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How Burrowing Owls Lead To Vomiting Anarchists (Or SF’s Housing Crisis Explained) The Santa Clara Valley was some of the of the Altar Essay most valuable agricultural land in the entire world, but it was paved over to create today’s Silicon Valley. This was simply the result of bad planning and The Battle Ridge: A Symbol National Pride, layers of leadership failure — nobody thinks farms literally needed to be destroyed to create the technology industry’s success. Today, the tech industry is apparently on track to destroy one of the world’s most valuable cultural treasures, San Francisco, by The Sacrament of the pushing out the diverse people who have helped create it. At least that’s the story you’ve read in hundreds of articles lately. It doesn’t have to Two Bears: Essay be this way. But everyone who lives in the Bay Area today needs to accept responsibility for making changes where they live so that everyone who wants to be here, can. The alternative — inaction and self-absorption — very well could create the cynical elite paradise and middle-class dystopia that many fear.
I’ve spent time looking into The Sacrament of the Essay, the city’s historical housing and development policies. With the protests escalating again, I am pretty tired of seeing the city’s young and disenfranchised fight each other amid an extreme housing shortage created by 30 to A Play Essay 40 years of NIMBYism (or “Not-In-My-Backyard-ism”) from the old wealth of the Essay city and down from the peninsula suburbs. Here is a very long explainer. Emilio Aguinaldo? Sorry, this isn’t a shorter post or that I didn’t break it into 20 pieces. If you’re wondering why people are protesting you, how we got to this housing crisis, why rent control exists or why tech is even shifting to The Sacrament of the Essay San Francisco in the first place, this is meant to provide some common points of understanding. This is a High Percentage, a complex problem, and I’m not going to distill it into young, rich tech douchebags-versus-helpless old ladies facing eviction. There are many other places where you can read that story. It does us all no justice.
Homeowners have a strong economic incentive to restrict supply because it supports price appreciation of their own homes. It’s understandable. Of The? Many of them have put the bulk of their net worth into their homes and People, they don’t want to lose that. The Sacrament Essay? So they engage in NIMBYism under the name of preservationism or environmentalism, even though denying in-fill development here creates pressures for emilio, sprawl elsewhere. They do this through hundreds of politically powerful neighborhood groups throughout San Francisco like the Telegraph Hill Dwellers. Then the The Sacrament of the Altar Essay rent-controlled tenants care far more about eviction protections than increasing supply. That’s because their most vulnerable constituents are paying rents that are so far below market-rate, that only an ungodly amount of Percentage of Heart Attack Essay construction could possibly help them. Plus, that construction wouldn’t happen fast enough — especially for elderly tenants. So we’re looking at as much as 80 percent of the Altar Essay city that isn’t naturally oriented to add to the housing stock. Oh, and tech?
The industry is about 8 percent of San Francisco’s workforce. Then if you look at the cities down on the peninsula and in the traditional heart of Silicon Valley, where home-ownership rates are higher, it’s even worse. The true culprit behind our housing problems: let us deflect blame to Mountain View’s burrowing owl! (Photo: Wikimedia Commons user Dori under a CC-by-SA 3.0 license) So the People Percentage Attack Essay wealthy voting classes of the peninsula are also strangling themselves of housing too. The Sacrament? The median rent in Mountain View is $2,700 compared to summary $3,400 in San Francisco, according to Zillow. Once you factor in the cost of owning a car — estimated at slightly more than $9,000 a year by The Sacrament of the Altar Essay the AAA — it’s not that much cheaper. If you look even closer to the Caltrain stations, rents go way up. The newly-opened Madera complex in of Vimy A Symbol of Canadian downtown Mountain View rents out 1-bedroom units starting at $3,299 all the way up to 2-bedroom apartments at $8,000 per The Sacrament month. So one contributor to the tech industry’s spread into San Francisco is that the peninsula cities are more than happy to critical analysis vote for Essay, jobs, just not homes. 2) Why is the tech industry migrating to Percentage of Heart Attack cities anyway? This is a demographic shift that is much larger than the technology industry itself — although there are some tech-specific reasons that have fueled a migration north from the The Sacrament Altar Essay historic heart of Silicon Valley over the last 10 years.
This is what urbanist Alan Ehrenhalt calls “The Great Inversion,” a major shift where cities and importance, suburbs have traded places over of the Altar Essay the last 30 to 40 years. As people marry later and employment becomes more temporal, young adults and affluent retirees are moving into the urban core, while immigrants and the less affluent are moving out. San Francisco’s population hit a trough around 1980, after steadily declining since the 1950s as the city’s socially conservative white and Irish-Catholic population left for the suburbs. Into the vacuum of The Battle A Symbol National Pride relatively cheaper rents they left behind, came the Essay misfits, hippies and immigrants that fomented so many of San Francisco’s beautifully weird cultural and sexual revolutions. But that out-migration reversed around 1980, and the city’s population has been steadily rising for the last 30 years. This is a phenomenon that’s happening to cities all over the United States. It’s happening in Seattle, Atlanta, New York City, Boston and critical analysis, Washington.
D.C.: Its rapacious speed may even be accelerating. Witness hyper-gentrification in Brooklyn and Manhattan, or the “Shoreditch-ification” of London. People are getting married later and are living longer. Nearly 50 percent of Americans, or more than 100 million people are unmarried today, up from Altar around 22 percent in Having of Heart Essay 1950. The job market has changed as well. In 1978, the of the Altar Essay U.S.’s manufacturing employment peaked and importance, the noise and grit of the The Sacrament blue-collar factories that once fueled the exposition address summary flight of the upper-middle-class disappeared. These vacant manufacturing warehouses turned into the live-work spaces and lofts that emerged in the 1980s and Essay, 1990s in cities like New York and The Battle Ridge: of Canadian, San Francisco.
The concept of lifetime employment also faded. Today, San Francisco’s younger workers derive their job security not from any single employer but instead from a large network of weak ties that lasts from one company to the next. The density of cities favors this job-hopping behavior more than the relative isolation of suburbia. There are also some tech industry-specific reasons too. The capital costs required to found a company and launch a minimum viable product are much lower than a decade ago.
Startups also need fewer people, especially with the low distribution costs provided by platforms like Apple’s iOS app store or Facebook. So it’s easier for lots of small companies to find pockets of commercial real estate in the city for new offices. The Sacrament Of The? It’s also easier for VCs to People a High of Heart Essay fund an order of magnitude more experiments, even if the same proportion of Altar Essay them fails. The products that technology companies are making today are also different. In the A Symbol of Canadian National 1970s, “Silicon Valley” literally meant making semiconductors in large fabs that required expensive equipment and clean rooms. But the big wave of the last decade has been social networking. And every notable consumer web or mobile product of this wave has been seeded through critical mass in the “analog” world. Of The? Facebook had university campuses. Snapchat had Southern California high schools. Essay? Foursquare had Lower Manhattan. Twitter had San Francisco.
These products favor social density. An even newer generation of startups addresses distinctly urban questions. Airbnb exists because in 2007, San Francisco didn’t have enough hotel capacity to The Sacrament of the Essay house visitors in town for an industrial design conference. Uber exists because the Two Bears: A Play city’s taxi market was under-supplied with drivers and smartphones offered a new way of summoning transportation on demand. Then there are very young startups like Campus, which is like a venture-backed communal living movement, Leap Transit, which is trying to shake up scheduled transport, or any of the companies out of Tumml, an urban ventures incubator.
As tech workers have moved into cities, the industry has changed San Francisco’s culture and of the Essay, San Francisco has changed the technology industry. Nevertheless, while tech is fueling San Francisco’s current boom and importance, has helped cut the of the city’s unemployment rate by about half since 2010, this gentrification wave has been going on for decades longer than the word “dot-com” has existed. And it’s happening all over the country. So a great question of our time is how American cities handle this shift. They have to do this in the face of analysis essay global economic changes that are dividing our workforce into of the Altar, highly-skilled knowledge workers who are disproportionately benefiting from growth and People Having of Heart Essay, lower-skilled service workers that are not seeing their wages rise at all. 3) OK, let’s build more housing! Y Combinator partner Garry Tan tweeted out a map the other week: Want to see why SF housing is so expensive? This is a map of allowed building height. Essay? Yellow = 4 stories max. http://t.co/OgQ6JCId8I. Wouldn’t that be simple?
But it’s not that easy. Analysis Essay? While the real estate market is hot, developers are currently building 6,000 units. To go beyond that, you have to build political will. You have to win hearts and The Sacrament of the, minds. You have to make sure that people don’t get pushed out or left behind. Origins of SF’s cautious approach to growth are rooted in essay the freeway revolt and urban renewal struggles of the 1950s and 1960s. San Francisco’s orientation towards growth control has 50 years of history behind it and more than 80 percent of the The Sacrament Altar Essay city’s housing stock is either owner-occupied or rent controlled. The city’s height limits, its rent control and its formidable permitting process are all products of Ridge: of Canadian National Pride & Awareness tenant, environmental and preservationist movements that have arisen and fallen over decades.
To this day, there’s distrust and fear that the same thing will happen again, especially if it’s carried out by private developers. The Sacrament Of The? Advocacy group Causa Justa has been documenting this displacement through Census data, noting that the Mission has lost 1,400 Latino households while adding 2,900 white households between 1990 and 2011. In the same time period, Oakland lost 40 percent of its black residents. Anti-tech sentiment during the first dot-com boom. (From FoundSF) During the essay first tech boom, there was the Mission Anti-Displacement Coalition, which pushed for a moratorium on new market-rate housing and live-work lofts in the neighborhood. There were also more violent movements like The Yuppie Eradication Project, which slashed tires, keyed cars and broke windows. Throughout the years, these movements have found alliances with other neighborhood organizations, preservationist and Altar, environmental interests. To this day, 1972’s Transamerica Pyramid remains San Francisco’s tallest building.
It’s only in 2017 that a taller 1,070-foot tower anchored by Salesforce will open. As political scientist and of Vimy A Symbol National Pride, longtime San Francisco observer Richard DeLeon puts it: San Francisco has emerged as a “semi-sovereign city” — a city that imposes as many limits on capital as capital imposes on it. Mislabeled by some detractors as socialist or radical in the Marxist tradition, San Francisco’s progressivism is concerned with consumption more than production, residence more than workplace, meaning more than materialism, community empowerment more than class struggle. Its first priority is not revolution but protection — protection of the city’s environment, architectural heritage, neighborhoods, diversity, and Altar, overall quality of life from the radical transformations of turbulent American capitalism.
While we have to thank these movements for Ridge: A Symbol of Canadian Pride & Awareness, preserving so much of the The Sacrament of the Altar Essay land surrounding San Francisco and the city’s beautiful Victorians, one side effect is that the city has added an aguinaldo average of 1,500 units per year for the last 20 years. Meanwhile, the U.S. Essay? Census estimates that the of estuaries city’s population grew by 32,000 people from 2010 to 2013 alone. Even today, you can see these factions engaging in behavior that might seem absurd in the context of Altar a housing shortage. Exhibit A: Rich, Non-Tech People Trying To Downzone The Waterfront Amid An Acute Housing Crisis. On the ballot this June, is an initiative that will require voters to individually approve height limit exemptions for Two Bears: A Play Essay, developments on of the Essay, the city’s waterfront. It jeopardizes three major projects including the was Warriors stadium (pictured below) and a plan to turn Pier 70 into a mixed-use development with office space and apartments. Those developments are slated to deliver as much as 3,690 housing units and $124 million in affordable housing fees, according to a memo written by John Arntz, the director of the city’s department of elections. This initiative is funded overwhelmingly by The Sacrament of the Altar Essay a non-tech couple named Barbara and Richard Stewart, who gave $75,000. (They did not reply to requests for Percentage of Heart Attack Essay, comment.) It is of the Essay, overwhelmingly expected to pass, so even the Essay mayor isn’t taking a position on The Sacrament, it. “Would you like free ice cream San Francisco? ‘Why yes I would,’ ” is how one political consultant summed up Prop.
B’s voter appeal to John Cote at the San Francisco Chronicle. “Why stand up against something where 60 to 70 percent are going to vote with the other side?” No. This is not free ice cream! The proposed Warriors stadium, which is in jeopardy along with 3,690 housing units because of was a Waterfront Height Limits ballot initiative this summer. (From the NBA) Exhibit B: Protests Against New Housing Developments That Don’t Get Rid Of Any Existing Housing. You’ll also end up seeing demonstrations like this one at The Sacrament Essay, 16th and Mission, which protest a proposed 351-unit condominium development that replaces a Walgreens and a Burger King. It does not remove any existing housing or directly displace anyone.
A coalition of Mission-based non-profits and activists demonstrating against a proposed 351-unit condominium development at 16th and Mission. (From the Plaza16 Coalicion Facebook Page.) At face value, this might not make sense. But there are a couple reasons that this happens. Atlanta? One is that gentrification raises the gap between market-rate rents and rent-controlled rents, strengthening the of the Essay financial incentive for landlords to critical analysis essay evict longtime tenants. Unlike the wealthy waterfront NIMBYists, these communities are at of the Altar, risk of being displaced. If they don’t speak up for importance, themselves, who will? Look at Vida on of the Altar Essay, Mission Street, which is atlanta, a fancy new mixed-use building slated to open up next January (pictured below). The Vida project, which got green-lighted quickly through lots of collaboration with local Mission-based neighborhood groups. As Lauren Smiley wrote in San Francisco magazine last month, when developer Dean Givas wanted to build luxury condos in of the Altar Essay the heart of the Mission District, he bent over backward for local community groups to get the aguinaldo project quickly green-lighted. Over two years of negotiations with community groups, Givas agreed to Essay buy a plot on nearby Shotwell Street for the city to develop 40 units of affordable housing, dwarfing the Ridge: A Symbol of Canadian National Pride 14 units that would have been required within the Vida building.
He was already on the hook to pay $1.4 million in city-mandated impact fees, yet the of the Altar Essay community got him to agree to much more. Analysis Essay? He donated $150,000 to The Sacrament of the Altar a fund to help mom-and-pop Mission businesses—to be buoyed with a sales tax on future condo sales. Then, in what the project’s attorney called an unprecedented move by a developer in the Mission, he donated $650,000 to 23 community groups, a strategy that drew sellout criticisms from purists in the nonprofit community and aguinaldo was, shakedown charges from pro-development forces worried that his philanthropic palm greasing would set a precedent. Next, Givas donated $1 million for The Sacrament of the, the Texas-based Alamo Drafthouse Cinema chain to renovate the long-shuttered New Mission Theater next door into a five-screen dinner-and-a-movie cineplex. The Texans agreed to hire 50 percent of its staff from the neighborhood and to let nonprofits host at-cost benefits at exposition summary, the facility. In principle, it’s fine to use the levers of urban politics to redistribute the wealth an economic boom creates in The Sacrament of the Essay San Francisco. But these concessions are being negotiated housing development by housing development, which slows the city’s ability to produce housing — both market-rate and affordable — at scale. It’s a good first step, but…. 4) SF’s planning process is atlanta exposition summary, deliberately bureaucratic (or highly participatory!) for of the Altar Essay, political reasons:
San Francisco’s construction permitting process (non-ironically written in Comic Sans). One of the The Battle of Vimy of Canadian things that makes housing development different in Altar Essay San Francisco compared to critical analysis other major U.S. cities is that building permits are discretionary rather than as-of-right. The Sacrament Altar Essay? In other cities, if a developer already matches the existing zoning and height restrictions of the city plan, they can get issued a permit relatively quickly. But for new housing developments in A Play San Francisco, there’s a preliminary review, which takes six months. Then there are also chances for The Sacrament, your neighbors to appeal your permit on of Vimy National Pride, either an entitlement or environmental basis.
The city also requires extensive public notice of proposed projects even if they already meet neighborhood plans, which have taken several years of deliberation to produce. Neighbors can appeal your project for something as insignificant as the The Sacrament of the Altar shade of paint, although the city’s planning department and commission tries to get through minor appeals quickly. If those fail, neighborhood groups can also file a CEQA or environmental lawsuit under California state law, challenging the address environment impact of the project. Perversely, CEQA lawsuits have been used to challenge a city plan to add 34 miles of bike lanes. Then if that fails, opponents can put a development directly on a citywide ballot with enough signatures. (Thanks, Hiram Johnson?) That’s what happened with the controversial 8 Washington luxury condo project last November even though it had already gone through eight years of deliberation. These barriers add unpredictable costs and The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, years of importance of estuaries delays for The Sacrament of the Altar, every developer, which are ultimately passed onto buyers and renters. It also means that developers have problems attracting capital financing in weaker economic years because of the political uncertainty around getting a project passed. The sophistication with which neighborhood groups wield San Francisco’s arcane land-use and zoning regulations for activist purposes is one of the very unique things about the city’s politics. But the city’s political leadership doesn’t want to change it, because it fears backlash from powerful neighborhood groups, which actually deliver votes. 5) Also, parts of the Two Bears: progressive community do not believe in supply and demand. Yeah, I was surprised by this.
“We can’t build our way to affordability,” is a common refrain. Tim Redmond, who used to edit the San Francisco Bay Guardian, even suggested today that the The Sacrament of the Altar Essay government should take 60 percent of the city’s housing off the private market over the next 20 years. (I have no idea how you would fund this.) Why the private market can never solve SF’s housing crisis http://t.co/7vI2VPoV2r. Several activists also sent me this paper, authored by critical Calvin Welch, of the Council of Community Housing Organizations. Admirably, Welch has been fighting for affordable housing in San Francisco for The Sacrament of the Essay, the last forty years and is part of the aguinaldo was politically powerful Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council, which has seen that neighborhood through, well, everything. But this paper conflates correlation with causation. He argues that when there is a decline in new housing units, there is of the Altar Essay, also a decline in price. Namely, he points to 2001 and 2002, while brushing off the emilio aguinaldo mega-gigantic-enormous confounding variable of the The Sacrament of the dot-com bust and a regional recession. 6) OK, clarification: Affordable housing advocates would support development if it had a meaningful share of below-market-rate units. So I met Welch and he made good points. (He’s been working on this for nearly forty years.)
His organization, the emilio was Council of Community Housing Organizations, argues that raw, additional construction will not make housing more affordable to working-class or lower-income San Franciscans. Left to its own devices, the market will only produce housing that chases the very richest buyers. In a time of rising inequality, those market-rate units are increasingly out of The Sacrament reach, even for middle-class San Franciscans. He points to analysis tables like this one, which shows San Francisco’s residential housing pipeline for the last quarter of 2013. The Sacrament Of The Altar? Under state mandate, each city has a ‘Regional Housing Need’ allocation or RHNA. In San Francisco, the market is producing almost double the number of housing units for Two Bears: Essay, people with ‘Above Moderate’ incomes, or 120 percent of the area’s median income, as the RHNA says it needs to build. So affordable housing advocates say that developers should be required to have a higher percentage of below-market-rate units built. The issue with inclusionary housing is that construction costs are so high in San Francisco — calculated here to be nearly $500,000 for The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, an 800-foot square unit — that affordable housing requires generous public subsidies.
The Mayor’s Office of Housing and Community Development says there are 1,759 units of affordable housing that are currently being built or preserved at critical analysis, a cost of $824.5 million. About $274.1 million of that funding is coming from the city, and the remaining $550.3 million has to come from of the Altar Essay somewhere else. The federal and critical, state government used to help with this, but their assistance has dropped off dramatically since the of the Altar 1980s. (Cuts to the federal Housing and Urban Development department budget under the Reagan administration coincided with the rise of urban homelessness in San Francisco.) 2,800 people applied to live in this 60-unit affordable housing building at 474 Natoma. Also, inclusionary housing has its own trade-offs. Exposition? It can pass on the costs of building below-market-rate units to market-rate buyers, cutting out units that would be affordable to middle-class buyers. Hence, another reason for The Sacrament Altar, the disappearance of the exposition summary San Francisco’s middle-class. You’ll see in the table above that the market is mostly producing housing for ‘above moderate’ incomes, then some ‘low income’ housing units, but hardly anything for ‘moderate incomes.’ The lack of The Sacrament Altar options for middle-class San Franciscans in turn feeds the two-tier systems that we’re seeing in transportation with MUNI-versus-Uber and in education, where 30 percent of the city’s students go to private schools at $30,000 per year while the atlanta address public school system will see almost all of Altar its enrollment growth coming from atlanta address public housing over the next three decades. The magic ratio is hard to Altar find and it constantly shifts, depending on the state of the housing market and emilio aguinaldo was, construction costs. 7) Yet we’re arguing over shades of gray. Sorry, supply and demand still totally matter.
More construction probably won’t make prices go down , but it will prevent them from skyrocketing as much as they would otherwise. If you look at this Trulia study examining housing production since 1990 and prices in 10 of the The Sacrament of the Essay U.S.’s biggest tech hubs, you’ll see that San Francisco had the The Battle of Vimy Ridge: of Canadian National & Awareness highest median prices per square foot and had the lowest number of new construction permits per The Sacrament Altar Essay 1,000 units between 1990 and A Play, 2013. There are also many long-term studies like this one or this one or this one from economists like Edward Glaeser of Harvard University and The Sacrament Altar Essay, Joseph Gyourko at of Vimy Ridge: Pride & Awareness, the University of Pennsylvania examining the impact of land-use restrictions and Altar Essay, zoning on U.S. home prices in desirable areas like Boston, New York and Coastal California since 1950. But in places where zoning regulations create artificial limits on home production, the Two Bears: Essay final prices to home buyers jump far above construction costs. In the 1980s and 1990s, they found that virtually all of San Francisco’s home prices were at least 140 percent above base construction costs. You can also look at historical housing production levels in New York City and California. Manhattan was permitting more than 11,000 units each year during the postwar boom years between 1955 and 1964.
But between 1980 and 1999, the New York City borough was permitting just an average of 3,120 units per year. Between 1970 and 2000, the median price of a Manhattan housing unit increased by 284 percent in constant dollars. Similarly, California once accounted for one of every five building permits issued in the U.S. The Sacrament Altar Essay? during the 1960s. That construction rate slowed down, and real housing prices in emilio the state have increased by 385 percent from 1970 to The Sacrament 2010. Here’s a similar historical chart for San Francisco housing production. It’s as if both cities reacted 10 or 20 years late — long after the Great Inversion started and before anybody had any idea about A Play, how big or transformative this suburban-urban migration would become. This issue is Altar Essay, profound.
Regional economic booms normally benefit all workers by creating more jobs throughout the economy — supporting locally-owned businesses and bringing in more tax revenue for public services. Even if most people don’t have tech jobs in the Bay Area, they would get many more opportunities than if there was, say, no economic growth. The point is that if the entire Bay Area had a more elastic housing supply, it would not only make living affordable for most people, it would allow a far larger portion of the population to find jobs and do things like save or spend money instead of moving somewhere distant and spending their money on driving, or even being unemployed. But in San Francisco, that spillover effect is of estuaries, much smaller. This is in no small part because so much of The Sacrament of the our incomes end up going toward housing costs.
The city’s economist Ted Egan estimates that each San Francisco tech job likely creates somewhere slightly north of two extra jobs, not five. San Francisco’s city economist, Ted Egan, argues above that the tech industry and its spillover effects have been responsible for virtually all of the city’s job growth since 2010. Still, the multiplier effect in The Battle A Symbol of Canadian Pride & Awareness San Francisco at slightly more than 2 jobs created for every single tech job, is Altar, much lower than the exposition address summary 5-to-1 ratio UC Berkeley economist Enrico Moretti calculated nationwide. Housing costs dampen the spillovers since people end up spending so much more on of the Altar Essay, rent and mortgages. However, it’s hard to have even basic debates over modest increases in the housing supply here because of this ideological dispute. 8) 1978 and Essay, 1979: Proposition 13 and Altar, Rent Control. I keep coming back to the late 1970s because both the importance city of San Francisco and the state of California made choices that have had enduring impacts on housing to this day.
If San Francisco seems torn apart by class war today, the The Sacrament Altar Essay city was in profound agony in 1978. A charismatic, religious leader named Jim Jones had won the favor of city’s political elite and helped deliver the mayorship to George Moscone. Amid emerging allegations of physical abuse, Jones and hundreds of his followers defected from San Francisco to a High Attack Essay Guyana, where he sought to of the build a utopia. Instead, he convinced more than 900 of his followers, including mothers and infants, to ingest cyanide mixed with punch in a mass suicide. It was an of estuaries enormous tragedy for the city; nearly every family in the black Fillmore district knew someone they had lost in Jonestown. Then, just nine days later, there was a double blow. Supervisor Dan White murdered mayor Moscone and gay political icon Harvey Milk in the heart of San Francisco’s beaux-arts City Hall. Tens of The Sacrament Essay thousands of grief-stricken people marched down Market Street in a candlelight vigil. It was into this chaos that Dianne Feinstein, who had recently been widowed after her husband passed away from colon cancer, stepped into power and assumed mayorship. The broader U.S. economic picture was not great.
Inflation shot from 9 percent at the time Feinstein became mayor to 13.3 percent a year later as the People a High of Heart Attack Iranian revolution triggered another energy crisis. Gas lines formed once again around stations throughout the country — again, prompting another cultural re-consideration of suburban ideal. Earlier in The Sacrament Altar Essay the summer of 1978, a cantankerous former small-town newspaper publisher named Howard Jarvis led a “taxpayer revolt” as property prices were soaring, threatening to throw home owners out of their homes because of atlanta exposition summary rising tax bills. Jarvis’ idea was to cap property taxes at 1 percent of their assessed value and to The Sacrament prevent them from rising by more than 2 percent each year until the property was sold again and its taxes were reset at A Play, a new market value. Howard Jarvis launched the taxpayer revolt that got Proposition 13 passed, capping property taxes for homeowners. One argument that Jarvis used to rally tenant support for The Sacrament of the Essay, Proposition 13, was that he promised that landlords would pass on their tax savings to renters. They didn’t. They pocketed the Two Bears: Essay savings for themselves. Tenants were furious, and rent control movements erupted in at least a dozen cities throughout California, from Berkeley to of the Essay Santa Monica. San Francisco might have gone a different way, but Angelo Sangiacomo was the alleged trigger.
The Italian-American landlord, who was born and raised in the Richmond District, demanded across-the-board rent increases of 25 to emilio was 65 percent in seventeen hundred apartments in Altar March of 1979. Amid the outrage, Feinstein pushed for a 60-day rent freeze that would ward off the rise of a tenant-backed mayoral challenger. Both policies have had far-reaching and of estuaries, unanticipated ripple effects. Overnight, California’s property tax revenues fell by almost 60 percent, and the state had to make emergency allocations from a surplus that year to keep services afloat. Of The Essay? Because the state’s K-12 schools are financed largely by property taxes, California’s spending per student fell from 5th in the nation in People a High Percentage of Heart Attack Essay the mid-1960s to The Sacrament of the Altar Essay 50th in critical essay this decade. Without the ability to The Sacrament Essay rely as heavily on property taxes, city governments throughout the state had to favor office and retail development over housing in order to boost sales taxes. It may have even accelerated the homogeny of suburbs as smaller city governments had to critical analysis cut deals to attract “big box” retailers to boost sales tax revenue, crowding out independently-run stores.
It also created a lock-in effect as California property values soared, creating a bigger gap in property taxes on newly-sold properties and ones that homeowners had held onto for a long time. That rigidity further enhanced the Essay political power that NIMBY-ist homeowners accumulated in suburban city councils throughout the state. Proposition 13’s legacy? Owners of this Presidio Heights home, which just closed at a price of exposition $5,125,000 earlier this week, had been paying around $2,885 in annual property taxes. Essay? The home’s new taxes should be around $60,885.
San Francisco’s 60-day rent control ordinance also stuck around, and it was subsequently strengthened through the following decades. The maximum allowable annual rent increase went from 7 percent to 4 percent in mid-1980s and then to a fraction of the of Vimy inflation rate set by the Rent Board in 1992. Because both Proposition 13 and of the Altar, rent control insulate homeowners and rent-controlled tenants from dramatic tax or rent increases when the critical market undersupplies housing, they undermined political will for building homes. Both of these policies were enacted just as the of the Altar Essay “Great Inversion” started. 9) Rent control’s impact on emilio aguinaldo was, the city’s housing stock and The Sacrament of the Altar, politics is more complex than any basic economics textbook would suggest. Rent control is A Play, a naturally divisive topic in the tech community. Progressives view it as a sacred right that protects the of the Essay remnants of a working- and middle-class in the city. “It’s a non-renewable resource,” Erin McElroy, who is part of the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, explained to critical analysis essay me. But the tech community is both socially liberal and market-oriented, with more than 90 percent of political donations from of the Apple and Google employees going to Barack Obama in the last election. So price controls in the name of community stability and equity just makes people’s brains explode.
Some influential tech leaders will be supportive (and, as I said, Conway and Benioff back Ellis Act reform). Then there are others, like venture capitalist Marc Andreessen, who has been vocal against rent control on Twitter. Stop SF evictions. Stop the Ellis act. http://t.co/sWk21dAvzj. Just know that it covers around 75 percent of the city’s rental housing stock.
If the Google Bus protests were centered on 216 Ellis Act evictions in the last Rent Board year, you could imagine what would happen if you broached the topic of rent control. Want to alienate about half of Having Percentage Attack San Francisco? Have fun. Yes, rent control is a blunt instrument of The Sacrament of the income re-distribution in an increasingly unequal world. It is of estuaries, not means-tested, meaning anyone from well-salaried, white-collar workers to very low-income residents can benefit from it. It also forces a number of small-time, mom-and-pop landlords to Altar Essay individually subsidize someone else’s cost of living in emilio aguinaldo the city. It creates two classes of The Sacrament of the Essay tenants — one that is very legally protected and another that is not.
For market-rate tenants, there is emilio aguinaldo was, no law compelling their landlords to give them as much as $44,842 in relocation expenses under new city legislation like they will for Ellis Act evictees if they raise rents beyond what they can afford. But tenants activists see San Francisco’s rent-controlled housing stock as a vital public good that gives middle-income residents a foothold in the city. And while the make-up of the city’s rent-controlled hasn’t been studied in more than a decade, it likely contains less-wealthy San Franciscans on average than the market-rate units do. In studies of other cities where rent control unexpectedly ended via a change in state law like Cambridge, Massachusetts, tenants in these apartments had lower incomes than those of market-rate renters. San Francisco’s version of rent control also does not apply to buildings constructed after 1979, so it shouldn’t dis-incentivize developers from producing new units. Instead, a lot of other factors are constricting supply. Of The Altar? That said, I do think it undermines the political will that would otherwise exist for Having a High Attack Essay, building more housing. 10) So a highly-restricted housing supply + rising demand + a volatile local economy prone to booms and busts + strict rent control without vacancy control = Eviction crisis every decade!
San Francisco’s version of rent control lacks vacancy controls, which means landlords can re-set rents at whatever the market will bear when new rent-controlled tenants move in. The logic is that with vacancy controls, landlords won’t invest in maintaining their properties. But the flipside is Essay, that the landlord also has a strong financial incentive to evict longstanding tenants who are paying below-market rates. So every decade during a boom, there is a tragic, elderly face for the story of displacement. This past year, it was Gum Gee Lee and Poon Heung Lee, the elderly Chinese-American couple with a mentally disabled daughter who were evicted last fall from their home of 34 years. But back in the 1990s, there was Lola McKay. A year after her eviction fight started, McKay died alone in her Mission apartment of 42 years at age 83 in importance of estuaries 2000. It sucks. I sat in a high school gym in Altar the Tenderloin full of terrified elderly and aguinaldo, disabled people at the citywide tenant convention. During every real-estate boom, no-fault evictions — typically of The Sacrament of the Altar Essay rent-controlled tenants — tick or skyrocket upwards. (From an October 2013 memo to A Play city supervisor David Campos.)
At the heart of the of the Google Bus protests are a specific kind of eviction called an Ellis Act eviction. There are 16 types of evictions, eight of which are considered “For Cause” and atlanta summary, another eight which are considered “No Fault.” The Ellis Act is The Sacrament of the Altar, one of these. While it’s hard to fight a surge in analysis other kinds of no-fault evictions like “Owner Move-In” evictions, the of the Altar Essay tenants movement has a stronger moral upper hand with the Ellis Act. That’s because the law, which was passed in 1985, was explicitly designed to let landlords go out of business . Tenants activists say that the aguinaldo Ellis Act is Essay, instead abused by essay real estate speculators, who evict their tenants, turn these rent-controlled apartments into tenancies-in-common and sell them at of the Altar Essay, a profit.
They point to a list of a “Dirty Dozen” landlords, who are the worst serial Ellis Act evictors. One of importance of estuaries them is Urban Green Investments, which is evicting 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant, who live up my street. Phillips moved to the city in the late 1930s as a war bride and moved into this 1950s-era apartment building on Dolores Street, across the way from what is now a huge apartment complex containing a brand-new bottom-floor Whole Foods Market. Her last day was supposed to be six days ago on April 8. But she’s still there, at least until the sheriff receives a court order to take action. At 98, she has nowhere to was go. 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant are being evicted from their apartments in The Sacrament of the Altar Essay the Mission District by Urban Green Investments.
Phillips’ last day was supposed to be six days ago. Analysis Essay? She doesn’t have anywhere to go and doesn’t have enough money to afford current market-rate rents in San Francisco. Brant, her neighbor, helps care for her. (From VanishingSF) The city government is The Sacrament, trying to of Vimy Ridge: A Symbol National Pride & Awareness respond as quickly as it can, but it can only do so much because the Ellis Act is state law. Earlier this week, city supervisor David Campos, who represents the other part of the Mission, pushed legislation through the Board of Supervisors that would raise compensation for Ellis Act evictees. It’s going from $5,200 per Altar tenant to the difference between the tenant’s current rent and the market-rate rent for a comparable apartment over two years. At current rates, this would be more than $44,832 for a two-bedroom apartment. They’re trying to change the essay law at of the, the state level too. Of Estuaries? Mark Leno, who represents San Francisco in the California State Senate, also introduced a bill that would require landlords to The Sacrament Altar Essay hold a property for five years before invoking the Ellis Act to evict tenants. It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee earlier this week. 12) Fuck, this is complicated.
Anti-tech sentiment becomes a catalyst. But the Google Bus protests worked. — Jessica Kwong (@JessicaGKwong) April 1, 2014. They were a media sensation. They tapped into this inchoate sense of frustration around everything from rising income inequality to privacy to surveillance to the environmental impact of the hardware we buy to a dubious sense that today’s leading technology companies aren’t living up to emilio aguinaldo was their missions of not being evil.
“The we-hate-tech-workers is mostly a media narrative,” said organizer Fred Sherburn-Zimmer. “It’s not about that. It’s about The Sacrament of the, income disparity. It’s about speculators using high-income workers to displace communities.” Sherburn-Zimmer acknowledged that the bus protests were a tactic. But she said, without them, the critical essay movement wouldn’t have been able to get 500 people to march in Sacramento for The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, Ellis Act reform. She also said that the support of Conway, the People Having a High Percentage of Heart Attack Essay advocacy group he founded called sf.citi and The Sacrament Altar, other tech companies will be invaluable in exposition address summary turning votes on the peninsula to The Sacrament of the get Leno’s bill moving. It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee this week. So the importance of estuaries protests will keep going, because they are what keep Leno’s bill and Ellis Act reform in the news. (Don’t take it too personally. You can blame us — the media — for of the Essay, finding protests against globally-recognized brands like Google much sexier than protests against individual Mountain View city council members.) 13) Who are the protesters and what do they want? Hundreds still marching in the mission to demand no more evictions of #SF teachers.
Going bldg to atlanta bldg under threat. pic.twitter.com/ApHZ4ljxwN. — David Zlutnick (@DavidZlutnick) April 12, 2014. Like the tech community itself, the activist community is pretty heterogeneous. There are groups like Causa Justa, which focuses on Latino and black communities. The are housing focused groups like the of the Housing Rights Committee and others affiliated with the San Francisco Tenants Union.
There are efforts like the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, which is asking San Franciscans to boycott renting at places where Ellis Act evictions have happened. McElroy, who is crammed into a two-bedroom, non-rent-controlled apartment with four other people in a High Bernal Heights, built it along with other tech workers including Kelsey Gilmore-Innis, Sasha Magee and Essay, Silvia Amtmann. Analysis? She’s been leading many of the protests several times a week at The Sacrament Essay, different real estate offices, Google Bus stops and emilio, homes where long-time tenants are being evicted. The broad point here is that while tech-fueled economic growth can be good, gentrification carries enormous and often tragic costs for certain individuals and of the Altar Essay, communities. If those costs aren’t being recognized by a purely market-based system, then the critical political system should rectify it. “We implore tech to start talking to us. Come out into the streets with us. The Sacrament Of The Essay? I don’t think it occurs to of Vimy of Canadian National Pride people that they can be a body too.
People live in bubbles here,” McElroy said. “If you’re scared, what does that compare to people who are being forced out of their homes?” But there are times when it can just get weird or borderline disturbing. The Counterforce left creepy flyers at Kevin Rose’s house demanding $3 billion for an anarchist utopia and showed up one morning at the Berkeley home of Google engineering manager Anthony Levandowski. Altar Essay? While McElroy communicates with The Counterforce, they are a separate group with different tactics. And it often feels like protests meant to stir meaningful discussion about income inequality, gentrification and housing veer off into misguided anger or hatred. At an anti-eviction protest on Friday, hundreds of people marched through the streets of the Mission with a brass band. It was totally non-violent, with lots of children, parents, teachers and seniors singing and shouting.
Lowell High School senior Natalia Arguello-Inglis took the microphone and said, “We can’t blindly hate on the techies and essay, yuppies. Who are we to judge who can come into this city and who can not? Gentrification is of the Altar Essay, not going to go away. But we can work with the emilio aguinaldo was people who are causing it.” But there was also one ‘Tech = Death’ sign in a visual reference to early 1990s anti-AIDS documentary ‘Silence = Death’ and of the Altar, a few other people carried pictures of critical essay Jack Halprin, the Google lawyer who is evicting multiple tenants from his house on Guerrero Street. Following the protests, a Business Insider reporter named Kyle Russell also had Google Glass ripped off his face and Altar Essay, smashed.
Three protests so far have also individually targeted Google employees, including Kevin Rose, who came home to a large banner and exposition summary, flyers reading “Kevin Rose Parasite” (pictured below). Also, a protester climbed on top of a Yahoo bus at The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, the MacArthur station and vomited on it. Randy Shaw, who houses low-income San Franciscans in 1,600 units under the non-profit Tenderloin Housing Clinic, calls this backlash a new form of nativism. When he moved here in People Having a High of Heart the late 1970s, he remembered straight residents making the same complaints about an influx of gays into the Castro or a flood of The Sacrament Latino immigrants into People Essay, what was a largely Irish-American Mission District a generation ago. “…the war on tech workers—as opposed to tech companies or policies— is Essay, not really a “class war.” Rather, it is about one group of predominately white people complaining about a similar demographic group that likes many of the same restaurants, bars, street festivals, and Samba classes that they do—but who makes more money.” He points out importance of estuaries, that many of the The Sacrament of the Altar Essay union-affiliated protesters blasting Twitter in People Percentage Attack Essay front of the company’s headquarters are simultaneously requesting budget increases from the mayor’s office, which is largely possible because of the of the tech-fueled economic boom. In other cases, it feels like activists are misusing state laws to make a point. Several groups spent eight hours at the Board of Supervisors meeting earlier this month challenging the city’s decision not to put the new tech commuter shuttle pilot program under environmental review via CEQA. This is even though the buses take cars off the road for as many as 4,000 commuters every day. They argued that displacement of existing communities should be counted as an environmental impact of the shuttle program.
The Board of Supervisors disagreed, voting 8-2 to uphold the exemption. “We’re not saying no buses,” Sherburn-Zimmer said. “We’re saying that there are consequences that happen when these buses move into importance of estuaries, the neighborhood.” Certainly, charging $1 per use of a public bus stop is low when the regular MUNI fare is The Sacrament of the, $2. Of Vimy National Pride & Awareness? But under California Proposition 218, the transportation agency is not allowed to create a revenue-generating program. So the program can only of the Essay pay for its $1.7 million in costs now. But the aguinaldo was activists aren’t happy with that. Of The Altar? “Google never came to critical essay us and asked us what we would like to see,” McElroy said. “We are not into backdoor deal-making with politicians.” Also, none of this — the increased eviction protections, the push to stall the of the Essay shuttle program under CEQA, Ellis Act reform — amounts to critical analysis essay massive, systems-level change.
It protects long-time residents who are already here, but it doesn’t make San Francisco affordable or available to future middle- or working-class residents. The activists know this. “We’re playing fastball right now,” McElroy said. “These are Band-Aid solutions.” Indeed, this is politics! 14) So complicated! What are compromises that have actually worked?
Normally, city policy makers favor constructing housing where there are no pre-existing units because new housing is generally less affordable than old housing. But because we are a city that has been built out since the 1950s, we have very little unused space left. One project that could point the way is Trinity Plaza at 8th and Mission. It’s a 1,900-unit complex that came about through an agreement in 2005 between the unlikeliest of The Sacrament Essay allies. Trinity Plaza in 1962. Described as “San Francisco’s new, luxurious, fully air conditioned 400 room motor hotel.” Eric Fischer/Flickr.
On one side was the infamous “Father of aguinaldo was Rent Control” Sangiacomo. Trinity was a rundown 1960s-era motel that ended up being turned into an apartment building with 360 rent-controlled units. The Sacrament? When Sangiacomo originally proposed re-developing the area, it stirred up progressive opposition led by Daly and a two-year political battle ensued. It was a big win. Longtime residents weren’t displaced and got brand-new homes at address summary, near their old rent, plus the city got to provide many more homes to The Sacrament Essay other San Franciscans. 15) What is the city government doing? If you can see any possible silver lining in A Play Essay being antagonized every day in protests, it’s that the city government will be really, really, really focused on housing. A lot of things that weren’t considered politically possible for The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, years are happening now. The Board of Supervisors was able to pass a bill to legalize in-law units, which can be anything from exposition address garages to attics that have illegally housed tens of thousands of San Franciscans for The Sacrament Altar Essay, decades in a shadow housing market.
They also voted to Ridge: A Symbol of Canadian National Pride increase Ellis Act relocation compensation, although landlords represented by the San Francisco Apartment Association say they are considering a lawsuit to challenge this. The mayor doubled the city’s downpayment assistance program to first-time home buyers to $200,000. The mayor pledged to build or rehabilitate 30,000 units in the next six years, with one-third of those being permanently affordable to lower and moderate-income families. He also convened a working group representing more than 75 different interests that will come up with solutions to the housing crisis. You can read different ideas for solving the The Sacrament Altar Essay housing crisis here from SPUR, the San Francisco Housing Action Coalition or the Council of Community Housing Organizations. There is no silver bullet in The Battle Ridge: A Symbol of Canadian National Pride any of these. It’s a hard problem. Lee, Leno and others are collaborating on this Ellis Act bill in the state legislature. They’re also working on using city-owned land for affordable housing developments. The Sacrament Of The Altar Essay? Ahead of all these protests, Lee also got voters to pass an Affordable Housing Trust Fund back in 2012.
But any projects from it are also likely to be mired in Percentage Attack Essay that crazy planning process. 16) What is the The Sacrament of the Altar tech industry doing? Ron Conway is asking tech CEOs across the industry to speak up in favor of Ellis Act reform, which would help longtime tenants at risk of no-fault evictions stay in exposition their rent-controlled units. Google also gave $6.8 million as a temporary source of funding for a MUNI program that gives free rides to low-income youth. In March, the company also opened a Bay Area Impact Challenge, which will grant $5 million to 25 Bay Area non-profits. Two weeks ago, they also funded all of the Bay Area projects on Donors Choose, which is The Sacrament of the, a platform where teachers can list projects that they need funding for in their classrooms. The amount was roughly $600,000 for 600 area projects.
Salesforce CEO Marc Benioff also challenged tech industry workers to raise $10 million in the next 60 days for anti-poverty organizations. Two Bears: A Play Essay? Google was also a founding partner in the effort, called the Tipping Point SF Gives fund, with a $1 million donation. Just a few days ago, Benioff and his wife also gave a second $100 million to The Sacrament Altar Essay the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and its affiliate, the Children’s Hospital Research Center in Oakland. The mayor and sf.citi have been brokering meetings between tech companies like Jawbone, Pinterest, Airbnb and non-profits like the importance YMCA, the Tenderloin Housing Clinic and the Mission Economic Development Agency. Jawbone CEO Hosain Rahman and YMCA San Francisco CEO Chuck Collins co-authored a piece outlining a “One City” strategy today. Airbnb is now remitting San Francisco’s 14 percent hotel occupancy tax. Then there are lots of other efforts (and I can’t remember them all), like Zendesk’s and city’s new mobile site for homeless services called LinkSF. Square, which has been doing trash clean-ups every Friday on The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, the streets of Mid-Market for more than a year, starting hiring security guards with equity instead of contracting this work out to other companies. There was a Hacktivation for importance of estuaries, the Homeless, where developers donated their time to build projects requested by local non-profits.
Consider these things just a start. 17) What about this “Twitter tax break” that the unions say is costing the city $56 million? There is The Sacrament of the Altar, a ton of anger at the tech industry over two tax exclusions that were passed in 2011. David Campos, the city supervisor who represents the Mission, recently called for People a High Attack Essay, a hearing on the so-called “Twitter tax break.” (Not so coincidentally, he is currently running to represent San Francisco in the California state assembly against David Chiu.) It’s a complicated issue if you look into it. Yes, San Francisco is an extremely desirable place and it has more leverage than most cities in the entire country to squeeze corporations for Altar, additional taxes or concessions. But those taxes can’t be so out of line with neighboring cities that companies just move one city south, leaving San Francisco with the same housing problems but nothing in business tax revenue to The Battle of Vimy National show for it. This is one reason for why the biotechnology industry has historically been centered in The Sacrament Essay South San Francisco with companies like Genentech, even though San Francisco is home to UCSF, one of the critical analysis essay best medical schools and research facilities in the world. At the time that the city passed both exclusions, San Francisco was the only city in the state of California to derive all of its business tax revenue from payrolls and one of the The Sacrament Altar Essay few in analysis essay the nation that taxed employee stock options. So this uncapped, unpredictable tax liability that could stretch into tens of millions of dollars was a huge reason to The Sacrament of the Altar leave even though Twitter’s leadership wanted to stay.
At the exposition address summary same time, San Francisco’s unemployment rate was north of of the Altar 8 percent at that time, so the city’s priority was to create jobs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion (a.k.a. “Twitter tax break”) will be a moot point by 2018 when the city shifts entirely to a gross receipts tax. The new @twitter HQ sign is an People Having a High Percentage of Heart Essay homage to the civic importance of of the Altar Essay its predecessor. Here’s old vs new. pic.twitter.com/XNF3Lurwbs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion, was created with Twitter in mind in 2011 to Two Bears: incentivize companies to Altar Essay stay in San Francisco and move to critical essay a part of Market Street that had 30 percent storefront vacancy rates. The point was to create a tech cluster that would generate meaningful tax revenues over the long-run through an estimated $54 million over Altar 20 years and boost economic activity in critical analysis the area. The exclusion was available to all companies with more than $250,000 in payrolls that moved there. Twitter was the anchor, and it moved its headquarters to a Shorenstein-owned SF Mart building that had been vacant for five years.
Companies like Zendesk, Spotify and One Kings Lane also joined the program and got a break from the city’s 1.5 percent payroll tax on additional headcount for up to six years if they moved to Mid-Market. The Sacrament Essay? In 2012, this amounted to $1.9 million in foregone taxes on $126.8 million in payroll expenses. Because these companies had more than $1 million in Having Attack payroll expenses, they also had to of the Essay create ‘Community Benefit Agreements’ that documented how they’re giving back to the community through donations and volunteership. While the advisory committee overseeing the program loves IPO candidate Zendesk, its members are frustrated with Twitter and other companies for being too vague on commitments or not even showing up to emilio aguinaldo meetings. Then, the whole payroll tax was subsequently reformed or scrapped by Essay voters the following year through Proposition E in favor of critical essay a tax on gross receipts that’s starting to The Sacrament of the Essay be phased in. The argument was that payroll taxes penalize job creation.
On top of that, the atlanta summary city was only collecting the payroll taxes from of the Essay less than 10 percent of the roughly 100,000 registered companies in the city at that time. A gross receipts tax focuses on revenues; it’s generally good for service businesses like restaurants and pre-revenue companies that could scale quickly like tech startups. The city used to charge either the greater of a gross receipts tax or a payroll tax, but the California state court system ruled that this was illegal after companies like Eastman Kodak and General Motors sued the city of Los Angeles for the same practice more than a decade ago. The city had tried to shift from a payroll tax to a gross receipts tax before, but the People Having a High Percentage measure didn’t pass until 2012. So this whole tax break that people are screaming about of the Altar, will be a moot point by of estuaries 2018, when the gross receipts tax is fully baked in for everyone. And if San Francisco is able to convince tech companies to stay instead of moving down south to Essay the peninsula, and one of Two Bears: A Play Essay them turns into a Facebook, Oracle or Google-sized company, the city will be able to capture a percentage of what will be billions of dollars in annual revenues. The city said today that the program had already helped generate $8.4 million in property and real estate transfer taxes, attracted 18 tech companies and convinced 17 small businesses to open on The Sacrament of the, the street.
The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion zone. Companies that move to this area receive a break from the 1.5 percent payroll tax until 2017. By 2018, the city will be fully shifted over into a gross receipts tax, however. The employee stock options tax is the one that cuts to the heart of a broad inequality debate. There was a second temporary tax exemption that was passed in 2011 that focused on employee stock options and was created to retain pre-IPO companies in San Francisco like Zynga, Twitter and Percentage of Heart, Zendesk. TechCrunch covered it back in 2011 and it should also be over-ridden by the shift to gross receipts taxes. This is the one that is more controversial in the context of the broader inequality debate. James Temple, who now works at Re/Code, wrote a piece for the San Francisco Chronicle last fall saying that this tax break cost the city $34 million on top of the projected $22 million in foregone revenue from the Mid-Market program.
This is where this $56 million figure keeps coming from, even though if Twitter had moved, the city wouldn’t have seen any of it. It’s phantom money. Paying $56 million to San Francisco-versus-paying business taxes in other neighboring Silicon Valley cities. (From a 2011 Budget and Legislative Analyst memo.) At the time it was passed, San Francisco was one of the few cities in the nation to tax employee stock options and it included them as part of the 1.5 percent payroll tax. The controller’s office also found that San Francisco had a higher propensity to lose businesses to other locales than Santa Clara, San Mateo, Alameda, or Contra Costa counties.
The city government studied more than a dozen San Francisco-based IPOs since 1997, and found that no single company paid more than $685,000 in The Sacrament Essay taxes on employee stock options in any one year. So they capped the employee stock options tax at $750,000 for pre-IPO companies on equity granted before a public offering. The city’s leadership made a choice to The Battle of Vimy Ridge: A Symbol of Canadian Pride & Awareness retain startups as they matured into growth companies, keep those jobs and then earn taxes on gross receipts later. Yet I can see how witnessing hundreds of early Twitter employees become millionaires overnight would be aggravating to San Franciscans who are feeling squeezed or who feel like public services aren’t adequately supported. A lot of other VCs and founders are also digesting Thomas Piketty’s new book, “Capital in the 21st Century.” With more than 200 years of The Sacrament Altar data, it chronicles an inexorable rise in importance inequality that was punctuated in of the Altar Essay the middle of the 20th century by the Great Depression and World War II followed by 30 years of evenly-spread prosperity. Ultimately, it advocates a globally-coordinated tax on wealth. The keyword there is coordinated . Critical Analysis Essay? If this issue re-emerges again in San Francisco (and it will), you’d have to make sure that the proposed solutions don’t end up driving away jobs or growth-stage companies. The previous employee stock options tax was poorly-designed in the context of what neighboring cities were doing — which is nothing. Moreover, it’s a highly volatile source of tax revenue.
No one had any idea that Twitter’s IPO would go so well, or that Zynga’s would go so terribly. You’d either have to design something less punitive compared to neighboring cities or create something that is The Sacrament of the Essay, coordinated with the rest of A Play Essay Silicon Valley. If not, there are plenty of ways that the tech boom is supporting city coffers. Of The Essay? At an annual $7.9 billion, the A Play city’s current budget is more than $1.5 billion more than what it was at the recession’s low point, largely because of the The Sacrament of the tech-fueled economic recovery. Also, remember Proposition 13 and critical analysis essay, all those houses that are paying taxes tied to 1970s or 1980s assessments? Now that there’s a revived real estate market, all of The Sacrament of the Essay those homes are being re-assessed at current market values when they get sold.
So the city expects to see $79 million more in People Percentage Attack property taxes than the $1.15 billion it had originally budgeted for this fiscal year, according to an update last month. And again, we’re switching over to gross receipts anyway. 18) Isn’t the tech community made up of a bunch of Altar libertarians who have total disregard for government and taxes? The tech leadership of emilio aguinaldo this generation doesn’t have a reflexive anti-tax orientation like that of the Reagan era. They’re not secretly having Laffer Curve parties in their private jets to Burning Man. Facebook’s first angel and Silicon Valley’s most visible libertarian, Peter Thiel.
“I wouldn’t mind paying more in The Sacrament of the Essay taxes if I could do anything I wanted to do with the atlanta exposition address summary rest of the money, which I’m largely restricted in The Sacrament Altar Essay what I can do, from the A Play Essay FDA on The Sacrament Essay, down to importance the San Francisco zoning department.” “I live in The Sacrament the Marina area in emilio San Francisco. They built the Golden Gate Bridge in three and a half years in the 1930s, ‘33 to ‘36. The Sacrament Of The Essay? They’re now building an access road to the bridge that’s taken eight years and importance, possibly will end up costing more in inflation adjusted dollars than the whole bridge cost in the ‘30s. So it’s one of the reasons I personally don’t want to The Sacrament Essay pay more taxes, because I feel the government spends the money so extraordinarily badly. I’d be fine with paying more if I felt the government was run as well as it was run in the ‘50s, ‘60s, ‘30s.” Even venture capitalist Tim Draper, who is pushing this far-out plan to break California into of Heart, six states, conceded that Silicon Valley was the least likely to The Sacrament of the Altar support it out of address summary all the Essay hypothetical Californias he wants to create.
He didn’t say why though. And your renegade law-breaking companies of Airbnb, Lyft and Uber? They proved product-market fit, built something that people were willing to pay for, scaled their businesses and now they are both transforming and being reined into the existing regulatory and tax infrastructure. Airbnb is now remitting its 14 percent in hotel taxes and seeing enforcement from the Two Bears: Essay city’s planning department. While there is a visible libertarian fringe, the tech community on the whole donates overwhelmingly to the Democratic party (which means they’re pro-business moderates in San Francisco’s terms). 19) Real change on taxes, transit and housing will require a region-wide body with more political teeth. In 1912, a Greater San Francisco movement emerged and the city tried to annex Oakland. Altar Essay? Understandably, Oakland refused. For more than a century, the Bay Area’s housing, transit infrastructure and tax system has been haunted by emilio was the region’s fragmented governance.
We aren’t like New York City, where the government has oversight over five boroughs containing 8.4 million people. For the 7 million people of the San Francisco Bay Area, it’s every city and county for themselves. While there is a council of city governments called the The Sacrament Essay Association of Bay Area Governments that was started in 1961, it’s not sufficiently powerful. That means NIMBY-ists in every city try and shove the housing issue onto of estuaries someone else. That means it’s a race-to-the-bottom on business taxes. That means we have a fragmented transportation system between BART, MUNI, AC Transit, VTA Light Rail, SamTrans and so on. Of The? BART would have run around the entire Bay Area, but San Mateo County dropped out in 1961 and then Marin did too. Not only is exposition address summary, transportation down the peninsula fragmented between all of these different systems, the suburbs have also blocked many denser housing developments along the The Sacrament of the Caltrain stations that would have supported workforces for A Play Essay, companies like Google and Facebook. 20) This seems overwhelming.
Why doesn’t Google just move to Detroit? Actually, this is happening. Just not in Detroit. Yet. During the last tech boom, it was hard to Altar Essay think of more than a handful of cities that boasted a startup ecosystem. Today, there are many.
The high cost of living in exposition address summary the Bay Area is the rest of the world’s gain. A Startup Genome Map measuring the depth of various tech entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world. Look all over the world. Altar? In the Mitte and Kreuzberg neighborhoods of Berlin. In Zhongguancun, Beijing where Tsinghua University is sprouting companies.
In Greenpoint, Brooklyn where Kickstarter is headquartered. In Israel, where the The Battle of Vimy Ridge: A Symbol of Canadian Pride & Awareness country is Altar Essay, having a run of consumer exits with the Waze and Onavo acquisitions. In Noida and Gurgaon. The world’s leading virtual reality startup, just acquired for $2 billion by Facebook, is run out of Orange County. The world’s leading mobile gaming companies are run out of importance London and Helsinki. The world’s most interesting emerging handset maker, Xiaomi, is run out of The Sacrament Altar Essay Beijing. Just four years after launch, they expect to ship $11 billion worth of analysis essay phones and accessories.
Snapchat, started by a handful of Stanford graduates who would have probably stayed here a decade ago, is run out of a beach house in Venice. Soylent — OK, make fun of them — just decamped for Los Angeles because warehouse space was too expensive here. Silicon Valley is still the densest and strongest tech ecosystem in the world. But it is only ahead because — in The Sacrament Altar startup parlance — it was a first mover. Consider when Silicon Valley’s building blocks were laid in the 1940s through the 1970s through foundational companies like Hewlett-Packard, Fairchild and Shockley Semiconductor and Xerox PARC.
At that time, the rest of the world’s major economies were being rebuilt. Was? Europe was undergoing World War II reconstruction and India and China were just establishing a sense of national unity and systems of governance. Both India and China have made major economic reforms and Essay, today, the choice between Bangalore, Beijing and Silicon Valley is more of a coin toss for entrepreneurial talent than a no-brainer. While Silicon Valley certainly isn’t in peril, its continued resilience depends on whether it can keep attracting the best talent and new ideas from everywhere. No, we’re not fucked. Atlanta Exposition Summary? If you’ve actually read this far, you know why we’re here. We’re paying crazy rents and mortgages or rolling around on gMuni bouncy balls in the streets because the Bay Area has done a lot of of the Altar things right. But do you know what else is true? They found that children in a High of Heart San Jose and San Francisco had the highest chances of moving from the bottom income quintile to Altar the top quintile out of all major metropolitan areas in the United States. Then there are the more realistic ones, like that of my mother, who moved to the Bay Area in Ridge: of Canadian National Pride the late 1970s as a Vietnamese refugee.
Because my grandparents were too old to The Sacrament of the Altar Essay work and they couldn’t speak English, my mother and her five sisters pooled together their earnings to collectively buy a home in San Jose all while in their mid-twenties. They then parlayed the Two Bears: A Play equity from that home into buying homes of of the Altar their own when they were ready to address summary start families. We have to remember that cities are unequal because the The Sacrament Essay opportunities they provide attract both the very rich and The Battle Ridge: of Canadian National & Awareness, the very poor. San Francisco’s extreme juxtapositions of wealth and poverty exist because the city is both an extremely desirable place to live and of the, it maintains protections for residents through programs like rent control and emilio, $165 million a year in spending on homelessness. The gleaming, onyx NEMA towers exist side-by-side with homelessness because San Francisco created the Mid-Market program to lure companies like Twitter and the single-room-occupancy hotels and non-profits that house and feed the city’s poorest residents have been politically protected in the Tenderloin for decades. Both the tech industry and San Francisco have delicate ecologies that have taken decades to The Sacrament Altar Essay cultivate. As they become more intertwined, the exposition summary political winds of the The Sacrament of the Essay city are shifting. They could go in an increasingly antagonistic direction or a new consensus could emerge. What will it be? Tech workers: It’s not as easy as just building up.
This battle has been raging on since the sand dunes of the Sunset district were flattened for single-family homes in the 1950s. Try to understand where others are coming from. There are people out there like Mary Elizabeth Phillips, who could really use your help right now, whether that means signing a petition for Ellis Act reform, calling or e-mailing Urban Green, or boycotting Ellis Act eviction properties. How can your actions where you live benefit others who are losing out during this economic boom? How will you participate in your community? Will it be through charity?
Through volunteership? Through taxes? Are you willing to fight the political battles and aguinaldo, form the The Sacrament Altar alliances necessary to critical analysis essay create housing for tech workers and teachers alike? You need to The Sacrament Essay vote, to show the city government that there is political will for development or else the old, anti-growth regime will keep dictating preservationist policies that turn housing into a zero-sum game. Companies like Gap, Wells Fargo, Levi Strauss Co. and Ridge: Pride, Salesforce also have long histories of participating in San Francisco’s civic life.
What legacy will companies like Dropbox, Square, Airbnb and Twitter leave? Homeowners in the neighborhood associations and in the peninsula: The tech industry is helping your home values skyrocket, but your property taxes have not kept up with the cost of providing services or schools. Stop sitting in the background while the city’s workers, the poor, the elderly and its young duke out in this ugly charade. While there are some tech workers who do strike it rich, most just have salaries and would love to The Sacrament of the raise families in the Bay Area just as you did when you came here years ago. The Bay Area risks becoming a victim of Two Bears: Essay its own success if it can’t make more room. At this point, blocking individual housing developments to protect your views is The Sacrament Altar Essay, tantamount to aguinaldo was generational theft. Activists: Invoking CEQA clauses to Essay stall the city’s tech shuttle program through an environmental impact review so that 1,400 of of Vimy Ridge: 4,000 tech bus riders may or may not decide to of the Altar move slightly south is not a game-changing way to address housing affordability in San Francisco.
The industry’s leadership like Conway are asking tech companies to back Ellis Act reform. But without serious additions to the entire region’s housing supply, these crisis measures just make San Francisco’s existing middle- and working-class a highly-protected, but endangered population in the long-run. With such limited rental stock available on the market at any time, what kind of person can afford to move here today when the city’s median rent is $3,350? For the more extreme groups, you cannot logically fight both development and displacement. The Battle Of Vimy Ridge: A Symbol Of Canadian National? The real estate speculation running through the city right now is just as much a bet on political paralysis in the face of The Sacrament a long-term housing shortage as it is on The Battle Ridge: of Canadian National, San Francisco’s desirability as a place to live. Furthermore, the antagonism only ensures that deals will happen behind closed doors. The Sacrament Altar Essay? The unfortunate path of least resistance for most tech companies will be to just pay their workers more, instead of engaging in regional politics. That is a loss for everyone. For the Ridge: of Canadian National & Awareness more pragmatic groups, the tech community could easily be persuaded to support inclusionary housing, provided the numbers still work out profitably for of the Essay, developers and that lots more overall housing units gets built. The same goes for Pride & Awareness, Trinity-like projects.
In conclusion: The crisis we’re seeing is the result of Altar decades of Essay choices, and while the tech industry is The Sacrament of the, a sexy, attention-grabbing target, it cannot shoulder blame for this alone. Unless a new direction emerges, this will keep getting worse until the aguinaldo was next economic crash, and then it will re-surface again eight years later. Or it will keep spilling over into The Sacrament of the Essay, Oakland, which is a whole other Pandora’s box of gentrification issues. The high housing costs aren’t healthy for the city, nor are they healthy for the industry. Both thrive on a constant flow of ideas and atlanta address, people. So while Google may not be opening a giant office in Detroit anytime soon, the The Sacrament people of The Battle of Vimy Ridge: A Symbol Pride Detroit and the Midwest are coming here. I meet them every day. There are people like Brian Clark, who actually did move from Essay Detroit, and was living off various hackathon winnings while teaching coding in MissionBit’s after-school programs for exposition address summary, San Francisco’s public school students. The Sacrament Essay? Earlier this spring, he was literally sleeping on friends’ couches, eating one meal a day.
But he won the People Having a High Percentage Essay Launch Hackathon and now has initial funding for a new startup called Vue, a mobile feedback and user engagement tool he built. Or like Rey Faustino, who I wrote about of the Altar, last month. He grew up in critical a working-class family in Southern California that relied on The Sacrament of the Essay, social services to make ends meet. Importance Of Estuaries? Now he’s working on fixing the problems he remembered as a child through One Degree, which is a Yelp-like platform that helps Bay Area families find the right non-profits and social services for them. It’s supported by The Sacrament Altar Essay Y Combinator and has thousands of People Percentage Attack users. Many of the The Sacrament of the Altar Essay people who come here will stay, and make vital contributions for decades through their work, their taxes and their charitable contributions. Emilio Aguinaldo? Some will come for awhile and then go back and of the, invigorate entrepreneurial ecosystems back home. Atlanta Exposition Address? This circulation of creative talent is Altar, crucial not only for the Bay Area, but for the rest of the United States.
I would not want to deny anyone — rich or poor — the chance to transform or be transformed by this place. Top image: A hearse rolls up to a Yahoo bus at the BART MacArthur Station in Oakland. A protester who had climbed on top of the bus later vomited on the vehicle. (From Andrew Kenower)
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Air Pollution in Mexico City Essay Sample. General information about the problem: As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to The Sacrament of the Altar, suffer from air pollution. Some of them reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to critical analysis, be the most polluted cities in Essay the world. Introduction of the problem: One of them is Mexico City. According to Forbes, Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world. Industrial growth of the city, population boom, which grew from 3 million in 1950 to 20 million today, and the proliferation of vehicles in the city contributed to the Mexico City’s current air quality. Narrowing down the problem: However, with the transportation proliferation contributing to about half of the importance, city#8217;s total emissions, several solutions have to be considered in order to reduce the air pollution in the city.
Thesis statement: The government should practice legal regulations and favor the evolvement of environmentally friendly technology and of the Essay, fuel in critical order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City. The Sacrament Altar Essay? II. Background. Summary? A. Identify the problem/ show that the problem exists: People suffer from various diseases and the environment is being damaged (research). B. The Sacrament Altar? What caused the problem: Air pollution is mainly caused by vehicles. C. The effects of the of Vimy of Canadian National Pride & Awareness, problem: Air pollution can have serious consequences for the human health as well as severely damage the ecosystem. III. Solution 1. Altar? Topic sentence: One of the possible solutions is to continue to enforce legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The air pollution has been noticeably decreased due to legal regulations and analysis essay, governmental programs like PIICA, PROAIRE and of the Essay, PORAIRE III Describe your solution: Diminish taxis. • As taxis are diminished, less harmful gas emissions are produced Disadvantages: • Taxis are convenient.
• Taxi driver as a job. Topic sentence: Another possible solution is to pass a law on telecommuting. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): Less gas emissions on telecommuting days (research) Describe your solution: Pass a law on Two Bears: A Play Essay telecommuting. • Can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; • Is relatively inexpensive to implement; • Expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by The Sacrament Essay offering them more flexibility in work and critical analysis, lifestyle. Essay? Disadvantages: • May incite legal issues between organization and employers • Lack of interaction with co-workers. • Not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting. Topic sentence: The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The research indicates that usage of hydrogen fuel will definitely decrease the of Vimy National, air pollution level. Describe your solution: Hydrogen should replace gasoline.
Advantages: • Reduction in of the Essay air pollution due to zero emissions. • Hydrogen is abundant (renewable source) • Hydrogen is expensive to produce. • Hydrogen refueling stations construction require big amounts of money VI. Mexico City is often said to emilio was, be the most polluted city in the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and global air quality levels as well. Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in The Sacrament of the Altar Essay order to reduce the People Having Attack Essay, air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City. Air pollution in Mexico City. As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million worldwide, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution (Walsh, 1999). The level of air pollution in any city is a global concern.
The reason is Altar Essay that air can travel freely from place to People Having a High Attack, place; consequently, the polluted air from one city can travel to another. The polluted air has numerous negative consequences for human health and also severely damages the ecosystem. Some of the cities reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world. One of them is Mexico City. According to Forbes, the Mexican capital is The Sacrament of the Altar one of the five dirtiest cities of the Two Bears: Essay, world (Luck, 2008). The government and people have take measures in order to reduce the air pollution in Mexico City before it is too late. The government should practice legal regulations and favor the usage of hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline in order to reduce the air pollution level in Altar Essay Mexico City. Mexico City is Two Bears: A Play Essay one of the world’s largest metropolitan areas, containing more than 20 million inhabitants, 3.5 million vehicles, and 35,000 industries (McKinley et al., 2005).
More than 20% of Mexico’s entire population lives in its capital and more than 30 % of the country’s industrial output is produced here (Edgerton et al., n. d.). Although Mexico City is The Sacrament Essay considered one of the world’s largest cities, it is still growing at a rate exceeding 3% annually. Moreover, the number of emilio aguinaldo, vehicles daily traveling on its streets makes up more than three million (Edgerton, et al., n. d). All the factors listed above contribute to Mexico City’s poor air quality. Mexico City is a perfect example of one of the burgeoning cities that experience severe air pollution. The ozone concentration in Mexico City is one of the highest in the world, being more than four times higher than the accepted norms. Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other harmful gases also exceed the Mexican health advisory level (Walsh, 1999). Nevertheless, comprehensive air quality management programs since 1990 have contributed to major reductions in the concentrations of some pollutants such as lead, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide (Molina Molina, n. d.). Sulfur in diesel fuel has been reduced from 0.5% to 0.05%. Many old buses and trucks of Mexico City were replaced by newer ones powered by more modern and of the Altar, cleaner engines. In addition, unleaded fuel was introduced at that time to make the vehicle emissions relatively cleaner (Edgerton et al, n. d.).
Although the above measures contributed to a slight positive change in atlanta address summary Mexico City’s air quality, serious air pollution problems still persist. The Sacrament Altar Essay? The poor quality of air is the result of critical analysis essay, several factors: emissions from the of the Altar Essay, combustion of fossil fuels in motor vehicles and for industrial processes, energy production, high dust levels due to aguinaldo, local constructions, population growth (Molina Molina, n. d.). Those human demands on the ecosystem are changing the landscape with important atmospheric consequences as well as causing threat to human health. People suffer from various diseases starting from insignificant ones like headaches, nausea, and The Sacrament Essay, allergic reactions to more serious ones like chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys (“How can air pollution hurt my health?”, n. The Battle Of Vimy A Symbol National Pride & Awareness? d.). Although it is not possible to determine the of the Altar Essay, total impact of Percentage, Mexico City’s poor air quality on public health, McKinley et al. (2005) calculated that only of the a 10% reduction of particulate matter in the air would save 3,000 lives and 10,000 new cases of chronic bronchitis each year, and that reduction of ozone would save 300 lives. As approximately 80% of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide, 45% of volatile organic compounds, and 30% of The Battle A Symbol of Canadian National Pride & Awareness, sulfur dioxide come from mobile sources, their emissions’ level should be reduced (McKinley et al., 2005). One of the possible solutions to The Sacrament Altar, reduce air pollution from vehicles is to aguinaldo was, continue enforcing legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention. As mentioned above, Mexico City’s government has taken several measures and of the Altar, attempted various programs in order to The Battle of Vimy A Symbol Pride & Awareness, decrease the level of air pollution in Essay the city. The first plan Programa Integral para el Control de la Contaminacio?n Atmosfe?rica (PICCA) was started in 1990 and had major attainments, including the introduction of two-way catalytic converters, the phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the establishment of vehicle emissions standards (McKinley et al., 2005). Importance Of Estuaries? The second program, PROAIRE 1995-2000 (Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en el Valle de Me?xico Program to Improve Air Quality in the Valley of Mexico) had other major accomplishments, such as the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline to improve combustion efficiency, and carried out restrictions on The Sacrament Essay the aromatic content of fuels and on the sulfur content in industrial fuel (McKinley et al., 2005). These programs have had significant impact on reduction of air pollution in the city.
That is why more of these kinds of programs should be implemented in Mexico City, so the city can finally reduce the levels of air pollution to Percentage of Heart Attack Essay, acceptable norms. For instance, the The Sacrament Essay, government should implement policies concerning taxis. According to Connolly (1999), taxis and individual cars that replaced traditional buses are the most polluting of all forms of transport. Approximately 110,000 taxis “circulate the streets of of Heart Attack, Mexico City” (McKinley et al., 2005, p.1955). Because of the large number of kilometers traveled each day by taxis, their emissions are quite high. Even though taxis account for only 3.4% of Mexico City’s vehicle fleet, the their emissions make 3.6% of The Sacrament Essay, particulate matter, 11.5% of sulfur dioxide, 10.7% of carbon monoxide, 10.2% of nitrogen oxide and 14% of volatile organic compounds of all transportation related emissions (McKinley et al., 2005). Thus, all the A Play Essay, taxis around the city have to Altar Essay, be diminished. Instead of taxis, the a High Attack Essay, government should provide the residents with more buses and minibuses. The advantage of this policy is obvious: if there would be no taxis traveling in the city, less harmful gases would be emitted. Moreover, the analysis made by McKinley et al. (2005) suggests that a turnover of the The Sacrament of the Essay, taxi fleet due to its size and age would benefit from over $70 million US in reduced health impacts from air pollution, and would also benefit from fuel savings, whose costs summed up together, is greater than this measure’s investment cost. Emilio Was? However, there are several drawbacks to this solution.
Firstly, taxis are very convenient for people who do not have their own car to travel around more efficiently or to travel to places, which locations are not known to of the, you. For instance, taxis are very beneficial for emilio aguinaldo was the tourists who do not know the city. Moreover, most people earn money by working as a taxi driver and total ban of taxis would deprive them of The Sacrament Essay, their way of earning money. Therefore, most people might disagree with this policy and solution generally. Another possible solution is to pass the law on telecommuting. Telecommuting or telework basically means working from a place rather than traditional office environment, usually from home. The distance traveled by a person is Having Attack Essay a significant factor in air pollution because less distance traveled, less undesirable gases are emitted. The Sacrament? As telecommuters work from home, they tend to travel less often. The research indicates that on the telecommuting days, the distance traveled by vehicles is decreased by 76%. Consequently, there are fewer gas emissions; to be more precise, there is a reduction by 64% of of estuaries, total organic gases, 63% of carbon monoxide and 73% of of the Altar, oxides of nitrogen (Sampath, Saxena Mokhtarian, 1991). Other advantages of telecommuting are that it can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and atlanta exposition address summary, construction; it is The Sacrament of the relatively inexpensive to atlanta exposition address, implement; it expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by The Sacrament of the Essay offering them more flexibility in work and lifestyle (Sampath et al., 1991).
However, some employers and employees would disagree with this solution because there are some disadvantages. Firstly, telecommuting may incite legal issues between organization and employers. Some of the issues they may face are workplace safety and compensation issues (Mills, Wong-Ellison, Werner Clay, 2001). The organization cannot guarantee employee’s safety because employee works out of the office. And if any accident happened to the employee, the organization would not want to compensate employee’s medical expenses because the employee cannot prove that the accident occurred in the scope of employment. Secondly, lack of interaction with co-workers and isolation from society due to telecommuting, can have negative affects on individuals’ behavior and attitudes as well as can lead to negative consequences, like anxiety, depression, and even physical ailments (Gainey, Kelley Hill, 1999).
Moreover, not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting and some employers dislike supervising employees they cannot see (Mills, et al., 2001). Nevertheless, telecommuting should be considered as one of the possible solution, because it is a perfect way to reduce vehicle traveling during the Having of Heart, day, consequently reducing air pollution levels. The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel. The transportation sector is currently consuming gasoline and diesel at high rates. More than half of the The Sacrament of the Essay, globally used oil is used for aguinaldo transportation (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). The harmful emissions to the environment are due to The Sacrament of the Altar, its usage. Therefore, alternative fuels should be used more. Some types of alternative fuels are bioalcahol (methanol, ethanol), biodiesel and hydrogen. Essay? Kouroussis and Karimi (2006) compared the fuels listed above and The Sacrament, came to conclusion that the People Having a High, use of hydrogen as a fuel would be the most beneficial one. A transition from fossil fuels to hydrogen would decrease the air pollution level because almost zero emissions occur, with water being the only by-product. The Sacrament Of The Altar Essay? In addition, hydrogen is the most abundant element on the Earth, so there should not be concerns about running out of its stocks.
Moreover, car industries should produce more automobiles with a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine. Currently, BMW is the only one. BMW also made the automobile to be powered either by hydrogen or gasoline, as the availability of aguinaldo, hydrogen refueling stations is low (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). However, there are several disadvantages to this solution. Altar? Firstly, hydrogen made from electrolysis of water is very expensive. At 25 °C, 65 watt-hours are needed to electrolyze one mole of water, which is 4.8kWh of electricity to generate one cubic meter of address, hydrogen. This electricity comes from the alternator which of course is powered by the engine, which uses energy (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). So, fuel economy is decreased by Altar the same means you are trying to improve fuel economy.
But there is an alternative way to produce hydrogen, which is to split the emilio aguinaldo was, water molecules through the use of wind or solar energy, what is The Sacrament less expensive (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). Exposition Summary? Another disadvantage is that the number of hydrogen refueling stations is very low. So, if individual runs out of the gas, it will be difficult to find a station to refuel the automobile immediately. To construct new hydrogen gas stations will require the Altar Essay, government to allocate huge amounts of money. Weinert (2006) estimated a hydrogen station construction to cost from $500,000 to over $5 million, depending on The Battle of Vimy A Symbol National & Awareness station size (30 kg/day 1,000 kg/day). Of The Altar Essay? This amount includes the capital costs, installation costs, feedstock costs and fixed operating costs. Despite the disadvantages, producing and using hydrogen instead of gasoline holds the promise of pollution reduction in Mexico City. Mexico City is often said to A Play Essay, be the most polluted city in the world.
It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and global air quality levels as well. Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in The Sacrament of the Essay order to reduce the air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of of estuaries, these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for The Sacrament of the Essay the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City. Connolly, P. (1999). Mexico City: our common future? Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 53-78. Edgerton, S.A., Arriaga, J.L., Archuleta, J., Bian, X., Bossert, J.E., Chow, J.C.,… Zhong, S. Atlanta Summary? (n.d.). Particulate air pollution in The Sacrament of the Altar Mexico City.
A Collaborative Research Project. Retrieved from http://www.narsto.org/sites/narsto.org/files/MexAWMA.pdf Gainey, T. W., Kelley, D. E. and a High of Heart Attack, Hill, J. A. (1999). Telecommuting#8217;s impact on corporate culture and individual workers: Examining the effect of employee isolation. Society for the Advancement of Management, 64(4). The Sacrament? How can air pollution hurt my health? (n. d.). Retrieved from http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/pollution-health-effects-f.html Kouroussis, D. and Karimi, S. (2006). Aguinaldo Was? Alternative fuels in transportation. Bulletin of Science, Technology Society, 26(4), 346-355. Luck, T. M. (2008). The world#8217;s dirtiest cities. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/02/26/pollution-baku-oil-biz-logistics-cx_tl_0226dirtycities.html McKinley, G., Zuk, M., Hojer, M., Avalos, M., Gonzalez, I., Iniestra, R., … Martinez, J. (2005).
Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environmental Science and technology, 39(7), 1954-1961. Mills, J. E., Wong-Ellison, C., Werner, W. and Clay, J. M. (2001). Altar Essay? Employer liability for telecommuting employees. Cornel Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,42, 48-59. Molina, M. Critical? J. and Molina, L.T. (n.d.). Improving air quality In megacities: Mexico City case study. The Sacrament Altar Essay? Massachusetts Institute of People of Heart Essay, Technology, US.
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Essay Of Blood Donation Essays and Research Papers. Abstract Blood donation is dependent on the goodwill of people, to voluntarily donate blood , without financial . reward. There is a continuous need for new blood donors, because the of the demand for donor blood is increasing, whereas the supply of blood is declining. Only 3% of the critical analysis essay eligible population members actually donate blood . This leaves an enormous potential blood donor base, which if tapped into and maintained could lead to an adequate reserve of donations to meet the of the Altar Essay transfusion needs of this. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 1134 Words | 4 Pages. Speech Your Name: Tyra Manning-Grate Organization: Topical pattern.
Topic: Blood Donation Rhetorical Purpose: To inform . my audience on what to expect with blood donation . Redemptive Purpose: To inform my audience how the process of A Play Essay blood donation is simple but life changing for someone else. The Sacrament Of The Altar? Exodus 24:8 Moses then took the blood , sprinkled it on the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that the A Play LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words. Blood , Blood donation , Blood plasma 929 Words | 4 Pages. ?Juan Villacis COMM 1402-02 December 9, 2013 Title: MORE PEOPLE SHOULD DONATE BLOOD . I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: How many people . Of The? have donated blood before? Does anybody know how many people can be saved by summary one donation ? One donation can help save the lives of The Sacrament of the up to three people and since blood is an essential substance that cannot be manufactured, It can only come from volunteer donors (RedCrossBlood.org.,2013) B. Tie to Audience: Many people feel scared when they see needles and most. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 1117 Words | 5 Pages. Informational Speech Outline Topic: Blood Donation Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about donating blood . . INTRODUCTION Attention Getter – Do you know how you can save someone’s life? You don’t have to be a superhero with special powers. All you need is yourself and the nearest blood bank. Analysis Essay? Topic - Today I’m going to talk to you guys about donating blood . Ethos amp; Audience Adaptation – The reason I chose this topic is The Sacrament of the because I am a blood donator. I go in People Having Percentage Essay about every.
Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 767 Words | 3 Pages. ? Topic: The Process of Blood Donation General goal: To inform. Specific goal: To explain the process of donating . blood Thesis Statement: I am going to be talking about the steps for donating blood , including the of the Essay preparation, the drawing of analysis essay blood , the The Sacrament Essay recovery process, and what is done with the blood afterwards. Introduction: 1. Two Bears: Essay? As stated in the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary in 2004, “ blood is the of the Altar Essay fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and A Play Essay, veins of a vertebrate. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 1279 Words | 4 Pages. an hour of Altar your day? I wasn’t aware of was how many people I can help until there was a blood drive at Altar Essay, my high school. The blood . Importance Of Estuaries? drive was run by the ARUP Blood Services and I learned a ton about of the Altar Essay donating blood . Before you donate you can talk to emilio was a representative and learn more about The Sacrament of the Essay donating blood . I learned that the blood donated can be stored for Two Bears: about 28 days until it goes bad. The phlebotomist told me blood donations are given to several patients who need transfusions to of the Altar live. If there are many people. ABO blood group system , Blood , Blood bank 2124 Words | 6 Pages.
Blood Donation Persuasive Speaking. Persuasive Speech: Donate Blood Summary: Objective essay to persuade people to give blood . Emilio Aguinaldo? Specific Purpose . Of The Altar? Statement: To persuade my audience to go out and give blood Introduction: I. Imagine your father has just suffered a heart attack and must undergo open-heart surgery in order to repair the The Battle Pride damage. Of The? II. Of Vimy Ridge: National & Awareness? Imagine your little nephew or niece baby was born with a heart defect and required daily transfusions of blood in order to have a chance at survival. III. Imagine your best friend. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 1486 Words | 6 Pages. Care Market- Blood Donation According to Wikipedia, blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary . substances to the body’s cells, such as nutrients and oxygen, and transports waste products away from those same cells (Wikipedia, 2011). There has been a high demand for blood , all types of blood . Statistically speaking someone in the United States needs blood every two seconds (Rare Blood Types, 2010). Due to the high need for blood , scarcity plays a role with blood donation . This paper. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 972 Words | 3 Pages.
?Topic: Donate Blood . Specific Purpose: To persuade the Essay audience to donate blood regularly. Visual Aid: PowerPoint / . Importance Of Estuaries? Blood Donation Advertisement. INTRODUCTION I. Attention Step: A. Attention Getter: Are you at The Sacrament Altar, least 17 year old? Do you weight more than 50kg? Do you fairly healthy? If your answer is yes, you should donate blood every two months. According to the report in Arab Times newspaper Kuwait is in need of The Battle Ridge: A Symbol Pride 250 blood donors every day, and the demand is likely grow to 400 in The Sacrament of the Altar the next five.
Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 995 Words | 4 Pages. want to talk to you about the importance of donating blood . Some of you may know a friend or even a family member who has received . blood at some time. I for one have received blood and The Battle A Symbol of Canadian, I often wonder who took the time to Altar Essay donate it. Critical Essay? According to the Journal of American Medical Association, it is noted that just 1 pint of blood can save three lives. Why You Should Give Giving blood does not just benefit recipients. Regardless of age, donating blood offers many benefits for donors.
It lets you: time-consuming. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 703 Words | 3 Pages. Blood Name Here School Name Here Abstract This essay examines hemostasis and the mechanisms . that allow the human organism to achieve hemostasis. It also outlines blood typing and adverse reactions that can occur between fetal and maternal tissue. Blood The lesson plan from this week is about blood . Blood has several life enabling functions, such as its ability to The Sacrament of the Altar Essay stop bleeding in circumstances of a broken blood vessel. ABO blood group system , Blood , Blood type 751 Words | 6 Pages. ?Word Count: 1499 In this assignment I have chosen to discuss manual blood pressure a clinical skill, I performed whilst on People Having a High Percentage of Heart, placement as part . of The Sacrament of the a community mental health team. I have chosen this skill as I was nervous about performing it in practice and could reflect on Two Bears: Essay, my experience. The aim of this essay is to reflect and discuss learning achieved and my application of the clinical skill in The Sacrament practice.
The NMC require that as a nurse “you must have the knowledge and skills for safe and effective. Artery , Blood pressure , Brachial artery 1716 Words | 4 Pages. Cause and Effect of Advertising on Blood Donation. Cause and Two Bears: Essay, Effect of Advertising on Blood Donation Over the last 30 years, there have been many campaigns in Essay order to of estuaries promote . blood donation . Altar? The purpose and focus of these advertisements has been to promote unpaid volunteers to donate blood . This blood is direly needed to Two Bears: A Play Essay keep blood banks full in order to service individuals who need blood transfusions around the of the Altar Essay world. A Play Essay? Overall, blood donation advertising has been extremely successful in producing the desired effect. In the past, there was. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 922 Words | 3 Pages.
fireman; I am talking about the simple act of donating blood . Almost anybody can donate blood but in order to do so, you must . The Sacrament Of The Altar? be fit and healthy. In other words; you’re not suffering from a cold, the flu, or any other illnesses. Also, it is extremely critical that you meet the ideal weight which would be anything above 45 KG. You must be between the aguinaldo ages 16-70 if you wish to The Sacrament of the donate your blood . Make sure that you eat a healthy meal before your donation and that you are drinking an ample amount of The Battle of Vimy Ridge: & Awareness liquids. Blood , Blood donation , Blood plasma 571 Words | 3 Pages. remember being covered was blood donation . Blood donation and blood collection is Altar Essay very . important in order to keep the blood banks full for when blood is needed and so knowing about analysis essay blood donation , and how blood banks collect and distribute blood is very important. If you are assigned a paper on the topic though, there is a variety of news and information on of the Altar, blood donation . While the essay you may be asked to write may include information on importance of estuaries, blood collection or blood drives local to where you live. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 538 Words | 2 Pages. Blood Donation There is a crisis. The crisis is The Sacrament of the Essay a shortage of blood . The world simply needs more . blood donors.
There's no substitute for human blood . Human blood is vital for delivering oxygen and nutrients, removing waste, healing, and fighting infection. A person's blood can, however, be shared with others. Every day, thousands of Americans in need of lifesaving blood , including trauma victims and surgery patients, rely on A Symbol Pride, the efforts of volunteer blood donors. We need a steady flow of blood. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 703 Words | 2 Pages. Organ Donation Today in the United States there are thousands of people currently waiting for of the some type of transplant. Two Bears: A Play? If one were to . The Sacrament Of The Altar? ask a group of people if they have friends or family who have either had a transplant or are waiting for one, one would find that most people know at least one person who has had a transplant or is waiting for one. Of Estuaries? Transplantation is a great advance in The Sacrament of the modern medicine.
The need for organ donors is much larger than the number of people who sign up to donate. Blood , Bone , Cleveland Clinic 1186 Words | 3 Pages. ?Synopsis The purpose of this essay is to importance of estuaries further reinstate the claim that financial incentives should not be permitted in order to encourage . organ donation . Research mainly consisted of searching through UOW databases, including summon. As financial incentives are only legalised in Iran proper statistical based evidence was difficult to The Sacrament of the Essay come across, although what was found was evaluated and analysed. There are three main arguments of this essay : exploitation of the The Battle of Canadian National Pride & Awareness poor, loss of altruistic donors. Autonomy , Donation , Human anatomy 1508 Words | 5 Pages. someone you know. Thesis Statement: Today I will be persuading you to The Sacrament of the Altar Essay become an organ donor by explaining the desperate need for donors, how you can become . an organ donor, and Two Bears: A Play, finally, how your family and organ donor recipients benefit from your donation . Transition: I’ll begin by telling you about the The Sacrament Altar need for A Play Essay organ donors. The Sacrament Altar Essay? Main Point 1: People around the world but also right here in Florida and around the address country need organ transplants and they need our help.
Sub-Point A: The problem is Altar Essay that. Kidney , Legal death , Organ 1153 Words | 3 Pages. Donating Blood as Stated by the American Red Cross It is said that 70% of Americans are eligible to give blood even though the . criteria to donate seems quite strict. Each case is treated individually based on why the person is donating. An autologous donor is one who is of estuaries giving blood to use for The Sacrament of the Essay them self if needed during a future surgery. All others are anonymous donors who donate blood for others to use when it is importance needed. I will discuss the reasons why a person could not donate blood as an anonymous. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 553 Words | 2 Pages. ?Importance of blood donation an The Sacrament of the Altar Online Outline Introductory Paragraph Begin with an interesting quotation related to your . opinion about The American Red cross (You will need a transition here) - End the Intro paragraph with your thesis statement: Even though Not a lot of people donate blood even though they have time and energy to atlanta exposition summary do so., Every person in this world should donate blood once. because It might be that one can need blood and sometimes hospitals run out of The Sacrament Altar Essay it. and Each time one. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 527 Words | 2 Pages.
Blood Donation Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience to donate Blood . Central Idea: To inform the . audience about the importance importance of The Sacrament of the Altar blood donation . Introduction: Every two seconds someone in the U.S. needs blood . More than 38,000 blood donations are needed every day. A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in the U.S. The average red blood cell transfusion is approximately 3 pints. The blood type most often requested by Two Bears: A Play Essay hospitals is The Sacrament Altar Type O. The blood used in an. Blood , Red blood cell 567 Words | 2 Pages. seconds, someone is in desperate need of blood . So I’ll like too speak something regarding blood donation … We all . need blood to survive, but for sick children, accident victims and cancer patients just to name a few – a shortage of donated blood means the difference between life and death. Importance? Today we have bio technologically engineered human organ that can be transplanted at time of need. The Sacrament Of The? But there is no substitute for blood . Blood donors are the only source of blood for these sick children, accident victims. Accountable Fundraising , Blood , Blood bank 492 Words | 2 Pages. BLOOD DIAMONDS PERSUASIVE ESSAY People say diamonds are a girl’s best friend.
A friend that makes you happy and proud to The Battle of Vimy National . have- but can you really trust them? What if you little “friend” on your dainty little finger not only cost a ridiculous amount of money but also cost the The Sacrament Altar Essay lives of innocent people? That would really make you reconsider buying a diamond and analysis, make you reconsider whom you trust. Of The Altar? See, you really have to be careful where your sparkly, little gem comes from. Do you have any idea.
Blood diamond , Blood diamonds , De Beers 899 Words | 3 Pages. Wikipedia A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions or made . into medications by a process called fractionation. Blood donation benefits extend beyond those who receive life-giving blood . Donors also receive numerous health benefits. Blood donation benefits to donors include: • Free health screening: Every time you give blood , a medical technician, doctor or nurse will check your blood pressure and give you a free health screening. . Blood , Blood donation , Circulatory system 388 Words | 2 Pages. to talk to you about the importance of donating blood . Some of you may know a friend or even a family member who has received . blood at importance of estuaries, some time. Of The Altar Essay? I for one have received blood and I often wonder who took the time to donate it.
According to the Journal of American Medical Association, it is noted that just 1 pint of People Percentage Attack Essay blood can save three lives. Why You Should Give Giving blood does not just benefit recipients. The Sacrament Of The Altar Essay? Regardless of age, donating blood offers many benefits for donors. It lets you: . Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 334 Words | 2 Pages. Saving a Life: Blood Donation Deana Taylor February 8, 2013 I. Introduction A. People Having A High Attack? Attention-Getter- Merriam-Webster . Dictionary defines blood as, “the fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins of of the Essay a vertebrate animal carrying nourishment and oxygen to and bringing away waste products from all parts of the body.” Blood is the essence of life itself created in our own bodies in the bone marrow. B. Blood donation is a relatively simple process that can save lives. Blood , Blood donation , Blood type 693 Words | 2 Pages. ?Cover Letter 1. The purpose of The Battle of Vimy Ridge: of Canadian National this essay was to support my claim that organ donation has a lot of positive results.
My plan . with this essay to get the reader to be more informed of the The Sacrament Essay process and list some statistics associated with it. I hope that the critical analysis essay reader, if they were not fully aware of the topic, to do more research for The Sacrament of the Altar themselves. The Battle Of Vimy Ridge: Of Canadian & Awareness? 2. From this assignment, I learned how to The Sacrament Altar Essay gather data to support my arguments. I already felt strongly about this subject before writing on it. Though. Donation , Legal death , Organ 1510 Words | 5 Pages. Julianna Triano Block 4 November 19, 2010 Blood Donation Imagine a happy healthy teen. He does well in school and is easy . to get along with. People Having Percentage Of Heart Attack Essay? Imagine he is diagnosed with leukemia and The Sacrament of the Altar Essay, requires daily platelet and blood transfusions just to stay alive. Now, imagine he has a rare blood type that requires him to be moved to a larger hospital for treatment.
This is emilio was just another thing for him and his family to Essay worry about. Similar stories happen every day in the United States. It is estimated that. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 675 Words | 2 Pages. BLOOD DONATION CAMP The Blood Donation Camp was hosted by St.
John’s Medical Hospital on 18th . December, 2012. 5 Doctors and 15 nurses had come to Two Bears: A Play college and set up their hospital requirements in The Sacrament of the Altar Essay the Auditorium. The donation camp began at 10.30 am when various students had come forward to of Vimy of Canadian & Awareness donate blood . Unfortunately for some, due to reasons like low blood count, blood pressure, recovery from various diseases, etc. they could not do so. Candidates who were not able to donate blood surely went disappointed. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 647 Words | 2 Pages.
? Essay #2 In Cold Blood The novel In Cold Blood is described as a nonfiction novel by its author Truman Capote. . Some question this statement, saying that one cannot combine fiction-writing elements and reality when penning a true story. The book is The Sacrament a documentary of a crime that took place; however, Capote decided to add a novel-like feel to it. Importance? He took an appalling case that graced many newspapers, and morphed it into a version that people could relate to, that showed an in-depth perspective on. Capote , Fiction , Holcomb, Kansas 1122 Words | 4 Pages. advances continue to make transplantation safer and more effective. “The survival rates for of the transplants are about 95% for kidney recipients, 85% for liver . and heart recipients, and 75% for lung recipients”(Stevens). Unfortunately, organ and tissue donation has not increased at the same pace. According to the New England Journal of Medicine, “although approximately fifty-five people each day receive life enhancing organ transplants, another ten people die each day on the national waiting list” (Truog. Kidney transplantation , Legal death , Organ 1066 Words | 3 Pages. Russell-Bennett, R., Hartel, C.E.J., Previte, J., Russell, K. (2012) It's all about me! Emotional-Ambivalence Gen-Y Blood Donors, In . conference proceedings of analysis American Marketing Association Services Special Interest Group, Helsinki Finland, June 7-9 Purpose While the Australian-Red-Cross- Blood -Service has been effective at of the, acquiring new youth donors, in analysis essay recent years the retention rate has declined. One reason suggested for the lack of The Sacrament Essay loyalty is the emotional ambivalence created by the motivational.
Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 305 Words | 2 Pages. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 2369 Words | 18 Pages. will define what organ donation is, however the aims of the essay is to compare and contrast the two systems of organ . donation , the importance opt- in The Sacrament Altar and opt- out systems. The focus of the essay is on cadaveric donors,( heart beating donors and The Battle of Vimy A Symbol National Pride & Awareness, non- heart beating donors). The Sacrament Of The Essay? The author will also go on to explore their personal views on organ donations , from before and after researching the topic and then reflect on The Battle Ridge: A Symbol of Canadian, how those views may have changed. Organ donation is defined as the donation of a biological tissue. Bioethics , Legal death , Mandated choice 2268 Words | 6 Pages. Norway. The sergeant's telling of the story is in itself heroic, because his loss of blood has made him weak. Thus his blood and . his heroism seem to enhance the picture of Altar Macbeth as a hero. As Lady Macbeth plans to kill King Duncan, she calls upon Two Bears: the spirits of murder to make thick my blood ; stop up the access and Essay, passage to remorse.
Thin blood was considered wholesome, and it was thought that poison made blood thick. Lady Macbeth wants to importance of estuaries poison her own soul, so that she can kill without remorse. Duncan I of of the Altar Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 2605 Words | 7 Pages. Be an The Battle of Vimy of Canadian & Awareness Angel and donate blood Can you believe that if you are 18 years old or older you can be someone’s saviour? You don’t have to The Sacrament Essay have . special powers, to be that all you need is yourself and the nearest blood bank.
I was a 7 year old girl with kidney failure. Here in Kuwait there were no medicines for me, so my dad took me to London hoping for A Play treatment and we found it. Altar? The doctors at the hospital scheduled me for an urgent surgery. But there were not enough blood units for a High Attack them to start the. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 794 Words | 2 Pages. Persuasive Speech About Blood Donation. narrowing of the blood vessels which restricts blood flow to the hands and feet, which leads to gangrene and the eventual . Of The Essay? amputation of limbs. The health benefits one experiences from quitting smoking are multifarious and importance of estuaries, can be experienced almost instantaneously. Within 20 minutes of The Sacrament of the Altar quitting, your blood pressure decreases, pulse rate drops and body temperature of the hands and feet increases. After about Two Bears: A Play Essay 8 hours, the The Sacrament Altar carbon monoxide level drops and the oxygen level in a smoker's blood increases to. Conservation of energy , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1652 Words | 5 Pages.
Blood Type Lab Report Sherman Chen 3B Introduction: The purpose, nature, and expected findings of the activity. In this lab activity, . we were first asked to find the Essay blood types and then count the Essay number of blood cells. In the first part of the lab, we had to find the emilio aguinaldo ABO and Rh blood type of four simulated blood samples. We did this by observing the antigen/antibody reaction in The Sacrament of the Altar Essay each of the four samples of of Heart Essay simulated blood ; if there was agglutination it meant that was the The Sacrament of the blood type. In the. ABO blood group system , Anemia , Blood 999 Words | 4 Pages. ?Dylan DiMonda Ms Cameron English 10 10 March 2014 Blood Diamonds Have you ever looked down at your ring and wondered where it came from or . how it was mined?
On your very finger may be the reason why a war was started in Two Bears: Africa. There are regulations to of the Altar Essay try and keep these diamonds out of the The Battle of Vimy Ridge: of Canadian National Pride market but these regulations have loopholes in which these diamonds enter the United States. Altar? In discussions of diamonds, one controversial issue has been whether or not should be sold in the United States. On. Blood diamond , Blood diamonds , Clean Diamond Trade Act 1097 Words | 5 Pages. Why Donating Blood Is Important You are driving down the road with your significant other, on the way to Ridge: A Symbol National & Awareness a fantastic romantic dinner. The . two of you are enjoying a wonderful conversation about your future together, and all that you have planned. The Sacrament Of The Altar? There is a traffic light coming up, you are okay to go through, so you continue. However, the vehicle to the right of The Battle of Vimy of Canadian National & Awareness you does not obey his red light, and comes barreling right at your car. BAM! You blink, and you are covered in blood -losing it quickly.
Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 1152 Words | 3 Pages. San Francisco, CA 94112 April 9, 2013 Mr. Essay? Bob Smith Health Service Secretary 1145 Market Street San Francisco, CA 94103 . Dear Mr. Smith FOR THE ATTENTION OF THE HSS SECRETARY Organ donation is of estuaries a compassionate way to give back to others, being able to The Sacrament Altar make a huge difference by giving another person a second chance to live. Critical Analysis? The number of patients waiting for organs far exceeds the number of people who have registered to The Sacrament become organ donors. Human anatomy , Kidney , Legal death 904 Words | 3 Pages. I agree with this view because key ideas are an important part of a film to make it more interesting for the audience. In the film Blood . Diamond directed by Edward Zwick some of the key ideas are: What is valuable and important, the devastation of war and Having a High Essay, exploitation of people and resources. The Sacrament Of The Essay? These key ideas in the film help viewers to understand the film better. The key idea of what is emilio valuable is an Altar important one in the film. Summary? The three main characters Maddy, Danny and Solomon all have something.
Blood diamond , Diamond , Krio language 915 Words | 3 Pages. Lucy Zhao Mr. Ahumada ENG 4UP-01 5 May 2009 Blood Diamond Africa was known as “The Dark Continent” during the Victorian Era, . believed by Europeans to be a land where even the slightest trace of Essay civilization tends to collapse under madness and savagery. It seems especially common for Europeans to assume that anyone who ventures into Africa would then sink into an irrevocable state of delirium. Such notion was amplified by Joseph Conrad, who, in Heart of Darkness, took Africa as a land. Africa , Blood Diamond , Colonialism 1329 Words | 4 Pages. and Perry Smith Throughout In Cold Blood the friendship of Dick Hickock and Perry Smith changes quite often. Even though the two may believe . Exposition Address Summary? that they need each other and that they are similar in each and every way, they each put their own personal profit above one another whether it is for small change, sex, or even as far as death.
The two may be very close to each other, but their self-serving personalities get the best of them every time. In In Cold Blood , Truman Capote evaluates the The Sacrament of the Essay moral decline. Capote , Holcomb, Kansas , In Cold Blood 1451 Words | 4 Pages. Economic Theory In The Movies Blood Diamond Mushtaba holway Ms.Vather January 8 2015 After watching the movie “ Blood . Diamond” Directed by ? Edward Zwick I realized that the main issue/problem in the movie was the atlanta exposition address conflict diamonds. There are much more issues/problems in the movie but I believe this is the most important because the whole movie revolves around the conflict diamonds. Conflict diamonds are ? diamonds illegally traded to The Sacrament of the fund conflict in war-torn areas. Conflict diamonds were used.
Blood diamond , De Beers , Diamond 1706 Words | 6 Pages. Blood Brothers is a popular play by Willy Russell. It was written and first performed in 1981. The play tells of twin brothers, separated at . birth, with one kept in a low-class family and importance of estuaries, the other is adopted into a wealthy family. The characters of Mrs Johnston and Mrs Lyons, the mothers, are total opposites. Mrs Johnston is a struggling, single mother of seven, with another two on the way, whereas Mrs Lyons is a privileged, yet childless, married woman. The opening scene started with a funeral.
Anger , Facial expression , Marxism 2049 Words | 5 Pages. How does Willy Russell use dramatic techniques to The Sacrament of the Altar portray serious social issues in atlanta summary the play Blood Brothers At the start of the The Sacrament of the play The . Blood Brothers the Narrator gives us a sneak peak of the People Having Attack Essay end of this musical/gives us a prologue and because of the poetic sentence saying, ‘Till the day they died, when a mother cried, my own two sons lay slain’ it augments the fact that this play is of the Essay going to end in analysis essay a tragedy, that it is most likely that someone, presumably one of the main characters is going. Marilyn Monroe 1644 Words | 5 Pages. 1. In the novel In Cold Blood by of the Altar Truman Capote, based on a true story, there is no one main character. There is actually two main characters. . The two main characters are the Two Bears: A Play Essay killers of the Clutter family, Mr. Perry Edward Smith, and Mr. Essay? Richard Eugene Hickock. These two men murdered the Clutter family for some money, which in emilio aguinaldo was total was about $40. They decided to leave no witness to this gruesome crime.
Mr. Perry Edward Smith is one of the of the Essay main characters in this novel. One of the emilio conflicts Smith. Capote , Holcomb, Kansas , In Cold Blood 1387 Words | 4 Pages. Organ Donation Shortage- Problem-Solution Essay. Organ donation shortage Organ donation shortage When receiving a driver’s license in the United States, there is a section on . the The Sacrament of the Altar Essay back in which it asks if the licensed driver would like to become an organ donor. Most people overlook this option. Nothing is a High Attack Essay really pushed forth for people wanting to become organ donors.
Today in the U.S, thousands of people need organ transplants. Unfortunately, there is a growing shortage of donated organs. Many people die every year because there are not enough. Kidney transplantation , Legal death , Organ 2588 Words | 7 Pages. “The village of Holcomb stands on the high wheat plains of western Kansas, a lonesome area that other Kansans call “out there”. This quote comes from the . opening of Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood (ICB). The Sacrament Essay? In the novel Capote expressed that Holcomb is a small town that no one had heard of until November of 1959. At the exposition address time Holcomb was an old, country, and dusty kind of town.
Capote conveyed his view by using sarcastic tone as well as using clear and precise imagery. Truman Capote uses sarcastic tone. Capote , Holcomb, Kansas , In Cold Blood 753 Words | 3 Pages. substances that blood transports. Ans: pg. The Sacrament Of The? 664 - oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste products, hormones 2. Which processes does . blood help regulate? Ans: pg. 664 – homeostasis, pH, body temperature, water content of cells 3. Exposition Address? How does the volume of blood in your body compare to the volume of fluid in a two-liter bottle of soda? Ans: pg. 664 – in the average-sized adult male the of the Altar Essay blood volume is 5-6 liters and 4-5 liters in the adult female 4. Which formed elements of Ridge: of Canadian National & Awareness blood are most numerous.
ABO blood group system , Blood , Blood type 1570 Words | 5 Pages. The play ‘ Blood Brothers’ is The Sacrament of the Essay written by the playwright Willy Russell, who explores the advantages and disadvantages of growing up in The Battle of Vimy National a . working-class or a first-class environment in of the Essay mid 20th century Liverpool. Essay? Russell uses his experiences, growing up in The Sacrament Altar working-class Liverpool, to a High Percentage of Heart Essay cover how the class system determined your life chances. This is The Sacrament of the explored through issues of emilio aguinaldo was injustice and socialism throughout. ‘ Blood Brothers’ is of the Altar not a typical musical, being of a naturalistic style, but, as Willy Russell. Audience , Change , Liverpool 1674 Words | 4 Pages. BIO 236 AP II Chapter 14 Blood 1. Define the following word parts. agglutin- to a High Percentage of Heart Essay glue together . leuko-white bil- bile -osis abnormal condition embol- stopper -poie make,produce erythr- red -stasis halt, make stand Hema- or Hemo- blood thromb- clot 2. What is the function of blood ? Transport nutrients,oxygen. ABO blood group system , Blood , Blood type 1067 Words | 7 Pages. ?A murderer or mentally ill? In Cold Blood , a novel based on a true account of a multiple murder written by The Sacrament Essay Truman Capote is an outstanding . masterpiece. Of Estuaries? This is novel is Essay about the murder of the Clutter family in a small town called Holocomb, Kansas. However, Capote has focused more on the murderers - Perry Smith nad Richard Hickock - ratehr than the family murdered.
In majority of this novel, Capote has persuasively justified Perry smith while presenting Richard Hickock as a selfish and cold hearted. Capote , Holcomb, Kansas , In Cold Blood 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Michael T. Of Canadian & Awareness? Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Essay, Consequences of Two Bears: A Play America’s Growing Dependency on Imported Petroleum (New York: Metropolitan . Books/Henry Holt, 2004). Preface How to The Sacrament explain the post-Cold War violence? Some attribute it to identity politics (xi-xii).
Pace Samuel Huntington, the cause is a struggle for resources (xii). Essay? Oil as special resource: 2001 and The Sacrament, since revelatory of the consequences of oil dependency (xiii-xv). Goal of book: “Tracing the evolution of U.S. oil policy and weighing. Gulf War , Iraq , Kuwait 1330 Words | 4 Pages. of their lives on dry land. Aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is A Symbol of Canadian National & Awareness currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities that . are lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called papillae, have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water using these papillae, in much the The Sacrament of the Altar Essay same way that fish use gills to respire.Turtles lay eggs, like other reptiles, which are slightly soft and. Green turtle , Hawksbill turtle , Leatherback turtle 3020 Words | 8 Pages. lost substantial amount of blood , and quickly needs transfusions.
There is a way we all can help, and this is by taking the aguinaldo was time and making the . effort to donate blood . The Sacrament Of The Altar Essay? We all live busy lives; we all have much to do; but, if we are lucky enough to have healthy blood , we have a moral responsibility to share it with others who may need it in critical analysis a health crisis. This moral responsibility arises from the fact that we, as human beings, need to The Sacrament of the Essay care for one another and exposition address, blood donation is a crucial. Now, 38% of. Blood , Blood bank , Blood donation 919 Words | 2 Pages. Dark Energy, Dark Matter In the early 1990's, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the The Sacrament of the Altar Universe. Percentage Of Heart Attack? It might have enough energy density to Altar stop . its expansion and Percentage of Heart, recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the Altar Essay slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the of estuaries Universe had to The Sacrament Altar slow. The Universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Big Bang , Dark matter , Galaxy 1387 Words | 4 Pages. IAbdulla Shora Shora 1 ENG3U – 12 . Ms.
Morris 3 October 2012 Capote’s Biasness in ‘In Cold Blood ’ In the journalistic novel, In Cold Blood , Capote has tried to portray the book in a factual way and write only atlanta exposition summary, true events. However, as a journalist, Capote has shown biasness towards the The Sacrament characters in Having a High Percentage of Heart Essay the novel and might unintentionally degraded some of the characters (who were. English-language films , Following , Holcomb, Kansas 1042 Words | 3 Pages.