3.2 Background of the craft in United States. The old religion was slowly pushed back by Christian churches in Europe. Management Style Definition! Christianity claims Witches were evil and the Satan worshipped. The concepts of Executive Roles, Satan and definition, evil were actually constructed under the Christians' point of view (Vogel and Our History). The most well known event in the American history of Witchcraft persecution was the Salem Trial.
In the meaning of islam, town of Salem, Massachusetts, 19 people were executed in 1962. Around twenty people in the town who had suffered from hallucinations, spasm or whose cattle had died blamed those Witches for cursing them and putting them in definition trouble (DiLorenzo). Got Teeth?! At that time, claiming others as Witches was the easiest way to get rid of an undesired enemy. Those accused were typically vulnerable members of the Puritan community- quarrelsome, gossipy old women or some non-puritan. Style! The Massachusetts legislature resolved that those hang due to the accusation of Witchcraft may have been illegally tried, convicted and sentenced in 1957 (Glover). That recognition has come 300 years late. Only after that trial, witch-hunting ended in America. Although large-scale hunting stopped, but discrimination and misconception persists. Arabidopsis Thaliana! Recent examples are when KGUN-TV and a local church devastate the Desert Henge Coven and accused coven's members were performing Satanic Rituals in 1990 and Geoffrey Dickins ask the Parliament to . . .wipe Witches off the face of the earth in 1988 (Johnson).
3.3 Definition and definition, Terminology. Witchcraft means Craft of the Wise Ones(Vogel). It is a Pagan Magickal-religious belief based on the natural deities and rituals (Wiccan Definiton). While Witch is a term derived from an Anglo-Saxon word Wicca (masculine) or Wicce (feminine), these two words mean twister. It was pronounced as wee-cha. It refers to someone who possesses super-natural power to perform Magick or physic powers. It also applied to those members and followers of the Witches' religion. Modern Witches claim themselves either as a follower of the Got Teeth? Dental Essay, Old Religion Witchcraft or Wicca (pronounced as wik-ka); further distinction between the two will be discussed in later section. Male Witch is style definition, sometimes mistakenly called as warlock.
This is actually a Scottish word means traitor and it is an insult to Witches. A male witch is still called as a Witch (Johnson). Wicca is a much more positive vocabulary rose in the 40s, which stands for the revive version of the Old Religion, Witchcraft. The word Wicca is aphra, originated from Indo-European of the Wic and Weik which means to blend or turn. In addition, a Wiccan is a follower of the Wicca religion (Wiccan Definiton).
The Book of Shadows is a Witches' book of Rituals, spells, and Magickal lore. Definition! It is a journal that allows Witches to oroonoko aphra, note down all his/her rituals and spells (Thompson 67-68). A Coven is an organization of definition, Witches, like the churches in Christianity while referring to a Solitary, means a Witch that worships on his/her own without joining any Coven. Further details about Dental, coven will be mentioned in later section. Charge is a Magickal act, which saturates a certain object with personal power (Wiccan Definiton).
The method that Witches would use to worship the Goddess and the Horned God is called Ritual. They request and wish through Magick while they perform Rituals. Although each tradition works on various Rituals differently, the Circle (or Sacred Space) and a Ritual meal afterwards are the basics. Management Style! They use Rituals to celebrate the Arabidopsis Thaliana, close relationship between themselves, the Gods, and the nature (Johnson). Management! The word Maigick is used to distinguish between those magic which is performed for entertainment purposes and Executive, the soul power of Witches (Alaya). Initiation is the management style definition, ceremonial recognition of prospects that becomes Witches. It is the most important Ritual for a Witch. Implants Essay! While a Novice is an officially accepted student in the Coven, the prospect is the one who wants to join the fellowship but has not initiated as yet. Binding is a pre-initiation stage when a Novice promises to be loyal to the Coven for the coming year.
Novices often wear green cords (Johnson). 3.4 The facts about the Craft. 3.4.1 Their ideas and the Nature of the Belief. Witchcraft is a natural religion (Vogel). It believes in the harmonic relationship between human beings, the natural environment, and Gods. In fact, Witches believe in the co-existence of a God and a Goddess (Alaya). The Goddess is the management style, Mother of Earth and Nature and rivers are her blood (Boyle). She is the Essay on The of Cameroon, source of everything that exists according to management, the religion. Oroonoko Aphra! The moon represents her (The Grimoire). She embodies the fertility of the plant, animal, and human kingdoms.
She has the greatest power from management style definition May to October, a period that is danone uk, being called as the fertile half of the year (Vogel). She symbolizes changeless and eternity (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 12) The God represented by woodlands, the Sun, grain, and the hunt. Management Style! It was because most prehistoric prey had horns, the God is; therefore, often being called as the oroonoko, Horned One. On the contrary, his power is at peak in the dark half of the year, from management style definition October to May (Vogel). As the religion believes that fertility and balance on both body and oroonoko aphra behn, soul, they think that the perfect blend of two genders is style definition, important for the whole system to work (Johnson). In the eyes of Witches, Gods and Goddess are equally important, although some emphasized on worshipping the meaning of islam, Goddess (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 11). The common myth that Witches believe in evil is not true.
Instead, they believe in management the Wiccan Rede (see appendix 2). It is Executive and Responsibilities, a basic moral code of the religion (Vogel). It states that: An it harms none, do what thou wilt (If it harms nobody, do whatever you want). Witches are left to style definition, choose what they would do. There is no such thing like forgiveness in Christianity.
The Threefold law states that either good or evil, it comes back to them three times over (Johnson). Through this law, Witches learn to of islam, be responsible for their own action. They do not worship Satan either, which is management style definition, a relatively new concept from Christianity. Of Islam! In addition, they do not do any kind of human or animal sacrifice at style definition, all (Vogel and Friedberg). According to my interviewee, the whole purpose of practicing the craft is to reach out to the innermost of believers and to achieve a perfectly harmonious relationship with the environment. The Old Religion carries few aspects that are very different from other religions; one of these is Implants Essay, Reincarnation. Witches think that everything will be reborn into the physical world after its' death. Their life follows a cycle of birth, death and reborn just like the endless the cycle of the moon. This is a very important and interesting concept in definition the Witches' faith (Reincarnation: The Cycle of Got Teeth? Implants Essay, Rebirth). Management! There is no exact method of how this cycle works; therefore, Witches are given freedom to explore how things work for them.
Generally, Witches believe that if they are faithful enough, they will be reborn among people whom they love and get a chance to learn about and love those person again. Some believe that they can choose their parents, to Dental, learn from them and management style definition, then to achieve the Dental, goal to be a better person in management style through different lives (Johnson). They also believe that their Gods are reborn in every cycle (Boyle). The symbol of the religion, the Essay on The Republic of Cameroon, pentagram, fully illustrates this idea. It is a five-pointed star in an upright, one-point-up position. The top point symbolizes the spirit and the Creator being the almighty above. Other elements of life- air, fire, water, and earth, are the four power points around the star. Style Definition! This never-ending circle symbolizes the cyclically reborn deity.
The circle has also encompassed a star within it, and that is aphra behn, actually a symbol of an out-stretched human body, reaching all connection (Vogel). As Satanic use the upside downed pentagram to illustrate their philosophies on willpower, passion, prosperity and earthly-good; it is very often mistaken that Witchcraft's pentagram symbolizes the Satan evil spirit (Friedberg) or Witchcraft is the same as Satanic. Style Definition! Another special belief is Essay Republic of Cameroon, Karma. Management Definition! It is oroonoko, a reaction to management definition, a prior situation. Danone Uk! In each reaction, Witches observe their instinct and responses. Gaining knowledge about management, themselves and their relations to the universe through each Karma, Witches learn to be a better person (Johnson). Witches see psychic as an Executive Roles and Responsibilities, ability that is born in everybody. The force, which we usually call as Magick can be easily obtained through practicing psychics with Rituals. Under such practices, people's hidden ability will be explored, thus, be able to perform Magick. Some Witches think that the Magickal power is a gift from the management, Goddess to her children in order to make better lives. After all, it is an effort to assist people but not to replace material strength (Johnson).
3.4.2 Some Practices and Ceremonies. Unlike some major religions, the Witches' religion does not have luxurious or gigantic temples. It is due to covens never collect money from believers. In fact, they do not need one. To Witches, all nature is their temple. They usually lay out a nine-foot circle wherever they wish and delineate the place as a sacred temple (Johnson).
This circle is either used for celebration or to practice magic (General Practices). Built by imagination and power from within, it encompasses the energy of the surrounding area. (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 57). Got Teeth? Implants! After Ritual is over, the Circle is management, either wiped away or saved for next occasions. Essay! Witches have some special practices, like the Skyclad. People go naked when they worship the moon for example. It is because they think that a physical object like clothes will keep them from growing in Magickal power and getting closer to the Creator (Thompson 27).
They also meditated in order to get into a trance stage. They think they can communicate with their Gods best in this psychological condition (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 81). Trance is a state of being semi-conscious that lead to a personal revelation and a visionary journey (Moorey 51-52). Believers worship through daily life, simple things that all modern people do nowadays, like, being environmentally friendly. It is because they think that if the nature suffer, the suffering will be cycled back to human being soon or later (Boyle, Alaya and Friedberg). This concept makes Witches oppose animal experimentation and any destruction of the nature. They started behaving so centuries ago while to management, the mass, being environmental friendly is rather a new trend.
They cast spell when they worship. It is a Magickal ritual but there is Got Teeth? Dental Implants Essay, nothing mysterious about it (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 203). It is just the equivalent of prayer in Christianity (Alaya). According to the religion, spells concentrate energy from the nature and combined it with the psychic power from within (Magick). Witches convert this kind of power into a message back to management, the exterior. Through these kind of self-designated Rituals, Witches purify themselves and the environment in order to dedicate themselves to the Deity. Practicing Rituals make Witches powerful enough to ask or wish for something from the nature (Boyle and Friedberg).
However, they are supposed to use it according to the Rede, not to harm anybody including him or herself (Alaya). As it is such a self-involved religion, different people may have different experiences. Normally, Witches keep a record of their personal experiences, feelings and of islam, some spells that they have composed in a journal called The Book of Shadows (Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner, Cunningham 196). This book usually passes from definition generation to generation. Witches use different kinds of tools when they worship, like the athame is a dagger used to direct energy from the nature. It usually has a black handle, as black is believed to be able to Roles, absorb power. It probably will not be for style any physical cutting. The athame symbolizes masculinity, air, or fire.
The wand is an instrument for Thaliana invocation; it can be made of any material. Style Definition! If it is cut from a tree, Witches will explained to the tree why they are doing so and may give the tree something like, a stone as offerings. This action illustrate the of islam, environmental friendly nature and the cycle belief of the religion. The wand symbolizes air or fire. Broom is a tool used to sweep negative power out of the sacred Circle used for worshipping. It symbolizes intellect, cleansing, and air. The chalice is for holding wine or water on the altar. It symbolizes femininity and water while the pentacle is a pentagram inscribed in metal plate used for evoking and protection purposes and it symbolizes the five elements and earth (The Grimoire). 3.4.3 Rituals and Festivals. As mentioned above, Witches believe in nature, never ending cycle of life and the Deity (both God Goddess). Their festive celebrations are based on the changes of the environment and the rebirth of management, their god.
The Esbats, the Lunar Rites, are dedicated to the Goddess. These are Rituals when Witches do complex training on Magick. Arabidopsis Example! The Sabbats, Solar Rites, are dedicated to the Horned God and the Cycle of the year, which celebrate their relationship with nature and the Gods. Then come the Passage Rites, these festivals celebrate Wiccanings (birth). There are also Puberty Rites, Handfasting Rites (weddings), and Passing Rites (funerals) (Johnson).
As mentioned that Christianity and Witchcraft had so much influence over each other, many Sabbats listed below are now celebrated as different festivals in Christianity; like Samhain is celebrated as Halloween and Yule is celebrated as Christmas. Yule is the management definition, Winter Solstice (December 21st). It is the shortest day of the year and it is a solar festival that is celebrated by the element fire and the use of Yule log. Colors of the season are red and green. Traditions of decorating Yule trees and exchanging gifts are inherited from pagans. Food is Executive Roles and Responsibilities, specially prepared for management definition Yule celebration. Trees will be lightened up and logs are burned.
A piece of the danone uk, log will be saved to light up the definition, tree in danone uk next year. That leftover piece is kept all year long in the house as a sign of management style definition, protection to danone uk, the house. Management Definition! Candles are also burnt as a sign of ensuring wealth and oroonoko behn, happiness. Then it comes the Candlemas (February 2nd). This is the first one of the management, three spring festivals. Lavender and white candles are burned. It celebrates the meaning, coming of the management style definition, spring, fertility, and new life.
On March 5th is the Ostatra which is also called the spring equinox. Night and day are of equal length on that day. This is a celebration of the balance between winter and spring. People bless seeds for Essay future planting on that day and painted eggs are placed on the altar as magickal protection. Easter how Christianity call this festival. Holiday colors are light green, lemon, and pale pink. Beltane (May 5th) is the last one of the trinity spring festivals. All living things will prepare themselves for the coming of warmth on that day. People will decorate trees with colorful ribbons. The summer solstice has the longest daytime of the year. Style! It represents the glorious Sun King and celebrate passion and success.
Sunflowers and flowers in red and maize yellow color are used to decorate the altar. In this, Midsummer Night's Eve, it is a great chance to commune with the oroonoko aphra behn, fields and forest faeries. Lammas in on the August 2nd. It is the first of the management, three harvest festivals in the fall. Bread is traditionally baked for celebration. In addition, herbs for Executive Essay Magickal used should be harvested on this day, as it is the beginning of the harvest cycle.
Fall Equinox is on September 23rd. It also has equal length of daytime and nighttime same as the spring equinox. It starts winter. Moreover, the male and the female force stand in management definition balance on that day. And Responsibilities! Blackberry-blue colored candles is definition, used during celebration (Sabbats). Samhain (October 31st) is known by Christianity to be Halloween. The day is dedicated to the eternal life. People will have connection to loved ones who have died. Arabidopsis Thaliana Example! It is because the veil that separates the world of forms and the invisible world gets to its thinnest on that night. Samhain is pronounced as sow-wen.
To Witches, this is the most important day of the year as it is as well as the New Year's Eve (Sabbats of the year and Watanabe). As the belief has been existed for such a long time, there are many traditions passed from the past. Management! Each tradition has its own emphasis. It is because communication nowadays are so advanced and the religion is so open for choices, modern Witches usually follow whatever practice they wish to (like the Eclectic). That may be a combination of different tradition from various origins and even some family traditions passed down from generations (Boyle). These make it impossible to tell a specific kind of tradition that all Witches are following nowadays. Witches are allowed to have their own ways of practice as soon as they think it suits them. There are few traditions that are particularly popular though. For example, the Celtic tradition is a down-to-earth tradition which focuses on the nature, elements, faeries, plants, etc. Behn! Green Witches tend to follow this path. The Ceremonial Witchcraft uses ceremonial Magick to enhance their connection with the mighty, explore their abilities, and recognize their higher purposes.
Rituals of this tradition are often derived from Egyptian magick. Dianic is another tradition which feminist oriented. Some followers therefore only management, focus on worshipping the Goddess. Got Teeth? Essay! According to my interviewee, many feminists Witches choose to follow this path to management style, obtain a balance from the traditional portray of the Divine as a male, like Jesus in Christianity. The hereditary Witches are those who learn through family member and/or have traces of the Craft in their family history.
The British tradition is a strictly structured tradition comparing to others. Its Rituals consist of both Celtic and Gardnerian traditions. Eclectic Witches are the free-runner in the Craft. They blend the Thaliana Essay, ideas of many different traditions. It is rather flexible, so generally, Rituals are free-style and covens are loosely structured (The Grimoire). Management Definition! Kitchen is a practical down-to-earth tradition according to my interviewee.
Eclectic Witches whose Magick focus on danone uk hearth and home are classified under this category (The Grimoire). There is also an Italian tradition name Stratic (Boyle). There are no accurate statistics about how many traditions actually exist because the religion is keep on evolving. There are some contemporarily set up traditions that will be introduced in the section Significant Personality and Cliques in Modern Witchcraft though. 3.5 Organizations and cliques.
Covens are the equivalent of churches in style definition Christianity in Thaliana Essay the Craft. According to Johnson, it consisted from 3 unrelated members to 13 people. Management Style! Members of fellowship meet regularly for Rituals or other important matters. It is runs by Arabidopsis Essay example the High Priest and High Priestess. Management Style! In the Essay on The Republic of Cameroon, traditional religion, the Coven is divided into the Inner court and management style, the Outer court.
The Outer court is mainly a training group. Those who wish to danone uk, join the Coven like Prospects and Novices were taught how to behave in the coven. The Inner court is the actual place where Witches worship and learn. High Priest and High Priestess run both courts (Johnson). The most common system works in management style coven is the meaning of islam, Three Degree System. The first degree is the student/Witch. The second degree is the practitioner/Priest/ess and management definition, the third degree is the teacher/ High Priest/ess.
Other traditions may have somewhat up to thirteen degrees. That depends on how they separate their coven, but almost all traditions will have initiation ceremony which Witches are formally accepted into the coven. As Gods exist in a male-female balance, Witches attempt a balance in their lives. Thus, Witches try to be sexually equality. Rules may be set in certain covens that some Rituals must be performed by a High Priestess though most have a High Priest as well. Some find that they can worship better with only a female leader (Johnson and Hugli). 3.5.2 Significant Personality and Cliques in Modern Witchcraft. Gerald Gardner . . .was (once) the oroonoko aphra behn, single voice speaking for management the Craft (Our History). He is the first one to danone uk, admit that he is fascinated by the Craft to the public. Style! He wrote about the truth about of religion through books like High Magic's Aid and Witchcraft Today.
His publicity helps to revitalize the religion. Meaning! He also founded the Gardnerian Tradition based on his lifetime studies and a Celtic tradition which he originally belonged in the 1950's in England. This tradition means a lot to modern Witches. Many ways of working Rituals and Magick nowadays are evolved from this tradition. His follower Doreen Valiente rewrote some fragments of his Rituals. Raymond Buckland was the first recognized Witch in management style definition contemporary America.
He had brought and popularized the Craft into this society. Initiated in Scotland, Buckland came all the way to America, a place where there were no covens at all, to promote the truths about the belief. Almost every Witch's traditions in America nowadays are Buckland's interpretation of the Gardnerian (Our History and Johnson). Alexander Sanders is another important personality. He combines the Gardnerian Witchcraft with the Ceremonial tradition and forms a popular tradition, the Alexandrian, around 1960 in England. He drew much attention from the media and is being called as The King of Witches (Johnson and The Grimoire). Silver Ravenwolf and Scott Cunningham is both American who had achieved a lot in promoting the Craft in of Cameroon the American society through writing books and promoting it through the media (Boyle).
3.6 Definition of Wicca. It is said to be the religion of Witches. According to my interviewee, it is a term rose in the 40s when the Craft was revived. Asking some Witches through the Internet, some found that there are no differences between Witchcraft and Wicca at all (like my interviewee) while some Witches react strongly claiming that they are Witches but not Wiccan. Management Style Definition! According to Alaya, Wicca is a tradition under Witchcraft.
Just like Catholic is under Christianity. People who follow the Got Teeth?, religion of definition, Witchcraft are witches. The people who follow Wicca are Wiccans. All Wiccans are witches but not all witches are Wiccan. There are many tradition witches can follow. Wicca is only one of them . Republic Of Cameroon! . Management Style Definition! . there . . . are Wiccan that do not consider themselves as witches. But usually all Wiccans are witches. Generally, through the Internet sources I have researched through, Wicca is interpreted, as the religion of of islam, Witches and Wiccan is style, its believer. Danone Uk! Few people can really tell the differences between the two. Some sources simply mix up the two with Witches has the exact same meanings as Wiccan. 3.7 Evolutions of the Craft.
Throughout all these years, the Craft have many evolutions. Some of it substances have grew to get even more attention than the craft itself. These are like herbalism and definition, aromatherapy. According to the book Magical Herbalism by Scott Cunningham, herbalism is a knowledge that passes from generation to generation along with Witchcraft (xii). Its main practical purposes are to protect and heal while in Witchcraft, it is Executive, part of the Magick used for style definition evoking and soothing purposes. Aromatherapy is a rather new theory comparatively to Arabidopsis Thaliana example, herbalism. It uses scents to achieve certain practical human healing or soothing purposes. Scents may be from the natural environment or from essence oil. 3.8 Future Trend. Witches are getting more actively involved in telling the truth about their religion publicly nowadays. There are also more positive and true portrays of the management style, Craft in Hollywood, like TV show Charmed and movie The Practical Magic (Watanabe).
Although there are still many religious superstitious accusations against the craft in this scientific era, the religion is likely to get attention that is more positive in the future and may there be more believers of it. Boyle, Robb. Personal interview. I4 November 1998. Cunningham, Scott. Republic Of Cameroon! Magickal Herbalism. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1986.
-----. Wicca: A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner. Minnesota: Llewellyn, 1988. Moorey, Teresa. Witchcraft: a beginner's guide. London: Hooder Stoughton, 1996. Thompson, Janet. Of Witches: celebrating the management style definition, Goddess as a solitary pagan. Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1993.
DiLorenzo, Kris. That old black magic keeps witches in popular culture. Star Tribune. 29 October 1995. Online. Internet. Available WWW: http:// www.elibrary.com/id/120/203/getdoc. . . erydocid=696190@library_gdtype=0 0dinst= Our writers are all Uni graduates able to Executive Roles, work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and style definition, citation styles, our writers have years of of islam, ghostwriting experience doing both academic and management style definition, professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and Executive and Responsibilities Essay, there is no plagiarism of any kind.
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