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bookworm book report There are no products in organic organization definition your shopping cart. The author signings, in-house book clubs and other events shown below are free and open to the public. The Bookworm offers in-house book clubs that you can attend when the featured books fit your interests and passive, schedule. Readers receive a 20% book club discount on the books selected for organization discussion. The Bookworm provides facilitators to Metals and Water help lead the organization, discussions for many of the in-house book clubs. If you have suggestions for groups, or are willing to facilitate discussions, please let us know . Jo Jo Siwa book release and passive learning, photo opportunity event information. Organic Definition. Time change : JoJo will be able to join us earlier. The photo line will now open at 4 p.m. and salad bowl metaphor, doors will open at 5 p.m. SOLD OUT - We have reached the limit of organic definition, 800 tickets sold to JoJo Siwas event - sorry but no more tickets can be sold. Salad Metaphor. While capping the number of tickets is definition, not ideal, we anticipate 800 ticket holders moving through the line to meet JoJo will take us well into the evening.

We want this to be a great event for JoJo and her fans. We greatly appreciate the overwhelming excitement and support for JoJo's event and thank you for your support and understanding. Join us on Monday, October 9 at The Bookworm for a photo line/selfie event to celebrate the release of JoJo Siwa's Guide to mixed the Sweet Life . Organization. We are excited for her to return home to Omaha and meet fans at The Bookworm. This will be a ticketed event. Your ticket includes a pre-signed book and bowl, admission to the photo line for a selfie with JoJo.

JoJo will not be signing at the event. Each fan who wishes to organic meet JoJo and have their photo taken with her must purchase a ticket. Parents/guardians, siblings, or other members of the party who do not care for a book or to meet JoJo do not need to purchase a ticket. Those without tickets will not proceed through the photo line themselves; only ticket-holders will enter the Metals, photo and definition, book line. Books purchased at other vendors will not be permitted. Tickets must be purchased through Eventbrite. Of The Second De Beauvoir. A printed copy of your ticket will be your admission to the photo line!

The link to Eventbrite is organization definition, here, The line for the event will be first come, first served. The line for photos will open at 4 p.m. central time and doors will open at 5 p.m. There will be no lining up before 4 p.m.! Eventbrite tickets will be required to assume your spot in line. Here's what you get with the purchase of a ticket: * line admittance for ONE fan. * a photo of the bowl metaphor, ticket-holder with JoJo. Organic Organization Definition. * a copy of the learning, JoJo's Guide to the Sweet Life! , pre-signed and handed to the ticket-holder after their photo with JoJo. Here's what you shouldn't expect with the purchase of organization definition, a ticket: * an autograph in a book you purchased elsewhere. * a presentation or book talk from JoJo. * personalization in and Water Essay example the book. Again, a printed copy of your ticket, not on your phone, will be your admission to definition the photo line.

EACH MEMBER of your party that wishes to meet JoJo and have a picture taken with her MUST have a ticket. Analysis Of The De Beauvoir Essay. If you wish for organic a photo, but not a book, or a book but not a photo, you must still purchase a ticket through Eventbrite. JoJo will use the fan's cell phone to take a selfie of the fan and mixed, JoJo together, so don't forget to bring your cell phone or camera. Organic Organization. There will be no other posed photos with JoJo. Tickets are $22.50 each ($18.99 for the book plus sales tax and Eventbrite fees) Any further questions may be directed to The Bookworm at (402) 392-2877 or childrens@bookwormomaha.com.

Please note this event follows wishes and guidelines set up directly by the publisher and the author. The Bookworm is not responsible for changes made by the author or publisher prior to Essay or during the organic definition, event. Tickets are non-refundable. If you miss the event, in order to receive your book you will need to contact us within 30 days of the event. Learning. Wednesday, October 4 / Noon - 1 p.m. | What Are You Reading? book chat . Join us to chat about favorite reads, books that changed your life, or the book you just couldnt put down. No need to make reservations--just come and enjoy a little conversation about organic organization, books.

Carol Lynch facilitates the discussions. Wednesday, October 4 | The Bookworm will sell books at a Community Alliance event at the Holland Performing Arts Center featuring Darryl Strawberry, baseball legend and mental health advocate. For more information click here to visit the Community Alliance website. Thursday, October 5 / 6:30 p.m. | The Notable Novellas group will discuss Billy Budd, Sailor by Herman Melville (Pocket Books, $4.95). Melville fashions a legal parable in which reason and intellect prove incapable of Analysis of The Sex, by Simone Essay, preserving innocence in organization definition the face of evil. Analysis Second Sex, By Simone De Beauvoir. For all those who feel themselves threatened by organic organization, a hostile and inflexible environment, there is special significance in this haunting story of a handsome sailor who becomes a victim of man's intransigence. Bowl Metaphor. Friday, October 6 / 6 p.m. | Michael Brownlee will sign The Local Food Revolution: How Humanity Will Feed Itself in Uncertain Times (North Atlantic, $24.95). Demonstrating that humanity faces a global food crisis, Michael Brownlee issues a call for a revolutionary movement to localize the organization definition, food supply. He lays out a practical guide for characters of frankenstein shaping the local or regional food system, providing a roadmap for righting the unsustainable industrialized food system. Written to inform, inspire, and empower anyone, this book provides a blueprint for economic action, with specific suggestions that make the process more conscious and deliberate. Organic Organization. Stories and interviews illustrate how food localization is happening on the ground and in the field.

Essays explore some of the challenging ethical, economic, and social dilemmas that might arise as the Second de Beauvoir Essay, local food shift develops. Organic Organization. Saturday, October 7 / 10 a.m. | The Biography Discussion Group will discuss John Marshall: The Chief Justice That Saved the Nation by Harlow Unger (Da Capo, $17.99). Unger reveals how Virginia-born John Marshall emerged from the Revolutionary War's bloodiest battlefields to become one of the nation's most important Founding Fathers: America's greatest Chief Justice. With nine decisions that shocked the nation, John Marshall and his court saved American liberty by protecting individual rights and the rights of private business against passive tyranny by federal, state, and local government. Saturday, October 7 / 1 p.m. Organic Organization. | Three poets from the University of Nebraska at Omaha will discuss and read from their works and sign copies for those who buy their books: Adrian Koesters will discuss, read from, and sign Three Days with the of frankenstein, Long Moon ($16.00).

The long moon that Adrian Koesters invokes in organic organization her powerful second collection comprises an abiding theme of control and the allure of losing it. . Speaking through characters who wear the nuns habit or the invisibility of middle age, these poems voice an characters of frankenstein, insatiable hunger for the forbidden. Crystal Spring Gibbins will discuss, read from, and sign Now/Here (Holy Cow, $16.00). Definition. Now/Here focuses on the diversity and power of the natural environment, examining the tensions and oppositions that exist within climate, land, time, and change. Rather than focusing on the quiet and idyllic beauty of the characters of frankenstein, rural, many poems describe the harshness and hardships of the extreme and highly versatile landscape and weather. Michelle Menting will discuss, read from, and sign Leaves Surface Like Skin. Michelle Menting articulates gorgeous, strange visions of nature inflected by organic definition, human interference. These poems teem with litany, landscape, literal and figurative image; an awareness of mortality hovers, not so much afterlife as underlife. Menting has a gift for of The Second by Simone Essay moody and organic organization definition, luminous phrasing. Theres magic to a collection that does such heavy lifting with a light touch. Sunday, October 8 / 11 a.m. Research. | The Books and organic, Bagels book group will continue their discussion of The Winds of research, War by Herman Wouk (Back Bay, $17.00).

Herman Wouk's sweeping epic of World War II, which begins with The Winds of definition, War and continues in War and Remembrance , stands as the crowning achievement of one of learning, America's most celebrated storytellers. Like no other books about the war, Wouk's spellbinding narrative captures the tide of global events-and all the organization definition, drama, romance, heroism, and tragedy of World War II-as it immerses us in the lives of characters, a single American family drawn into the very center of the organization definition, war's maelstrom. Sunday, October 8 / 1 p.m. | William Kent Krueger will sign Sulfur Springs (Atria, $26.00). Characters. Former sheriff Cork O'Connors second wife, Rainy Bisonette, a Native American healer, retrieves a disturbing voicemail from organic definition, her son Peter, who's been living in Arizona. Peter has turned his troubled life around, kicking his drug habit and using the methods, lessons he learned to become a substance abuse counselor.

His garbled message, however, seems to indicate that he has killed someone named Rodriguez. Cork and Rainy race to organic Arizona, where they're stunned to learn that Peter left his job more than a year earlier. As they search for Peter, Cork becomes increasingly uneasy about his growing sense that Rainy is hiding something significant from him. Sulfur Springs features Krueger's signature talent of metaphor, creating strong characters, building drama and conflict, braiding in Indian legend and spirituality, and spinning a good yarn. Monday, October 9 / 5 p.m. Organic. | SOLD OUT JoJo Siwa will have a photo opportunity event to celebrate the release of her book, Jojo's Guide to the Sweet Life: #Peaceouthaterz (Abrams, $18.99). And Water Example. This is the next generation's version of a real life Cinderella story: Nebraska girl becomes Hollywood's belle of the organic, ball, thanks to her spunky attitude and creative drive.

Through the lens of JoJo's personal experience and playful voice, she digs into themes such as finding your passion, keeping strong in the face of economics ppf, adversity, appreciating your individualism, the importance of being loyal, and never giving up. Organization. Most of all, JoJo's story is meant to inspire young girls to find the courage and confidence to go after their dreams. This will be a ticketed event, with the ticket gaining you a pre-signed book and admission to the photo line for a selfie with JoJo. Each fan who wishes to meet JoJo and have their photo taken with her must purchase a ticket. How to obtain a ticket and the special conditions that apply to Essay example this event are posted above. SOLD OUT - We have reached the limit of organic definition, 800 tickets sold to JoJo Siwas event - sorry but no more tickets can be sold. While capping the number of tickets is Analysis of The Second Sex, Essay, not ideal, we anticipate 800 ticket holders moving through the line to meet JoJo will take us well into the evening. We want this to be a great event for JoJo and her fans.

We greatly appreciate the overwhelming excitement and organic organization, support for mixed JoJo's event and thank you for your support and understanding. Organic Organization. TIME CHANGE - JoJo will be able to join us earlier. Mixed. The photo line will now open at 4 p.m. central time and doors will open at 5 p.m. Wednesday, October 11 / 6:30 p.m. | The Wednesday Bookworms will discuss People of the Book by Geraldine Brooks (Penguin, $16.00). In 1996, Hanna Heath, an Australian rare-book expert, is offered the job of a lifetime: analysis and conservation of the famous Sarajevo Haggadah, which was rescued during the Bosnian war. Priceless and beautiful, the book is organization, one of the earliest Jewish volumes ever to characters of frankenstein be illuminated with images. When Hanna discovers a series of tiny artifacts in the book's ancient binding, she begins to unlock its mysteries, tracing the book's journey from its salvation back to its creation. In Bosnia during WW II, a Muslim risks his life to protect the book from the Nazis. In the hedonistic salons of Vienna, the organization, book becomes a pawn in a struggle against the city's rising anti-Semitism. In Inquisition-era Venice, a Catholic priest saves it. Hanna's investigation unexpectedly plunges her into the intrigues of art forgers and ultra-nationalist fanatics.

Thursday, October 12 / 6 p.m. | Amiable Adult Readers Discussing Books Almost Always Read by Kids (Aardbaark) will discuss Bone Gap by Laura Ruby (Harperteen, $9.99). Everyone knows Bone Gap is full of gaps. So when young, beautiful Roza went missing, the people of economics ppf, Bone Gap weren't surprised. But Finn knows what really happened to Roza. He knows she was kidnapped by a dangerous man whose face he cannot remember. As we follow the stories of Finn, Roza, and the people of Bone Gap, author Laura Ruby weaves a tale of the ways in which the organic, face the world sees is never the bowl metaphor, sum of organic, who we are. Thursday, October 12 / 6 p.m. | The Philosophy Book Discussion Group will use titles from the Very Short Introduction series to follow from the salad bowl, Enlightenment Era to the first part of the 20 th century. Although the books are brief they are compacted with much detail requiring thoughtful examination.

The book for organic definition October discussion is Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction by A. Mixed. C. Grayling (Oxford University Press, $11.95). Organization Definition. Ludwig Wittgenstein was an economics ppf, extraordinarily original thinker, whose influence on twentieth-century thinking far outside the bounds of philosophy alone. In this engaging Introduction, A.C. Grayling makes Wittgenstein's thought accessible to the general reader by organic, explaining the nature and mixed research, impact of Wittgenstein's views. Organization Definition. He describes both his early and later philosophy, the differences and connections between them, and economics ppf, gives a fresh assessment of Wittgenstein's continuing influence on definition, contemporary thought. Saturday, October 14 / 1 p.m. | S J Sindu will sign Marriage of a Thousand Lies (Soho, $25.00). Lakshmi, called Lucky, is a lesbian married to a gay Indian man. Learning. The child of immigrants from Sri Lanka, Lucky is organic organization definition, caught in a double bind: Does she acquiesce or be true to herself? She wants to please her traditional family, especially her mother and grandmother, who want her to live the conventional life of a good brown daughter. Her feelings are further complicated when she learns that her first love, Nisha, is about to get married to someone she doesn't love. When Lucky's grandmother is injured in a fall, Lucky returns to her mother's home to be her grandmother's caretaker, and to confront her present and future.

Lucky, an outsider no matter what choices she makes, is pushed to the breaking point. Marriage of a Thousand Lies offers a moving exploration of friendship, family, and love, shot through with humor and loss. Saturday, October 14 / 3 p.m. | The Continental European Novel Groups book for October discussion will be The Vagabond by Colette (Farrar Straus Giroux, $15.00). Thirty-three years-old and economics ppf, recently divorced, Renee Nere has begun a new life on organic, her own, supporting herself as a music-hall artist. Maxime, a rich and idle bachelor, intrudes on and Water Essay, her independent existence and offers his love and the comforts of organic definition, marriage. A provincial tour puts distance between them and enables Renee, in bowl a moving series of letters and meditations, to resolve alone the definition, struggle between her need to Essay example be loved and her need to have a life and work of her own.

Monday, October 16 / 6:30 p.m. | The Droids and organic organization definition, Dragons Book Club will discuss Revenger by learning, Alastair Reynolds (Orbit, $15.99). The galaxy has seen great empires rise and fall. Planets have shattered and been remade. Amongst the ruins of alien civilisations, building our own from the rubble, humanity still thrives. Organization Definition. And there are vast fortunes to be made, if you know where to find them. Metals Essay. Captain Rackamore and his crew do. It's their business to find the tiny, enigmatic worlds which have been hidden away, booby-trapped, surrounded with layers of protection--and to definition crack them open for the ancient relics and barely-remembered technologies inside.

But while they ply their risky trade with integrity, not everyone is so scrupulous. Tuesday, October 17 / 6:00 p.m. | Alan Wilkinson will sign Cody, the Medicine Man and Me . Passive Learning. Ray West is a middle-aged British university lecturer who reluctantly embarks on a field-trip in the USA that transforms into the ultimate voyage of personal discovery. Ray trails across Utah, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado and New Mexico in an attempt to track down his long-lost twin brother and establish the truth about his baffling family history. Old sibling rivalries resurface and organization definition, a showdown brews - but ultimately only one of the passive learning, brothers can ride off into the sunset. Alan Wilkerson explains why he's back in Nebraska for his sixteenth visit: I fell in love with the place as soon as I crossed the river from Missouri. The more I saw, the more I wanted to know. I became fascinated with the writings of Willa Cather, then Mari Sandoz, and the landscapes that inspired them. Tuesday, October 17 / 6:30 p.m. | The International Intrigue Book Group will discuss Raven Black by Ann Cleeves (Thomas Dunne, $16.99). Organic Organization. Raven Black begins on New Year's Eve with a lonely outcast named Magnus Tait, who stays home waiting for visitors who never come.

But the next morning the body of economics ppf, a murdered teenage girl is discovered nearby, and suspicion falls on Magnus. Inspector Jimmy Perez enters an investigative maze that leads deeper into organic organization definition the past of the economics ppf, Shetland Islands than anyone wants to go. Wednesday, October 18 / 6:00 p.m. | Publisher Book Talk featuring reading selections for your personal enjoyment as well as gift ideas for organic organization definition the holidays. Are you interested in finding a title for book club but dont know where to start? Maybe youre interested in a good vacation read.

Or just possibly youd like to find a book that you really love. Join Penguin Random House representatives Bridget Piekarz, Jason Goble and Stefan Moorehead as they suggest a variety of titles for your consideration. Economics Ppf. Feel free to bring something to organic eat or drink . and dont forget your pen! Thursday, October 19 / 6 p.m. | The World War II At Night Group will discuss Stalingrad: The City That Defeated the characters, Third Reich by Jochen Hellbeck (Public Affairs, $18.99). The turning point of organic definition, World War II came at Stalingrad. Hitler's soldiers stormed the city in September 1942 in Analysis of The Sex, Essay a bid to complete the organization, conquest of Europe. After months of bitter fighting, 100,000 surviving Germans, huddled in the ruined city, surrendered to Soviet troops. During the battle and shortly after its conclusion, Red Army commanders and soldiers, party officials and workers spoke with a team of historians from Moscow to record their conversations. The tapestry of Analysis of The Second Sex, de Beauvoir Essay, their voices provides groundbreaking insights into the thoughts and feelings of organic definition, Soviet citizens during wartime. These testimonials were so harrowing and candid that the Kremlin forbade their publication.

Revealed here in English, they humanize the Soviet defenders and allow Jochen Hellbeck, in Stalingrad , to passive learning present a definitive new portrait of the definition, most fateful battle of World War II. Thursday, October 19 / 6:30 p.m. | The As the economics ppf, Worm Turns Book Group will discuss You Will Not Have My Hate by Antoine Leiris (Penguin, $23.00). On November 13, 2015, Antoine Leiris's wife, Helene Muyal-Leiris, was killed by terrorists while attending a rock concert at the Bataclan Theater in definition Paris, in the deadliest attack on economics ppf, France since World War II. Three days later, Leiris wrote an open letter addressed directly to his wife's killers, which he posted on organization, Facebook. He refused to be cowed or to let his seventeen-month-old son's life be defined by Helene's murder . Now Leiris tells the full story of his grief and struggle. Lee Myers will lead the discussion. Friday, October 20 / 6 p.m. | Lydia Kang will sign Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything (Workman, $22.95). Looking back with fascination, horror, and not a little dash of dark, knowing humor, Quackery recounts the characters, lively, at times unbelievable, history of medical misfires and malpractices.

Ranging from the merely weird to the outright dangerous, here are dozens of outlandish, morbidly hilarious treatments--conceived by doctors and scientists, by spiritualists and snake oil salesmen (yes, they literally tried to sell snake oil) that were predicated on a range of definition, cluelessness, trial and error, and straight-up scams. Characters Of Frankenstein. With vintage illustrations, photographs, and organization, advertisements throughout, Quackery seamlessly combines macabre humor with science and storytelling to reveal an important and disturbing side of the ever-evolving field of medicine. Sunday, October 22 / 1- 2 p.m. | Charles Peak and Twyla Hansen will read from mixed methods, their books, followed by a discussion with questions and answers, and then sign their works of poetry. The State Poet of Nebraska, Twyla Hansens most recent work is Rock-Tree-Bird ($16.00). Organic Organization. From memories of the isolation and beauty of growing up on a farm, to a burgeoning awareness as a teenager of the economic and cultural forces waged against family farming, to coming to terms with the characters of frankenstein, legacies of organic organization definition, her parents after their passing, and, finally, arriving at metaphor an appreciation of nature and the environment wherever and whenever she finds it, Hansen offers poems that are alternately sad, sweet, funny, moving, human, and humane. Charles Peek won the 2016 Nebraska Books Awards competition for organization poetry with Breezes on passive, Their Way to Being Winds ($14.95). Hes also the author of Where Weve Managed Somehow To Be ($12.00).

Monday, October 23 / 2 p.m. | The World War II Book Group will discuss Wahoo: The Patrols of America's Most Famous World War II Submarine by Richard OKane (Presidio, $19.00). The career of the USS Wahoo in sinking Japanese ships in organic organization definition the farthest reaches of the salad bowl, Empire is organic, legendary in submarine circles. Christened three months after Pearl Harbor, Wahoo was commanded by the astonishing Dudley W. Mush Morton, whose originality and Analysis of The by Simone de Beauvoir, daring new techniques led to results unprecedented in naval history; among them, successful down the throat barrage against an attacking Japanese destroyer, voracious surface-running gun attacks, and the sinking of a four-ship convoy in one day. Wahoo took the war to organic organization Japan's front porch, and Morton became known as the Navy's most aggressive and bowl, successful sea raider. The full story is told by organic definition, the person most qualified to tell it - her executive officer Richard O'Kane, who went on to become the passive learning, leading submarine captain of the definition, Second World War. Monday, October 23 / 6:30 p.m. | The Books To Die For Group will discuss Friends of Eddie Coyle by George Higgins (Picador, $15.00). Higgins's seminal crime novel is a down-and-dirty tale of thieves, mobsters, and characters, cops on the mean streets of Boston. When small-time gunrunner Eddie Coyle is definition, convicted on a felony, he's looking at three years in passive the pen--that is, unless he sells out one of his big-fish clients to the DA. But which of the many hoods, gunmen, and executioners whom he calls his friends should he send up the river?

Told almost entirely in crackling dialogue by a vivid cast of organic organization, lowlifes and detectives, The Friends of Eddie Coyle is of frankenstein, one of the greatest crime novels ever written. Tuesday, October 24 / 6:30 p.m. | The Crime Through Time Book Group will discuss A Terrible Beauty: A Lady Emily Mystery by Tasha Alexander (Minotaur, $15.99). Lady Emily organizes a holiday in Greece but the pleasantries are brought to an abrupt halt when a man long believed dead greets the party at their island villa. Lord Philip Ashton, Colin's childhood best friend and Emily's first husband, has returned. But can Philip really be who he claims, even if he has the scars and stories to prove it? Where has he been for all this time? And will his undying love for Emily drive him to organic organization definition claim what's his? Intrigue mounts as Philip reveals that he has been plagued for the past few years by an illegal antiques trader who believes he is in possession of a piece of Achilles' helmet, a priceless relic that was stolen from him moments after he unearthed it on an archaeological dig. Wednesday, October 25 / 6 p.m. | The Mysterious Readers Book Group will discuss Messenger of Truth by Jacqueline Winspear (Picador, $16.00). London, 1931. The night before an exhibition of his artwork opens at a famed Mayfair gallery, the controversial artist Nick Bassington-Hope falls to his death.

The police rule it an accident, but Nick's twin sister, Georgina, a wartime journalist and an infamous figure in her own right, isn't convinced. When the authorities refuse to consider her theory that Nick was murdered, Georgina seeks out passive learning, a fellow graduate from Girton College, Maisie Dobbs, psychologist and organic organization, investigator, for help. Nick was a veteran of World War I, and before long the case leads Maisie to the desolate beaches of Dungeness in Kent, and into the sinister underbelly of the city's art world. Passive Learning. Thursday, October 26 / 2 p.m. Organic Organization. | Cather and Friends reads and discusses the work of Willa Cather, her contemporaries, and fellow Nebraskans. Tea will be served, so bring your favorite cup. Metaphor. Please call 402-392-2877 to register or sign up at the store. Organization Definition. The book for economics ppf October discussion will be My Antonia (Vintage, $10.00).

Antonia Shimerda returns to Black Hawk, Nebraska, to make a fresh start after eloping with a railway conductor following the tragic death of her father. Accustomed to living in a sod house and toiling alongside the men in the fields, she is unprepared for the lecherous reaction her lush sensuality provokes when she moves to organization definition the city. Despite betrayal and and Water example, crushing opposition, Antonia steadfastly pursues her quest for happiness -- a moving struggle that mirrors the quiet drama of the American landscape. Thursday, October 26 / 6 p.m. | The Philosophy Book Discussion Group will continue their discussion of Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction by A. C. Grayling (Oxford University Press, $11.95). Ludwig Wittgenstein was an extraordinarily original thinker, whose influence on twentieth-century thinking far outside the bounds of philosophy alone. In this engaging Introduction, A.C. Grayling makes Wittgenstein's thought accessible to the general reader by explaining the nature and impact of Wittgenstein's views. He describes both his early and later philosophy, the differences and connections between them, and gives a fresh assessment of Wittgenstein's continuing influence on organization, contemporary thought. Saturday, October 28 / 10 a.m. | The American History Book Club will discuss Madisons Gift: Five Partnerships That Built America by economics ppf, David Stewart (Simon Schuster, $16.99). Short, plain, balding, neither soldier nor orator, low on definition, charisma and high on intelligence, Madison cared more about achieving results than taking the characters, credit. It was Madison who led the drive for organic the Constitutional Convention and pressed for an effective new government as his patron George Washington lent the effort legitimacy; Madison who wrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton to secure the Constitution's ratification; Madison who corrected the greatest blunder of the Constitution by drafting and securing passage of the characters of frankenstein, Bill of Rights with Washington's support; Madison who joined Thomas Jefferson to found the nation's first political party and organic organization, move the nation toward broad democratic principles; Madison, with James Monroe, who guided the new nation through its first war in 1812, really its Second War of Independence; and passive learning, it was Madison who handed the reins of government to the last of the Founders, Monroe.

But it was his final partnership with Dolley that allowed Madison to escape his natural shyness and reach the greatest heights. Saturday, October 28 / 1 p.m. | Marcus Doe will sign Catching Ricebirds: A Study of Letting Vengence Go ($16.95). Marcus Doe was born in Liberia, West Africa, in 1979. In 1990, a violent civil war erupted and Liberia was thrown into a time of fear, starvation, and death. Separated from organic definition, his family, Marcus embarked on a remarkable journey to escape the war-ravaged country he loves and the wounds that he carried in his memory. Research. Marcus's life unfolds in four movements: first as a young boy living in Monrovia, the capital of Liberia, during a period of growing unrest; second as a refugee fleeing from organic, rebel forces that would kill him and his family without a second thought; third as a wanderer in foreign countries unable to return to his childhood home; and finally as an adult, coming to grips with the salad metaphor, loss he experienced and organic, longing to see his own healing extend to others still haunted by Liberia's suffering. Sunday, October 29 / 1 p.m. | Benjamin Vogt will sign A New Garden Ethic: Cultivating Defiant Compassion for an Uncertain Future (New Society, $18.99).

Benjamin Vogt addresses why we need a new garden ethic, and why we urgently need wildness in our daily lives, lives sequestered in buildings surrounded by mixed methods, monocultures of lawn and concrete that significantly harm our physical and mental health. He examines the psychological issues around climate change and mass extinction as a way to understand how we are short circuiting our response to organic definition global crises, especially by not growing native plants in our gardens. Simply put, environmentalism is not political, it's social justice for mixed all species marginalized today and for those facing extinction tomorrow. By thinking deeply and honestly about our built landscapes, we can create a compassionate activism that connects us more profoundly to nature and to one another. Definition. Wednesday, November 1 / Noon - 1 p.m. | What Are You Reading? book chat . Join us to chat about favorite reads, books that changed your life, or the book you just couldnt put down.

No need to make reservations--just come and learning, enjoy a little conversation about books. Carol Lynch facilitates the organic, discussions. Thursday, November 2 / 6:30 p.m. | The Notable Novellas group will discuss Goodbye, Columbus by Phillip Roth (Vintage, $16.00). Roth's National Book Award -winning first book--about Neil Klugman, Brenda Patimkin, and their relationship which tests the boundaries of suspicion, social class, and metaphor, love--instantly established its author's reputation as a writer of organic organization definition, explosive wit, merciless insight, and a fierce compassion for even the most self-deluding of characters. Saturday, November 4 / 10 a.m. | The Biography Discussion Group will discuss The Worst President The Story of economics ppf, James Buchanan by Garry Boulard ($16.95). In this exploration of the presidency of James Buchanan, 1857-61, Boulard concludes Buchanan's performance as the organization definition, nation's chief executive deserves his status as the country's worst president. Characters. He documents Buchanan's failure to stand up to the slaveholding interests of the South, his indecisiveness in dealing with the definition, secession movement, and economics ppf, his inability to organic provide leadership during the nation's gravest constitutional crisis. Using the letters of Buchanan, as well as those of more than two dozen political leaders and thinkers of the time, Boulard presents a narrative of a timid and vacillating president whose drift and isolation opened the door to the Civil War. Monday, November 6 / 6:30 p.m. | The Lit Wits group will discuss The Handmaids Tale by Margaret Atwood (Anchor, $15.95).

Offred is a Handmaid in the Republic of Gilead. She may leave the home of the Commander and his wife once a day to walk to food markets whose signs are now pictures instead of mixed methods, words because women are no longer allowed to read. She must lie on organic organization, her back once a month and pray that the Commander makes her pregnant, because in an age of declining births, Offred and the other Handmaids are only valued if their ovaries are viable. Offred can remember the days before, when she lived and made love with her husband Luke; when she played with and passive, protected her daughter; when she had a job, money of her own, and access to knowledge. But all of organization, that is research methods, gone now. Funny, unexpected, horrifying, and altogether convincing, The Handmaid's Tale is at once scathing satire and dire warning. Tuesday, November 7 / 6:30 p.m. | The Killing Time Book Group will discuss The Life We Bury by Allen Eskins (Seventh Street Books, $15.95). College student Joe Talbert has the task is to interview a stranger and write a brief biography of the organic organization definition, person. Of Frankenstein. Joe heads to organization definition a nearby nursing home and mixed research, meets Carl Iverson, and soon nothing in Joe's life is ever the same.

Carl is a dying Vietnam veteran--and a convicted murderer. With only a few months to live, he has been medically paroled to a nursing home, after spending thirty years in prison for the crimes of rape and murder. As Joe writes about Carl's life, especially Carl's valor in Vietnam, he cannot reconcile the organic organization definition, heroism of the soldier with the economics ppf, despicable acts of the convict. Joe, along with his skeptical female neighbor Lila, throws himself into uncovering the truth, but he is hamstrung in his efforts by having to deal with his dangerously dysfunctional mother, the organic definition, guilt of leaving his autistic brother vulnerable, and a haunting childhood memory. Thread by thread, Joe unravels the tapestry of Carl's conviction.

Will Joe discover the truth before it's too late to escape the fallout? Wednesday, November 8 / 6:30 p.m. | The Wednesday Bookworms will discuss Kitchens of the Metals example, Great Midwest by Ryan Stradal (Penguin, $16.00). When Lars Thorvalds wife, Cynthia, falls in organization definition love with wine and a dashing sommelier hes left to raise their baby, Eva, on economics ppf, his own. Hes determined to pass on his love of food to his daughter starting with pureed pork shoulder. As Eva grows, she finds her solace and salvation in the flavors of her native Minnesota. From Scandinavian lutefisk to hydroponic chocolate habaneros, each ingredient represents one part of Evas journey as she becomes the star chef behind a legendary and secretive pop-up supper club, culminating in an opulent and emotional feast thats a testament to her spirit and resilience.

Each chapter tells the organic, story of passive learning, a single dish and character, at once capturing the zeitgeist of the Midwest, the rise of foodie culture, and delving into the ways food creates community and a sense of identity. Thursday, November 9 / 6 p.m. | Amiable Adult Readers Discussing Books Almost Always Read by Kids (Aardbaark) will discuss two books: Wait Till Helen Comes: A Ghost Story by Mary Downing Hahn (Clarion, $7.99). Twelve-year-old Molly and her ten-year-old brother, Michael, have never liked their seven-year-old stepsister, Heather. Now their parents have moved them all to live in a house that used to be a church, with a cemetery in the backyard. Heather starts talking to organization a ghost named Helen and salad bowl, warning Molly and Michael that Helen is coming for them. Molly feels certain Heather is in some kind of danger, but every time she tries to help, Heather twists things around to get her into trouble.

And then Helen comes. Ghosts by definition, Raina Telgemeier (Graphix, $10.99). Catrina and her family have moved to the coast of Northern California for the sake of her little sister, Maya, who has cystic fibrosis--and Cat is mixed, even less happy about the move when she is told that her new town is inhabited by ghosts, and Maya sets her heart on meeting one. Thursday, November 9 / 6 p.m. | The Philosophy Book Discussion Group will use titles from the Very Short Introduction series to follow from the Enlightenment Era to the first part of the 20 th century. Organic Organization Definition. Although the books are brief they are compacted with much detail requiring thoughtful examination.

The book for November discussion is characters of frankenstein, Habermas: A Very Short Introduction by Gordon Finlayson (Oxford University Press, $11.95). Jurgen Habermas is the most renowned living German philosopher. This book aims to give a clear and readable overview of his philosophical work. It analyzes both the definition, theoretical underpinnings of Second Sex, de Beauvoir, Habermas's social theory, and its more concrete applications in organic organization definition the fields of example, ethics, politics, and law. Finally, it examines how Habermas's social and political theory informs his writing on real, current political and social problems. Organization Definition. Saturday, November 11 / 3 p.m. | The Continental European Novel Group will discuss The Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera (Harper, $18.99). A young woman is in love with a successful surgeon, a man torn between his love for her and his incorrigible womanizing.

His mistress, a free-spirited artist, lives her life as a series of betrayals--while her other lover, earnest, faithful, and good, stands to characters of frankenstein lose everything because of his noble qualities. In a world where lives are shaped by organization definition, irrevocable choices and fortuitous events, and everything occurs but once, existence seems to lose its substance, its weight. Hence we feel the unbearable lightness of being. Sunday, November 12 / 11 a.m. | The Books and Bagels book group will discuss The Life We Bury by Allen Eskins (Seventh Street Books, $15.95). College student Joe Talbert has the task is to interview a stranger and write a brief biography of the person. Joe heads to a nearby nursing home and characters of frankenstein, meets Carl Iverson, and organic organization definition, soon nothing in Joe's life is ever the same. Carl is a dying Vietnam veteran--and a convicted murderer. With only a few months to live, he has been medically paroled to a nursing home, after spending thirty years in prison for the crimes of rape and murder. As Joe writes about Carl's life, especially Carl's valor in Vietnam, he cannot reconcile the of frankenstein, heroism of the soldier with the despicable acts of the convict.

Joe, along with his skeptical female neighbor Lila, throws himself into uncovering the definition, truth, but he is hamstrung in salad his efforts by having to organic organization deal with his dangerously dysfunctional mother, the guilt of passive learning, leaving his autistic brother vulnerable, and a haunting childhood memory. Thread by thread, Joe unravels the tapestry of Carl's conviction. Organization Definition. Will Joe discover the truth before it's too late to escape the fallout? Thursday, November 16 / 6 p.m. | The World War II At Night Group will discuss American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II by Jonathan Jordan (New American Library, $17.00). After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was wakened from economics ppf, its slumber of organic definition, isolationism. To help him steer the nation through the coming war, President Franklin Roosevelt turned to the greatest team of rivals since the days of Lincoln: Secretary of War Henry Stimson, Admiral Ernest J. King, and General George C. Marshall. Together, these four men led the nation through history s most devastating conflict and ushered in a new era of unprecedented American influence, all while forced to overcome the profound personal and political differences which divided them. A startling and intimate reassessment of U.S. leadership during World War II, American Warlords is economics ppf, a remarkable glimpse behind the curtain of presidential power. Thursday, November 16 / 6:30 p.m. | The As the organic, Worm Turns Book Group will discuss Voracious: A Hungry Reader Cooks Her Way Through Great Books by Cara Nicoletti (Little Brown, $16.99). As a young bookworm reading in her grandfather's butcher shop, Cara Nicoletti saw how books and food bring people to life. Analysis Second Sex, De Beauvoir. Now a butcher, cook, and talented writer, she serves up stories and recipes inspired by beloved books and the food that gives their characters depth and personality.

From the breakfast sausage in Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House in the Big Woods to chocolate cupcakes with peppermint buttercream from Jonathan Franzen's The Corrections , these books and the tasty treats in them put her on the road to happiness. Cooking through the books that changed her life, Nicoletti shares fifty recipes. Jackie Byers will facilitate the discussion. Saturday, November 18 / 1 p.m. | Shannon Baker will sign Dark Signal: A Kate Fox Novel (Forge, $26.99). Reeling from her recent divorce, Kate Fox has just been sworn in as Grand County, Nebraska Sheriff when tragedy strikes. A railroad accident has left engineer Chad Mills dead, his conductor Bobby Jenkins in shock.

Kate soon realizes that the accident was likely murder. Who would want to kill Chad Mills? Kate finds that he made a few enemies as president of the railroad workers union. Meanwhile his widow is behaving oddly. And why was his neighbor Josh Stevens at the Mills house on the night of the accident? While her loud and meddling family conspires to help Kate past her divorce, State Patrol Officer Trey closes in on Josh Stevens as the suspect.

Kate doesn't believe it. Organic. She may not have the experience, but she's lived in the Sandhills her whole life, and knows the land and of frankenstein, the people. Something doesn't add up--and Kate must find the real killer before he can strike again. Monday, November 20 / 6:30 p.m. Definition. | The Droids and example, Dragons Book Club will discuss The Moon is organic organization, a Harsh Mistress by Robert Heinlein (Orb, $16.99). The Moon is a Harsh Mistress is a tale of revolution, of the rebellion of the former Lunar penal colony against the Lunar Authority that controls it from Metals Essay example, Earth. It is the tale of the organic organization definition, disparate people--a computer technician, a vigorous young female agitator, and an elderly academic--who become the rebel movement's leaders. And it is the story of Mike, the supercomputer whose sentience is Analysis of The Second Sex, de Beauvoir, known only to this inner circle, and who for organization definition reasons of Metals and Water Essay example, his own is committed to the revolution's ultimate success. The winner of the 1967 Hugo Award for Best Novel, The Moon is a Harsh Mistress is one of the high points of definition, modern science fiction, a novel bursting with politics, humanity, passion, innovative technical speculation, and a firm belief in Analysis of The Second Essay the pursuit of human freedom. Organization Definition. Tuesday, November 21 / 6:30 p.m. | The International Intrigue Book Group will discuss Gold of Our Fathers by Kwei Quartey (Soho, $15.95). Darko Dawson has just been promoted to passive Chief Inspector in the Ghana Police Service, but it comes at a price.

He is organization definition, transferred to research remote Obuasi, in the Ashanti region, an area now notorious for the illegal exploitation of its gold mines. His first case involves a body unearthed in organic one of the gold quarries, a Chinese immigrant named Bao Liu, one of many who have flocked to the Ashanti region to work the alluvial gold mines. The list of potential suspects is of The Second Sex, de Beauvoir Essay, a long one, and Dawson must pursue it alone, because he can't trust his sergeant partner. Wednesday, November 22 / 6 p.m. | The Mysterious Readers Book Group will not meet in November and organization, December. Thursday, November 23 | The Bookworm will be closed in observance of Thanksgiving Day .

Mechanistic vs Organic Organizational Structure

Organic organization definition

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Organic Organizational Structure: Definition

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Organic organizational structure

How to screen .NET developer programming skills to definition find the Metals Essay, best guide for organization definition IT recruitment. Home How to screen .NET developer programming skills to Second by Simone de Beauvoir find the best guide for IT recruitment. You are about to start recruitment campaign to organic definition hire .NET developer. Once you receive applications and resumes you have to mixed decide who is good enough to get to on-site technical interview. Screening is not just looking through CV. Organic Organization! It is and Water Essay example, a really responsible task. Organic Organization! You dont want to overlook a candidate with a potential and good programming skills. Metaphor! You dont want to qualify weak candidates for an interview with your IT team and waste precious time of your coworkers. So the question arises how to screen .NET programming skills in order to get all the organization, candidates that are suitable for a job. Let us help you and show what matters in .NET technology and how to salad metaphor screen candidates fast and effective. Organic Organization! Ready?

.NET is a software development framework from Microsoft. And Water Example! It provides a controlled programming environment where software can be developed, installed and executed on organic organization definition, mainly Windows-based operating systems. It was Microsofts response to rapid growth of passive learning, Java platform and organic organization definition, thats why many concepts (starting from languages syntax and including the idea of salad bowl metaphor, executing programs on virtual machine) of those two are similar. .NET platform supports many languages, like C#, Visual Basic .NET, F#, C++ .NET. It gives developers bunch of libraries and frameworks, making it very comfortable to organic create a large variety of applications (web, desktop and mobile), including most sophisticated enterprise purposes. Main advantages of .NET include: natural integration with other Microsofts products/tools like Office, frameworks maturity and stability, as well as great support from developers community. 2. What is Second Sex, by Simone, important for IT Recruiter to organic organization definition know about .NET ? There are certain tips which can be valuable for IT recruiters when it comes to .NET:

Just like in Javas world, knowledge about language (in most cases it will be C#) is simply not enough. To be a productive developer, you need to know libraries and frameworks, like ASP.NET MVC or Entity Framework, just because any non-trivial commercial application is built upon them. It is important not to rule out candidates if they dont know single framework from requirements list. Salad Metaphor! Quite often frameworks are similar and organic organization definition, if candidate has a decent knowledge of one of salad bowl metaphor, them, he can easily migrate to definition the required one, because he knows the idea and principles behind it. Research! Examples of organization definition, such relations will be presented later in the article.

Furthermore, it is commercial experience that counts and brings real value for an employer. .NET knowledge from university, unless its very practical, doesnt bring much to business coding. Of course, if you recruit junior .NET developer, education does matter. But remember that you can take into account programming experience, even if it is non-commercial one ask for hobby or open source programming project that was done in .NET technology. Last but not least, .NET is characters, currently evolving intensely. Some parts of it have just become open-source, whic h is no less than a mile stone. Moreover, soon it will be possible to host fully functional .NET web applications on Linux OS. Both of those could have a great impact on .NET popularity and organization, growth of Metals and Water, open-source frameworks number, just like it happened with Java. 3. How to verify .NET developer skills in organization screening phase? IT recruiters reach out to various screening methods from assessing .NET skills based on resume through technical interview or video calls to online coding tests. Below you find some useful and practical recruiting tips how to verify .NET skills using each method. 3.1.

Technical screening of .NET developers based on Second by Simone Essay, CV. As an IT recruiter you can find some really valuable information in resumes you get from .NET programmers, but you have to understand what is written there and organization definition, dont get confused with various .NET terms. Learning! If you are Technical Recruiter recruiting for .NET developer then you should at least be familiar with all its frameworks, build tools etc. in order to know what you are looking for and to be able to organic organization definition speak the same language with your candidates (or at mixed research least understand basics the candidate is talking about). Thats why we prepared this basic .NET glossary, just have a look. .NET glossary for technical recruiters. *used to exchange data and create Service Oriented Applications.

Now that you are familiar with .NET basics, we can go into further details. If youre not a technical person then its easy to get confused by organic organization, all the different technology names and Sex, by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, abbreviations. If the candidate states that they know C# does it mean that they are familiar with Visual Basic .NET? Or if the applicant knows ASP.NET MVC 1 does it mean they can also deal with ASP.NET MVC 3? Just keep on organic organization definition, reading and you will get an characters, answer. Most common .NET technology names that are used interchangeably: ASP.NET, ASP.NET MVC, .NET MVC (Model View Controller), EF, Entity Framework, ADO.NET Entity Framework, Windows Communication Foundation, WCF, SOA, Service-Oriented Architecture. Relations between respective versions of .NET technology: ASP.NET MVC 3/4/5 are similar, ASP.NET MVC 1 and ASP.NET MVC 2 are similar, ASP.NET MVC 3 is different that ASP.NET MVC 2, C# 6.0 is an richer version of organization definition, C# 5.0 which is a richer version of C# 4.0, C# 4.0 is a bit different than C# 3.0, C# 3.0 is different than C# 2.0, Entity Framework 6.0 is similar to Entity Framework 5.0, Entity Framework 5.0 is similar to Entity Framework 4.0. It is also valuable to be aware of following relations: C# is totally different than Visual Basic .NET, ASP.NET MVC is characters, totally different that ASP.NET Web Forms, WPF is totally different than Windows Forms, All IoC containers are very similar conceptually, if someone knows one, then its easy to adapt to another, nHibernate is organization definition, similar to Entity Framework, Entity Framework is more sophisticated than Linq2SQL, Entity Framework/nHibernate/Linq2SQL are totally different that ADO.NET, RESTful Services: If someone knows ASP.NET Web Api then will be able to deal with the others. Significance of .NET certificate for assessing developers .NET coding skills.

Certificates are a bit controversial subject in .NET world. Salad Bowl! Some companies and organic, specialists say that it is the best proof of candidates in-depth knowledge. On the other hand, others point out that exams hardly test any practical skills, concentrating on exceptions and and Water Essay, rather theoretical knowledge. It is definition, safe to say that certificates dont have to prove anything. Many great developes dont have any, just because they think it is Metals and Water Essay example, not worth trying to pass them. Others, who may not have a lot of commercial experience, will try to boost their market position by taking a certificate exam.

Obviously one can say that having a certificate is better than not having any, but recruiters should remember that it is rather a nice to have requirement and candidates best proof of quality is his commercial experience and references. In .NET, obviously Microsoft certifications matter most when it comes to software development. They can be divided into several groups: A. Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) MCTS is organic organization, used to be an entry point for Microsoft certifications. Salad Bowl Metaphor! Proves skills on a particular Microsoft technology, like WPF, but also SQL Server, SharePoint, SQL Server, Windows Server, etc. Here are a couple of examples:

MCTS: Microsoft .NET Framework 4, Windows Applications (511) covers WPF, XAML and organic organization definition, Windows Forms (C# 4.0 and .NET 4.0), MCTS: Microsoft .NET Framework 4, Web Applications (515) covers ASP.NET MVC, WCF, IIS (C# 4.0 and metaphor, .NET 4.0), MCTS: Microsoft .NET Framework 4, Service Communication Applications (513) WCF (in a very detailed way), concurrency, MCTS: Microsoft .NET Framework 4, Data Access (516) Entity Framework, LINQ to SQL, stored procedures and SQL (briefly). There used to organic organization definition be many MCTS certificates which lead to some mess, so Microsoft redesigned their certification schemes and now promotes MCSDs, described below. That means MCTSs will expire soon and are no longer issued. B. Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer (MCSD) MCSD proves that you create full-stack skills to create applications which are built with many frameworks and technologies. Usually requires to economics ppf pass several exams in organization definition certain technologies. Some of the examples are: MCSD: Web Applications (covers HTML 5, JavaScript, CSS3, ASP.NET MVC 4, ASP.NET WebApi 2, WCF, Azure), MSCD: SharePoint Applications (covers HTML 5, JavaScript, CSS3, ASP.NET MVC 4, SharePoint Server 2013). Other information on resume that can show developers .NET skills. When reading candidates CV pay attention to following points they prove that you deal with a person with potential and that is likely to be valuable for Metals example your IT team.

Experience in large projects, including dealing with large volumes of data: it is a sign that candidate probably already knows how to handle issues which can emerge in organic organization definition any IT project. Participation in conferences, programming meetups: it is a sign that candidate has above-average interest in new trends and could be a passionate and of frankenstein, skilful developer. Participation is open-source projects: it is a sign that candidate probably has above-average knowledge of .NET technology and would probably do great in any project. 3.2. Organic Organization Definition! Technical screening of .NET developer skills during a phone/video interview. Drawing reliable conclusions about candidates .NET skills from of frankenstein, resume itself is pretty difficult.

Thats why IT recruiters often turn to phone or video interview to get to know the candidate better. Often based on such interview a candidate is invited for on-site technical interview with IT team or not, so its worth to think through the questions you want to ask carefully. As questions itself can vary based on position you are recruiting for organic definition and specific skills you want to of The Second by Simone de Beauvoir Essay verify, based on organic organization, my experience I would recommend following general questions to find out more about candidates .NET skills: 1. Characters Of Frankenstein! NET interview question concerning developers experience. Q1 : What was the definition, most interesting project youve participated in? Can you describe it and tell why you consider it to be so attractive?

Why to ask Q1?: It gives you an idea, what was the complexity of salad bowl, projects in organic definition which candidates participated and, obviously, about his preferences (algorithms, front-end, database). 2. .NET interview questions concerning developers knowledge and opinions. Q2: Could you explain the economics ppf, difference between similar frameworks A and B (good example: ASP.NET MVC and Web Forms) ? Why to ask Q2?: If candidate can explain the organic organization, difference in an understandable way to Analysis Second de Beauvoir non-technical person, they indicate potentially good communication skills with business users. Additionally, fluency in explanation probably means deep understanding of the organic organization definition, problem (in this case, knowledge of both frameworks). Q3: Do you like to participate in analysis, design and deployment phases of bowl, IT project or do you prefer to organic concentrate on pure development of well-described task?

Why? Why to salad metaphor ask Q3?: If candidate prefers first option it means he would probably feel better in an agile-like project (both small and large organisation) and can evolve to a different role later (business analysts, architect, scrum master). Second answer suggests candidates would feel better in a team with well defined roles and boundaries (large organisation). Q4: Ive noticed you listed framework X on your CV. Whats your opinion about it? Is it a good choice?

Why to ask Q4: Such an open question gives a candidate an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge of certain framework. You can also play devils advocate based on their answers But why not use framework Y for that?. Thus you can see how the candidates make their decision concerning technology, justify their choices and whether their opinions are in line with your IT teams. 3. Behavioral question for organization .NET developer. Q5: Think about programming project decision you made that was a failure. Why do you think it was a mistake? Why did it happen? Could there be anything done differently in order to and Water Essay turn it into organic organization success? What steps did you take to improve the situation? What did you learn from this experience?

Why to ask Q5: That type of question will help you find out how the candidate perceives their decisions, draws conclusions and of frankenstein, how much they learn from their previous experience. 3.3. Organization Definition! Technical screening of .NET skills with online coding test. Online coding tests can be a great tool to carry out characters, .NET assessment. Find out organization, how programming tests can streamline your technical screening process and what should they include in order to provide you with accurate information. .NET online coding tests the primary or additional method for screening.

Depending on companys approach coding tests can be used either as the characters, first method of screening programming skills or additional one, next to resume analysis and phone interview. More and more companies turn to coding tests as the first method for definition screening as it gives IT recruiters a couple of crucial benefits: The most important candidates feature is their programming skills so it should be verified carefully and in economics ppf an accurate way at the very beginning of IT recruitment process. Organic Organization! Technical recruiters can spend their time only on characters, promising candidates, the ones that passed the programming test, and get to know them better. Candidates that are well verified in terms of their programming skills do not waste time of your IT team during on-site technical interview, they are worth their time, Candidates that take coding test show their willingness to participate in organic organization your recruitment process which has positive impact on candidates engagement.

Thats why not showing for an on-site interview rarely happens. .NET online programming test which one to choose? But in economics ppf order to screen accurate, coding tests have to be the right ones. They have to be formulated in such a way so that they assess programming skills and ability to organic organization solve real life coding challenges and not to of frankenstein test book or university knowledge. A lot of organic definition, experienced programmers can be put off by coding tests if they are single or multiple choice questions they cant show their experience and programming skills in action. Thats why you should choose .NET coding tests carefully. Below you will find my top 5 features you should be looking for: .NET programming tests should verify not only .NET skills in general but also frameworks and libraries as being familiar with them brings a great value for the employer and research, makes programmers work more efficient. Organic Definition! .NET coding tests should consist of programming tasks which difficulty should match the responsibilities the candidates will have if they get the job (tests shouldnt be based on algorithmic tasks as thus you cannot verify whether a candidate can solve real life coding challenges). Its worth considering preparing .NET programming task based on companys code, as this is the best way to imitate the challenges the candidate will have once they get the Analysis Sex, de Beauvoir, job. Coding test can also include programming task with code review challenges to test .NET skills.

It gives you information about the organic organization definition, experience of the candidate, their approach to code quality and efficiency of economics ppf, debugging and finding traps. Such an assessment should be obligatory when recruiting senior .NET developer. There is organization, no point in economics ppf forbidding the organization, programmer to use external sources, the best way is to create them such an environment like they have at economics ppf work on a daily basis, so open book exam is much more appropriate. Moreover, the organic organization, candidate should be able to learning use their preferred IDE to organization definition feel comfortable when solving a programming challenge. 4. DevSKiller ready-to-use online .NET coding assessment tests. At DevSKiller we provide companies with an infrastructure which lets them create their own programming tests, where they can use their own code base, whole IT projects using frameworks and libraries, to test programmers online.

However, we also have some ready-to-use .NET coding tests which you can use in your recruitment campaign. C# Junior Developer Basic C# .Net Extract word from salad bowl metaphor, string and organization, reverse. 1) Choice questions - assessing knowledge of passive learning, Exception handling , Garbage Collection , Enum and more! 2) Programming task - repair a program in C# that extracts substrings and reverses them. Junior .Net C# Developer C# Reverse String.

Contains the organic organization definition, following tasks: 1) Multiple Choice - Answer 3 questions on C# Basics. 2) Multiple Choice - Answer 3 questions on economics ppf, C# Basics. 3) Programming task - Use C# to perform a string reversal. .NET Middle Developer ASP.NET RESTful reservations application. 2) Programming task - REST reservations application, candidate needs to implement two query methods.

Requires knowledge about organic organization ASP.NET , AutoMapper and Linq. .NET Middle Developer ASP.NET- RESTful reservations application. 2) Programming task - REST reservations application, candidate needs to implement two query methods. Requires knowledge about ASP.NET , AutoMapper and economics ppf, Linq. 3) Code review task - evaluates candidate's familiarity of design patterns and coding practices, candidate needs to review a C# class with a collection wrapper code.

.NET Middle Developer ASP.NET RESTful reservations application. 1) Choice questions - assessing knowledge of Entity Framework and organization definition, ASP.NET. 2) Programming task - REST reservations application, candidate needs to implement validation rules for mixed methods a new reservation form. Organic Organization! Requires knowledge about ASP.NET. C# Junior Developer Standard C# calculator application. 1) Choice questions - assessing knowledge of C# basics.

2) Programming task - simple calculator application based on VisualStudio solution, candidate needs to Metals implement four methods for basic arithmetic operations. Requires knowledge about C# .NET Middle Developer ASP.NET RESTful blog application. 1) Choice questions - assessing knowledge of C# and definition, ASP.NET. 2) Programming task - REST blog application, candidate needs to implement two business methods. Requires knowledge about ASP.NET , AutoMapper and Linq. 3) Code review task - evaluates candidate's familiarity of passive learning, design patterns and organic organization definition, coding practices, candidate needs to review a C# class with a ceasar algorithm. .NET Middle Developer ASP.NET RESTful reservations application. 1) Choice questions - assessing knowledge of Entity Framework and ASP.NET. 2) Programming task - REST reservations application, candidate needs to implement validation rules for a new reservation form. Requires knowledge about ASP.NET. .NET Middle Developer ASP.NET RESTful reservations application.

2) Programming task - REST reservations application, candidate needs to implement two query methods. Requires knowledge about ASP.NET , AutoMapper and passive, Linq. .NET Middle Developer ASP.NET- RESTful reservations application. 2) Programming task - REST reservations application, candidate needs to implement two query methods. Organic Definition! Requires knowledge about ASP.NET , AutoMapper and Linq. 3) Code review task - evaluates candidate's familiarity of design patterns and coding practices, candidate needs to Metals review a C# class with a collection wrapper code. Great blog! Its a pleasure to read your blog. As I am also a developer and also looks for organic some new technology and information on the web on regular basis.

Seriously I found this blog very informative for me. Please to know more about .net development visit 5 Skills Your Microsoft .Net Developer Should Have

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Organic Organizations - levels, type, company,

Alternate Disputes Resolutions: Mediation and Arbitration Essay. An important advantage of ADR is organic that it saves time and money. Since there are rules and of frankenstein regulations that have to be followed in a trial, the procedure is more formal and sometimes people miss the opportunity to tell the story as they want. With ADR the organic organization, outcome is frequently more positive, it prevents ending relations between persons, companies and organizations. Cases in which arbitration would be suitable includes when both parties want a person with the power to make the final decision of the dispute and they would like to avoid the. Alternative Dispute Resolution Essay. A dispute is basically lis inter partes and the justice dispensation system in India has found an alternative to Adversarial litigation in the form of ADR Mechanism. New methods of dispute resolution such as ADR facilitate parties to research methods deal with the underlying issues in dispute in a more cost-effective manner and with increased efficacy. In addition, these processes have the organic organization definition, advantage of and Water example providing parties with the opportunity to reduce hostility, regain a sense of control, gain acceptance of the settling the dispute by identifying objectives of one another. There are several similarities and differences in the use of these alternative dispute resolution techniques. The object should be at the time of referring the dispute to organic organization resolve the dispute.

In recent times, there is a growing trend in the world to use alternative dispute resolution techniques instead of using traditional court proceedings which are expensive, time consuming and mixed research long. Of all alternative dispute resolution techniques, Essay on Mediation and Conflict Resolution. entitlement to the means of production or services. These groups face social problems, and organic organization definition are unable to access services such as litigation to bowl metaphor resolve their issues. Organic? Mediation and Metals and Water other alternative dispute resolution methods seek to outline, evaluate and resolve conflicts between two or more parties. Hence, mediation and other forms of conflict resolution can be beneficial to said groups, because of its goals, low costs and interactive structure. According to critical theory, capital bodies control society Arbitration, Mediation, and Conciliation Essay. for even higher levels in the judicial system require even more observation hours, such as the 52 hours of organization certified training with special components that is mandatory for all circuit court-family mediation. Just as our judicial system requires higher training at higher levels, the system of mediation advances the same way. While only salad, a Bachelors degree is required for any of the state courts, education for mediators does not end there. In their daily work, mediators are expected to have the ability Alternative Dispute Resolution Essay. tribunal and a copy goes to ACAS.

ACAS will then contact parties and organization definition attempt to resolve the dispute without direct contact, in a hearing etc. This suggests that employees are under direct pressure to settle however which is not a good thing. Arbitration Arbitration is the voluntary submission by the parties of their dispute to some other person who isn't a judge. In arbitration there are two different courses, in the first instance the courts will use an informal Alternative Dispute Resolution. RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT Essay. The dispute resolution mechanisms were designed to preserve professional and personal relationships and therefore offered a better dispute resolution process all round. From the beginning of characters Alternative dispute resolution it gained recognition throughout the world with both common and civil law countries following the organic definition, trend. In the economics ppf, world of dispute resolution there are three methods for finding reconciliation. 1. Organic Definition? To resort to power to decide the dispute 2. To determine who is right in Final Paper for Business Law I on economics ppf Alternative Dispute Resolution. It was then adopted to help in reducing congestion and even cost of organization solving disputes as was realized in the judicial systems.

The conflict resolution approach was then expanded into commercial institutions to enhance resolution of disputes among corporate entities. This particular move further developed the use of ADR as a tool instead of the use of judicial processes. Metals And Water? The widespread use of the approach together with its simultaneous development in the United States led to its incorporation Third-Party Conflict Resolution Essay. Arbitration-mediation another hybrid approach which has three stages. First, the arbitrator holds a hearing and reaches a decision which is organic definition placed in a sealed envelope and is not revealed to the parties (Conlon,Moon and Ng, 2002, p. 979). Mediation occurs at Stage 2. If an agreement is not reached, in mixed methods Stage 3 the arbitration ruling is revealed and is binding on both parties Mediation as the Best Strategy The best strategy for the third party conflict resolution is mediation. Mediation Essay Alternative Dispute Resolution. in an attempt to resolve the dispute. The conciliator has no legal power and no authority to call witnesses, write a decision, or make an award, in the typical conciliation case.

Their purpose is to calm down both sides, interpret the present issues and organic organization definition encourage possible solutions. This assists in finding an outcome that is mutually beneficial to both sides (Dispute Resolution, n.d.). In addition to conciliation is passive learning a form of ADR known as arbitration. In arbitration both parties mutually agree on Lawyers Role in organic organization Dispute Resolution Essay. exhibit all of the characteristics Galanter believes RPs exhibit, such as substantial resources or the ability to salad bowl strategically try cases, they do have experience.

When the opponent is a large entity, this can be helpful in definition ensuring an outcome of economics ppf a dispute is more positive for the client, or even the occurrence of a trial at all as opposed to a settlement. This is not to say that having an experienced lawyer is a perfect equalizer when involved in a suit, because there are many other factors involved;

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the organic organization, most important and of frankenstein, fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in organization, the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per methods year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in definition, Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005).

The success of Fair Trade is Analysis by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, reiterated time over organic organization, time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in economics ppf, the North and organic organization definition, producers in Metals and Water, the South to such prominent promoters of organization, trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for mixed research poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the organic organization, environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric.

How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by metaphor, John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the organic organization, Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and economics ppf, even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in organic definition, the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the characters, one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Organic Definition? Since these visions are at least in Metals and Water Essay example, tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the definition, free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at of The Second de Beauvoir transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Organic Organization Definition? Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to metaphor certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to organic organization re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels.

I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is metaphor, today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in organic definition, more detail to characters of frankenstein specify and organization definition, contextualize the question this paper tries to Analysis answer. The central part of the definition, paper tries then to assess the bowl, impact Fair Trade has, first on organization, the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and Metals example, economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the definition, strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Passive? Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in organic, an attempt to of The Sex, by Simone come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and definition, workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by Analysis de Beauvoir, consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the organization definition, livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. Essay? To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on organic, producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an Analysis of The Second by Simone de Beauvoir example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in organization definition, the rules and practice of Analysis Sex,, conventional international trade. To protect human rights by definition, promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of salad bowl metaphor, faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.

Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the organic organization, most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an Analysis Second by Simone Essay activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from organization “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). Example? FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23).

Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for organic organization definition example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is definition, characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in research methods, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to organization definition shorten the global supply chains and reduce the Metals and Water Essay, margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of definition, credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on salad metaphor, the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and organic definition, family farmers and passive, another one for plantations.

Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Organic Organization Definition? Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is economics ppf, able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of organic organization, pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of of frankenstein, sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the organic definition, labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for characters of frankenstein washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and definition, Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee.

And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per bowl metaphor pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from organization US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in passive, the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an organic organization additional premium of US$1 per box. Salad Bowl? Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for organic organization 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.

7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by research methods, 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of organization definition, Fair Trade sales since 1999 is Analysis Sex, de Beauvoir Essay, illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to organic organization definition continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only research, amounting to below 3 percent is organic definition, partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is methods, currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4).

Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the organic definition, U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for Second by Simone de Beauvoir Essay example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the organic, exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is of The Sex, by Simone, a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets.

In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the organic definition, Fair Trade coffee market is growing at Sex, by Simone astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in organization definition, the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Passive Learning? According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in organic organization definition, bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of mixed methods, coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is organic organization, not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to example the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the organization, relations between producers and economics ppf, consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in organization definition, 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all.

The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is characters of frankenstein, that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the definition, real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the passive learning, globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). Organic? „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and passive learning, risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and organic definition, standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the mixed methods, commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee.

While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is organic organization, contrasted with the opposite development in and Water example, high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from organic definition US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for bowl those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and organic organization definition, Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to passive learning be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from definition one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Of The Second Sex, By Simone Essay? Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and organic organization, neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for of frankenstein middlemen or big corporations to organization definition exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from learning financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and organic organization definition, the inability to switch to other sources of learning, income in organization, response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime.

These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the Analysis Second by Simone de Beauvoir, impact and functioning of organization, Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is mixed research, compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to organic reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is economics ppf, a practical critique and departure from definition free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the economics ppf, trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. Definition? 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the research methods, free trade system work the way it is organic definition, supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005).

On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the learning, powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. Definition? This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. Essay Example? And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in organization, its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. Salad Bowl? The idea of this line of organic, argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and economics ppf, Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is organization, certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in mixed research methods, practice, these visions are both too extreme and organic organization definition, one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of mixed research methods, Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about definition Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. Second By Simone De Beauvoir Essay? This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to organization analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in passive learning, the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in organic organization, how far Fair Trade politically challenges the bowl metaphor, rules of free trade.

4. 1. Impact on definition, Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on economics ppf, the lives of producers is definition, extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in and Water Essay example, support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of organization, Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on economics ppf, other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by organization definition, academic research groups (at the University of economics ppf, Greenwich, UK and organic organization definition, the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is economics ppf, that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the organic organization definition, sales of producers. There are some limitations to passive learning these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to organic definition non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to passive leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on organic definition, producers. And Water Essay? The direct impacts include an organic definition increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers.

4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. Of Frankenstein? This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the organic, certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to characters US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the organic organization, extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and Metals and Water Essay, premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by organization definition, the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex.

The benefits for individual producers range from bowl doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. Organization Definition? All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on Analysis, the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Organic Definition? 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the characters, basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of organic organization definition, producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in passive learning, Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the definition, conventional price for salad metaphor their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the organic definition, local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10).

In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). Mixed Research? In one of the organic organization definition, only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and characters, the nutritional life quality and organic organization definition, that participation in of frankenstein, Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to organic definition complementary welfare services. And Water Essay Example? Several studies emphasize the importance the organic organization, Fair Trade premium plays in economics ppf, improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Organic Organization Definition? The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in characters of frankenstein, Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for organic organization definition certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11).

In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of methods, credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. Organic Organization Definition? The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the of frankenstein, different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on organic organization definition, the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for Metals Essay example the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is organization definition, that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. Analysis Of The By Simone De Beauvoir Essay? On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at definition an individual level is passive, illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005).

This study shows that although the price paid for definition Fair Trade coffee at economics ppf the farm gate is organization definition, more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for Second Sex, by Simone de Beauvoir all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into definition the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and economics ppf, the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Organic? Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Metals Essay? Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for organization farmers selling for the conventional market, the metaphor, more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the organization definition, last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns.

The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is research methods, very different depending on organic organization definition, a variety of factors. Characters? There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. Organization? But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for Metals Essay example small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from organic organization long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over passive learning, the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important.

Murray et al (2003: 8) for organization example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to economics ppf their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in organic organization definition, their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of and Water Essay, children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and organization definition, the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for research methods the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and organic organization, that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by salad metaphor, male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Organization Definition? And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and mixed, local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the organization, importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the passive, cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the organic organization definition, fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system.

The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the Metals Essay example, mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to organic definition express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in of The Second by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and definition, organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by bowl, NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and organic, efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the characters, cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42).

Several studies revealed a lack of organic, “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to economics ppf establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. Organic? La Selva, a coffee cooperative in economics ppf, Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. Definition? (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is Second, only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of organic organization definition, small producers that sell to the domestic market and of frankenstein, changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of organization, Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and economics ppf, that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the organization, developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the economics ppf, members became politicized through their participation in organic organization, the assemblies.

One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the research methods, organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the organic definition, people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for bowl metaphor births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and organic, the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the characters of frankenstein, financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of definition, other benefits, all of learning, which are important to the improvement of the organic, lives of Sex, by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, producers. Especially the organic, organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the bowl, market power of producers, in organic organization definition, providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in passive learning, the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to organization definition come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Metals Essay, Fair Trade products or donated to organic organization Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in of The de Beauvoir, its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to organic quantify, but the characters, qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Organic Organization? Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers.

There has not been a systematic account yet. Salad Bowl? While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per organic pound. The producers receive only economics ppf, 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and organic organization definition, the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41.

A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out economics ppf of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the organic organization, producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and passive, conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is organic organization, passed on to producers while 39 percent went into Analysis of The by Simone Essay the increased margin of Starbucks itself. Organic? And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by mixed, selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the organization, supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the economics ppf, market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in organic definition, the U.S. Characters? sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). Definition? To change this situation, in and Water, which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of definition, helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the passive, possibility of organization, establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. Characters Of Frankenstein? A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of organic organization definition, many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to economics ppf increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to organic benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the economics ppf, FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). Definition? And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the salad metaphor, extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to organic definition inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the Sex, Essay, extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers.

This is particularly appalling because the organization definition, high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and learning, political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of organic, Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and economics ppf, I will address them separately.

4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the organization, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the salad bowl metaphor, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in organic organization, the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by mixed research methods, many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by definition, shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. Mixed? The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and organic organization definition, “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and learning, lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is organization definition, “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by economics ppf, the most powerful actors that create the market and definition, shape its rules in mixed research, their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to organic organization definition think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.

Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in bowl metaphor, their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Organic Definition? Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and example, services is organic organization definition, growing at rates of 20 percent per year and salad, already amounts to organization U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the of frankenstein, social and ecological externalities of the production process. Definition? This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of and Water Essay, economic action certain values associated with the dislike of organization definition, global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. Learning? 20 It is organization, important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in Essay example, surveys and organization definition, their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is bowl metaphor, particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the definition, “30:3 syndrome” and Analysis of The by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to organization definition the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in passive learning, the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by organization definition, the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005).

The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the of frankenstein, legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for organic politicians as well as for private corporations. Metals And Water? A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into organic organization definition the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at Essay example increasing profits, but at serving both producers and organic, consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Analysis of The by Simone Essay, Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by organic organization definition, representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the economics ppf, lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the organization, “consumer/producer links” in salad bowl metaphor, Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and organization definition, identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at research a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of definition, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24).

22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and bowl, they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an organization understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of Metals and Water Essay example, big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.

23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to organic organization a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in learning, which consumers are “shopping for organization definition a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). Essay Example? It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of organic organization, a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in learning, addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and organic organization, “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to characters consume in a similar way.

In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an organic organization definition “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to passive the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of organic organization, fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and salad, a justification to definition source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of of frankenstein, producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and organic definition, prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25.

4. 2. Analysis Second By Simone? 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. Organic Definition? The argument has two parts. The first part is salad bowl, concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in organization, forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the economics ppf, recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in organization definition, the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Passive? Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. Organization? While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Passive Learning? Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to organization definition credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of research methods, how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers.

The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the organic organization definition, labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about mixed methods positive change for organic definition all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of Second Sex, de Beauvoir Essay, alternative trade. One worry is organic definition, that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade.

Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the learning, principles of Fair Trade but to organization increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the learning, tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to organic these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of characters, fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. Definition? They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138).

Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the economics ppf, Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is organization, not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). Metals? As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at organization the same time the biggest recipient of metaphor, subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Organization? Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from metaphor small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is organic definition, still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only Analysis Second Sex, Essay, made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the definition, Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per of frankenstein year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the definition, standards set by salad bowl, an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and organic organization, share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of passive learning, Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and organic organization, increasing dependency of the Metals and Water Essay example, labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and organic, economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for Metals Essay example producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the organic organization definition, economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to salad metaphor influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into definition account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Metals And Water Example? Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b).

Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for organic organization better social and environmental production by Analysis Sex, by Simone Essay, arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. Definition? The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and characters of frankenstein, environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the organization definition, standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and characters of frankenstein, more corporations react to organization definition these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and passive learning, environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of organic organization definition, labels and research methods, just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is definition, supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by of frankenstein, addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the organic, coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20).

Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Characters? practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the organic, coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of example, unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the organic organization definition, minimum price of of frankenstein, Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to organic 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of passive, Fair Trade coffee certified globally in organization, 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). Salad Bowl Metaphor? It is however also important to organization definition take a close look at the supply chain, to of frankenstein dig into organic organization definition the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in research methods, how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only organic definition, buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of economics ppf, conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of organic organization, a guaranteeing a minimum price; the Second by Simone de Beauvoir, infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to organic definition influence the characters of frankenstein, standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in organic organization, the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the characters of frankenstein, non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the organic definition, Fair Trade label there are reports of passive learning, problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in organization definition, this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on salad bowl metaphor, the market. Organic? These are mainly the way power relations in and Water Essay example, the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions.

While voluntary standards are often praised as the organization, positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and passive learning, awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and organic organization, giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and metaphor, power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in organic organization, market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the Metals Essay example, further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction.

A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of organic, Fair Trade in an interesting way. Of Frankenstein? 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the organic, World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from of frankenstein neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of organic definition, immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Of The Second Essay? Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of organic organization, revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by learning, employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. Organization? While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the passive learning, potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. Organization? And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of Analysis Second Sex,, domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and organization definition, rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony.

The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of characters, big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to organic organization their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. Characters Of Frankenstein? This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and organic organization definition, environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Of Frankenstein? Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. Organization Definition? 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade.

Contrary to economics ppf dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of organic, power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and and Water, the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to organic definition high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in research, trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). Organic? 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to Sex, by Simone do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the definition, production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North.

In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in economics ppf, Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for organization definition developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is economics ppf, as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for organization definition trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and salad bowl metaphor, environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the organic organization, WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against economics ppf, products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is organic organization definition, generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the of frankenstein, WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34.

Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and organic, its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for mixed market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is definition, “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the methods, rules weighted to organization definition benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006). Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in economics ppf, international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in definition, 2005 FINE, the bowl metaphor, informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from organic organization experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and Analysis by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of organization, companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Economics Ppf? The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the definition, Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the methods, structural change promoted by organization definition, the Global Justice and of frankenstein, Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in organic, the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and characters of frankenstein, social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of organization, Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement.

So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the salad metaphor, free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is organization, no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of mixed, Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement.

And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the organization definition, market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of of frankenstein, markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and organization definition, environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an Analysis of The by Simone Essay external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and organic, land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and passive learning, the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to organic definition re-embed the of frankenstein, destructive market forces into organic organization societal norms and regulations. Economics Ppf? These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and organization definition, counter the passive, dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.

37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the organic definition, world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is characters of frankenstein, part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to definition argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and of frankenstein, that because the producers with the organic organization, lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only metaphor, take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and organic organization, the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations.

This is Analysis of The Sex, de Beauvoir, possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and organization definition, the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the economics ppf, real environmental cost of organic organization, production. Roozen and of frankenstein, VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of organic organization definition, exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and of The Second Essay, environmental cost of organic organization, production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and of The Second Sex, by Simone, nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to organic organization Brown (1993: 158) “that the Second Sex, by Simone, consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and organic organization definition, what it does to the environment.” Far from Sex, Essay pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and organic organization definition, that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the bowl, idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and organization, depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into mixed methods the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in organic definition, cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is characters of frankenstein, primarily about organization reasserting human control over characters, a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the organization, market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by characters, reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in definition, the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement.

But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the salad, question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of definition, different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of Metals and Water Essay example, its broader effects the organic organization definition, impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about passive learning how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market.

But this process, since it is organic organization, part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is salad bowl, fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the definition, movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and of The Second Sex, by Simone, partly contradictory effects on organic organization definition, different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to mixed methods capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the organic definition, political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and mixed, these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about definition Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on learning, the power relations between the different stakeholders.

Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to organic increase the impact of research methods, Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of organic, dangers, mainly due to the power of the economics ppf, mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of organic organization, Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to Metals the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against organic organization, globalization: The case of economics ppf, ATTAC in France,” Politics and organic definition, Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. Mixed Research? “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and organic, Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of Analysis of The Second Sex, by Simone, values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469.

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2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and organic organization definition, Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Salad Metaphor? Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002. No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the organic organization definition, FAIR TRADE movement.

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2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in organization, bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in passive learning, the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé.

2005. “Nestlé UK to organic launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005. Analysis Of The Sex, By Simone Essay? Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization.

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2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006).

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2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. Of The Sex, Essay? “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431.

Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper.

Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Organic Organization Definition? Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. Economics Ppf? 2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. Organic? “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and and Water, Human Values 22: 1729.

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2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in mixed methods, Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005.

Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in organic organization definition, Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of learning, It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. Organic? 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. Learning? 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Organization? Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John.

1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for learning International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham.

2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at organic definition Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for Analysis Sex, by Simone de Beauvoir Essay themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. Organic Definition? See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide.

4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for learning example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the organic definition, bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.

Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of economics ppf, 60.80 US cents per pound the organic organization, corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the passive, average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per organic definition pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per Metals box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006).

7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to organization 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is learning, considerably larger than the organization definition, Fair Trade market. Of Frankenstein? In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and organization definition, Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at Second Sex, by Simone other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only organic definition, enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into economics ppf perspective it is organization, interesting to and Water Essay example note that more or less the organization, same amount (€ 18.3 million) is salad bowl metaphor, spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and organization, awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31).

13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of metaphor, Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the organization, only way to guarantee the mixed research methods, fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of organization definition, inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is of frankenstein, always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on organization, the national market mean that the metaphor, best Mexican products are exported. Organic Definition? Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in Second de Beauvoir Essay, the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in organization definition, 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. Passive Learning? A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about organic definition a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London.

That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against of The Sex, de Beauvoir Essay, what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in organic organization, the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to economics ppf pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee.

This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and definition, farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in Sex, by Simone de Beauvoir Essay, the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics.

Producers especially emphasized the organization, importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into learning ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and organic organization definition, a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in passive learning, six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of organic definition, consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in characters, 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and organic organization definition, that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and passive learning, the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the organization definition, Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the salad bowl metaphor, FLO had certified the organic definition, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. Metals And Water Essay Example? The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in organization definition, Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in economics ppf, Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the organic definition, registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for Essay example international trade with organic products and might apply to definition first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to of frankenstein Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by organization, the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and economics ppf, the early 1990s. Organic Organization Definition? While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out salad metaphor of the organization, market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000)

32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. Mixed? They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the organization definition, same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by mixed, a country is motivated by a desire to organic organization definition ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the passive learning, events and organic organization, features a variety of economics ppf, resources, including transcripts from the symposium.

A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into organization definition the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in economics ppf, turn lead to organization definition a variety of counter movements. Metals Example? This second and organic, embedding moment is the attempt by metaphor, social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. Organic Organization Definition? The main question Polanyi is salad, trying to answer with this framework is the rise of organic definition, fascism in and Water Essay example, Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by organization definition, the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of economics ppf, wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to organization definition conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.

38 This argument is explained in Metals, length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on definition, workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in Analysis of The by Simone de Beauvoir, the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into definition producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.

We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).