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bates essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Essay, Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for and hyde, more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization.

In the Ergotism context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. Jekyll And Hyde Shmoop. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by Ergotism Essay, the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. C Example. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China#8217;s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for Ergotism Essay, his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings.

Without the photographer#8217;s preoccupations, Liu#8217;s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by key process c example, the social structure and lifestyles of the Ergotism Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the essay conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu#8217;s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Essay, Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi#8217;s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on The Psychopath The Show Dexter Essay, the wall of the main room, the Ergotism Essay equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence.

In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. Lovesong Alfred Prufrock. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and Ergotism Essay, the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of the berlin these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the Ergotism Essay space and are competing against one another.

Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and romance, folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China?

To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of Ergotism Essay different theories and methodologies? Many of c example us are facing these questions. Ergotism Essay. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to the berlin adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and Ergotism, then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is through such detail that he displays the and hyde conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and Ergotism Essay, through bold folk coloring he highlights the essay at school cultural taste in Ergotism Essay, rural central China. At the on funfair same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to Ergotism take root in rural areas. Among Dexter Essay Examples. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to Ergotism help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in jekyll shmoop, a specific geographic region. Essay. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the essay on funfair 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in Ergotism Essay, a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of eggplant Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the Essay single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants#8217; departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in China#8217;s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization.

Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to The Psychopath Us: The Show the city in search of Essay work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China#8217;s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for essay, peasant workers, the Ergotism prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and true, shelter. Cities and Ergotism Essay, their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of Among The Show examples peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang#8217;s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the Ergotism details of key process peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of Ergotism pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and true, the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin#8217;s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of Ergotism contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of essay on funfair at school China#8217;s social reality, and a part of China#8217;s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment.

Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the Essay 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. The Berlin. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an Essay indelible impact on lovesong alfred prufrock themes, the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin#8217;s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those #8220;contemporary heroes#8221; who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and Essay, actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times.

Like Zhang Xinmin#8217;s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang#8217;s gritty images, Shanghai#8217;s residents asked for neither the society#8217;s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the The Psychopath Among Us: The Show deepest of sympathy from the Essay artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the the berlin violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time.

Through Lu#8217;s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming#8217;s early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai#8217;s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the #8220;optic unconscious.#8221; Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and Ergotism, personal viewpoint. The Psychopath Among The Show Examples. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time.

The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a #8220;pre-modern#8221; urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. Essay. By way of Among Essay examples stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and Ergotism Essay, the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to essay the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Ergotism Essay, Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the key process c example modern city#8217;s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. Ergotism. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes.

The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The #8220;masters#8221; of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers#8217; images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai#8217;s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society#8217;s #8220;silent majority.#8221; Zhou#8217;s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to Among examples him, still ongoing. Ergotism Essay. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the the berlin to motive in Ergotism, taking these pictures is to draw more peoples#8217; attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by and hyde, the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers#8217; labor and subsistence in Essay, physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in The Psychopath Us: The Show Essay examples, workers#8217; operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou#8217;s images do not aestheticize the laborers#8217; physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of #8220;industry,#8221; of the persons who are engaged in Ergotism, industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to jekyll shmoop the entire society.

Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory. Essay. Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and and hyde, realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou#8217;s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to Ergotism the complicated psychological states #8212; a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness #8212; with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment.

By weaving together subliminal settings and on funfair, intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is Ergotism Essay emerging from the The Psychopath Among Essay constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the Essay reality of society. The cameras in the photographers#8217; hands are tools to Among The Show Dexter Essay record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.

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Ergotism Essay

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Guess What#039;s Cooking in Ergotism Essay the Garage. The next big breakthrough in synthetic biology just might come from an amateur scientist. Guess What's Cooking. What follows is alfred prufrock a modified excerpt from Bunch of Amateurs: A Search for the American Character_, out now._. On Fillmore Street in San Francisco, in that stretch that's still mostly boho coffee joints with a head shop and an art gallery or two, I met Meredith Patterson.

She didn't exactly stand out among the denizens of the Lower Haight. In her 30s and pushing 5?10?? in her combat boots, she had on a tough-looking leather jacket and cat's-eye glasses that finished off her look with a nice hint of 1950s girl nerd. Patterson is classic self-invented obsessive. Ergotism Essay. A computer programmer and Us: The Show examples, language theorist by day, she's somebody who's loved anything do-it-yourself since she was a little girl, working beside her dad fixing the Essay, family car or rewiring the house. Not long ago, she found herself in the grip of a new enthusiasm: homebrew bioengineering. America has always been a place of was built ambitious amateurs. And the latest in the long line of Ergotism Essay them are self-taught biologists like Patterson. These synthetic biologists, so called because they try to The Psychopath Us: The Show Essay examples, engineer new forms of life, are trying to do for the chromosome what Steve Jobs did for Ergotism Essay, the computer.

In the key process c example, bigger cities, they have started to form synbio clubs, the same way radio enthusiasts did in the early 1900s or computer programmers did in Essay the 1970s or robotics amateurs did in The Show Essay examples the '00s. Ergotism Essay. A few of those clubs have even opened brick-and-mortar labs where members can practice tweaking various genomes as a group. Ask most people about the romance eggplant, amateur spirit, and they'll say, well, that was then. It's almost common wisdom that the golden age of the self-invented upstart ended sometime about Ergotism a generation ago. But the fact is, we've been hearing this line for at essay on funfair, least a century, and it's always wrong.

The time of outsiders and Ergotism Essay, amateurs and cranks is not a bygone era, but rather a cycle that comes around just when you think it's over. This cycle is an the berlin was built, essential part of America's historyarguably the Ergotism, country's genesis story. Ever since Ben Franklin left Boston for Philadelphia, and continuing right up through when Mark Zuckerberg abandoned Harvard Square for Palo Alto, there has been this sense that a certain kind of creativity happens on the fly, often on lovesong of j prufrock the lam, after beginning in one of those proving grounds of American ingenuity: the dorm room, the weekend hobby club, the garage. For Patterson, that proving ground happens to be a tabletop lab situated in Ergotism the breakfast nook just outside the kitchen of her apartment. She had invited me out to essay on funfair, check out her riga collection of mostly repurposed and (fairly) common household devices that she uses to fiddle around with the building blocks of lifeand to help her with the next step of her latest project. She wanted to insert a plasmid of jellyfish DNA into Ergotism Essay a bacterium so that later she might cultivate a modified form of true romance yogurt, one that tasted great but also glowed in Ergotism the dark. Before we got to lovesong of j themes, any serious bioengineering, Patterson said we'd have to Ergotism, visit one of her go-to synbio supply stores: Trader Joe's, which sold plain yogurt containing the bacteria we'd need, Lactobacillus acidophilus . During our walk, I noticed a tattoo on her ankle. She pulled her pants up above her boot. This one's not done yet, she said. It was a steampunk biomechanical x-ray of her lower tibia and fibula, a series of mechanical cogs, robotic pistons and bicycle chains. It's kind of a joke, because I have these weird mutant ankles, she explained.

I have this thing called an wall to, accessory navicular bone. Patterson has a number of tattoos, all of which relate in some way to Essay, her sense of herself as an off-the-grid scientist. On one arm she has a rose window and sword from her favorite anime serial, Revolutionary Girl Utena. Down the bicep is the iconic image of Atlas holding up the heavens, most familiar as the paperback cover art of Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged . And keeping the burdened Titan company is the Page of Pentacles, the tarot-card figure who, she says, signifies the eternal student. The crucial ingredient for Patterson's Glo-gurt is of j a gene known as green fluorescent protein, or GFP. Originally found in Essay jellyfish and a species of prufrock themes polyp called the sea pansy, GFP allows these creatures to bioluminesce when disturbed.

In 2000, an artist named Eduardo Kac created GFP Bunny, a genetically altered albino hare that glowed bright green in the presence of ultraviolet light. Ergotism Essay. Since then, the gene and its colorful relatives have been domesticatedvery domesticated. Pet stores now sell GFP-altered zebra fish as GloFish ($7.99 a piece, $6.99 if you buy threenow available in Starfire Red, Electric Green, Sunburst Orange, Cosmic Blue and Galactic Purple). Three scientists who studied the eggplant, gene won a Nobel Prize in 2008, and GFP is more seriously used as a marker to track all kinds of changes and Ergotism, effects at the genetic level. Patterson's aim with Glo-gurt is lovesong alfred prufrock not quite so high. She thought it would be cool, she told me, to go to a rave with glow sticks she could eat. When we arrived back at her apartment, Patterson showed me a sample of the Ergotism Essay, glow-in-the-dark plasmid that she had obtained; she kept it sealed in a bag in her freezer next to some frozen chicken wings and of j prufrock themes, a box of Eggos. She had ordered it from the Carolina Biological Supply Company in North Carolina the same way someone else might order a sweater. Essay. Her basic plan was to grow a batch of the yogurt bacteria, introduce the GFP gene into the cells, and then use that modified bacteria to make yogurt again. To do so, we would need to key process c example, improvise an Essay, electroporation device that could help usher the shmoop, glow-in-the-dark gene into the Lactobacillus . Electroporation is a common genetic procedure that involves exposing cells to a 2,500-volt, pulsed electrical field. In bacteria, the charge changes the permeability of the cell membrane, making it possible to pass the GFP plasmid through it.

Essentially, Patterson said, we're going to taser them. Synthetic biologists hope to do for the chromosome what Steve Jobs did for the computer.Patterson does all of her work, high-voltage and otherwise, in her apartment, a place shared by a changing cast of roommates. It's all very familiara friendly wreck of Essay used furniture, piles of books and boxes, coats, beanbag chairs, and a potted glade of houseplants clustered desperately at c example, the windows. Ergotism. Scattered on the table that serves as her lab is her improvised genetic gear. Patterson long ago solved the problem of wall was built to obtaining lab-quality pipettes (because they can run around $200) by purchasing, from an online pharmacy, cheap disposable insulin needles that can measure down to the microliter. Ergotism. She reengineered a nine-inch floppy-drive motor from a computer she bought used for jekyll, $5 to serve as a centrifuge for spinning vials of liquid containing bacteria. Her autoclave is a pressure cooker, and Ergotism, her incubator is a tailgater's fridge from Sharper Image that can cool or warm.

Someone was getting rid of one of these for of j, $30, she said. Ergotism. Mine now. Click here to view this article on a single page, or continue to page two below. There's a playful quality to all this. The Psychopath The Show Essay. Whether it's bale-wiring some junk she bought at Ergotism Essay, a street sale or working out ingenious substitutes from the local pharmacy, Patterson talks about creating her lab with as much glee as she does the on funfair, genetic engineering she's attempting. And that same joy, call it subversive freedom, is what drew her into synbio in the first place. When the programmers conference CodeCon was being scheduled a few years ago, she volunteered to put on a little DNA show, and the organizers agreed. Ergotism. She wanted to illuminate the lovesong alfred prufrock themes, seemingly complex world that most of us imagine when we hear words like recombinant DNA and Ergotism Essay, show that it was quite accessible. For instance, the wall was built to, process of extracting DNA from the classic green pea, the Ergotism Essay, subject of Gregor Mendel's famous experiments, can be made to sound very complicated.

A professional in a lab might discuss cell disruption to penetrate the on funfair at school, membrane, followed by Ergotism Essay, removal of lipids, followed by an isopropanol bath and a protease wash, followed by some turns in a centrifuge to yield a bit of stringy DNA in the bottom of a test tube. But Patterson showed up to the conference with a box of the berlin to stuff found in Ergotism Essay most kitchens or bathrooms. I started with dried ground-up peas, she said, and I put those in a saline buffer. Key Process. She quickly translates for Essay, me: regular old saltwater. Then, she continued, you shake it up a little bit and add some shampoo, which contains a detergent, which breaks apart the fatty cell wall. To that you add meat tenderizer, which contains papain, which is a protease that breaks down the nucleus. So the shampoo gets us inside the cell, and the meat tenderizer gets us inside the nucleus where the DNA resides and releases it from the proteins that accompany it. Then you let it sit for a while until it turns into what Patterson calls a slurry of digested goo.

This gunk is put into a salad spinner to separate the solids from the romance eggplant, liquids. After pouring off the liquid, you add rubbing alcohol. DNA likes alcohol about as much as oil likes water, so it tends to bunch together to separate itself from the Ergotism Essay, rest of the the berlin wall was built to, liquid. Sticky strings begin to form. This is pure, extracted DNA, ready for bioengineering. Part of the freedom and Ergotism, pleasure that amateurs feel while doing their research derives from the fact that their workspaces usually contain no black boxes. Among Patterson's lab equipment, there's nothing store-bought whose processes she doesn't understand. She's built and rebuilt everything. When I asked, for instance, about the broth in the tubesthat is, the the berlin wall, food that would feed our bacteria as they grew overnightshe said, Normally when you are growing lacto, you use MRS broth.

MRS stands for a couple of guys [three scientists: J.D. DeMan, M. Ergotism. Rogosa and eggplant, M.E. Ergotism. Sharpe]. But that stuff is expensive, so she made her own. What I did was manage to track down an article Paul Elliker wrote in on funfair at school the Journal of Dairy Science . The article was written in 1956. Talk about going back to Ergotism Essay, basics. I could have solved the essay, problem by Ergotism Essay, throwing money at it, she said, but what I've generally found is essay on funfair that old articles tend to Ergotism Essay, have the the berlin wall to, cheapest but still effective way of going about anything. This kind of improvisational approach to research and experimentation lends a certain levity of purpose to any amateur endeavor. When things went perfectly, Patterson's work gave way to moments of intense and Essay, obscure beauty. To add distilled water to our vials of bacteria, she cleaned her hands and carefully removed a single sterilized corked tube. Prufrock. With one elegant motion, she drew up some water with a syringe; with the Essay, other she one-handedly popped the cork.

She looked sideways at the open tube so that her slight breathing wouldn't contaminate her work. True Romance Eggplant. Then she pipetted just enough in, recorking the tube once the process was finished. Twenty times, perfectly, like a tiny private ballet. In less-than-perfect moments, when something went wrong, Patterson just stepped back, thought about things for Ergotism Essay, a while, and dove back in. She doesn't get frustrated easily, a trait she ascribes to her parents' constant encouragement when she was a kid. But it's also the case that amateurs simply have a different relationship to The Psychopath Among Us: Dexter examples, frustration, and even failure. At an office, failure and success are binary modes, down and up (and often linked directly to pay). Public failure, too, can be discouraging and embarrassing.

In the worst cases, it can get you marginalized or fired. But if the entire rig on Ergotism your kitchen table is your creation, hatched from street cast-offs and dairy farmers' lessons dating from the Eisenhower administration, then failure is lovesong of j just a glitch in the system you've built. Putting one's hands in there, e-mailing other kindred scientists for advice, checking out colleagues on a common wiki, fixing what's wrong, and moving one's investigations forward are simply short-term variations of success. On one of the many long nights that Patterson and I would spend together piecing together her system, we had a brief discussion of flow, the Ergotism Essay, notion developed by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pronounced me-high chick-sent-me-highperhaps the most fun name to key process, say, ever). This Hungarian-American psychologist holds that there is a very satisfying state of mind that occurs when one is totally absorbed by an action.

It may sound as if this is Ergotism some rare state of being, like a kind of secular nirvana, but it's not. Among Examples. We all experience flow. It doesn't require special meditative skills, only the Essay, love of doing something so much so that one gets lost in the labor. One might experience flow while painting a complex landscape or painting the front porch. Or chaperoning growing bacteria. Its commonness is why we have so many phrases for this pleasant state of existence: being in the zone, losing ourselves in our work, being on the ball, in the groove. Oh, Patterson said, suddenly recognizing what I was talking about. You mean codespace, as programmers call it, where the world just sort of alfred prufrock themes disappears. She knew it well. That's a good head space to try new things, especially if there's something I think should work.

So I try it and see if it does: 'That didn't quite work the way it was supposed to. Let's check a few settings and see if this works.' Sweet. The word amateur comes from the Latin word for love, which, when encouraged with money, becomes a profession. An amateur's love is typically free of Ergotism direct pay, such that while money might ultimately be involved, it's not the day-to-day incentive. It's a kind of love that hasn't very well spoken its name. It's neither eros nor agape, nothing involving filial bonding or generous charity. The Show Dexter. It may, in fact, be the Ergotism, least described lovea peculiar version of self-love, charged with the hope of finding that new thing just over on funfair at school, the horizon. In the months before my visit, Patterson had already been working to Ergotism Essay, coax the glow-in-the-dark gene into her yogurt bacterium. She had tried to use the heat-shock method to drive it into the berlin was built to the cells. When bacteria get to Ergotism Essay, a certain temperature, they start producing these heat-shock proteins, which also open up some holes, she explained.

And in lovesong of j alfred that brief moment, the Essay, new genes sloshing around nearby can slip in. In my head, it's like: Holy shit, it's hot in here, let's open some windows. Patterson's autoclave is a pressure cooker, and her incubator is a tailgater's fridge from Sharper Image.But heat shock hadn't worked, so she had moved on to electroporation. When she first described it to me, I pictured the bacterium ballooning like a cartoon character with its finger in a socketits flagella sticking out like hair and its microscopic pores bulging open like wide eye socketssuch that the GFP plasmid could rush in. For us, the question was how to administer these shocks to our bacteria. Patterson had configured the lovesong alfred, timing mechanism on Essay an Arduino, an easily customized computer board. It would handle the Among Dexter Essay examples, literally split-second timing. Ergotism Essay. All we needed now was 2,500 volts (the precise amount, I recently learned, once used to carry out the missions of famous 20th-century electric chairs, the essay, insanely powerful ones with nicknames like Gruesome Gertie, Yellow Mama, Old Smokey and Sizzlin' Sally).

To accomplish this, Patterson got hold of a transformer from an old neon sign. Essay. It takes in at school 12 volts and Ergotism, ramps it up to 3,000 volts, so it would seem to make sense that if we fed the transformer 10 volts, it would kick out 2,500. But Patterson's voltmeter kept telling us something was slightly off here. We tried different connections and different transistors, and on funfair, then we needed another part, and then there was a road trip to Essay, Fry's, a kind of Home Depot for everything electronic, and then, was that the sun setting already? We must have tested the input and outputs of the Arduino board 50 times. These tests amounted to us sitting on the wooden floor and carefully holding the (insulated) lines in place as we blasted away with potentially lethal streams of of j prufrock electricity. One day we spent 10 hours trying to configure one wiring setup after another. Hours of this fiddling passed, but it was as if no time had passed at all. Meanwhile, the tiny amount of Ergotism Essay yogurt Lactobacillus we had placed in the incubator was growing away.

But there was a flaw in that system, too. The incubator's two-bit thermostat had busted. There was no longer a way to automatically regulate the heat inside, so Patterson would carefully monitor the The Psychopath Among Us: The Show Essay, temperature herself. She would turn the incubator off after a while and wait for it to cool down a few degrees before turning it back on. This way, she kept it from overcooking our bugs. We were now several days into constant experimentation, and we spent a lot of Essay time together, staring at transistors, tending the incubator as if it were an old wood stove, sterilizing equipment, waiting for true romance eggplant, very slow things to Ergotism Essay, happen. Prufrock Themes. Patterson is Ergotism a smoker, and in moments precisely like these, I allow myself a temporary relapse into a habit I enjoyed ages ago. So we'd take cigarette breaks, standing by her window. Well into one evening, as we sat in our own groove, occupied by long stretches of work, suddenly there appeared a solution to the thermostat problem, like a bubble slowly popping at the surface of key process our flow. What about one of those light timers you can get to fool burglars?

I asked. Patterson instantly got it. Yes. A light timer. We could program it to Ergotism, turn the incubator off and c example, on. Then we could leave the apartment building for more than an hour. We raced downstairs and drove south to a late-night Home Depot in San Jose. The new models were perfect for what we were doing, and Ergotism, only a few bucks.

Controls allowed you to customize the on/off cycle however you wantedon for Us: The Show Dexter Essay examples, five minutes, off for 30, for Essay, instance. Problem solved. By the time we got the timer set up, dawn was on the way. We would eventually have to return to our transistor flow, but for now, there was this intense pleasure. We both stepped back, looking at a light timer plugged into a surge protector with, absurdly, an exhilarating amount of true eggplant self-satisfaction. Time to light up. Patterson and Ergotism Essay, homebrew biologists like her may form the body of a nascent synbio movement, but the architects of that movement still come almost entirely from academe. The most visible booster of synthetic biology is probably Drew Endy, a professor of bioengineering at wall was built to, Stanford University. Young-looking, with slightly mussed sandy hair, Endy could easily be mistaken for a perpetual grad student.

He coins hackerish jargon that sounds super-hip. If you listen carefully on the Stanford campus, maybe you'll hear someone referring to the shifting of Ergotism a gene from one life-form to another as DNA bashing. Endy predicts a time (soon) when someone will rewrite the DNA of an acorn to include George Jetsonlike instructions that direct the Among Us: The Show Essay examples, future oak to assemble into a bookshelf. He also says that the Essay, leading synthetic biologists need to aid and abet amateurs like Patterson if this emerging science is going to rapidly advance. In 2003, he helped found iGem, the International Genetic Engineered Machine competition. Held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology every year, iGem invites teams of college and high-school students and amateurs from all over and hyde, the world to strut their bioengineering stuff and compete for a Lego-shaped BioBrick Trophy that comes complete with its own suitcase. Endy is also working to standardize the parts that synbio researchers use, which could help to Ergotism Essay, jump-start the amateur cycle. He loves to tell the story of William Sellers, an engineer who wrote an c example, important paper around the time the Civil War was winding up. Sellers suggested that American engineers adopt a standard for all nuts and bolts.

He proposed a formula that would create a standard pitch of screw thread conformed to the bolt's diameter. In case you're interested: P = 0.24 vD + 0.625 0.175. Today Americans still screw, more or less, thanks to the Sellers system. Ergotism Essay. The key feature of standardization, Endy says, was that every Sellers nut, when screwed into of j alfred themes a Sellers bolt, behaved the same way. When you pull on Ergotism Essay the nut, Endy says, it stays put. It doesn't come flying off the bolt. In other words, it does what it is supposed to do, a feature that Endy and other engineers call reliable, functional composition. Endy predicts a time when someone will rewrite the DNA of an jekyll and hyde, acorn to direct the Ergotism, future oak to assemble into a bookshelf.This reliability is one of those structural changes to early American manufacturing that drove its rapid progress in the 19th century. Endy thinks a similar reliability is possible for DNA research.

For instance, MIT maintains a Registry of c example Standard Biological Parts, a one-stop shop for DNA standards. Ergotism. Geneticists anywhere can order various plasmids or other strings of DNA known to romance eggplant, cause a catalog's worth of biological features. Ergotism Essay. And it works the other way, too. You can register a new DNA strand with a novel functionalityfor example, a biosynthetic device that changes the nasty manure-like odor of growing lab bacteria into the pleasant aroma of a banana. This bio-widget, or banana odor biosynthetic system, has been standardized and registered, available in the catalog as part BBa_J45900. The idea is that the registry will become a kind of RadioShack for DNA parts, so that DIY folks and academics alike will start playing and creating, advancing the science quickly. The number of standard biological parts doubles every year, and, Endy has said, the key process c example, same thing is happening with the number of teenagers who would like to do genetic engineering; it's doubling every year. Five teams competed at Essay, iGem in 2004; 165 competed last year. If you listen to Endywith his talk of iGem and the parts-registry and his gene bashing lingoyou'd begin to think he could single-handedly guide synbio into the mainstream.

But he is just one of a kind of secular trinity of was built academic leaders birthing this new field. The others are Jay Keasling of the University of California at Berkeley and George Church of Harvard University. A biochemical engineer, Keasling does not talk about Essay making synbio cool or bashing genes. Instead he focuses on making synthetic biology do very specific things. For instance, he'd like to wall, cure malaria. Essay. The treatment for that disease involves a substance called artemisinin, which derives from the slow-growing sweet wormwood plant. Keasling developed a bacteria that quickly pumps out the berlin wall was built to, artemisinin, and in 2010, he announced that he was beginning production of the Ergotism Essay, drug. If all goes well, he'll commercialize it this year. Perhaps the most practical of the synbio leaders is George Church.

He is a towering 6?5??, with a lumberjack's beard, a commanding presence, and a seductively hyperactive and chatty mind, not to mention a brilliant scientific eccentricity: He suffers from narcolepsy. So the great man can be speaking to you and, boom, he blinks out for five seconds and then boots right back up. It's the equivalent of Einstein's hair, notice given that you are in the presence of wild and ranging genius. As Patterson and her peers start testing out their new ideas, a public debate will eventually arise: Just what are we permitting here?Church talks up synbio's economic potential, specifically fuels. He wants to engineer something that makes a lot of money and gets positive attention. The obstacle to turning piles of organic material such as switchgrass into easy biofuels is that the sugars in the plant are bound up by cellulose. To get it out, the cellulose has to be extracted. What if you could design a bacterium that transforms cellulose into of j usable sugars? That would have a worldwide market almost immediately.

Biofuels are the low-hanging fruit of synthetic biology, Church told me in his office one afternoon. Pharmaceutical cures might earn good press, but the demand for Ergotism, them is small relative to the demand for fuels, where the markets are huge. Everyone involved in synthetic biology recognizes that if robotics, say, is a weekend amateur pursuit whose clubs are in their mature phase, then synbio is in utero. So they worry constantly about public relations and imagery. They know that some story will break the field into the pop culturea brilliant discovery, a cool movie, but also, possibly, a tabloid freak-out that calls down Homeland Security. NASA had the key process c example, moon shot, Church said, as he pondered how the Ergotism, public comes to understand the complexities of the berlin to any new scientific discipline. There was the homebrew computer club. Even robotics had a cinematic push.

He recognizes that Hollywood prefers to deal in a dystopic version of biology. He considered the ill effects of Jurassic Park , Gattaca or I Am Legend . There is one isolated nondystopic movie, Church said: Lorenzo's Oil , the story of parents who will stop at nothing to find a cure for their child's rare affliction. The movie was not exactly a hit. You can see how hard it is for Hollywood to make a blockbuster out of lipid chemistry, he said. Bunch of Amateurs.

Around midnight in San Francisco, Patterson and I are on the floor with our 40th or 50th attempt at configuring the 2,500-volt transformer. Even here, in this most isolated lab, the synbio community is all around us. Patterson regularly checks old e-mails for advice, downloads one more schematic from another site, consults with a wiki or two. Late in the evening, she calls a guy named Brian who's a whiz at electrical things, and they confer for 20 minutes. Brian's advice was to turn these around, she says, pointing at two connectors with wires, and put the load between the power supply and the collector.

So we make our adjustments and continue to find problems with the connections. Work like this is mostly just the tedium of getting things right or attempting to, and for long stretches the only sound is Patterson cheerfully muttering to herself: Something lights upwell, hello. That's a 15k resistor. Again, didn't work.

I'm wondering if I've misunderstood which pin is which. Ergotism. If I did, that would be stupid. Things that do not make sense include . . . Where the Among The Show, hell are you coming from? Again, we're not getting squat. We both stare at the tiny board one more time.

We want red to go here and black to go here, and somebody needs to touch this wire to the base. So if you want to just hold these, I can plug it in. First, make sure you are not touching the lead. Good. A vicious snapping sound shatters the concentrated silence of the Ergotism Essay, room. The Berlin Wall Was Built To. Some lights go out, throughout the building.

Patterson pulls the plug. Time for Ergotism, a cigarette break, she says. With electroporation out, Patterson explains, we'll have to lovesong alfred themes, resort to the next best way to get a plasmid into a bacterium: an ultrasound bath. This involves the same technology that allows us to Essay, peer inside a womb and look at c example, a fetus. Ultrasound is used in labs normally for lysing cells, for Essay, ripping them open and getting out the DNA, she explains. And it is also used for sterilization. The Show Dexter Essay Examples. A really high amplitude of Ergotism ultrasound can be used to kill off bacteria. When the frequency is in the 40-kilohertz range, you can actually use it for transsection, one of the terms for introducing plasmids into and hyde shmoop things. (Having failed at frying the bacteria and then shocking them, we now hoped to Essay, yell at them.) The question is, how do you get an ultrasound machine? This thing ran 40 bucks, she saysthis thing being a jewelry cleaner operating at 40 kilohertz. The machine is small and compact, easy to handle.

Dozens of essay them are offered for sale on eBay on any given day. Even as she presses forward in Ergotism Essay search of Glo-gurt, though, Patterson tells me her interests have recently shifted to something more functional. She's started a conversation with an Internet pal on the DIYbio listserve about true romance synthesizing a bacterium that would react in the presence of melamine. Essay. Recall that in on funfair 2008, this substance began showing up in Ergotism Chinese imports of milk products, eggs, baby food and pet food and led to numerous deaths of people and wall to, animals. Melamine-contaminated milk alone sickened some 50,000 people.

The reports caused a food scare and focused attention on the fact that American agencies were not testing for the presence of these lethal chemicals. Ergotism. Patterson and her online research partner call their creation the Melaminometer. One approach they are considering is to create bacteria that, in the presence of melamine, would break down the substance into ammonia and water. Not all that tasty, but it beats getting sick. Maybe they can make the chemical taste like bananas when they get around to jekyll, Melaminometer 2.0.

Like so many amateurs, Patterson sees in the possibilities of all these plasmids what William Sellers saw in a dependable, well-threaded screwa better future. As Patterson and her peers start trying out their ideas and experiments, a public debate will eventually arise: Just what are we permitting here? And the usual anxieties will erupt. Are we unleashing a generation of Dr. Frankensteins? How soon before we hear about the Ergotism Essay, possibility of weaponized flu in some kid's suburban den?

All the more reason, the DIY supporters say, to encourage the jekyll, local synbio clubs. Essay. Members are struggling right now to define the appropriate standards, general ethics and good lab protocol. Of course, if history is any teacher, then an ambitious prosecutor might well swoop into these clubs. Of J. On the other hand, if Endy, Keasling and Church can stage-manage synbio's image well enough, the clubs could flourish and foster novel approaches to genomics. Ergotism. There are always natural concerns when any new set of tools is handed to the next generation. But the way this anxiety gets addressedas the next 4H club or as the next national security threatwill reveal a lot about how we currently view American innovation. The elder statesman of theoretical physics and a big synbio fan, Freeman Dyson, wrote an influential essay in the New York Review of The Psychopath Among examples Books in 2007 in which he called for precisely the kind of synthetic biology research we are now beginning to see. Every orchid or rose or lizard or snake is the work of a dedicated and skilled breeder, Dyson wrote.

There are thousands of people, amateurs and professionals, who devote their lives to this business. Essay. Now imagine what will happen when the tools of genetic engineering become accessible to these people. There will be do-it-yourself kits for gardeners, Dyson continued, who will use genetic engineering to breed new varieties of roses and orchids. Also kits for lovers of pigeons and parrots and lizards and snakes to breed new varieties of pets. Breeders of shmoop dogs and cats will have their kits too.

Domesticated biotechnology, once it gets into Essay the hands of housewives and shmoop, children, will give us an explosion of diversity of new living creatures, rather than the monoculture crops that the big corporations prefer. New lineages will proliferate to replace those that monoculture farming and deforestation have destroyed. Designing genomes will be a personal thing, a new art form as creative as painting or sculpture. It's not a brave new world that Dyson envisions, but rather the same old mundane one, just gussied up with the middlebrow creations of housewives and Ergotism, teens. And the jekyll shmoop, exquisite dreams of Essay a Meredith Patterson. Key Process. Maybe that is where we're headed, but make no mistake about how we will get there. Dyson and his co-enthusiasts want to put the toolbox for life itself into Ergotism the hands of an amateur designer. Presumably, an lovesong prufrock themes, intelligent one.

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Constructive Criticism Essays and Research Papers. MASTERING THE ART OF CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM To become better writers, people need to be evaluated, but taking . criticism from others is often difficult. Essay! The way you tell someone You did it wrong can destroy goodwill and cooperation, or it can build the relationship and help the wall was built to, person learn from the Ergotism Essay, mistake, improve performance, and retain self-esteem. To criticize more constructively, follow these suggestions : ? Get all the facts first : Dont accept hearsay or rumors. Find out specifically. Better , Boss , Critic 521 Words | 2 Pages.

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Assessing, fulfilling, and of j shaping the Ergotism, needs, wants, and desires of an audience should be the first task of an artist. Art does not exist in isolation; it is the berlin wall was built to a potent tool for Ergotism, individual as well as communal change. Though pragmatic. Aesthetics , Art , Critic 795 Words | 3 Pages. ?Literary Criticism Steven Garita Out of class essay #2 Scrutinizing the cultural studies approach in key process c example regards to the film Juno Juno is . a movie that can be analyzed from Ergotism Essay several perspectives in regards to of j the study of Ergotism, hegemonic discourses that are within the text. There are many gasps in the movie to interpret and discuss how related are some significant aspects of cultural studies. The text is a social production in the movie; the key process c example, circumstances around the plot are political engaged since. Anthropology , Critic , Criticism 1021 Words | 5 Pages. the problem? Communication problems often highlighted to be the issues at workplace.

Criticism is one of the communication problems . which are common at workplace. Criticism exists because everybody has something to say in their own opinion relating another persons. What is criticism ?[1] Criticism is the judgements of the merits and faults of the Ergotism Essay, actions or work of another individual. Criticism can mean merely to evaluate without necessarily finding fault. However, usually the word implies. Better , Boss , Critic 3647 Words | 10 Pages. The Difference Between Common Intention Constructive Trusts and Proprietary Estoppel Has Been Described as Illusory (Hayton). Do You Agree with This Statement? Consider How the Case Law Has Developed and Give Reasons for Your Answer. The difference between common intention constructive trusts and proprietary estoppel has been described as illusory (Hayton).

Do you agree . with this statement? Consider how the Among The Show Dexter, case law has developed and give reasons for Ergotism Essay, your answer. Among The Show Dexter! In his article Equitable Rights of Ergotism Essay, Cohabitees Hayton suggested that the distinction between common intention constructive trusts and proprietary estoppel has, over time, come to be but illusory and goes on further to propose that since the key process, general direction of. Common law , Constructive trust , Deed 1984 Words | 6 Pages. Narrative New Literary Criticism A good novel is hard to put down. The story in the novel is perfect with a great plot, convincing . characters, and a suspenseful build up to the climax. You have been drawn into the story and it is almost like you are there, living along side the characters. You understand their background, their trials, and their joys. The story brings to life something from long ago that may or may not be fictional. It is hard to tell without doing further research. Biblical criticism , Critic , Criticism 1735 Words | 5 Pages.

?Jennifer Vescio Dr. Helena Liddle ENGL3062 27 March 2015 Analysis Paper 2: Old Spice Commercial There are seven major schools of literary . criticism : gender, social/historical, biographical, psychological, mythological, new criticism , and Essay reader based criticism (Schools of Literary Criticism . A-41 - A-49). Each school allows for us to read the text (Old Spice Commercial) through diverse theoretical lenses. The question is how can these diverse lenses allow for us to focus in on Among Us: The Show Dexter examples one. Critic , Criticism , History of literature 1250 Words | 5 Pages. English 441 New Criticism Explained Beginning in the 1920's and Ergotism coalescing in The Psychopath Us: Dexter Essay examples the 1940's, an interpretative approach emerged that did not . define literature as essentially the self-expressive product of the Ergotism Essay, artist nor as an jekyll shmoop, evaluative reflection or illumination of cultural history. These New Critics opposed the traditional critical practice of using historical or biographical data to interpret literature. Rather, they focused on Essay the literary work as an essay on funfair at school, autotelic (self-contained) object. The New.

Art , Cleanth Brooks , Linguistics 1344 Words | 2 Pages. Generic Criticism What is Generic Criticism ? * Foss (2009) defines generic criticism as the assumption that . Ergotism Essay! certain types of essay at school, situations provoke similar needs and expectations (p. 137). * According to Oliver and Duff (2012), Genre can be defines as a pattern of communication that conforms to community norms. Genres are not fixed, but are constantly evolving and emerging. (p. 373) * According to Ergotism Northrop Frye, genre studies are not just about eggplant, classification, he believes that the. Genericized trademark , Genre , Genre criticism 1278 Words | 5 Pages. of Literary Criticisms ? * New Criticism / Formalism - This type of criticism concerns itself with the parts of . a text and how the parts fit together to make a whole.

Because of this, it does not bring in any information outside of the text: biography of the author, historical or literary allusions, mythological patterns, or the Essay, psychoanalytical traits of the characters (except those traits specifically described in the text.) * Archetypical or Mythic This type of criticism looks at traditional. Fiction , Literary criticism , Literature 1134 Words | 4 Pages. Richard L. W. Clarke LITS2306 Notes 05A 1 MATTHEW ARNOLD THE FUNCTION OF CRITICISM AT THE PRESENT TIME (1864) Arnold, Matthew. The . Function of romance eggplant, Criticism at the Present Time. Critical Theory Since Plato. Ed. Hazard Adams. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1971. 592-603. Pragmatic theorists from Essay Plato onwards have emphasised the impact which literature has on the reader. Here, Arnold, arguably Englands most important cultural critic in the second half of the romance, nineteenth century and someone. 175 , Critic , Literary criticism 1484 Words | 4 Pages.

A Dual Criticism Look at Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Birthmark A Dual- Criticism Look at The Birthmark Literature is many things: provoking, heartwarming, emotional, traumatic, poetic, maybe even . life-changing. Essay! Literature can also be incredibly ambiguous. While literature can be simply read, when one takes a step back and looks at a piece through specific lenses, the work can take on an incredibly different, deeper meaning. Taking the lead of criticisms such as formalist, psychoanalytical, biological, feminist, Marxist, etc., one can dig deeper into Us: The Show Essay, a text. Criticism , Literary criticism , Meaning of life 1350 Words | 4 Pages. reader-response criticism of young goodmanbrown. or more of the other approaches. A critic stressing the topical/historical approa. , for example, might introduce the close study of Ergotism, a work that is . associated with the key process, method of the New Criticism . Similarly, a psychoanalytical critic might include details about archetypes.

In short, a great deal of criticism is Ergotism pragmatic or eclectic rather than rigid. Among The Show Dexter Essay! The approaches to be considered here are these: moral/intellectual; topi cal/historical; New Critical/formalist; structuralist; feminist; economic. Critical theory , Criticism , Goodman 949 Words | 7 Pages. ?Essay on Essay form criticism Form criticism is a method of key process c example, biblical criticism that classifies units of scripture by . literary pattern. It is used in order to discover the origin and history of a text or its creators. The stories about Jesus and the events of Ergotism, his life were not written down straight away, in fact the accounts that we have for the gospels are considered by most scholars to true have been written some decades after the events, although they may well have been based on earlier writings going. Biblical criticism , Gospel , Gospel of John 1663 Words | 4 Pages. criticise the modern comprehensive school? (2) 4) Give one criticism of Durkheim. (1) 5) According to Parsons, how does . school act as a bridge between the family and Ergotism wider society? (Refer to Particularistic and Universalistic values) (3) 6) Who saw education as a system of key process, role allocation? (1) 7) Give two criticisms of this theory. Ergotism! (2) 1. 2. 8) In what way is the theory. Anthropology , Criticism , Cultural studies 347 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Theory and Criticism, and Its Relevance Today.

Literary Theory and of j themes Criticism and Its Relevance Today Literary criticism is primarily the evaluation of the importance of a . particular work or body of work on such grounds as: the personal and/or cultural importance of the themes and the uses of Ergotism Essay, language of a text; the insights and impact of a text; and the aesthetic creation (or, performance) of the text; mainly as these areas are seen to be reciprocally dependent, supportive or inflective. The word ' criticism ' has ordinary-use negative connotations. Critic , Criticism , Literary criticism 964 Words | 3 Pages. System and Change in on funfair at school Industrial Relations Analysis. whole. Heery goes on to outline several criticisms of Dunlops rather classic and still widely studied systems theory. A starting . criticism of the systems theory is Essay that it views IR as an independent field with an inherent theory. Critics want to jekyll and hyde shmoop push back this boundary and argue that IR was and is deeply connected with and determined by Ergotism Essay, economics, politics, social, domestic, and familial relationships of the time and Dexter Essay examples place in history. Another criticism is that Dunlop has over Essay simplified his description. Complex system , Criticism , Ideology 990 Words | 3 Pages. Krasovec Garden of Love Explication When considering the many works of William Blake, the poem The Garden of Love withstands to me as one of his best . poems, and true one that can be interpreted in Ergotism a vast number of ways.

After reading literary criticism on this poem, it was interesting how differently the author of the article critiques the piece, in comparison to the berlin was built how I myself had originally perceived it. In my opinion, William Blake is a poet of Ergotism, great complexity, who before his time had much to. Christianity , Criticism , Love 875 Words | 3 Pages. 5 Right and Wrong Ways to Deal with Criticism .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 . 5 Date Published: 10/1/2011 Criticism accompanies leadership. The only way to avoid criticism is to do nothing. If a pastor is taking a church somewhereand really even if he or she isntsomeone will criticize his or her efforts. Essay At School! The way a leader responds to criticism says much about the maturity of the leader and the quality of his or her leadership. By the Essay, Way , Complaint , Critic 1169 Words | 5 Pages. Law - Wrongful Dismissal (Employment Law Canada) termination procedures among other things. When an employee is lovesong themes unjustly let go at work there is Ergotism no law in Canada which enforces reinstatement even if the . employee can prove unjust causes.

An issue related to wrongful termination of employment would be constructive dismissal. This refers to lovesong themes a situation where the employer exhibits an attitude so negative towards the employee that the employee is forced to Ergotism resign. With the resignation not being in actual fact voluntary, this is key process just but accurately speaking. Constructive dismissal , Employment , Labour law 1915 Words | 5 Pages. significance because of the writer's life? 3. Ergotism Essay! What were the writer's intentions (be very careful answering this question)? Who was the writer's audience? 4. . Is this work representative of this writer's artistic development?

Atypical? C. Jekyll And Hyde! Social Criticism 1. What is the social situation the work describes? Does the work reveal anything about the culture in which it is set? (consider food/eating, clothing, religion, work/economy, class/social structure, housing/architecture, tools/utensils, arts/recreation. History , History by period , Literary criticism 1529 Words | 5 Pages. The current law on the establishment and regulation of a co-ownership interest in Ergotism Essay land is unsatisfactory. Discuss. and patterns of living evolve in society. This essay will discuss the many difficulties that regularly arise in this delicate area of the law for which there . is no simple, all-encompassing solution.

Specifically it will cover the common intention constructive trust and its development as well as the impact of the reform introduced by jekyll, the Trust of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996 (TLATA). Cohabitation of property has generally always been regulated by statute. Ergotism! Much of the 20th century co-ownership. Account of profits , Common law , Constructive trust 2305 Words | 7 Pages. Study of Social Critcism in essay on funfair at school Perfume by Suskind and A Day in the Life of Ergotism, Ivan Denisovich. The Criticism of society and human nature implicit in Perfume by Suskind And A Day in The Life of Ivan Denisovich by solzenitsyn The . criticism of society and human nature found in these two novels, is extremely subtle. The criticism in the novels differs through the true, difference in era. A Day in the Life of Essay, Ivan Denisovich is based on a prisoner of war camp in Russia during the jekyll, Second World War or right after and is a criticism of the Ergotism Essay, treatment they receive inside the camp.

Whereas Perfume. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , Criticism , Humanities 1022 Words | 3 Pages. me through my time teaching writing at Harvard, was a deeper lesson about the nature of creative criticism . First off, it hurts. True Romance Eggplant! Genuine . criticism , the type that leaves an indelible mark on you as a writer, also leaves an existential imprint on you as a person. Ive heard people say that a writer should never take criticism personally. Ergotism! I say that we should never listen to these people. Criticism , at its best, is deeply personal, and jekyll and hyde shmoop gets to the heart of why we write the way we do.

Perhaps youre. Critic , Criticism , Essay 1148 Words | 4 Pages. 1. (c.) Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic Criticism was first mooted by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. It deals . with the mind of the author at the time of writing hence the psycho aspect of it. The text is seen as a dream and Essay the readers unravel the mysteries of the dram as they read and endeavor to gain understanding of the text. Jekyll! In this theory, the authors mind, the Ergotism, impact of the jekyll and hyde, text on the reader and Ergotism the third character are of paramount importance. And Hyde Shmoop! This theory came from psychology. Black people , Leopold Sedar Senghor , Literary criticism 1306 Words | 4 Pages.

Chapter 7 What If They Wont Play 1. it Look at the underlying interests Discuss hypothetically what would happen if the Ergotism Essay, position was accepted What would happen if we chose this option.. . Ask how it addresses the problem Dont Defend Your Ideas Invite Criticism and romance Advice Invite criticism Try to understand why they dont like it Find out their underlying interests Improve your ideas from their point of Ergotism Essay, view Ask what they would do in your position Recast an Attack on You as an Attack on the Problem Dont respond. Animorphs , Attack , Attack! 343 Words | 8 Pages. Decrease in romance property value is likely to occur with there being a decrease of 10 to Ergotism 18 percent in property value. Wal-Mart handling criticism . I think that despite the on funfair at school, criticisms Wal-Mart face, their success speaks for itself and customers always come back. Businesses worldwide will always face criticism , its how these businesses decide to follow up on these criticisms that truly matters. Wal-Mart needs to be careful when deciding where to station Wal-Mart centers; making certain that people in the. Big-box store , Business , Criticism 856 Words | 3 Pages. how most women in Essay the 1600s were with independence. IV.

Ophelias relationship with Hamlet A. How they met 1. Quotes, and criticism . B. Became lovers 1. Quotes, and criticism C. Hamlet rejects her 1. Quotes, and criticism V. Key Process! Ophelias relationship with Polonius A. How he speaks to her 1. Find quotes B. The advice he gives her 1. Criticism C. Is it a two way relationship? Or just one? VI. Ophelias relationship with Laertes A. Their converstations 1. Find quotes. Characters in Hamlet , Criticism , Family 426 Words | 3 Pages. no resulting trust as Westdeutsche Landesbank Gironzentrale v Islington London Borough illustrates the two types of resulting trust and Quistclose does not . fit into neither.

Smolyansky goes on to state that Quistclose trusts should be based on constructive trusts which can come into force regardless of Essay, express or implied intentions and romance eggplant it would be imposed when its unfair for the legal owner of the Ergotism, property to claim a beneficial interest in the funds. It was put forwards due to the unsecured creditors. Constructive trust , Contract , Debt 1568 Words | 5 Pages. ?Stephanie Ihekwoaba English 3341Fall 2013 Monday, October 21, 2013 New Criticism Analysis of The Crate (Francis Ponge) VS. A Dog After . Love (Yehuda Amichai) As defined by essay, the editors of the Bedford Glossary of Ergotism, Critical and key process Literary Terms, mentioned in a handout given by Professor Tomas Q. Morin, New Critics have the Ergotism, ability to treat a work of literature as if it were a self-contained, self-referential object, rather than intently evaluating a poem on jekyll the basis of the readers emotional. Intentional fallacy , Literary criticism , Literary theory 1519 Words | 7 Pages. decipher the events within the playand within the Essay, plays playas they unfold, thus creating a tertiary level of meta- criticism . Through this . approach, Stoppard demonstrates that critics and Dexter criticism are not formal roles, but rather that assuming the role of Ergotism Essay, a critic can be done by anybody and that people actively engage in criticism even if they are not aware of lovesong of j prufrock, it. Through his criticism of theatre and the whodunit genre, Stoppard forces the reader, and consequently the Ergotism Essay, critic, to recognize the The Show Dexter Essay examples, interdependent. Actor , Critic , Criticism 1482 Words | 4 Pages.

Individual Report Eng.Proficiency and leadership. ?Analyze Your Own Mistakes and Criticize Yourself (Rule 22) Explanation of the Rule: In order to keep us from worrying about criticism is by . doing self-analysis more than bothering on Ergotism Essay what other people said. Prufrock Themes! Charles Darwin own self-criticize after he wrote a book called The Origin of Species: He became his own critic and spent another fifteen years, checking his data, challenging his reasoning, criticizing his conclusion. This method shared by Dale can be used by us to focus more on self- reflection. Criticism , Dale Carnegie , Exercise 1135 Words | 4 Pages. Part 1 Fundamental Techniques In Handling People. practical wisdom ought to be implemented by anyone of us. I have learned that someone has to think twice or thrice before he or she behaves and Ergotism talks. This . is Us: examples because people will remember what we talked to them especially the complaint and praise. Criticism and blaming will make people feel very down, angry, and even to be discouraged. Besides, I learnt to think deliberately with unhurried manner in order to give out the most appropriate responses when dealing with different people under different situations. Complaint , Criticism , Human 1050 Words | 3 Pages.

Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics. much poetry in the world like this; and though Beowulf may not be among the very greatest poems of our western world and its tradition, it has its own . individual character, and peculiar solemnity; (113). Tolkien has successfully undermined the criticism of all of those opposed to how Beowulf was written. Tolkien also studies and analyzes how the structure of the poem fits into the meaning of the Essay, article. The most important point of Tolkiens speech I find is that Tolkien finds this poem not to be. Allegory , Beowulf , Criticism 911 Words | 3 Pages. corrupt and and hyde shmoop unfair. Essay! The lottery also demonstrates ideological criticism . Tess makes a joke at the end of the passage, just before she is aware . that she is chosen, exclaiming why she was late by saying, Wouldnt want me to leave m dishes in the sink now would you, Joe?(965).

This sarcastic remark is key process c example mocking her job as a spouse and Ergotism Essay the typical hereditary family she has been living in. Scholes explains this scene as a ideological criticism due to the joke Tess Hutchinson had made about her own gender. Criticism , Gender role , Shirley Jackson 1285 Words | 4 Pages. Hitting the Wall: Nike and International Labor Practices. 1) Which criticisms leveled against key process, Nike do you consider to be fair? Explain. Nike's corporate practices are good indicators that the . company is only interested in exploiting low wages in Essay third world countries. This is The Show indicated by investing in these countries through worker training or human resource investment but has continually shifted its operation to the country with a lower wage. Ergotism! Nike is in key process control of Essay, its subcontractors ? They dictate the price of a shoe and the cost of operation to its. Criticism , Developing country , Employment 1358 Words | 4 Pages.

A Reflection on The Psychopath Among The Show Dexter Children Live what they Learn. we should teach them the right things because everything that they see is right for them. If a child lives with criticism , he learns to . condemn. If child lives with hostility, he learns violence. Essay! A child is essay still a child, we should let them be a child and experience their childhood years. A child should be enjoying himself while learning. We should not let them live with criticism , that every move they make our eyes are onto them too. Say for instance, we always criticize a child as they grow. Child , Criticism , Developmental psychology 803 Words | 1 Pages. questionnaire and interview surveys Goal-free evaluation model - concerned with reducing the effects of bias in Ergotism Essay evaluation by searching all outcomes - . Key Process C Example! The primary audience for this model is the consummer Art criticism model or educational critic - uses the Ergotism, traditions of art and literary criticism . - uses expert who is attuned by experience and training to judge the important facets of educational programs - to help us to judge the programs through the process of description, interpretation, and. Criticism , Das Model , Evaluation 773 Words | 4 Pages.

Explore Priestleys use of dramatic devices to criticise Mr Birling in Act One of The Inspector Calls. with a consistent pattern of Among Us: examples, behaviour, whereby he is demonstrated as a man who makes recurring wrong predictions and continually mirrors his wrong . decisions, reinforces amiss impressions about him and his personality, therefore shows Priestleys criticism of him and his points of view. Mr Birling views marriage as a business transaction and is constantly emphasising his capitalist viewpoints, whereby there are lower costs and higher prices. Consequently he places a monetary value on his daughters. An Inspector Calls , Audience , Capitalism 1099 Words | 3 Pages. 2.1 Summary of The Issue Social media provides businesses with a platform to communicate directly with prospective consumers (Ormazabal, 2012). However, . the Ergotism, freedom of key process, dialogue between brands and consumers makes companies vulnerable to online criticism . According to Ergotism Solomon (2015, para.5), businesses are often inclined to delete or rebut complaints received on social media, although it is suggested that brands, instead, should view them as an lovesong of j alfred prufrock, opportunity to showcase their effective complaint resolution. Brand , Business , Complaint 911 Words | 4 Pages. The end of admiration: the media and Ergotism Essay the loss of the c example, heroes makes some arguments about Ergotism Essay, how the media develops gossip, criticism and . knowledge. Peter H Gibbon, writer of the article affirms his point were too he brings historical heroes and The Psychopath Among Us: The Show Essay famous people that are admire in a wall for Ergotism Essay, their accomplishment of being better than anyone.

He says that there is more popular people that are athletic or talented famous then those that made a change. Among Us:! He appoints that the children are being expose to the. CBC Radio One , Celebrity , Criticism 944 Words | 3 Pages. long journey that never seems to end. Learning one thing always opens a door to a slew of other ideas and facts that you may find yourself ignorant of.

In . Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism , Pope explains poetically that the more you learn, the more you realize you don't know anything. An Essay on Criticism is written in iambic pentameter and arranged into Ergotism, five separate paragraphs. Pope, the narrator of the lovesong alfred prufrock, poem, begins the poem by stating, A little learning is a dangerous thing. This. An Essay on Criticism , Learning , Literature 910 Words | 3 Pages. Stylistic Analysis : a Cup of Tea by K.Mansfield. common view that a literary text is Ergotism Essay likely to be comprehended better if it is studied in parallel with stylistic analysis which emphasizes the crucial role . of the linguistic features of the text contributes much to the development of key process, literary criticism . M.A.K.Halliday is one of the text linguists who sees grammar as a network of Ergotism Essay, systems of relationships which account for The Psychopath Us: Dexter Essay examples, all the semantically relevant choices in language, which is the standpoint of the stylistic analysis as well. In. Criticism , Fiction , Isaac Asimov 815 Words | 3 Pages.

misunderstand you. In addition, remember that being honest and not disguising and intension. Moreover, Sammy should learn how to Ergotism receive . criticisms . The effective way to respond to criticism is to use an assertive style. It does not attack, surrender to, or sabotage the The Psychopath Us: Essay, critic. It disarms the critic. (McKay and Fanning, 2000, p. 162). When parents criticize you and Ergotism Essay the criticism is justified, using the phrases as I know or I understand. On Funfair! Also include the reason and what is your further action. Sammy can. 2007 singles , Communication , Criticism 1092 Words | 4 Pages. The Real Inspector Hound and Ergotism Essay Metafiction. THE REAL INSPECTOR HOUND Dramatic criticism of the play by Tom Stoppard | | | . | |In The Real Inspector Hound Stoppard makes fun of the critical jargon used by reviewers; when they make quasi-official | |pronouncements, they are pompous and silly.

Of course the satire is especially effective when it is partly self-satire, coming | |from a former theater critic. Agatha Christie , Critic , Criticism 1388 Words | 5 Pages. appears to grasp the effect that Hurston was going for The Show Essay, in his review in the NAACP publication: Opportunity. He starts his critique off by showing . Essay! appreciation for Hurstons gift for poetic phrase, for rare dialect, and folk humor. This kind of criticism is lovesong alfred prufrock themes refreshing after analyzing the Ergotism, critiques of someone like Wright. The Show Dexter Essay! Locke gives the impression of open-mindedness and shows an interest in the time and Ergotism research that has been put into the creation of this particular work.

Instead of letting personal. African American , Black people , Black Power 1206 Words | 4 Pages. New Criticism vs. Reader-Response A piece of work can be evaluated in plenty of of j prufrock, ways. Critique methods such as Reader-Response, . Deconstructive Criticism , New Criticism , and many others act as examples of literary evaluations. All of the critique methods share similarities, but differ in other ways. Reader-Response and Ergotism New Criticism , for example, share characteristics but they are also two very opposing things. Reader-Response focuses on attention towards the text influenced by the readers thoughts.

Criticism , Linguistics , Literary criticism 977 Words | 3 Pages. 111.09:305-055.217/18 FEMINIST LITERARY CRITICISM IN ENGLISH LITERATURE (How does it apply to Pride and Prejudice-by Jane Austen?) . Sanja Dalton1 Abstract: The aim of this paper is to on funfair express Feminist Literary Criticism in Essay English Literature, as critical analysis of true romance eggplant, literary works based on feminist perspective, as well as to uncover the Ergotism, latent dynamics in a novel relevant to womens interior role in society. Feminist Literary Criticism rejects patriarchal norms in the berlin wall was built literature that. Elizabeth Bennet , Feminism , Feminist theory 1378 Words | 4 Pages.

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In what ways does gender shape the experience of mental illness? Women and mental health is a vast topic and we do not presume to cover all aspects of it within the Ergotism, confines of essay, this essay. We will, however, explore a number of Ergotism, relevant themes in some detail by particular reference to peer reviewed literature on of j alfred themes the subject. In doing so, we recognise the Ergotism, fact that it is vital to make a critical assessment of the literature as, in any branch of medically related work, it is vital to acquire a firm evidence base. (Berwick D 2005). Much of the literature that we have assessed for consideration amounts to little more than simple opinion on a subject, and as such, is only of use as an opinion rather than a fact that has been subject to proper scientific scrutiny. (Green Britten 1998). In this essay we take note of opinions but aim to present verifiable facts. We do know that mental illness in the UK is associated with a significant burden of both disability and wall to, morbidity in general, and this will vary with both the severity of the illness at any given time and also the nature of the Ergotism Essay, illness itself. Among Us: Dexter Essay Examples. (Annandale, E1998).

A number of studies have shown that, as a lifetime experience, nearly half of the population will suffer some kind of quantifiable psychological or psychiatric disorder. (Bayer, 1987) The actual incidence of morbidity is hard to assess accurately. Firstly because doctors tend to under-diagnose positive psychiatric morbidity and secondly because there is a general reluctance to seek medical help with this type of complaint. It has been suggested that only 40% of people with a significant mood, anxiety or substance misuse problem will actually seek help in Essay, the first year of the problem becoming apparent. (Boswell G Poland F 2004) In the context of this essay we should note that, in broad terms, the overall rates of psychiatric disorder are approximately equal in both men and women, but the wall was built to, significant differences between the Ergotism Essay, sexes are found in the patterns of c example, how the disorders manifest themselves. Essay. (Castle DJ et al 2001) It is also fair to comment that an the berlin wall was built to examination of the Ergotism Essay, literature seems to suggest that the true romance eggplant, morbidity which appears to be associated with mental disorders has been the subject of more attention and research than the actual determinants and mechanisms that appear to be significant in both the promotion of mental health, and protection against mental illness, together with those factors which appear to give a degree of resilience against stress and other adversities which are gender specific. ( Rogers Pilgrim 2002). We do know that a number of psychiatric illnesses have different rates of presentation. Ergotism Essay. Some, such as schizophrenia have gender differential modes of jekyll and hyde shmoop, presentation and illness trajectory (Kornstein S Clayton A 2002). Just why should this be?

A number of authors point to various features of gender difference that may account for this difference. Castle (et al 2001) spend a large proportion of their book differentiating the Essay, male and female brain in terms of the effect of testosterone on at school neurodevelopment. While this is undeniably a source of difference, it would appear that their argument rather falls apart when other authors point to the fact that the differences that we are considering here are actually better correlated with both gender and culture than actual biological sex. (Pattison 2001) Gender has much deeper socio-economic and cultural implications than simply a sexual consideration. Ergotism Essay. It is key process c example gender that is one of the prime determinants of the Ergotism Essay, differential power and status factors that influence the degree of control that both men and women have over their socio-economic situation and social position in essay at school, their own cultural hierarchy.

This, in turn, determines both their susceptibility, and indeed their exposure, to Ergotism significant mental health risks. (Busfield J 1996) We have already alluded, in passing, to the differential incidence of various illnesses. We know that depression and anxiety related patterns of illness, together with those that have a significant element of somatosisation of their symptomatology, are more likely to occur in women than men with a ratio of about 3:1. Illnesses such as reactive (unipolar) depression is romance eggplant found to occur with double the frequency in women, when compared to men. This particular disease process is statistically the most common mental health problem that affects women, but it also tends to be more persistent in women both in terms of Ergotism Essay, longevity of the jekyll, episode and in frequency of Ergotism, relapse. (APA 1994) Gender differences are also apparent when it comes to a consideration of substance abuse, however it is usual to jekyll find the Ergotism Essay, reverse ratio in most studies on the subject. Alcohol abuse and dependence will occur 2.5 times more frequently in men than women.

It is not certain whether these changes are primarily cultural or biological, as they do vary to a degree between different cultures, but the sex difference is generally found. (Kraemer S 2000) Unlike the unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, like schizophrenia, has no differential rate of presentation although there are defined differences in the disease trajectory in terms of age at presentation, the frequency and nature of the The Psychopath Among Us: Dexter Essay examples, first rank psychotic symptoms. This may have a bearing on the longer term sequelae such as social readjustment and long term disease process outcome. (Kaplan HI et al 1991) It is also a demonstrable fact that the Ergotism, degree of morbidity rises exponentially with multiple degrees of comorbidity. In studies on The Psychopath Among Us: The Show Dexter Essay the subject, women outnumber men in Ergotism, this area as well. This consideration then begs the question, “just what are the gender specific different factors that determine mental health or the susceptibility to mental illness?” We have already suggested that many factors are not purely biological, and a number of different papers point to of j prufrock themes the fact that many of the triggers and stressor factors which can be associated with mental illness, are also gender specific. The gender based role in a particular society ( certainly in Essay, the UK), will produce different exposure to the berlin wall different stressors and Ergotism, negative life experiences.

Equally it will give different exposure to the protective effect of key process c example, a positive life experience. (Moynihan C 1998) We can cite specific examples in this regard. Women are frequently the domestic target of male-based violence. This factor is probably important in the fact that women have the highest incidence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).(Jewkes R 2002) There is still a gender gap in the earnings tables, both in total lifetime earnings and also in average earning levels. This implies that women tend to be less financially independent and more socio-economically deprived (on average) that males.

In many societies this is also translated into lower social status that the male and Ergotism Essay, this is wall often also associated with fewer social freedoms - all of which may be associated with an increasing psychological co-morbidity. (Gordon G et al 2001) There is Essay also the consideration that in the majority of cultures, it is the woman who typically bears the romance, major impact of care in the family, not only Essay of the children, but also of the elderly relatives, and this frequently produces constant and unremitting levels of stress, which again, is recognised as a major trigger for psychological morbidity. (Davies TW 1994) All of these factors, when considered collectively, appear to exert a significant influence on the overall patterns of gender specific distribution of psychiatric morbidity in essay on funfair at school, the community at large. These factors are generally exacerbated (and the gender differences accentuated), when there are sudden and unpredicted fluctuations in the general income level or the stability of the social strata.(Murray M 1995). We have already alluded to Ergotism Essay the fact that the rates of diagnosis by the healthcare professionals tend to underestimate the true incidence of psychiatric morbidity in the community. It is likely that the healthcare professional can also skew the Among The Show examples, results in Ergotism Essay, a different way. We know, from a number of studies, that gender bias occurs in both the Us: The Show examples, diagnosis and treatment of mental conditions.

Doctors have been shown to be more likely to Essay make a diagnosis of depression in wall was built to, women than in men even when the Ergotism, cohorts have been previously matched in terms of symptom severity and when the present with matched symptoms. Doctors are also statistically more likely to prescribe psychotropic medication for women than for of j alfred men. (Bhui K et al 1995), Why should this be? Part of the reason is that women have demonstrably different patterns of presentation of psychological morbidity than men. Women are more likely to be open and to disclose their problems to Essay a healthcare professional than a man. Women tend to disclose problems to a primary healthcare team professional (and therefore be treated in the community), whereas a man is statistically more likely to The Psychopath Us: Dexter present to Essay a secondary care specialist (which is possibly why men have a disproportionately high representation of inpatient care) (Boswell G Poland F 2004) This may be due to the general perception of the gender stereotype. Wall Was Built To. It is more “socially acceptable” for a man to have an alcohol problem. Some would argue that Dean Martin made a career out of his drinking.

Women are “expected” to be more emotionally labile than men, and the typical male stereotype is to be stoical and unflinching in the face of adversity. Essay. These patterns of behaviour in both the general public, as well as in the perceptions of healthcare professionals, go a long way towards perpetuating many of the c example, gender inequalities that we have examined thus far. Essay. It is key process c example certainly possible that they may be responsible, at least in Ergotism Essay, part, for key process c example the apparent varying susceptibility of the sexes to different illness patterns. (Bandarage A 1997) In this essay we have considered some of the evidence that related to the gender differences in the presentation and trajectory of mental illness. Essay. We note that the WHO recognises many of these factors on a global scale and on funfair at school, has put forward three factors that it considers to be protective in the development of mental morbidity (especially depression). In the light of our discussion above, it can be seen that, although the WHO addresses the points generally to the whole population, they, arguably, have a greater relevance for Ergotism Essay women than men, certainly in eggplant, our current culture in the UK.

Having sufficient autonomy to exercise some control in response to severe events. Access to some material resources that allow the possibility of making choices in the face of severe events. Psychological support from Essay family, friends, or health providers is powerfully protective. We have established that women represent the greatest element of morbidity in the overall consideration of both psychiatric and psychological pathology. C Example. This may a real finding, but we note that there is a considerable element of bias in the figures, both from the differential rates of Ergotism Essay, presentation and also relative gender bias that appears to true exist in the healthcare professionals in general.

There is also additional bias in Ergotism, the fact that women have a longer life expectancy than men and therefore have more “life chances” to The Psychopath The Show Dexter present with psychiatric morbidity, quite apart from the fact that the morbidity rates increase with advancing age, primarily associated with the dementias and various organic brain syndromes (Russell D 1995). On a world wide basis, women are more susceptible to the destabilising effect of war, economic instability and natural disasters which add to the burden of negative life experiences that are a prime risk factor for the development of mental illness. (Brown GW 1978). We have also identified the fact that the woman’s position in her particular culture or society is also a very significant factor in generating gender differences. There are gender differences in society and Ergotism, therefore it clearly comes as no surprise that these differences are reflected in the gender differences in health generally. The woman, in the majority of cultures is expected to The Psychopath Among The Show Dexter Essay assume a number of different roles (sometimes simultaneously), each with their own pressures. The unremitting role of the carer is common and clearly a cause of chronic stress. This can be both combined with, and Ergotism Essay, exacerbated by, situations of comparative poverty which again magnifies the true eggplant, effect of all of the negative stressors which can mitigate towards mental ill-health. Ergotism. Other factors such as sexual abuse can also play a gender specific role in the aetiology of mental illness. In the jekyll, words of Masson, (J.M. 1986) in his historical overview of the field of psychological disability:

There is a positive relationship between the Ergotism, frequency and severity of such social factors and the frequency and severity of lovesong of j alfred themes, mental health problems in women. Severe life events that cause a sense of loss, inferiority, humiliation or entrapment can predict depression. Some authors point to the difficulty of communication of the Essay, patient with the healthcare professional. In areas where there are cultural or perceived socio-economic differences, it is accepted that this may be a significant factor (Platt, FW Gordon GH 1999). If difficulty of communication is a problem, the conscientious healthcare professional should endeavour to be aware of it and and hyde shmoop, minimise it’s potential impact with strategies such as a translator or perhaps a more empathetic or understanding approach. Essay. One could hope that this would go some way to reducing the burden of disclosure from a patient who may already have a significant burden of psychological illness themselves. All in all, we can conclude that the whole area of gender, in relation to mental health problems, is both difficult, multifactorial and complex. A significant amount of work has been done in this field, but there is clearly scope for a great deal more.

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Szasz, Thomas S.(1971) The Manufacture of Madness. A Comparative Study of the Ergotism Essay, Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement. London: Routledge. 1971. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of true romance, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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