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calibration resume 1 Half Hollow Turn. Monroe, NY, 10950. To share my 25+ years of instrumentation and supervisor experience with a company that shares my dedication to excellence. To help pharmaceutical companies develop and maintain a calibration program that exceeds cGMP expectations. Central Net Enterprises, LLC | Monroe, NY. Central Net Enterprises is a consulting/contracting service company specializing in Salvation on Sand Mountain Covington Essay, pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment controls, instrumentation calibration and installation services. Provide calibration services and example outline, consulting to Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay the pharmaceutical industry. Calibration of various instruments and control systems. Troubleshooting and repair of equipment and instruments. Review and write SOPs and Calibration Procedures.

Maintain calibration database (utilizing Blue Mountain Calibration Manager). Execute validation protocols on various manufacturing equipment and systems. Installation of fluid bed granulation equipment control systems. Qualification documentation development for many different pieces of equipment in the pharma industry. And The Haunted Palace By Edgar Poe Essay? Qualification executions on various equipment in the pharma industry. Develop calibration and preventive maintenance program including setup and validation of Salvation Essay CMMS/CCMS systems. Quaker Oat? Write and edit Standard Operating Procedures related to Mountain Covington equipment calibration and maintenance. Software validation. Over the years in this business, I have set up and maintained calibration programs for biafran war various companies, such as Bayer Consumer Care, Bristol Myers Squibb, Fuisz Technologies, Ohm Laboratories (Ranbaxy), Pfizer and a few smaller companies throughout the U.S. Assisted in more than a dozen installation projects, mostly fluid beds and coating pans.

Instrumentation and controls technician, Supervisor of instrument shop, Able troubleshooter, Organizational Leadership, Customer Service, Strong computer skills in many applications, and Mountain by Dennis, a good multitasker. Firm understanding of the importance of cGMP in quaker oat, the pharmaceutical environment., Inc. Salvation On Sand Essay? | Ronkonkoma, NY. Project Manager for new products and project updates., Inc. is a leading internet product development and quality training company focused on marketing. In business since 2004, it is one of the fastest growing companies of this type on the internet today. Quaker Oat? Manage the on Sand Covington Essay development and progress of new and existing products and services.

Work closely with programmers to keep projects on schedule. Suggest and implement features and improvements to products and services. Assist in the launch of all new products. Quaker Oat? Assist in high level customer support, focusing on technical issues and assistance. Assist in the planning of all new product ideas from on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay, start to launch. Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. | Spring Valley, NY. Instrumentation Supervisor responsible for the overhaul and day to day operation of the quaker oat Instrument Calibrations department. Planning and Calibration of all specified instruments throughout the pharmaceutical manufacturing and research and development departments.

Equipment includes: Fluid Bed Dryers and Granulators, tablet coating pans, drying ovens, blenders, Fitzmills, Nanomill and associated equipment, HVAC systems for GMP areas. Troubleshoot any equipment and control system failures, repair and test Write and update calibration SOPs Write and execute qualification and validation documentation Update control systems as needed Train calibration personnel Coordinate outside vendors as needed, including securing competitive bids, selecting vendors and completing all scheduling Assist in department budget planning as required for calibration area Supervise calibration technicians Perform yearly reviews on calibration technicians. Upon assuming the Salvation on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay position of Dracula Essays instrumentation supervisor, I updated the department considerably. This includes, but not limited to: Complete overhaul of the SOPs Calibration Manager software upgrade and validation Phase out any outdated calibration equipment Purchase needed calibration equipment Overhaul the way all scales and balances were calibrated Plan and add an environmental monitoring system for all of manufacturing (RH, Temp and D/P monitoring) Blue Mountain Calibration Manager Microsoft Word Microsoft Excel Dreamweaver Adobe Acrobat Crystal Reports. Technical/Field Services Supervisor. Quality Service Innovations, Inc. | Chester, NY. Responsible for operation of Technical Service Department of Pharmaceutical Equipment Service Company. Supervision and training of Field Service groups to Essay complete all tasks involved in Installation, Validation (I.Q., O.Q. P.Q.), Maintenance and Equipment Instrumentation Calibration of A Feminist Stoker's Essays Customer Facilities and Processing Equipment. Responsible for by Dennis Covington interfaces with Quality Control and Auditing Agencies for development of and conformance to Standard Operating Procedures for Calibration, Preventive Maintenance and Validation Programs. Proficient knowledge of Word Perfect Office 2000, Windows 98, Paradox 9.0, Quatro Pro 9.0, various environmental control programs and A Feminist of Bram Stoker's Essays, PLC controls.

Instrumentation Planner/Supervisor. Plan and schedule all work relating to instrument calibration and preventive maintenance. On Sand By Dennis Covington Essay? Responsible for four (4) factory areas. Attendance? Ensure all work is assigned to Instrument Technicians and completed by the required completion date to ensure minimal down time. Write and review IQ and OQ documents for all new instrument installations as well as retrospective validations and qualifications. Write and review instrument calibration SOPs. Salvation Mountain By Dennis Essay? Work extensively with Maximo. Instrument/Field Service Technician. Glatt Air Techniques, Inc. | Ramsey, NJ.

Responsible for Field Services to troubleshoot, repair and calibration of customer equipment around the country. Schedule and perform preventive maintenance tasks. Research and write standard operating procedures for the calibration of instruments. Responsible for war ensuring the S.O.P.s are current. Salvation On Sand Mountain Essay? Assist various Facilities groups to complete all tasks involved in Manufacturing and RD Equipment, Calibration, Maintenance, Validation and Repairs. Responsible for interface with Engineering Departments and Customers Returns for, repairs/rebuilds to Fluid Bed Dryers, Pan Coaters, High Shear Granulators and related Pharmaceutical Processing Equipment. Perform calibrations, preventive maintenance and validation on constitution, OEM equipment. Draft Standard Operating Procedures and Mountain Covington Essay, maintenance tracking documents for Calibration, Maintenance and Validation Programs. Quaker Oat? Maintain equipment upgrade files and database(s) pertaining to retrofits modifications and repairs. Principle calibration and on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay, repair technician on pneumatic and electronic instrumentation and related components. Technical writing of Standard Operating Procedures for the calibration of instruments.

United Parcel Service | Paramus, NJ. Supervise day crew of 7 maintenance mechanics and helpers, and a night cleaning crew of 15. Responsible for general building maintenance and repairs. Installation of example speech basic electrical and communication wiring. Coordinator of all service vendors for facilities maintenance. Mountain Essay? United States Navy | Various Locations.

Responsibilities include testing, troubleshooting and repair of aircraft electrical and electronic systems. Quality Assurance inspector. Technical Publications Library specialist. High School or equivalent Bergen County Vocational Technical High School Hackensack, NJ. Some college classes.

Technical training in the United States Navy. Various continuing education classes to enhance my technical skills. Multitude of life/work experience. Here#8217;s a few things I do for enjoyment and personal satisfaction: Family time Work on websites of mine and some others. Reading (all kinds of books and magazines) Drumming Racquetball Running (regularly run in 5 Ks to half marathons) Kick Boxing Working out Cooking.

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adolescent essay adolescence adolescent - formation pour Infirmier de Secteur Psychiatrique - cours de Mr Giffard - I l n'y a pas si longtemps, l'adolescence n'tait pas reconnue par la collectivit. By Dennis. C'tait un tat individuel, de mme que le troisime ge . Quaker Oat. Aprs la seconde guerre mondiale, et particulirement dans les cultures occidentales, l' adolescence est devenue phnomne de socit. Mountain Covington Essay. C'est un tat la fois enfantin et srieux. La provocation de la part des adultes est apparue chez les artistes avant et pendant la seconde guerre mondiale (romantisme, dadasme. Strengths And Weaknesses Constitution. ), revendication contre toutes les institutions de la socit (famille, tat, glise, arme, cole). Salvation Mountain By Dennis. A partir de 1950, les adolescents reprennent leur compte toutes ces revendications, tous ces tats d'me. The Raven And The Haunted Palace By Edgar Poe Essay. En 1960, mergence de la musique pour les exprimer. Salvation By Dennis Covington Essay. En 1970, en plus de la musique, l'opposition au monde adulte s'exprime par la politisation (concerts de soutien ou de protestation, chanteurs engags politiquement). 1980, accs gnralis aux drogues que l'on partage pendant les concerts ou avant les manifestations. 1990: le refus des habitudes familiales s'exprimera travers un comportement diffrent, par exemple au niveau des conduites alimentaires ou de l'habillement.

Entre 2000 et 2010, la grande incertitude face au chmage, la difficult de se loger, ainsi qu'une moindre protection de la part des familles ou de la socit des adultes les conduisent recrer leur monde virtuel autant pour s'isoler de ceux-ci (jeux vido, ordinateurs) que pour se retrouver entre eux (Internet, tlphone portable). Les adolescents deviennent par ce biais dpendants de la technique et des mdias. Example Speech Outline. Chez la fille : dveloppement des seins, de l'appareil gnital. Salvation Essay. Prise de poids. Premires rgles. Attendance 1852. En 1940, les premires rgles chez les europennes venaient vers 17 ans. Salvation On Sand Mountain By Dennis Covington Essay. Actuellement, l'ge moyen est vers 12 ans et 6 mois, car les conditions de vie sont plus confortables et les adolescentes s'affirment plus tt; Chez le garon : premires pollutions nocturnes, mue de la voix, pilosit, croissance osseuse et staturale; Chez les deux : re-modelage de l'image du corps , de faon continue.

Fixation sur l'aspect corporel extrieur: poque trs narcissique. Outline. Tendances diverses l'excs. On Sand Mountain Covington Essay. Trs peu d'hygine. Biafran Civil. Grande instabilit. Durant les premires annes de vie, la pense du petit enfant tait magique. Salvation Mountain By Dennis Covington. A la priode de latence il a acquis une logique concrte. Outline. Vers 12 ans, le jeune adolescent va pouvoir raisonner de faon dductive, posant des hypothses et rpondant dans l'abstrait. On Sand Essay. Cela est dsormais possible grce la naissance de la pense formelle, ou hypottico-dductive . Quaker Oat. Ayant acquis cette pense formelle, il en usera l'excs.

Il n'a pas besoin de l'exprience. Salvation By Dennis Essay. C'est la priode o on quaker oat, refait le monde, poque trs crative mais sans support dans la ralit. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Covington Essay. Il a acquis l'intellect adulte . Attendance Act Of 1852. On distinguera 3 phases. Phase d'opposition : chez la fille, elle survient entre 12 et 13 ans et chez le garon entre 12 et 15 ans. Mountain Essay. Elle commence par un effondrement total de tout l'acquis moral et social de la priode de latence. Biafran. C'est un mouvement rgressif au cours duquel l'adolescent est imprvisible, avec refus de tout ordre tabli, vols, provocations.

Il y a la fois l'incapacit domestiquer les dsirs, et la recherche du plaisir dans la transgression de l'interdit. On note aussi un mpris de tout ce qui reprsente l'ordre. By Dennis. Ceci a pour but une certaine prise de conscience de soi . The Raven Haunted Palace By Edgar Allan. Priode du Je n'veux pas !; Phase d'affirmation du Moi : chez la fille entre 13 et 16 ans, et chez le garon entre 15 et 17 ans. Salvation On Sand. C'est une priode de revendication, de Je veux !, avec demande d'indpendance, de libert. Constitution. C'est l'poque du conflit des gnrations. Il y a laboration de systmes nouveaux et meilleurs pour la socit. Priode de l'adolescence o on Salvation Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay, discute beaucoup. The Raven Haunted By Edgar. Mgalomanie, affabulation, idalisation.

Gnrosit et gosme; Phase d'insertion : chez la fille entre 16 et 18 ans, et chez le garon entre 18 et 20 ans. Salvation Covington Essay. L'adolescent s' identifie l'adulte de faon stable, avec moins d'idalisation. War. Il ralise son indpendance affective, et construit son indpendance conomique. Covington Essay. Il accepte rellement et sans ambivalence de se passer de ses parents. A Feminist Interpretation Of Bram Dracula. Cette phase d'insertion est facilite avec l' accs au travail , et les relations de couple . Salvation Mountain By Dennis Covington. Elle est freine quand la prcarit ou le chmage s'installent. Il faut savoir que de plus en plus d'adolescents se retrouvent dsormais la rue, sans domicile fixe ( S.D.F. Compulsory Attendance 1852 Essay. ) et sans travail rgulier: c'est un phnomne relativement nouveau, et qui prend de l'ampleur depuis le dbut du 21 me sicle. Covington. Remaniement de la personnalit affective. The Raven And The Allan Poe Essay. Vis--vis des parents, l'adolescent doit effectuer le deuil des imago parentales . Salvation On Sand Covington. Le travail de deuil est un processus qui permet de ne pas finir avec ce qui est mort. Strengths And Weaknesses Constitution. Il s'agit ici d'une rupture d'avec l'image que les parents reprsentent pour l'adolescent.

Ce processus se fait en plusieurs tapes. By Dennis. Tout commence avec le retour de ce qui a t refoul dans l'inconscient durant la latence, c'est dire les pulsions infantiles . Stoker's Dracula. Ce retour est massif et incontrlable pour l'adolescent, faisant chouer le Moi dans ses tentatives d'quilibre. Salvation Mountain By Dennis Covington Essay. Il est anxieux, dprim, dpressif , inhib. Strengths And Weaknesses Constitution. Il fait des actes antisociaux . Salvation On Sand Covington Essay. L'aspect dfensif ne russit pas retenir l'aspect motionnel. Le ct oral se traduit par de la boulimie, de l'anorexie, et de l'avidit sur tous les plans. Les pulsions anales reviennent travers l'agressivit, le non !, modifiant tous ses rapports avec l'ordre, le pouvoir. Quaker Oat. Retour aussi des pulsions phalliques et oedipiennes , se traduisant par une crise d'originalit autant physique que mentale. Salvation On Sand Mountain Covington Essay. Ractivation des pulsions oedipiennes vis--vis des parents, crant des sentiments de honte des parents , afin d'viter la pulsion par une attitude inverse.

Critique de ce que sont les parents. Of Uk. Plus il se sent dpendant d'eux, plus il sera agressif vis--vis d'eux. Salvation By Dennis. Les parents ne peuvent rien pour l'aider car c'est leur prsence-mme qui cre le conflit. Example Speech Outline. L'adolescent labore un roman familial: il existe deux couples de parents, l'un riche, noble, puissant et protecteur, assimil des divinits. Ce sont les parents du pass, idaliss par l'enfant. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Essay. L'autre couple est humble, commun, soumis aux limites quotidiennes. Biafran. Ce sont les parents dcouverts par l'adolescent. Ces 2 couples de parents s'affrontent dans l'imaginaire de l'adolescent. Salvation On Sand Covington. Il brode donc un roman familial dans lequel il retrouvera ses droits et privilges. Compulsory Act Of 1852. Cela rvle le processus rgressif vers la relation rassurante des premiers temps de l'enfance et le processus progressif qui permet d'accepter la ralit. Salvation By Dennis Covington Essay. Fantasme de changement de rle : l'adolescent veut prendre la place d'un de ses parents en usurpant les droits de l'adulte.

Il est adulte la place du pre ou de la mre. Of Uk Constitution. Il juge ses parents, les conseille, les infantilise. By Dennis Covington Essay. Ceci est une condition pour devenir adulte . Act Of 1852. L'adolescent s'identifie ainsi des images de parents murs. Salvation On Sand Covington. Les tapes de la gnitalisation (l'accession la sexualit adulte) La relation Objectale va se focaliser sur des Objets successifs qui vont permettre l'adolescent d'accder la sexualit adulte.

Phase d'homosexualit de groupe : la bande, gnralement unisexue est constitue d'individus semblables. Dracula Essays. Il y aura plusieurs types de bandes selon le milieu culturel de l'adolescent. Plus le milieu est favoris, plus la bande est atypique (sans caractristiques). Salvation Covington Essay. Les bandes sociales sont trs structures, et on The Raven and The Palace by Edgar Poe Essay, y rentre difficilement. By Dennis Essay. Les membres ont alors les mmes idoles, les mmes costumes. Interpretation Of Bram. Le but de ces bandes est d'viter la solitude, de s'identifier par rapport un modle, une norme, et de prendre en charge les dsirs de l'individu.

Chaque membre du groupe y trouve scurit et revalorisation. Mountain By Dennis Covington Essay. Elle permet aussi l'adolescent d'viter la confrontation l'autre sexe; Phase d'homosexualit individuelle : la bande ne suffit plus. Civil War. L'adolescent va chercher un ami, un confident. Salvation Mountain Covington Essay. Le choix est trs narcissique, fait d'idalisation et d'admiration. Compulsory Essay. On se raconte tout vis--vis de la famille, de l'cole.

Amitis trs passionnes, trs brusques, pouvant s'arrter aussi brusquement. On Sand By Dennis Covington. Dans cette phase il peut y avoir exprience homosexuelle vritable et transitoire, comme phnomne d'adaptation faisant le lien entre les parents oedipiens et le choix htrosexuel. Attendance. Notons aussi l'existence de rites, de complicits; Phase transitoire dpressive : la bande ne suffit pas et mme l'ami intime ne peut pas comprendre. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Essay. L'adolescent est en proie la mlancolie . La vie est un supplice. Tout est injustice. Quaker Oat. La perte des parents est trop forte: la bande et les copains ne suffisent pas. Salvation On Sand By Dennis. Vide mtaphysique. Quaker Oat. Cration du journal intime dans lequel il transmet son abandon. Salvation Covington Essay. C'est un mlange d'gocentrisme aigu et de constant dvouement pour l'humanit. The Raven Haunted By Edgar Poe Essay. Ce qui va permettre d'en sortir seront les premires manifestations d'htrosexualit ; Phase htrosexuelle : on Salvation Mountain Covington, se met avoir une certaine curiosit vis--vis de l'autre sexe.

On s'pie, on biafran, s'auto-observe. L'autre sexe est la fois dnigr et idalis. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Essay. Cette htrosexualit est d'abord polygame, avec nombreux flirts. Civil. C'est le moment o les bandes se mixent, et c'est le temps des grandes passions, des grandes dsillusions. Essay. Hmorragie des sentiments. Processus de cour: l'adolescent devient coquet, spirituel. Les flirts se succdent, avec de grandes priodes de jalousie et d'admiration. Interpretation Stoker's Dracula Essays. Petit petit, l'htrosexualit devient monogame, les Objets affectifs deviennent stables jusqu' la formation du couple . On Sand By Dennis Essay. Ds lors l'adolescent peut faire des projets.

Il devient capable de faire concider l'amour romantique et l'amour sexuel. Example Speech Outline. L'adolescence est la dernire 'chance' d'aborder les conflits de l'enfance et de les rsoudre de manire spontane. Salvation Mountain Covington Essay. Si ces mmes conflits survenaient par la suite, ce serait du domaine du pathologique . Civil War. La personne s'y engluerait gravement. Salvation Covington Essay. D'ailleurs, la plupart des pathologies adultes closent l'adolescence. Example Speech. La structure de la personnalit se fait durant les 5 premires annes de la vie, mais on Mountain by Dennis Covington, peut la remanier l'adolescence le plus souvent tout seul, c'est dire avec l'environnement immdiat.

Sinon a s'croule l'adolescence (on parle alors de destructuration de la personnalit ) et le futur adulte aura besoin de l'aide de la sant publique, voire temporairement d'un environnement adapt.

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college essay spoof Although the city of Dayton is small and on Sand Mountain Covington has been hit hard by the decline of industry, in Xenia and Yellow Springs the land is green, fecund, and alive, even in the relentless heat of quaker oat, summer. Xenia is three miles from where the first private black college, Wilberforce, opened, in Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay, 1856, to meet the educational needs of the growing population of outline, freed blacks that crossed the Ohio River. Yellow Springs, a stop on the Underground Railroad, was initially established as a utopian community in Salvation Mountain Covington, 1825. In 1852, Horace Mann founded Antioch College and served as its president. War! During the 50s and Salvation on Sand Mountain 60s, Antioch and Yellow Springs were hamlets of anti-McCarthyism and antiwar and civil rights activism. Today there are a lot of hippies and theres even more tie-dye.

Between the villages, you can drive over rolling hills and pastures and not see another car for miles, and only far off on the horizon will you be able to spot a farmhouse. I spent a week in and The Haunted by Edgar Poe Essay, this part of Salvation by Dennis Essay, Ohio, and during my stay I was invited to do all sorts of Essays, things with people of all kindsrich and poor, white and Salvation on Sand by Dennis Essay black. I was invited to go flying, dig for worms at midnight, and plant raspberry bushes. My request to drive a tractor was turned down, not because I dont know how to drive but because the and The Poe Essay tractor had been put away. In Ohio, there is space for people to do what they want. There is a lot of land, plenty of it. Salvation By Dennis Covington Essay! This is where enslaved people ran to, certain that they had finally evaded capture. This is of Bram Essays where Americas first prominent black poet, Paul Laurence Dunbar, wrote We Wear the Mask. And somewhere in Mountain Covington, the midst of it all is Dave Chappelles home. From above, everything seems smaller and less complicatedor at the very least things are put into perspective. From a plane at example speech, thirty-five thousand feet it was much easier for me to understand why Dave Chappelle quit his hit TV show, Chappelles Show , and said goodbye to all that, and on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington didnt stop until he got home to Yellow Springs, Ohio.

When news of his decision to cease filming the third season of the show first made headlines, there were many spectacular rumors. He had quit the show without any warning. He had unceremoniously ditched its cocreator, his good friend Neal Brennan, leaving him stranded. Chappelle was now addicted to crack. Of Uk Constitution! He had lost his mind. The most insane speculation I saw was posted on on Sand Mountain by Dennis, a friends Facebook page at 3 a.m. Palace By Edgar Poe Essay! A website had alleged that a powerful cabal of Salvation on Sand Covington Essay, black leadersOprah Winfrey, Bill Cosby, and otherswere so offended by Chappelles use of the n -word that they had him intimidated and banned. The controversial Niggar Family sketch, where viewers were introduced to strengths and weaknesses of uk, an Ozzie and Harrietlike 1950s suburban, white, upper-class family named the Niggars, was said to Salvation by Dennis, have set them off. The weirdest thing was that people actually went for such stories. Chappelles brief moment in television had been that incendiary. It didnt matter that Chappelle himself had told Oprah on national television that he had quit wholly of quaker oat, his own accord.

Chappelle didnt seem to understand that these rumors of drugs and insanity, though paternalistic, were just the result of disbelief and curiosity. Like Salingers retreat from fame, Chappelles departure demanded an explanation: how could any human being have the willpower, the chutzpah, the determination to Salvation Covington, refuse the amount of money rumored to be Chappelles next paycheck: fifty million dollars. Say it with me now. Fifty. Million. Dollars. When the dust settled, and of Bram Stoker's Dracula Chappelle had done interviews with Oprah and James Lipton in an attempt to recover his image and tell his story, two things became immediately apparent: Dave Chappelle is without a doubt his generations smartest comic, and Salvation on Sand Essay the hole he left in biafran, comedy is so great that even ten years later very few people can accept the reason he later gave for leaving fame and fortune behind: he wanted to find a simpler way of Salvation on Sand Mountain, life. You know you must be doing something right if old people like you.

Dave Chappelle was in of Bram Dracula, his teens when he first appeared on the comedy-club circuit. He was twenty-three when he and his friend Neal Brennan wrote Half Baked , a now-classic stoner flick about on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay, four hapless friends who try to enter the civil drug-dealing game so they can get bail money for their friend Kenny, who has landed in jail after inadvertently killing a cops horse. They were young and Salvation Covington Essay had no expectations except to have fun and be funny. They certainly had no idea Chappelles Show , another collaboration, would become the quaker oat most talked-about show on television. But early into the shows first season, critics at the New York Times would take notice of Chappelles kind of laid-back indignation and his refusal to believe that ignoring racial differences will make anyones life better. What Brennan and Chappelle were doing every week was so unusual that the Times declared that it almost looks like a renaissance for African-American humor on television.

Chappelles comedy found fans in many worlds. Salvation By Dennis! At a recent barbecue in Philadelphia, a friend of the host dutifully but disinterestedly interrogated me about my life, and got excited only when my mother let it slip that I was working on a piece about Dave Chappelle. Aw, man. I miss that guy, he said. He was my friend. I really felt like he was my friend. I hear this a lot, usually from white people, and usually from white people without many black friendslike this seventy-year-old comparative literature professor in Birkenstocks. Part of what made the Interpretation Stoker's Essays show so ingenious was that Chappelles racial invective found friends in strange places. With a regularly broadcasted television show, Chappelle was finally able to Salvation on Sand Mountain Covington Essay, display what writer and quaker oat activist Kevin Powell described in an Esquire profile as a unique capacity to on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay, stand out and blend in, to cross boundaries and The Raven set up roadblocks. Almost overnight, Chappelle became Americas black friend. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Covington! He was a polyglot. Palace! He told Powell that, growing up, h e used to hang out with the Jewish kids, black kids, and Vietnamese immigrants, and it was apparent that Chappelle had used these experiences to become Americas consul and Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay translator for all things racial. More than any comic of and The Haunted Poe Essay, his generation, he lanced the boil of how race works and also prodded at Salvation by Dennis Essay, how nuanced race had become. Sometimes convention and whats funny butt heads, Chappelle confessed to A Feminist Interpretation of Bram Dracula Essays, Entertainment Weekly in Salvation on Sand by Dennis, 2004, and when [they do], we just err on the side of whats funny. Besides race, three things make Dave Chappelles comedy innovative and biafran universal: wit, self-deprecation, and Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay toilet humor.

This is the The Raven and The Haunted same triumvirate that makes Philip Roths writing so original. Woody Allens movies, too. Chappelle had a keen sense of the archetypal nature of race, and understood just as acutely how people work on a very basic level. In a Chappelles Show sketch about the reality show Trading Spouses , a black man sits on a toilet in a white familys house and flips through a copy of People magazine while taking a dump. On Sand By Dennis Covington! He looks up: Who the fuck is Renee Zellwedger? In another sketch, a stodgy, Waspy white man (Chappelle in whiteface) lies in bed with an attractive black woman in classy lingerie. He wants her. The Raven Haunted Poe Essay! But he wants to make love with his pajamas on. Chappelle did such a good job of truth-telling, on every subject, that nobody knew what to do when he just stopped talking. Salvation On Sand Covington! In no way did his quitting conform to our understanding of the comics one obligation: to be funny. To talk to us.

To entertain us. To make us laugh. We arent used to taking no for an answer, to being rejected, especially not by example speech outline, the people who are supposed to make us smile. Especially not by black men who are supposed to make us smile. And yet Chappelle did just that. And so, like everyone, I wondered what had happened. What had happened, and, more so, what had brought Chappelle toand kept him inYellow Springs?At a stand-up appearance in Sacramento in 2004, a frustrated Chappelle lashed out at his hecklers from the stage, yelling, You people are stupid! So what was it about this small college townwhere hippies slipped me bags of Girl Scout cookies, where Tibetan jewelry stores and fair-trade coffee shops dotted the main street, and on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay where kindly white ladies crossed the speech street to tell me my wild hair was giving them lifethat made it more satisfying than celebrity or fame? Even before Chappelle himself, politely but firmly, turned down my interview request, I had begun to suspect that the keys to everything he was doing politically and Salvation Mountain by Dennis Essay culturallyblock parties with Erykah Badu, videos with Mos Def and De La Soul, and campaigning for young black candidates like Kevin Powell, who stressed social responsibilitywere interests deeply informed by The Raven Haunted Palace Allan, his parents. Salvation On Sand! His mother is a historian and his father was a dean of biafran civil, community services and Salvation on Sand Essay a professor of music. Edward Countryman, the strengths and weaknesses constitution American historian, has pointed out some worthwhile context: Until John Hope Franklin joined the on Sand by Dennis Essay University of Chicago in 1964, no black person held a senior rank in a major history department that encouraged research and trained doctoral students. But Chappelle, like Kanye West, grew up in a home where black activism and example speech black leftist thought were the Mountain Covington languages of the household.

No wonder, then, that both Chappelle and West have wrestled so bitterly and publicly with their sense of responsibility to and also their failure to meet those same obligations. Its a dilemma, Chappelle told Kevin Powell. Its something that is unique to us. White people, white artists, are allowed to be individuals. But we always have this greater struggle that we at least have to keep in mind somewhere. Chappelles throwback kind of celebrity and his many concerns about social responsibility are faintly reminiscent of the work that his mother, Professor Yvonne Seon, did in the 60s and of Bram Dracula Essays 70s as a scholar of the Negritude movement. In 1939, the poet Aime Cesaire would return to his island homeland of Martinique, in the Caribbean, after spending years in Europe. The move would prompt his book-length piece of prose poetry, which Andre Breton would call a masterpiece: Cahier dun retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land) . Cesaire, a gifted writer, was sent to Salvation Mountain by Dennis Essay, Europe as a young man to study in the center of the French-speaking world. A Feminist Interpretation Of Bram Essays! Once there, he reunited with his childhood friend Leon Damas and on Sand Mountain by Dennis a young Senegalese poet and future president named Leopold Sedar Senghor.

Together, as black men in example, France, they attempted to educate themselves in a culture where the word negre was inherently a pejorative. Mountain Covington Essay! To cope while living under the double bind of Palace by Edgar Allan, colonialism and racism, they created Negritude, literally a Blackness movement. Sometime after my first few interviews with Seon, she mailed me an essay that she wrote in 1975 that had been published in a magazine called Black World . The issue features Muhammad Ali on the cover, and in her essay Seon describes Negritude as being more of Salvation Essay, a sensibility than a literary movement that is example fixed in by Dennis, the past. To me, more than anything, it voices the dilemma her son would experience decades later: When one speaks of Negritude, one may be speaking of either of two quite different things.

In its narrow definition, Negritude is a literary movement of the biafran civil late 1930s. Salvation Covington! In this restricted sense, it represents the use by Black French-speaking poets, of the techniques of French Impressionism to and weaknesses of uk, break away from French culture and to give creative expression to an inner, African self that had been hidden away. Salvation On Sand Mountain Covington! But the strengths and weaknesses broader, more important meaning of Negritude has to do with a process isolated and identified by these poets. It is the process by which Black people, who have been cut off from and made to learn to know themselves again, come to accept themselves, and begin to Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington, believe in (i.e. to quaker oat, value) themselves. Seon was born in Washington, DC. Her father was a fair-skinned man who was adopted by Mountain by Dennis Essay, a black woman.

Although he self-identified as black, by all accounts he looked Greek. Biafran Civil War! He was also blind. On the day Martin Luther King Jr. was shot, Chappelles grandfather was on a city bus and overheard rumblings of a beat-down about to happen to a white fellow on his bus. That guys gonna be in trouble, he thought. He did not realize that he was the white man being threatened. Salvation On Sand Mountain! This anecdote about his grandfather would inspire Chappelles Clayton Bigsby sketchthe unforgettable short mockumentary about a blind white supremacist who does not know he is black. Beginning in 1944, Seons mother worked as an administrative assistant for the NAACP.

Seon tells me about early memories of sitting outside of NAACP meetings and waving hello to the organizations chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, who was working on Dracula Essays, the cases that would dismantle the Jim Crow laws. In the 50s, when Africa began to hammer off its colonial shackles, her family found itself in the front lines as black American allies. My mother was very much one of the people who was paying attention to what was going on in Africa; she knew the ambassadors, we went to the celebrations of on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay, independence. So we were following Africa and that part of the quaker oat involvement, just watching what they were doing. We were aware of the avant-garde, the people who were questing for liberation in Salvation Mountain Covington Essay, Africa. Seon was twenty-two when she met Patrice Lumumba, the young, energetic prime minister of the Congo, at a society mixer. That same afternoon, he offered her a job. She went home and biafran civil asked her parents for permission, and Salvation on Sand Essay they came back and talked with Lumumba.

It was agreed she would fly to the Congo and help Lumumba, who, unlike Ghanas President Kwame Nkrumah, didnt have a college degree or much of civil, a background in government. On Sand Mountain Essay! Instead, Lumumba was a beer-selling postmaster who had crushed one of the most dehumanizing, despotic colonial regimes with pure rhetoric and was now learning how to establish a new nation. She made plans to leave in the winter, but on December 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested. The hardest part was not knowing, she says. Quaker Oat! In the weeks to come they found out: Lumumba had been murdered, most likely by American and on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay Belgian operatives; Lumumbas pan-Africanism, his vision of civil war, a unified Congo, and his utter lack of patience had alarmed the West so much they had had him killed. (Belgium apologized in 2002 for its moral responsibility in Salvation Essay, the murder.) But here is the part you should remember if you want to understand Dave Chappelles unbridled wit and compulsion to be free: a young Yvonne Seon still decided to take off for the Congo, not knowing what to expect, but knowing that her contact therea man who was being mourned by and The Haunted Allan Poe Essay, Malcolm X and Che Guevara, whose death incited outraged protests all around the world had been murdered. She needed to fulfill her promise to Salvation Covington, the dead man and his hope for a history of dignity for African people. We were very much aware that if America was going to have its independence, our independence was tied to the independence of the African countries. And I personally believed at the time that African Americans would not be able to get civil rights until Africa had won its independence, that the two things were interrelated. Before she left, her father told her that if he hadnt been blind, he would have gone to strengths of uk constitution, Africa with her. When she returned to the States two years later, Seon attended graduate school and Salvation on Sand met her husband, William David Chappelle (who died in 1998), in those times of great hope and unrest. In the late 60s, they came to Yellow Springs to visit friends for the weekend, and, besotted with the towns counterculture, diversity, and leftist vibe, her husband didnt want to The Raven Palace by Edgar Allan Poe Essay, leave. When Chappelle was two, his parents divorced, and his father returned to Yellow Springs to teach at Antioch while his mother stayed in Washington, DC, with the children.

Dave Chappelle has said of his childhood, We were like the broke Huxtables. There were books around the Salvation on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay house; everybody was educated to Act of 1852, a college level. We used to have a picture of Malcolm X in Ghana. Last Poets records. We were poor but we were cultured. When they reached the age where he and his siblings could start running the streets, his mother sent them to Mountain by Dennis, Yellow Springs to strengths and weaknesses constitution, live with their father. Chappelle returned when he was fourteen. He later told Kevin Powell, I left in pre-crack Washington and came back inpost-crack Washington, so I got the before-and-after picture.

It was literally jolting, like, what the fuck happened? My freshman year of high school, over five hundred kids my age were murdered. In addition to the typical growing pains that accompany adolescence, Chappelle found himself having to Salvation by Dennis Essay, navigate what he described to James Lipton as being a very segregated city, especially at that time. War! Statistically speaking to Salvation Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay, this daystatistically speakingtheres not one poor white person in Interpretation of Bram Dracula Essays, Washington. DC was a far cry from Salvation by Dennis Essay Yellow Springs, and he struggled to adjust to the culture shock. Biafran Civil War! It was his mother who gave him a copy of a magazine with Bill Cosby on on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay, the cover. Chappelle felt instantaneously connected to Attendance 1852, the comic.

When he finished reading, he says, I put it down. And it was like: Imma be a comedian. And, man, Im telling you, I could see it so clearly, so clearly, manthis is on Sand by Dennis Covington it. Attendance Act Of Essay! I was so excited I told my family, I have an announcement to make: Im gonna be a comedian. Because he was fourteen and his mother took him to Salvation Covington, gigs around the civil war city, other comics called him the kid . He remembers telling his grandmother once before he went onstage, You might hear me say some things that you might not want to hear your grandson say And she said, Just relax and Mountain Covington do that shit. I was like, Wow. I had never heard her curse! Over lunch in strengths of uk, Ohio, Seon tells me, with the same optimism as every other time weve talked, about the years she spent in Kinshasa.

Her stories are populated with dangers she still seems impervious to: Evariste Kimba, a prime minister who soon succeeded Lumumba, was also executed, and the Congo was at the start of Salvation Mountain by Dennis, a long period of war. But her memories also retain a sense of hope I have trouble even imagining. You know, she says, Ive never gone back to the Congo, because it is Compulsory Act of difficult, you know, to Salvation, look back at a place that was so full of biafran civil war, possibilities and see what has happened. That is always hard to see, isnt it? There is a strange moment in James Liptons interview with Chappelle where the comedian discusses his decision not to attend college. I was the first person in Covington, my family not to go to of uk constitution, college, that had not been a slave. The audience laughs. I can never tell if they realize that he is serious. In his fantastic profile of Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay, Muhammad Ali, Hunter S. Thompson writes that the Champ, after all, had once hurled his Olympic gold medal into the Ohio River, in Palace by Edgar Allan, a fit of pique at some alleged racial insult in on Sand Covington Essay, Louisville. The medal was a symbol of a white world that Ali was already learning to treat with a very calculated measure of of Bram Dracula Essays, public disrespect. Like most people of the postcivil rights generation, I think that Chappelle, whose family had long been free, educated, leftist, and radical, had hoped that his success would not need to by Dennis Covington Essay, follow that same militant path. Despite the fact that four in ten white Americans do not have any black friends, and more pressingly, that all too many workplaces are integrated only in example speech, theory, I think Chappelle hoped that he could bring Yellow Springs open-mindedness to the world. Salvation By Dennis! For a while he did, but then he became aware that his brand of humor was not without a history and was forced to speech outline, acknowledge its context. Next came conferences with suits at Comedy Central about Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay, his use of the and The Haunted n-word and his being chastised in the press, and Salvation Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay finally he was humiliated and called insane.

Like Thompson once wrote of of Bram Essays, Ali, Chappelle was put through one of the meanest and most shameful ordeals any prominent American has ever endured. Without knowing his history, Dave Chappelles decision to figuratively toss his gold medal into the Ohio River does seem like a bizarre, illogical act that abbreviated a successful career on its ascent. But was it illogical? Hardly. Revolutionary? Possibly. To turn his back on Hollywood, to walk away from the spotlight because it was turning him into a man he didnt want to bea man without dignitywas a move that was, in a way, Chappelles birthright, his own unwieldy kind of Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis, Negritude. Theres no friends like the old friends.

I wasnt crazy but it is incredibly stressful, Dave Chappelle explained to Oprah on The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2006. With his mother sitting in the front row, he was trying to explain why ten months years earlierwithout explanation to his wife, to Brennan, or to Act of Essay, his bosses at Comedy Centralhe had quit his show. I would go to work on the show and I felt awful every day, he said. I felt like some kind of Mountain Covington, prostitute or something. If I feel so bad, why keep on and The Haunted Palace by Edgar, showing up to this place? Im going to Africa. Five years have passed since that interview, and Brennan has gone on to write for President Obama at the White House Correspondents Dinner and to work with comedians like Amy Schumer and Chris Rock. On Sand Mountain! Brennan repeats to Stoker's Essays, me how much he respects Dave, but he tells me that being trashed by Chappelle on Oprah still bothers him.

In 2011, he told a reporter: You know, for a black artist thats beloved to go on TV and say he was victimized by Salvation on Sand Mountain, a white corporate structure, that is like white-people nectar, its like white liberal nectar, like, Oh my god, this young black man has been victimized. Dave did real well from the show, you know. There was a huge benefit to Dave. So the idea that somehow he was victimized . . . The Raven Haunted Allan! My experience was he wasnt victimized and that it was a matter of Salvation Covington Essay, pressure and needing to eject from the pressure. Over salads at and weaknesses, a cafeteria-style table that we share with a tall, thin, tan European family at a luncheonette in Midtown Manhattan, Neal Brennan tells me his nigga jokes (or rather his jokes where he says the word nigga ). Two weeks earlier, in on Sand, New Orleans, I had hung out in the whitewashed wings of the Civic Theatre and watched Brennan direct his first Comedy Central one-hour special. Compulsory Attendance Essay! There Id heard some PAs discussing what they called his n-word jokes , but because I had to catch a cab to the airport, I never got a chance to see the show. On Sand By Dennis! In New York, sitting a few feet from strengths and weaknesses each other, I tried to Salvation on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay, prepare myself for the inevitable, but each time I thought about it my hands had instinctively cocked and curled into fists under the table.

Brennan says Chappelles Show told two stories: What it was like to be a dude, and what it was like to strengths and weaknesses of uk constitution, be a black dude. He grew up in Mountain by Dennis Covington, the Philadelphia suburbs and quaker oat is a former altar boy, the youngest of on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington, ten kids in a large Irish Catholic family. He is very thin and he has what he himself calls a roguish charm. Brennan is really, really funny and quick. He wears a uniform of jeans, sneakers, and a T-shirt. Civil War! He has large ears and wide eyes and spiky hair that is often gelled to by Dennis Covington, a point, cockatoo-style. As we talk, I realize that I recognize many of his expressions from the show. Brennan tells me that as a writer he knows how to biafran civil, shape and structure a joke.

He directs the jab. My job and life are basically just saying, Hey, say this. Say, Doctor says I needs a backiotomy. Brennan met Chappelle when they were both eighteen. Everyone else in the New York comedy scene was in their late twenties. Comedy, he shrugs and sighs deeply, is incredibly racially integrated. Probably the most diverse workplace there is, and Salvation its not clannishthere is a table at Compulsory Attendance Act of 1852, the Comedy Cellar where we all go, and you can look around some nights and it is Mexican, white, Jewish, black. You are friends based on your comedy ability, not based on your age or something. Like race is Salvation almost irrelevant.Brennan studied film at NYU during the strengths and weaknesses of uk day, and at night he stood outside and worked as the annoying guy who yells, Hey! Come inside and check out the Mountain by Dennis Essay comedy show! Chappelle had moved to New York to A Feminist Interpretation of Bram Essays, do stand-up and was working in Washington Square Park, learning from a street comic named Charlie Barnett. Neal and Dave had similar sensibilities: they liked the Salvation on Sand same movies (Spike Lee Joints), the same music (hip-hop), the same TV shows ( Family Ties ). It was kismet. Chappelle had been on all of these pilots and and weaknesses of uk constitution had been paired with all of the wrong writers, wrong actors; like no thought to chemistry. Just: Hes a hot writer and youre a hot stand-up, Brennan says.

Entertainment Weekly would say of Chappelles first sitcom: The worst thing about Buddies is that it makes racism boring. Years passed, and Brennan left New York to live in Los Angeles and write comedy for Nickelodeon, but he stayed in touch with Chappelle. Their film, Half Baked , was totally unexpected and came about quickly. In fact, they had only a month to on Sand Covington, outline it. We pitched it. Universal sold it in, like, March, and civil war we were shooting it in Salvation on Sand Covington Essay, July. Which is strengths and weaknesses of uk crazy. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Essay! Really crazy. But we didnt know anything because we were, like, twenty-three. From the moment they arrived on the set, Brennan says he knew that something was off about the A Feminist Interpretation Dracula production. First of all, it should have looked more like Kids and Trainspotting . So we get there and Dave turns to me and asks, Is this how you pictured the set? And I go, Nope. And he goes, Me neither. Neal shrugs again. But again, twenty-three. Salvation Mountain Covington! And there is just nothing you can do.

Im not a fan of the movie. War! Daves not a fan of the movie.Directed by by Dennis Covington, Tamra Davis, Half Baked was released in 1998, the same weekend as Titanic , and flopped. Brennan and Chappelle stopped talking for a while. These silences are themes in their friendship. I ask him why. I guess not wanting to acknowledge responsibility, negative association, you want to example speech, leave the scene of the Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay crime. Like having a child die and the parents want to get a divorce. It would be the first defeat in a series of many. After Half Baked , Dave bought his Fuck you, Hollywood farm, sixty-five acres of land in Ohio. He was living there and having a tough time professionally. Killin Them Softly , his one-hour special, came out in 1999.

Brennan is blunt about it: No one cared. But Killin Them Softy is speech outline a great one-hour special. Dave called his manager the Monday after it aired, Brennan says, and [his manager] goes, Sorry, man, the phones not ringing. That is Salvation on Sand by Dennis how it was. It cemented a sense within Brennan and Chappelle that show business is built upon biafran civil, whats hot and whats not, and, worse, that show business is Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis random, anti-intellectual, and Compulsory Attendance Act of Essay often pretty far behind. On Sand Essay! We were the underdogs. War! We were left for dead and came from behind and did CPR on ourselves. He pauses and peers over Salvation on Sand Mountain Covington Essay the heads of the towheaded European family sitting next to biafran civil war, us. To give you a sense of things, this is how little respect Dave was getting: we pitched Chappelles Show to Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis, one station and they literally looked at Compulsory Attendance Essay, us like we were lepers. Mountain By Dennis! Like, because Chris Rock had just gone off the air, they were like, Chris Rock is war everything and youre nothing, Dave. Then we walk up Fifth Avenue and pitch it to Comedy Central. They buy it. And it becomes the show.

And now Chappelles Show has sold three million copies on DVD. (It remains the Mountain worlds top-selling TV-to-DVD series.) In Brennans mind, he and Dave Chappelle had literally beaten the Philistines and had finally made it in television. But, as Chappelle told Oprah, this was not at quaker oat, all true. When Brennan discusses the demise of the show, he discusses it as a conflict about Salvation Mountain Covington, renegotiating the terms of the third season. Or, as he told fellow comedian Joe Rogan in an interview where Brennan looks visibly pained, It became an ego thing, once the negotiations started. It was the Essays worst period of my life but as Lorne Michaels once said, Comedians dont like admitting they have help. Brennan says that at Salvation Mountain Essay, the height of the contretemps, they both said awful things to each other. When Chappelle discusses his exit, he does not deny that things went haywire, but he attributes it mostly to his discomfort with the strengths and weaknesses material, the politics of the show, and the climate on the set. He told Oprah, I was doing sketches that were funny but socially irresponsible. It was encouraged. I felt I was deliberately being encouraged and I was overwhelmed.

I ask an older friend who is black and a theorist of sorts what he thinks about Chappelles Show . I get an answer that surprises me with its vitriol: Chappelle was at the end of the one-hundred-and-fifty-year minstrel cycle and fifty years after the height of the Salvation on Sand Mountain Covington civil rights movement and quaker oat ten years after the beginning of Southern hip-hop and in the midst of the most coonish aspects of dirty South hip-hop. He wrung the last bits of potential energy out of taboos that had been in guarded reserve that show niggas as violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts. And he portrayed niggas that way (while maintaining an ironic distance from those caricatures). The thing was, many took his shit literally, which is why he ultimately quit. I go back and watch The Mad Real World sketch, a spoof of the MTV reality show. In the sketch a white man moves into a house full of black roommates and, in the ensuing weeks, his father is stabbed while visiting, his blond girlfriend is Salvation on Sand by Dennis turned out by two guys, and the living room is biafran civil regularly transformed into on Sand by Dennis Essay, a makeshift nightclub. The black characters are indeed portrayed as violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts, but the quaker oat whole skit is pitched on a high register of irony. When I ask Brennan how he dealt with backlash about the shows use of the Salvation by Dennis n -word and its edgy racial humor, he objects. As much as people say that about Chappelles Show , no one ever got pissed. Constitution! People ask, Were you worried? and its like, no, because it was all founded on real, empirical observations and lived lives. Like, that Real World sketch was a discussion we had been having for Salvation on Sand by Dennis Essay a decade about black people on The Real World . And Weaknesses Of Uk Constitution! The guy who pulled the blanket off the girl was Daves best friend. So we knew what that shit was like. Look, he says, appearing exhausted, I think I have a fairly decent gauge of what the line is.

It is not perfect, but, like, I say the n -word eight times in Salvation on Sand Mountain Covington, my stand-up. And it works. People can tell if you mean it. And the other thing is I never say it, Im always paraphrasing someone. And I open up by shitting on white people. And pedigree. I think people know that Im known for being friends with black dudes, especially Dave. And I talk about that, I talk about Palace by Edgar Allan, being called it. Mountain Covington! I talk about the quaker oat first time I was called the n -word.

I get called the n -word every day. I can show you texts. Scrolling through his phone without looking up, he tells me, So it is a weird thing where you expect me to Covington, inhale something and not exhale. And people are like, You cant say that. But I get called it every day. Constantly, for twenty years. Later on, Brennan brings up an Haunted by Edgar Poe Essay idea first posited by the psychologist Beverly Tatum about the ways we tend to segregate ourselves as we get older and grow apart from our friends of different races.

Neal tells me, Its like when black kids sit at the lunch table with only black kids, and the white kids sit with white kids. I think it is Salvation Mountain just like, Well, they look like family. It is just some animal shit. It is A Feminist Interpretation Dracula Essays safety. When I read Tatums book, she says something that sticks with me: that so often the difficultly in discussing race is about working around the divide of that which we do not know. As I listen to Salvation on Sand by Dennis Covington, Brennan talk, I think about how he is strengths constitution right, that comedy is different. Comedians live for the joke and the joke alone. White writers have long written jokes for black comics with great success (my favorites being Ed. Weinberger for Bill Cosby and Louis C.K. for Chris Rock), but at the same time none of this goodwill can negate the possibility that Chappelle experienced what his mother had written about on Sand Mountain Essay, twenty years before: the desire to learn to quaker oat, know himself again. And that for Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis all the postcivil rights progress we have made, it is possible that you could be best friends with someone of Act of 1852, a different race without being able to enter worlds and spaces that they can, or in the way that they do.

After two hours of remarkably easy conversation, I can tell it is time for Salvation by Dennis Essay the moment Ive been clenching my fist about. Maybe he had needed to feel me out. Neal Brennan, who definitely embodies the best of the easy wit of Chappelles Show , goes for it. The joke in my act is: It is so bad I call myself it when no ones around. It will be lunchtime and Im like, Nigga, you need to eat. War! And Im like, Who are you talking to?

My hand unclenches. On Sand Mountain By Dennis Covington Essay! His n- word joke reminded me of the weird moments when Ive been around young white men who identify with hip-hop culture and who, for some strange reason, despite their stated best intentions, need to access that word as proof that they are accepted or acknowledged by the community they are involved with. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Uk Constitution! They do not realize the hubris and dominance inherent in on Sand Mountain Covington, the act of strengths and weaknesses, wanting to use that word. Brennans joke is on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay a joke on those guys, but it is also, inadvertently, a joke on strengths constitution, himself. I think he knows this. On Sand By Dennis Covington Essay! Neal Brennan inhabits a strange place as a white man whose closest friends are mostly black. But what, if anything, does that mean? I ask him what I think is the only logical next question: So do you think you are black? No! he says emphatically, like I had missed the point, because that would be absurd. I also think that is The Raven Palace by Edgar Poe Essay a silly thing. Like Ive never spoken Ebonics. Do you think that youre a racist? I ask, but not because I think Brennan is any more racist than any other white person, especially if racism is viewed as a system of white privilege and unearned benefits. Mountain Covington Essay! I ask this because part of knowing where the line is The Raven and The Palace by Edgar Poe Essay is knowing where you situate yourself along it or against Salvation on Sand Covington Essay it.

Uh, I think that everybody is racist. It is a natural human condition. Its tribal. Another evening, Brennan and I talk about what the ride of success felt like. He remembers hanging out at a club in Arizona where he and Chappelle were approached by a white fan who was loose with his use of the word nigger and who praised Chappelle for making it so funny. It was awful, Brennan recalls.

The thing is, I like Neal Brennan. And I got the joke, I think. But when he first told it to Compulsory Attendance Act of 1852 Essay, me, there was an Salvation by Dennis Essay awkward silence that I think both Brennan and Haunted by Edgar Poe Essay I noticed. The cafeteria seemed to swell with noise. And for a brief moment, my head clouded, and there was nothing I could think of to say, so to get out of the silence, I did what was expected: I laughed. When I got home, this troubled me deeply. You cant say anything real when it comes to race. On Sand By Dennis! Thats why Bill Cosbys in such trouble for saying black folks have got to take responsibility for their own lives. I spoke at my high school last week and I told them, Youve got to focus. Stop blaming white people for civil your problems Learn to play basketball, tell jokes, or sell crack.

Thats the Salvation on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay only way Ive seen people get out. Last time I was down South I walked into this restaurant, and Interpretation of Bram Stoker's Dracula Essays this white waitress came up to me and said: We dont serve colored people here. I said: Thats all right, I dont eat colored people. Salvation By Dennis Essay! Bring me a whole fried chicken. Dick Gregory, Nigger. You cannot really discuss Chappelles Show without discussing the n -word. One also cannot discuss the Attendance Act of Essay n -word without discussing Dick Gregory. Neal Brennan and Dave Chappelle werent even born yet when Dick Gregory bounded onto the American comedy scene and asked to Salvation on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay, stand flat-footed or to quaker oat, sit down and be spoken to like a man. Yvonne Seon tells me that when Dick Gregory campaigned for president in 1968, we all had our eyes on Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis, him. Dick Gregory is a larger-than-life sort of man. Biafran War! To reach him, you have to Salvation on Sand by Dennis Covington Essay, get past his wife of fifty years, Miss Lillian. You were lucky, Gregory tells me. She is tough.

She once told the president Id have to call him back. Although things have slowed down from the days when he commanded a weekly rate of something just shy of fifteen thousand bucks, when the only peers in his earning bracket were Woody Allen, Mort Sahl, and strengths of uk constitution Lenny Bruce, Dick Gregory is still on the move. On Sand By Dennis! All of his activity is made even more remarkable by the fact that he is now eighty. He still runs and Interpretation Dracula does regular juice fasts, and his long white beard makes him look like a Methuselah among men. And maybe he is. Richard Pryor once said: Dick was the Salvation Covington Essay greatest, and he was the first. Quaker Oat! Somebody had to break down that door. He was the one. Before Dick Gregory, there were no elegant black men in Mountain by Dennis, comedy. Compulsory 1852! The generation before Dick Gregorys grew up on Stepin Fetchit, the Mountain stage name of a black actor named Lincoln Perry and one of Compulsory Act of 1852 Essay, Americas most famous black personalities for more than twenty years. These days it is difficult to find clips of Stepin Fetchit and the existing films are rarely shown.

Stepin Fetchit acts like a shuffling, befuddled fool, and because of this many of Perrys films have been deemed offensive. Little remains to show his enormous influence on- and off-camera: he was the first black A-list actor, a millionaire during the Salvation Great Depression; he owned a fleet of limos and sports cars and biafran war he employed a retinue of Asian maids and Salvation on Sand by Dennis butlers. He carried guns, he wrote essays for black newspapers, he was handsome, he was a Hollywood outlawbut none of that mattered on-screen. On-screen he stooped his neck, and dropped his bottom lip, and acted as shiftless and stupid as possible. Of Bram Dracula Essays! Stepin Fetchit is the id figure, in characterization only, that sits on Chappelles shoulder in on Sand Mountain Essay, one of his skits and demands that Chappelle make himself happy and Attendance order chicken during a flight.

It is not the chicken that is the problem, it is the familiarity of the characterization. That whether Chappelle liked it or not, whether Dick Gregory liked it or not, this was the precedent. When the Playboy Club brought me in, Dick Gregory recalls, up until then you could sing, you could dance, but you could not stand flat-footed and talk and just tell jokes, because the on Sand Mountain Covington people upstairs didnt want folks to know just how intelligent black folks were. [The Playboy Club] brought me in, though, and it opened up the floodgates. Now, he says, Will Smiths movies alone have made three billion dollars. Dick Gregorys gig at the Playboy Club started in Palace Allan, 1961, and three years later he would write his memoir, entitled Nigger . This is the part of Salvation on Sand, his dedication to his mother that is often quoted: Dear MommaWherever you are, if you ever hear the word nigger again, remember they are advertising my book. When I suggest to Gregory that he used his comedy as a weapon, he shouts, What? so loud I get scared. How could comedy be a weapon? Comedy has got to be funny. Comedy cant be no damn weapon.

Comedy is just disappointment within a friendly relation. Chappelle, he says, was very good at it. When Gregorys son showed him a few episodes of Chappelles Show , he told me that he kept thinking, Damn, I wish I could have thought of that. Then Gregory volunteers to tell me the names of the Interpretation of Bram Stoker's Essays three greatest comedians of all time, and in a proud and awesomely fraternal way, he says, in order: Lenny Bruce, Richard Pryor, and Mark Twain. Yes, I say. But isnt it difficult to be that profane and that profound, in droves, especially as Twain in Salvation on Sand Essay, Puddnhead Wilson ? Did you say Puddnhead Wilson ? Gregory shouts. Yes, I say, scared again that Ive said the The Raven Haunted Palace by Edgar Allan wrong thing. Puddnhead Wilson ! Brilliant stuff! I could kiss you!

Mmhm, he says. And Twain could last and come up with that stuff because he wasnt onstage having to come up with material. But listen, he says, waiting a beat. Nobody said comedy was easy. Dick Gregory admires Mark Twains audacity as a white man to discuss race in Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay, America. He hates the of uk idea of concealing the on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay word nigger behind euphemisms like the n -word, and he seems to quaker oat, think it should be a shared burden. Before Twain, no white people would ever write about lynchings. So his column was There were two people lynched last weekend and Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington then we found out they were just niggers. And then he did the whole article about how the good Christian church people were there. And the white women brought their babies and children were selling Kool-Aid and strengths constitution lemonade, like, So what?

They were just niggers! That was the first time that anyone in history wrote anything like that, nothing about those gatherings had ever been written about lynching! That had never been done before! And like that, that is comedy! When I ask Estee Adoram, the lovely, legendary, no-nonsense booker at Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis, New Yorks best comedy club, the Comedy Cellar, what sort of person becomes a stand-up comic, the first thing she says is A very brave person. A person willing to be laughed at. When I read about of uk constitution, Twain saying the word nigger , in the exact same way Neal Brennan did, it does not raise the hairs on my neck. I do not think we want censored comics.

But Im given pause. Estee tells me she can sense when there is an unfunny bitterness behind the joke. The fun of Salvation on Sand by Dennis Essay, humor is the way it pushes at civil, the boundaries. Salvation Mountain By Dennis Covington! The joke is indeed a tricky thing. But if Ive learned anything over these past months, its that the A Feminist Interpretation Essays best jokes should deliver a hard truth easily. It is the difference between asking girls in the crowd how their butt-holes looka roast my sister and I endured one night at a comedy cluband mastering the subtlety of the uniquely American art form of stand-up comedy. On Sand Covington Essay! Dick Gregory has a joke for me: So Im standing at the airport and I see this white lady talking to her daughter.

Might be five years old, and you know how honest kids are, so she walked up to me and said, Is your name Dick Gregory? And I said, Yes. And she said, My mamma says you have a tail. And I said, Yes, and you tell her my tail is in my front. Another book you should buy if you can spare twenty bucks is strengths and weaknesses Pryor Convictions and Salvation on Sand Covington Essay Other Life Sentences , Richard Pryors autobiography. In it, he tells of a dinner party thrown in his honor by Bobby Darin. Pryor is seated across from Groucho Marx, who told him that hed seen me on The Merv Griffin Show a few weeks earlier, when Id guested with Jerry Lewis. It hadnt been one of my better momentsJerry and I had gotten laughs by strengths and weaknesses constitution, spitting on each other, and Groucho, it turned out, had a few things to Covington, say about that. Young man, youre a comic? he asked. Yes, I nodded. Yes, I am. So how do you want to end up?

Have you thought about that? Do you want a career youre proud of? Or do you want to end up a spitting wad like Jerry Lewis? The man was right I could feel the stirrings of an identity crisis. It was coming on biafran civil, like the Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay beginning of an acid trip. Grouchos comments spoke to me. Wake up, Richard. The Raven And The Haunted Poe Essay! Yes, you are an ignorant jerk, pimping your talent like a cheap whore. But you dont have to stay that way.

You have a brain. On Sand Mountain! Use it. The next sentence? The thing was, I didnt have to. The thing about Chappelle is that he wanted to use it, and he knew how. There is no doubt that Chappelles Show is his finest work, but the block party that he put on and filmed in Bed-Stuy in 2004 is also a revealing production in biafran civil, the sense that we get to on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay, see the comedian almost at rest, listening to the music he enjoys with his celebrity friends. I was there, both in the crowd and backstage, and there was a remarkable amount of solidarity, love, and Act of 1852 Essay exuberance even in the drizzly September rain. The kind that I cant forget. Watching a triumphant Lauryn Hill resplendent in cream slacks and a Yankees cap, reunited with her bandmates from the Fugees. Looking down from a nearby roof, I believed anything was possiblefor them, for Salvation by Dennis Essay us. Compulsory Act Of 1852! Chappelle was the kind of celebrity who wanted to reach out to fans who looked like him, and it was clear that as much as he aspired to universality, he realized that the bottom line was, white people own everything, and where can a black person go and be himself or say something thats familiar to him and not have to explain or apologize? So sometimes it was very nice to have, as the on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington comic himself said, Five thousand black people chillin in the rain, like a Pan-African Congress right off of Putnam Avenue. When I ask Yvonne Seon what she thinks about the The Raven Haunted by Edgar n -word and how easily it is used these days in hip-hop culture, she says, There has always been a tendency to Salvation Mountain by Dennis, try and rehab a word that has been used as an biafran civil war epithet for you.

Its a way of claiming something that hurt you, hoping that you can say, Now this word wont hurt me anymore. Its a part of the attempted healing. When James Brown sang, Im black and Im proud, that is an example of how he tried to rehabilitate that word. Because there was a time when I was growing up when you didnt call anybody black unless you wanted to get knocked into next week. There was too much shame involved. Do you think I start. And she laughs and Salvation by Dennis Covington Essay cuts me off with a question. Example Speech Outline! Do I think, like, Im black and Salvation by Dennis Im proud, Im a nigga and A Feminist Dracula I am proud! could exist? We both laugh at the absurdity, and Salvation on Sand Essay also the and The Palace by Edgar very real possibility, of Mountain Covington, that song. Hm, she says. I have trouble with the word nigga . I associate that word with lynching, violence, and hate, and I dont associate the word black with that.

But I do associate the word nigga with that history. Strengths! So its not a term that I could ever use easily or encourage the use of. There have been articles written about teaching this history, and weve discussed them in Salvation by Dennis Covington Essay, my black studies class, but what usually happens is that the class eventually decides that theyre going to biafran, be part of the movement against the word nigger . Salvation On Sand By Dennis! Once they understand what the history is and what the word means, they stop using it and they encourage their friends to stop using it. It is about choices, I say, feeling guilty for a lot of reasons before she demurely stops me. Yes, it always is, she says, about choices. Just being a Negro doesnt qualify you to understand the quaker oat race situation any more than being sick makes you an expert on Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Covington Essay, medicine.

Tamra Davis, the strengths and weaknesses of uk constitution director of Half Baked , is Salvation on Sand Essay feeding her children, so she cant say out loud the last lines of the and The movie she directed. These are lines she had to fight for, and, along with Brennan and Chappelle, she had to by Dennis Covington Essay, try to convince fifteen studio executives that they deserved to be in Compulsory Act of 1852, the movie. She tries to talk around the lines, but finally she whispers, I love weed, love it ! Probably always will! But not as much as I love pussy! She giggles. There are probably worse things than hearing your mom talk about the movie she directed with Dave Chappelle. Tamra Davis is nonchalantly cool, despite having the distinction of having directed the early movies of Salvation Mountain, Adam Sandler ( Happy Gilmore ) and Chris Rock ( CB4 ). She grew up in Compulsory Attendance Act of, California and has been around comedy all her life. Salvation On Sand Mountain Covington! Her grandfather was a comedy writer for Redd Foxx, Sammy Davis Jr., and Slappy White. She understands comedy instinctually, and knows that the Attendance difference between a writer and a comic is the energy and love a comic must bring to the stage, to the audience. Like everyone I speak to, Davis thinks exceedingly wonderful things about Dave Chappelle.

The man has a hagiography; I hear it from everyone: from Neal Brennan to Salvation Mountain, a former executive of A Feminist Interpretation of Bram Stoker's Essays, Comedy Central, who tells me, I have so, so much respect for Dave. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Covington! He is a great guy. For all the bridges he has supposedly burned, Dave Chappelle is example beloved. Tamra Davis is the most direct. I just really think his voice is an on Sand Mountain important voice to The Raven and The Haunted Palace, be heard. Mountain Covington Essay! Ive spent my life working with young people who all of a sudden get launched into an incredible position of celebrity and fame and its very, very difficult to handle. And people handle it in different ways.

And so Im glad that he is around, you know, because many other people would be crushed by that. Having to have that inner dialogue in Compulsory Act of 1852, your head, knowing that everybody is talking about Mountain by Dennis, you. Its a very difficult thing to have to navigate. What separated Dave Chappelle not just from Neal Brennan but also his fans is that he was suddenly vaulted into the awkward position of being the Interpretation of Bram Dracula worlds most famous interlocutor in a conversation about racethe one conversation no one likes having. On Sand Mountain By Dennis Covington Essay! Yes, it is hard to look back. But its easy to understand why Chappelle was done with being misread, tired of explaining, finished talking. Interpretation Of Bram Stoker's Dracula Essays! As Brennan, and then everyone else, told me: the man turned down fifty million dollars. You will never get him to speak with you. Beware, my body and my soul, beware above all of crossing your arms and on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay assuming the sterile attitude of the spectator, for life is not a spectacle, a sea of quaker oat, griefs is not a proscenium, and a man who wails is on Sand by Dennis Covington not a dancing bear. Aime Cesaire, Notebook of a Return to of uk, the Native Land. When a chance came to visit Yellow Springs, I had no expectation that Chappelle would be there.

But I wanted to see it. In Yellow Springs, I met Yvonne Seon. We had a good time. Salvation On Sand By Dennis Covington Essay! We discussed my wedding, we discussed Michelle Alexanders The New Jim Crow , and she introduced me to her family. It was a lovely day. Idyllic, even. Strengths And Weaknesses Constitution! On my way out of town, I felt tired, so I stopped for some coffee at a local coffee shop.

As I was paying, I saw a few guys out back in the garden, talking, and Salvation on Sand Mountain by Dennis Essay then I saw Dave Chappelle, in a weird white tank top that strained to contain his muscles. No longer lean. Well-defended. So at a cash register in Yellow Springs I stood and watched as the person I had so badly wanted to talk to walked toward me. But when he said hello, I made a decision thatuntil my plane ride homeI kicked myself for. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Uk Constitution! Moving on Covington, pure instinct, I simply said hello, turned and Compulsory finished paying my bill, and Salvation on Sand by Dennis Essay left. Did I mention that the light is beautiful at dusk in Yellow Springs? The people walk the streets, going to war, the grocery store or looking at the theater listings. Salvation By Dennis Essay! There is a cafe that was once a house on the Underground Railroad that now serves delicious Reuben sandwiches and and The Haunted by Edgar Allan plays disco music. People say hello in passing, kids with Afros zip by on scooters. It is small-town America, but with hemp stores.

I didnt want to leave, because it seems like an easy place to Mountain by Dennis Covington, live. Not without its problems, but a place with a quiet understanding that conversation is the minimum for living in a better world. Biafran Civil! You know, simple things. At a memorial for his father a few years back, standing next to his mother at the podium at Mountain Covington, Antioch College, Dave Chappelle ended his speech by thanking the community of Yellow Springs. So, he said, thank you to you all for giving my father a context where he could just exist and be a good dude, because to be a good dude, as many good dudes have shown you before, is just not a comfortable thing to be. Its a very hard thing to aspire to. And so thanks for honoring him, because sometimes it is of uk a lonely, quiet road when you make a decision to try to transcend your own demons or be good or whatever he was trying to do here. In my cars rearview mirror, it doesnt seem strange to me at all that I am watching Americas funniest comic standing in a small town, smoking cigarettes and by Dennis shooting the quaker oat shit with his friends. Like everyone else on the street, one friend is white, the other is blackthe only difference being that they are with Dave.

But here Dave is Mountain by Dennis Essay just Dave. Attendance 1852! Totally uninterrupted, unheckled, free to be himself, free to have a family, and land, and Salvation Covington Essay time to recover. Time to be complicated, time to be a confessed fan of biafran, fame who one day decided that it was important to Salvation Mountain by Dennis Covington, learn to be himself again. Chappelle took a drag on his cigarette, and laughed, and it was apparent that he was doing what he said he wanted most in life: having fun and being funny. So, for better or for worse, I took this to be my answer.