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The Congress of Vienna

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Initiation la conception de bases de donnes relationnelles avec MERISE. Ce cours est conu pour ceux qui souhaitent s'initier rapidement la conception d'une base de donnes relationnelle l'aide de la mthode d'analyse MERISE. Congress Of Vienna? Il est en rapport direct avec le programme de certaines formations d'tudes suprieures comme le BTS Informatique de Gestion ou encore le DUT informatique. Vous pouvez commenter l'article en suivant ce lien : 39 commentaires. Article lu fois. Publié le 28 fvrier 2012 - Mis à jour le 17 octobre 2012. I. Counting Crows I Am Ready? MERISE au service des systmes d'information^ Le systme d'information ou SI, peut tre dfini comme tant l'ensemble des moyens humains, matriels et immatriels mis en ?uvre afin de grer l'information au sein d'une unit, une entreprise par exemple.

Il ne faut toutefois pas confondre un systme d'information avec un systme informatique . Of Vienna? En effet, les systmes d'information ne sont pas toujours totalement informatiss et existaient dj avant l'arrive des nouvelles technologies de l'information et des communications dont l'informatique fait partie intgrante. Le SI possde 4 fonctions essentielles : La saisie ou collecte de l'information La mmorisation de l'information l'aide de fichier ou de base de donnes Le traitement de l'information afin de mieux l'exploiter (consultation, organisation, mise jour, calculs pour obtenir de nouvelles donnes, . Planning For Retirement Essay? ) La diffusion de l'information. Autrefois, l'information tait stocke sur papier l'aide de formulaires, de dossiers, … et il existait des procdures manuelles pour la traiter. Congress? Aujourd'hui, les systmes informatises, comme les systmes de gestion de bases de donnes relationnelles (SGBDR), sont mis au service du systme d'information. MERISE est une mthode franaise ne dans les annes 70, dveloppe initialement par Hubert Tardieu . I Am Ready? Elle fut ensuite mise en avant dans les annes 80, la demande du Ministre de l'Industrie qui souhaitait une mthode de conception des SI. MERISE est donc une mthode d'analyse et de conception des SI base sur le principe de la sparation des donnes et des traitements. Congress? Elle possde un certain nombre de modles (ou schmas ) qui sont rpartis sur 3 niveaux : Dans ce cours, nous ne nous intresserons qu' certains schmas permettant la conception d'une base de donnes relationnelle puis sa ralisation sur un SGBDR.

II. Edgar Allen Poe The Cat? Modlisation d'une base de donnes au niveau conceptuel^ Il s'agit de l'laboration du modle conceptuel des donnes (MCD) qui est une reprsentation graphique et structure des informations mmorises par un SI. Congress? Le MCD est bas sur deux notions principales : les entits et les associations , d'o sa seconde appellation : le schma Entit/Association . L'laboration du MCD passe par les tapes suivantes : La mise en place de rgles de gestion (si celles-ci ne vous sont pas donnes), L'laboration du dictionnaire des donnes , La recherche des dpendances fonctionnelles entre ces donnes, L'laboration du MCD (cration des entits puis des associations puis ajout des cardinalits ). II-A. Medicine Century? Les rgles de gestion mtiers^ Avant de vous lancer dans la cration de vos tables (ou mme de vos entits et associations pour rester dans un vocabulaire conceptuel), il vous faut recueillir les besoins des futurs utilisateurs de votre application. Of Vienna? Et partir de ces besoins, vous devez tre en mesure d'tablir les rgles de gestion des donnes conserver. Prenons l'exemple d'un dveloppeur qui doit informatiser le SI d'une bibliothque. Planning? On lui fixe les rgles de gestion suivantes : Pour chaque livre, on of vienna doit connatre le titre, l'anne de parution, un rsum et le type (roman, posie, science fiction, . Mixed Research Methods? ). Of Vienna? Un livre peut tre rdig par aucun (dans le cas d'une ?uvre anonyme), un ou plusieurs auteurs dont on edgar allen cat connat le nom, le prnom, la date de naissance et le pays d'origine.

Chaque exemplaire d'un livre est identifi par une rfrence compose de lettres et de chiffres et ne peut tre paru que dans une et une seule dition. Of Vienna? Un inscrit est identifi par un numro et on research methods doit mmoriser son nom, prnom, adresse, tlphone et adresse e-mail. Of Vienna? Un inscrit peut faire zro, un ou plusieurs emprunts qui concernent chacun un et un seul exemplaire. Essay Throughout Century? Pour chaque emprunt, on congress of vienna connat la date et le dlai accord (en nombre de jours). Ces rgles vous sont parfois donnes mais vous pouvez tre amen les tablir vous-mme dans deux cas : Vous tes la fois matrise d'?uvre (MOE) et matrise d'ouvrage (MOA), et vous dveloppez une application pour votre compte et/ou selon vos propres directives. Edgar Allen? Ce qui arrive le plus souvent : les futurs utilisateurs de votre projet n'ont pas t en mesure de vous fournir ces rgles avec suffisamment de prcision ; c'est pourquoi vous devrez les interroger afin d'tablir vous mme ces rgles. Of Vienna? N'oubliez jamais qu'en tant que dveloppeur, vous avez un devoir d'assistance matrise d'ouvrage si cela s'avre ncessaire. C'est une tape intermdiaire qui peut avoir son importance, surtout si vous tes plusieurs travailler sur une mme base de donnes, d'un volume consquent. Le dictionnaire des donnes est un document qui regroupe toutes les donnes que vous aurez conserver dans votre base (et qui figureront donc dans le MCD).

Pour chaque donne, il indique : Le code mnmonique : il s'agit d'un libell dsignant une donne (par exemple « titre_l » pour le titre d'un livre) La dsignation : il s'agit d'une mention dcrivant ce quoi la donne correspond (par exemple « titre du livre ») Le type de donne : A ou Alphabtique : lorsque la donne est uniquement compose de caractres alphabtiques (de 'A' 'Z' et de 'a' 'z') N ou Numrique : lorsque la donne est compose uniquement de nombres (entiers ou rels) AN ou Alphanumrique : lorsque la donne peut tre compose la fois de caractres alphabtiques et numriques Date : lorsque la donne est une date (au format AAAA-MM-JJ) Boolen : Vrai ou Faux La taille : elle s'exprime en nombre de caractres ou de chiffres. I Am Ready? Dans le cas d'une date au format AAAA-JJ-MM, on congress compte galement le nombre de caractres, soit 10 caractres. Of Rose Williams And Blanche? Pour ce qui est du type boolen, nul besoin de prciser la taille (ceci dpend de l'implmentation du SGBDR). Of Vienna? Et parfois des remarques ou observations complmentaires (par exemple si une donne est strictement suprieure 0, etc). Reprenons l'exemple de notre bibliothque et du systme de gestion des emprunts que nous sommes chargs d'informatiser. And Herbal? Aprs l'tude des rgles de gestion, nous pouvons tablir le dictionnaire des donnes suivant : Les donnes qui figurent dans le MCD (et donc dans le dictionnaire des donnes) doivent tre, dans la plupart des cas, lmentaires : Elles ne doivent pas tre calcules : les donnes calcules doivent tre obtenues, par le calcul, partir de donnes lmentaires qui, elles, sont conserves en base. Congress Of Vienna? Cependant, il existe quelques cas o il s'avre pertinent de conserver, pour des raisons d'optimisation, une donne calcule, le montant d'une commande par exemple. Counting I Am Ready? On ne conservera cependant pas les donnes calcules intermdiaires sauf en cas d'obligation lgale (c'est le cas pour un montant HT par exemple, o les composantes peuvent d'ailleurs avoir un prix variable dans le temps). Congress? En effet, cela vite de refaire les calculs plusieurs fois pour un rsultat qui restera fixe. Essay And Herbal Remedies The Sixteenth? Elles ne doivent pas tre composes : les donnes composes doivent tre obtenues par la concatnation de donnes lmentaires conserves en base.

Par exemple une adresse est obtenue partir d'une rue, d'une ville et d'un code postal : ce sont ces trois dernires donnes qui sont conserves et donc qui figureront dans le MCD (et dans le dictionnaire des donnes). Of Vienna? Lorsque l'on n'effectue jamais de calcul sur une donne numrique, celle-ci doit tre de type AN (c'est le cas par exemple pour un numro de tlphone). II-C. The Down Fall Of Rose DuBois? Les dpendances fonctionnelles^ Soit deux proprits (ou donnes) P1 et P2. Of Vienna? On dit que P1 et P2 sont relies par une dpendance fonctionnelle (DF) si et seulement si une occurrence (ou valeur) de P1 permet de connatre une et une seule occurrence de P2. Cette dpendance est reprsente comme ceci : On dit que P1 est la source de la DF et que P2 en est le but . Par ailleurs, plusieurs donnes peuvent tre source comme plusieurs donnes peuvent tre but d'une DF. Methods? Exemples : En reprenant les donnes du dictionnaire prcdent, on congress peut tablir les DF suivantes : id_em > date_em, delais_em, id_i, ref_e. id_i > nom_i, prenom_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, tel_i, tel_port_i, email_i, date_naissance_i. id_l > titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_t, id_ed.

id_a > nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p. On peut dduire les conclusions suivantes de ces DF : partir d'un numro d'emprunt, on Planning obtient une date d'emprunt, un dlai, l'identifiant de l'inscrit ayant effectu l'emprunt, la rfrence de l'exemplaire emprunt. Of Vienna? partir d'une rfrence d'exemplaire, on the path less poem obtient l'identifiant du livre correspondant. Congress Of Vienna? partir d'un numro de livre, on for Retirement obtient son titre, son anne de parution, un rsum, l'identifiant du type correspondant, son numro d'dition. Of Vienna? . Une DF doit tre : lmentaire : C'est l'intgralit de la source qui doit dterminer le but d'une DF. Cat? Par exemple si P1 > P3 alors P1,P2 > P3 n'est pas lmentaire. Congress? directe : La DF ne doit pas tre obtenue par transitivit. The Path Less Traveled? Par exemple, si P1 > P2 et P2 > P3 alors P1 > P3 a t obtenue par transitivit et n'est donc pas directe. Les DF qui existent entre les donnes sont parfois videntes et ne ncessitent pas toujours une modlisation mais celle-ci peut s'avrer utile car elle permet, entre autres, de distinguer les futures entits du MCD et leur identifiants. II-D. Congress Of Vienna? Le Modle Conceptuel de Donnes (MCD)^ Chaque entit est unique et est dcrite par un ensemble de proprits encore appeles attributs ou caractristiques. Poe The Black Cat? Une des proprits de l'entit est l'identifiant. Congress Of Vienna? Cette proprit doit possder des occurrences uniques et doit tre source des dpendances fonctionnelles avec toutes les autres proprits de l'entit.

Bien souvent, on traveled poem utilise une donne de type entier qui s'incrmente pour chaque occurrence, ou encore un code unique spcifique du contexte. Le formalisme d'une entit est le suivant : Ainsi, si on congress reprend notre dictionnaire de donnes prcdent, on allen black cat schmatise par exemple une entit « Auteur » comme ceci : partir de cette entit, on congress peut retrouver la rgle de gestion suivante : un auteur est identifi par un numro unique (id_a) et est caractris par un nom, un prnom et une date de naissance. Une entit peut n'avoir aucune, une ou plusieurs occurrences. I Am? Pour illustrer ce terme d'«occurrence» qui a dj t utilis plusieurs fois, voici un exemple de table d'occurrences de l'entit Auteur : Cette table est compose de trois occurrences de l'entit Auteur . Les occurrences sont parfois appels tuples . Of Vienna? Par ailleurs, la table d'occurrence peut tre compare l' instance d'une relation (implantation relationnelle d'une entit ou association) un moment donn. Counting I Am Ready? Nous reviendrons sur cette notion de relation dans la partie III.

Au niveau conceptuel, on congress devrait plutt parler d' entits-types , les entits tant en fait des instances d'entits-types. The Path Less Traveled? Par soucis de simplicit, on of vienna gardera les termes d'entits et associations tout au long du cours. Une association dfinit un lien smantique entre une ou plusieurs entits. Less? En effet, la dfinition de liens entre entits permet de traduire une partie des rgles de gestion qui n'ont pas t satisfaites par la simple dfinition des entits. Le formalisme d'une association est le suivant : Gnralement le nom de l'association est un verbe dfinissant le lien entre les entits qui sont relies par cette dernire. Of Vienna? Par exemple : Ici l'association «tre n» traduit les deux rgles de gestion suivantes : Un auteur est n dans un et un seul pays, Dans un pays, sont ns aucun, un ou plusieurs auteurs. Vous remarquerez, que cette association est caractrise par ces annotations 1,1 et 0,N qui nous ont permis de dfinir les rgles de gestions prcdentes. Mixed Methods? Ces annotations sont appeles les cardinalits . Une cardinalit est dfinie comme ceci : Les cardinalits les plus rpandues sont les suivantes : 0,N ; 1,N ; 0,1 ; 1,1 . Congress Of Vienna? On peut toutefois tomber sur des rgles de gestion imposant des cardinalits avec des valeurs particulires, mais cela reste assez exceptionnel et la prsence de ces cardinalits imposera l'implantation de traitements supplmentaires.

L'identifiant d'une association ayant des cardinalits 0,N/1,N de part et d'autre, est obtenu par la concatnation des entits qui participent l'association. Planning Essay? Imaginons l'association suivante : Ici un auteur rdige au moins un ou plusieurs livres et pour chaque livre, on of vienna connat le nombre de chapitres rdigs par l'auteur (on connat aussi le nombre total de chapitres pour chaque livre). L'association «rdiger» peut donc tre identifie par la concatnation des proprits id_a et id_l. Essay Medicine And Herbal Remedies Throughout The Sixteenth? Ainsi, le couple id_a, id_l doit tre unique pour chaque occurrence de l'association. Congress Of Vienna? On peut galement dfinir la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_a, id_l > nb_chapitres. On dit que nb_chapitres (nombre de chapitres rdigs par un auteur, pour un livre) est une donne porte par l'association «rdiger».

Cette association est donc une association porteuse de donnes. Pour une association ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 0,1 ou 1,1 considrons dans un premier temps que cette dernire ne peut tre porteuse de donnes et qu'elle est identifie par l'identifiant de l'entit porteuse de la cardinalit 0,1 ou 1,1. Nous reviendrons plus en dtail sur la notion d'identification d'une association lors du passage au modle logique. Avec toutes ces connaissances, il nous est donc possible d'laborer le MCD complet partir des donnes prsentes dans le dictionnaire des donnes : Souvent, pour un mme ensemble de rgles de gestion, plusieurs solutions sont possibles au niveau conceptuel. The Path Less Traveled? Par exemple, rien ne nous obligeait ici crer une entit Type . Congress? Une simple donne porte par l'entit Livre aurait pu convenir galement. The Down Fall Williams Essay Example? Pour que le MCD soit smantiquement valide, toute entit doit tre relie au moins une association. Congress Of Vienna? Les entits et les proprits peuvent tre historises.

Dans ce cas on poem met un (H) la fin du nom de l'entit ou de la proprit que l'on souhaite historiser (cela permet de prciser que l'on archivera toutes les modifications sur une entit ou une proprit donne). Congress? Cela doit galement rpondre une rgle de gestion. Mixed Methods? Il existe des outils de modlisation payants et d'autres gratuits pour MERISE (powerAMC, OpenModelSphere, AnalyseSI, JMerise, etc). Congress Of Vienna? On aurait pu, dans ce cas prcis, conserver galement une date de rentre des livres, calcule partir de la date de location et de la dure de celle-ci. Traveled Poem? C'est un exemple de donne calcule dont la conservation peut s'avrer pertinente (notamment pour faciliter l'envoi de rappels). III. Of Vienna? Modlisation d'une base de donnes au niveau logique et passage au SQL^ Dans cette partie, nous allons voir comment tablir une modlisation des donnes au niveau logique (ou relationnel) partir d'un modle conceptuel, puis comment passer l'tape de cration des tables (cela suppose d'avoir une connaissance pralable des requtes SQL de cration de tables).

III-A. Counting I Am Ready? Le passage du MCD au MLD et SQL^ Le modle logique de donnes (MLD) est compos uniquement de ce que l'on appelle des relations . Congress? Ces relations sont la fois issues des entits du MCD mais aussi d'associations, dans certains cas. Research Methods? Ces relations nous permettront par la suite de crer nos tables au niveau physique. Une relation est compose d'attributs. Congress Of Vienna? Ces attributs sont des donnes lmentaires issues des proprits des diffrentes entits mais aussi des identifiants et des donnes portes par certaines associations. Une relation possde un nom qui correspond en gnral celui de l'entit ou de l'association qui lui correspond. The Down Williams DuBois Example? Elle possde aussi une clef primaire qui permet d'identifier sans ambigut chaque occurrence de cette relation. Congress Of Vienna? La clef primaire peut tre compose d'un ou plusieurs attributs, il s'agit d'une implantation de la notion d'identifiant des entits et associations qui se rpercute au niveau relationnel. Voici un premier exemple de relation (issue de l'entit «Edition» de notre prcdant MCD) : Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed) x : clef primaire.

Ce premier MLD est reprsent de manire textuelle. The Down And Blanche Essay? C'est notamment cette reprsentation que l'on retrouve dans beaucoup de formations d'tudes suprieures. Congress Of Vienna? Il existe toutefois une reprsentation graphique quivalente. Counting Crows I Am? Il est important d'accompagner un MLD textuel d'une lgende (ce dernier n'ayant pas de formalisme norm). Of Vienna? Ceci est d'ailleurs exig dans certaines formations. Il existe un autre type de clef appel clef trangre . Medicine And Herbal? La clef trangre est un attribut d'une relation qui fait rfrence la clef primaire d'une autre relation (ces deux clefs devront donc avoir le mme type de donnes). Compltons notre premier exemple avec une autre relation o apparat une clef trangre : Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed) Exemplaire ( ref_e , id_ed #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Au niveau relationnel, on congress of vienna devrait plutt parler de clef candidate qui permet d'identifier sans ambigut une occurrence de la relation pour les clefs primaires.

De mme, on and Herbal Remedies the Sixteenth devrait dsigner une clef trangre par une contrainte d'inclusion vers une clef candidate. Congress? Par souci de simplicit, on black gardera les termes de clefs primaires et trangres. Congress? Par convention, on The Down Fall Williams Essay fait prcder ou suivre la clef trangre du symbole #. Congress? Ceci n'est pas une obligation partir du moment o les lgendes sont suffisamment prcises. Traveled Poem? Ici la clef trangre prsente dans la relation «Exemplaire» fait rfrence la clef primaire de la relation «Edition». Congress? Une relation peut possder aucune, une ou plusieurs clefs trangres mais possde toujours une et une seule clef primaire. Enfin, vous pouvez galement rencontrer le terme de cardinalit de la relation qui signifie ici le nombre d'occurrences d'une relation (ou nombre d'entres dans la table correspondante) et le terme de degr de la relation qui correspond au nombre d'attributs d'une relation. Comme cela a dj t dit prcdemment, les relations du MLD sont issues des entits du MCD et de certaines associations. Crows? Nous allons maintenant aborder ces rgles de conversion de faon plus prcise.

III-A-2-a. Congress? Rgle 1 - conversion d'une entit^ En rgle gnrale, toute entit du MCD devient une relation dont la clef est l'identifiant de cette entit. Essay And Herbal Remedies? Chaque proprit de l'entit devient un attribut de la relation correspondante. Il existe toutefois quelques cas particuliers que vous pourrez voir au paragraphe . III-A-2-b. Of Vienna? Rgle 2 - conversion d'associations n'ayant que des cardinalits de type 0/1,N^ Une association ayant des cardinalits 0,N ou 1,N de part et d'autre devient une relation dont la clef est constitue des identifiants des entits relies par cette association.

Ces identifiants seront donc galement des clefs trangres respectives. Planning Essay? On parle de relations associatives . Les cardinalits plus restrictives (comme 2,3 ; 1,7 ; . Congress? ) seront perues comme des cardinalits de type 0/1,N galement (il s'agit en effet de sous-ensembles). The Path Poem? Cependant, les rgles de gestions qui ne seront plus satisfaites par cette modlisation logique devront l'tre par des traitements supplmentaires (via le code de l'application qui exploite la base de donne ou encore par des triggers (dclencheurs) si le SGBDR est suffisamment robuste). Voici un exemple de relation associative issu de l'association «rdiger» de notre MCD : x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre.

Dans le cas d'associations porteuses de donnes, les donnes portes deviennent des attributs de la relation correspondante. Of Vienna? Si l'on reprend cet exemple : L'association «rdiger» devrait maintenant tre traduite comme ceci : Rediger ( id_a #, id_l # , nb_chapitres) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. III-A-2-c. Ready? Rgle 3 - conversion des associations ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 1,1^ Plusieurs possibilits s'offrent nous pour ce cas de figure.

La rgle de conversion la plus rpandue aujourd'hui est d'ajouter une clef trangre dans la relation qui correspond l'entit se situant du ct de cette cardinalit 1,1. Congress Of Vienna? Cette clef trangre fera donc rfrence la clef de la relation correspondant la seconde entit relie par l'association. Prenons un exemple issu de l'association «tre originaire de» et des entits «Auteur» et «Pays» : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Lorsque l'on applique cette rgle de conversion, deux restrictions s'imposent : L'association ne peut tre porteuse de donnes.

Les donnes portes sont en dpendances fonctionnelles directes avec l'identifiant de l'entit dont la clef correspondante sera rfrence par une clef trangre dans une autre relation. Essay Medicine And Herbal? L'association doit tre binaire (c'est dire relier uniquement deux entits et pas plus). Lorsque deux entits sont toutes deux relies avec une cardinalit 1,1 par une mme association, on of vienna peut placer la clef trangre de n'importe quel ct. Mixed Research? Par convention, on congress of vienna choisit de la placer du ct de la relation correspondant l'entit ayant le plus de liaisons avec les autres. Poe The Black Cat? Certains considrent d'ailleurs que deux entits tant relies par une association ayant une cardinalit 1,1 des deux cts, doivent obligatoirement fusionner. Congress? Cette rgle s'appuie encore une fois sur la notion de dpendances fonctionnelles directes mais n'est pas toujours respecte (il est parfois smantiquement prfrable de garder une distinction entre les deux entits). Une autre solution (moins rpandue) consiste crer une relation associative dont la clef est cette fois compose uniquement de la clef trangre qui fait rfrence l'identifiant de l'entit du ct oppos la cardinalit 1,1. Si on mixed methods reprend le mme exemple, voici ce que l'on devrait obtenir : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a) EtreOriginaireDe ( id_a # , nom_p #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Dans ce cas, l'association peut tre porteuse de donnes.

Ces dernires deviendront donc des attributs de la relation associative comme dans le cas des cardinalits 0,1/N. Il va sans dire que la premire solution est aujourd'hui prfrable cette dernire en terme d'optimisation et de simplification des requtes. III-A-2-d. Congress Of Vienna? Rgle 4 - conversion des associations ayant au moins une cardinalit de type 0,1 (et dont les autres cardinalits sont de type 0,1/N)^ De mme que pour les cardinalits 1,1, une association ayant une cardinalit 0,1 doit tre binaire, et les deux mmes possibilits s'offrent nous : Crer la clef trangre dans la relation correspondant l'entit du ct de la cardinalit 0,1. And Herbal? Rappelons que dans ce cas, l'association ne peut pas tre porteuse de donnes. Congress Of Vienna? Crer une relation associative qui serait identifi de la mme faon que pour une cardinalit 1,1. Cependant, dans le cadre d'une cardinalit 0,1, nous verrons qu'il n'est pas toujours prfrable de privilgier la premire mthode comme c'est le cas pour une cardinalit 1,1. Imaginons par exemple qu'un livre puisse appartenir 0 ou 1 catgories, on Planning Essay obtient le MCD suivant : Certains diront que toutes les associations binaires de type pre-fils ayant des cardinalits 1,N/0,N - 1,1/0,1 sont caractrises par l'existence d'une dpendance fonctionnelle entre l'identifiant de l'entit pre (ici id_cat) et de l'entit fils (ici id_l). Of Vienna? Cette dpendance fonctionnelle se schmatiserait ainsi : Dans ce cas, il apparat logique de traduire le MCD de cette faon (premire mthode) : Categorie ( id_cat , libelle_cat)

Livre (id _l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_cat #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. C'est pourquoi d'autres pensent (avec raison) qu'il vaut mieux crer une relation associative de cette manire (seconde mthode) : Categorie ( id_cat , libelle_cat) Livre ( id_l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l) Appartenir ( id_l #, id_cat #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. La pertinence de l'une ou l'autre mthode varie en fonction du nombre d'occurrences caractrises par la cardinalit 0 ou la cardinalit 1. Research Methods? En effet, lorsque les occurrences avec la cardinalit 1 sont plus nombreuses que les occurrences avec la cardinalit 0, la premire mthode est prfrable. Congress? Dans le cas contraire, c'est la seconde mthode qui est la plus adapte. Enfin, dans le cas o une association binaire possde la fois une cardinalit 0,1 et une cardinalit 1,1 (ce qui est rarement le cas), il est prfrable que la clef trangre soit du ct de la relation correspondant l'entit situ du ct de la cardinalit 1,1.

III-A-3. And Herbal Throughout The Sixteenth? laboration du MLD et passage au SQL^ Avec ces diffrentes rgles de conversion, il nous est dj possible de convertir notre MCD au complet : Pays ( id_p , nom_p) Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, id_p #) TypeLivre ( id_t , libelle_t) Livre ( id_l , titre_l, annee_l, resume_l, id_t #) Edition ( id_ed , nom_ed)

Exemplaire ( ref_e , id_ed #, id_l #) Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) Emprunt (id_em, date_em, delais_em, id_i #, ref_e #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Comme vous pouvez le constater, le schma de la base est dj fait. Congress Of Vienna? Les rgles de passage au SQL sont assez simples : chaque relation devient une table chaque attribut de la relation devient une colonne de la table correspondante chaque clef primaire devient une PRIMARY KEY chaque clef trangre devient une FOREIGN KEY. Voici ce que cela donnerait : Remarque : Il est possible de ne pas avoir grer l'incrmentation des identifiants par soi-mme lors des INSERT avec la plupart des SGBD.

Exemple d'auto-incrmentation sous MySQL : SERIAL crera implicitement une squence qui s'incrmente avec un pas de 1. Essay Remedies Throughout Century? Sous Oracle, il faudrait crer soi-mme cette squence. III-B. Of Vienna? Rgles de vrification des niveaux de normalisation^ Il existe diffrents niveaux de normalisation (ou formes normales). Planning Essay? Les 3 premiers niveaux de normalisations sont les plus rpandus et les plus appliqus. La classification de ces trois premiers niveaux de normalisation repose sur les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire de la relation et ses autres attributs. Pour tre en premire forme normale (1FN ou 1NF) : Les attributs d'une relation doivent tre atomiques et doivent tre en dpendance fonctionnelle avec la clef primaire de cette dernire. Pour tre en deuxime forme normale (2FN ou 2NF) : Il faut tre en 1FN et que toutes les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire et les autres attributs de la relation soient lmentaires. Congress? Autrement dit, les attributs doivent dpendre de la totalit de la clef.

Pour tre en troisime forme normale (3FN ou 3NF) : Il faut tre en 2FN et que toutes les dpendances fonctionnelles entre la clef primaire de la relation et les autres attributs soient directes. Il ne s'agit pas de dfinitions prcises mais de simples rgles de vrification des trois premiers niveaux de normalisation. Pour plus de dtails sur les formes normales, vous pouvez consulter ce cours. Pour que le MLD soit valide, il faut que chacune de ses relations soit au moins en 3FN. The Path Traveled? Si un MCD est correctement conu et que les rgles de conversion nonces plus haut ont bien t respectes, les relations seront donc automatiquement normalises en 3FN.

III-C-1. Congress? Les associations rflexives^ Il est possible de relier une entit elle mme par une association, on less traveled poem parle dans ce cas l d' association rflexive. Congress Of Vienna? Imaginons que l'on veuille connatre les inscrits qui sont maris entre eux tout en conservant leur date de mariage, voici ce que l'on obtiendrait au niveau conceptuel : Dans ce cas, c'est la mme . Essay? Il faudra cependant diffrencier les noms des clefs trangres de la table associative correspondantes tout en rfrenant la mme clef primaire : Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) EtreMarie ( id_epoux #, id_epouse # , date_mariage_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. On aurait pu choisir des cardinalits 1,1 et mettre la date de mariage comme donne de l'entit Inscrit.

Ce modle permet tout de mme de mettre la date de mariage en commun avec deux inscrits (ce qui est plus juste au niveau des dpendances fonctionnelles). Of Vienna? Si l'on souhaite limiter le nombre de mariages 1 pour une personne, il suffira de mettre un place un traitement qui vrifiera le nombre d'occurrence pour un inscrit dans la relation EtreMarie. Comme exemple de traitement de vrification, nous pouvons utiliser un trigger si le SGBDR le permet. Essay And Herbal Remedies The Sixteenth? Voici un exemple de trigger avec une procdure stocke vrifiant la prsence d'une occurrence pour un identifiant donne dans la table EtreMarie : Pour cet exemple, nous avons choisi le langage PL/PgSQL qui est propre au SGBDR PostgreSQL. Congress? Vous pourrez toutefois trouver des syntaxes ressemblantes ou quivalentes sur une grande partie des SGBDR connus. Counting Crows I Am Ready? C'est ce type de traitements qui permettent de rpondre aux rgles de gestion non satisfaites par le MCD.

Ne pas limiter le nombre d'occurrences de cette relation, permettrai en outre de conserver les diffrents mariages des inscrits en cas de divorce (l'intrt est certes trs limit dans le contexte de la gestion des emprunts pour une bibliothque). III-C-2. Congress Of Vienna? Rgle de conversion exceptionnelle pour certaines entits simples^ Dans certains cas, il n'est pas toujours pertinent de convertir une entit au niveau conceptuel, par une relation au niveau logique. Counting Crows I Am? C'est le cas pour certaines entits simplement composes d'un identifiant, l'exemple des entits de type Date ou Heure qui sont souvent utilises dans des associations ternaires.

Imaginons par exemple que des inscrits auraient le privilge de rencontrer un auteur une date donne (une rencontre organise par la bibliothque). Of Vienna? La rencontre est organise avec un nombre de places limit, il faut donc garder une trace de ceux qui ont dj fait une rencontre afin de favoriser ceux qui n'ont pas encore eu cette chance. Counting Crows I Am? Voici comment nous pourrions reprsenter cela au niveau conceptuel : La date de rencontre ne doit pas tre une simple donne porte par l'association car cela limiterait le nombre de rencontre d'un inscrit avec un auteur 1 (la relation correspondant l'association aurait dans ce cas un couple identifiant unique qui imposerait cette restriction). Le fait de crer une relation Date aurait pour incidence de crer de la redondance inutile, c'est pourquoi, il est recommand dans ce cas de figure, de passer au niveau logique de cette faon : Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a, nom_p #) Rencontrer ( id_a #, id_i #, date_rencontre ) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. IV.

Les extensions apportes par MERISE II^ Elle intervient lorsque l'identifiant d'une entit ne suffit pas l'identifier de manire unique. Quelques exemples de cas o cela peut arriver : On identifie un immeuble par son numro de rue, or il faut connatre le nom ou l'identifiant de la rue pour trouver l'immeuble (14 rue du gnral Leclerc, . Congress? ). Medicine And Herbal Remedies The Sixteenth? On identifie un appartement par une lettre mais il faut connatre le numro d'tage pour le retrouver (appartement A au premier tage, . Of Vienna? ). Poe The? Pour identifier un tage, il faut connatre l'immeuble dans lequel il est situ. Voici comment on of vienna pourrait schmatiser ces rgles de gestions au niveau conceptuel : Les parenthses autour des cardinalits signifient que les entits du ct de ces cardinalits seront identifies par la concatnation de leurs identifiants (qui ne suffisent pas les identifier de manire unique) avec l'identifiant de l'entit oppose. Less Traveled? Ainsi on congress of vienna obtient au niveau relationnel : Rue ( code_rue , nom_rue) Immeuble ( num_immeuble, code_rue # , nb_etages_total) Etage ( num_etage, num_immeuble #, code_rue # , nb_appartements_tot) Appartement ( lettre_appartement, num_etage #, num_immeuble #, code_rue # , nb_pieces_total) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Dsormais, MERISE II permet aussi de modliser l'hritage entre les entits.

L'hritage a du sens lorsque plusieurs entits possdent des proprits similaires. Planning For Retirement? On parle alors de gnralisation avec un sur-type (ou entit mre) et de spcialisation avec des sous-type (entits filles). Voici comment on of vienna pourrait reprsenter un hritage sur notre MCD : Dans cette partie, les types des proprits apparaissent (ceci est d au logiciel utilis qui est plus adapt pour reprsenter l'hritage). Edgar Allen Poe The Black Cat? Cependant, les types ne devraient pas tre reprsents au niveau conceptuel. Il existe diffrents types d'hritage : l'hritage sans contraintes comme nous venons de le reprsenter, l'hritage par disjonction (ou exclusion), l'hritage par couverture (ou totalit) et enfin l'hritage par partition (totalit et exclusion). IV-B-1. Congress? L'hritage par disjonction (ou exclusion)^ Toutes les occurrences du sur-type ne peuvent se trouver que dans aucun ou un seul sous-type. Poe The Black Cat? Dans notre exemple ci-dessus, un auteur ne peut pas tre galement un inscrit et un inscrit ne peut pas tre galement un auteur (une personne peut tre un auteur, un inscrit ou quelqu'un d'autre). IV-B-2.

L'hritage par couverture (ou totalit)^ Toutes les occurrences du sur-type se trouvent dans au moins un des sous-type existants. Of Vienna? Dans notre exemple, une personne est forcment un auteur ou un inscrit (ou les deux). IV-B-3. The Path Less Poem? L'hritage par partition (totalit et exclusion)^

Il s'agit d'une combinaison des deux hritages prcdents : toutes les occurrences du sur-type se trouvent forcement dans un et un seul des sous-types. Congress? Une personne est soit un auteur, soit un inscrit. Edgar Poe The Black? Cette contrainte est parfois note «+». IV-B-4. Congress? Passage au niveau relationnel et limites^ son apparition avec Merise II, l'hritage n'tait pas encore implant sur l'ensemble des SGBDR rpandus (ce n'est d'ailleurs toujours pas le cas aujourd'hui). Research? Il a donc fallu le simuler au point de vue relationnel. De faon gnrale, l'hritage peut tre implant au niveau relationnel en utilisant une clef trangre vers la relation mre, comme clef primaire pour les relations filles. Congress Of Vienna? Reprenons notre exemple prcdent : Personne ( id_p , nom_p, prenom_p, date_naissance_p)

Inscrit ( id_p # , rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Ainsi pour satisfaire les contraintes de totalit, d'exclusion ou de partition il faudra mettre en place des traitements supplmentaires au niveau de la base de prfrence (triggers, procdures stockes). Aujourd'hui, la plupart des SGBDR performants sont capables de grer eux-mmes l'hritage. Counting Ready? C'est notamment le cas avec la clause INHERITS de PostgreSQL. Congress? Cette solution est en gnral prfrable parce qu'elle vite les jointures coteuses entre tables mres et filles. Essay Throughout Century? En effet les attributs du sur-type seront automatiquement accessibles depuis le sous-type. Congress? Par consquent, une insertion, modification ou suppression dans le sous-type se rpercutera galement dans l'entit mre. Essay And Herbal Remedies Throughout? Cependant, cette solution a pour inconvnient de pouvoir crer des tuples en double au niveau de la relation mre et de violer ainsi les contraintes d'intgrits rfrentielles en quelque sorte. Par ailleurs, certains font parfois abstraction de la relation mre dans le cas d'un hritage par partition, et se contentent de crer les relations filles comme relations distinctes ne partageant pas de donnes communes.

Exemple : Auteur ( id_a , nom_a, prenom_a, date_naissance_a) Inscrit ( id_i , nom_i, prenom_i, date_naissance_i, rue_i, ville_i, cp_i, email_i, tel_i, tel_portable_i) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. Pour conclure, bien qu'apprcie par l'enseignement, la notion d'hritage est trs souvent mise de ct par les dveloppeurs dans le cadre d'une base de donne relationnelle. IV-C. Of Vienna? Les contraintes entre associations^ De mme que pour l'hritage, il existe diffrentes contraintes qui peuvent exister entre deux ou plusieurs associations.

Bien que non implantes au niveau relationnel, ces contraintes qui sont des rgles de gestion devront tre satisfaites par des traitements supplmentaires (triggers, etc). La prsence d'occurrences d'une ou plusieurs associations doit obligatoirement se rpercuter sur l'association cible de la contrainte d'inclusion. Par exemple imaginons qu'on l'on souhaite recenser les prsentations des ouvrages par leur auteurs une date donne. Crows? Voici comment cela pourrait tre reprsent (de manire simpliste) au niveau conceptuel : Cela signifie que si un couple livre-auteur est prsent dans l'association «presenter», alors il doit obligatoirement tre prsent dans l'association «rediger». Congress Of Vienna? Cela traduit simplement la rgle de gestion qui impose que pour qu'un auteur fasse la promotion d'un ouvrage, il doit en tre l'un des crivains. Lorsqu'une occurrence est prsente dans l'une des associations concernes par la contrainte d'exclusion, elle ne doit pas tre prsente dans une des autres associations concernes par cette contrainte. Passons cette fois dans le cadre d'une librairie/imprimerie qui dispose de plusieurs services d'impressions qui lui sont propre. Planning? On souhaite dterminer quels sont les livres imprims et les livres achets tout en gardant une trace des fournisseurs et des services d'impressions : Dans cet exemple, un livre ne peut pas la fois tre achet chez un fournisseur et tre imprim par un service d'impression interne. Chacune des occurrences d'une entit doit tre prsente dans au moins une de ses associations qui font l'objet d'une contrainte de totalit. Reprenons notre exemple prcdent et adaptons-le la contrainte de totalit : Dans cet exemple, un livre est toujours imprim dans un service interne ou achet par un fournisseur.

Une occurrence prsente dans une des associations concernes par la contrainte d'galit l'est galement dans toutes les autres associations concernes par cette contrainte. Prenons l'exemple d'un magasin qui vend des livres et qui souhaite archiver les dpts et les imprimeries du livre : Un livre achet dans un dpt sera donc galement imprim dans une imprimerie et vice et versa. IV-C-5. Congress? Combinaison entre contraintes^ Comme dans le cadre d'un hritage, il est possible de combiner les contraintes (TI, T=, XT ou + pour la partition, etc). The Path Poem? Voici un exemple de contrainte de partition : Pour cet exemple, le livre sera soit imprim dans un service interne, soit achet. IV-D. Congress Of Vienna? Les CIF (contraintes d'intgrits fonctionnelles) et agrgations^ Il s'agit de dpendances fonctionnelles qui sont directement reprsentes sur le MCD afin de rduire les identifiants d'associations jugs «trop larges». Counting Crows I Am? Ces DF sont des rgles de gestion faire apparatre sur votre schma.

Reprenons l'exemple de l'auteur qui fait la promotion de son ouvrage une date donne : Cela se traduit par la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_a, vdate > id_l. Ainsi, l'association «presenter» serait implante comme ceci au niveau relationnel : Presenter ( id_a #, vdate , id_l #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. L'identifiant du livre ne fait donc plus partie de la clef primaire afin de garder une dpendance fonctionnelle directe et lmentaire. Cette notion de dpendance fonctionnelle peut tre aussi reprsente sous la forme d'agrgation (encore appele «association d'association»). Imaginons par exemple qu'une rgle de gestion nous impose le fait qu'un livre, pour une librairie donne, ne puisse tre achet que par un et un seul client. La rgle de gestion serait ici implante par la dpendance fonctionnelle suivante : id_lib, ref_l > id_c.

Cette DF pourrait trs bien faire l'objet d'une CIF au niveau conceptuel, o bien tre reprsente sous cette forme : Voici comment cela se traduirait au niveau relationnel : Librairie ( id_lib , rue_lib, ville_l, cp_l) Livre ( ref_l , titre_l, resume_l) Client ( id_c , nom_c, prenom_c) ProposerEnVente ( id_lib #, ref_l # , id_c #) x : clef primaire. x # : clef trangre. On retrouve bien la mme implantation au niveau relationnel que l'on aurait eu pour une CIF.

Avec les diffrentes notions abordes dans ce cours et quelques connaissance en SQL, il vous est maintenant possible de concevoir et raliser des bases de donnes relationnelles. Congress Of Vienna? Il est important de matriser les diffrentes notions de ce modle qui est aujourd'hui le plus enseign au niveau des formations, mais aussi le plus utilis en entreprise. Cependant, ce modle a souvent montr ses limites au niveau de certains systmes d'informations. Mixed Research? Par exemple, vous pourriez tre amens travailler sur des systmes d'informations o les SGBDR ne servent qu' persister des donnes au format XML. Of Vienna? Le traitement de l'information, qui doit parfois se faire en temps rel, se fait donc au niveau de l'application afin de ne pas surcharger de requtes les serveurs de donnes. Je souhaite remercier alassanediakite, CinePhil, fsmrel, LittleWhite, et MacFly58 pour leur relecture technique et leurs conseils. Je tiens aussi remercier Erielle pour son effort de relecture orthographique. Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2012 Idriss NEUMANN.

Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Of Rose Williams And Blanche? sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur. Congress? Sinon vous encourez selon la loi jusqu'à trois ans de prison et jusqu'à 300 000 € de dommages et intérêts.

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It should be noted that the proportion of “white space” is a constant measurement of a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5” margins on your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the of vienna hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of a resume is Medicine a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the document and thus is consequential enough to give considerable consideration. Also like margins, the perfect resume length is of vienna a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community. There are few general rules of thumb however to help you determine what length is most appropriate for Planning for Retirement Essay, you. Alignment of resumes is a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in the western world read text. Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the time , however some special styles will left alight the contact information. There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of contact information. The resume’s introduction is also sometimes centered.

Choosing to congress of vienna do so is a matter of personal taste and both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for a resume can be a difficult task for poe the cat, the applicant with an untrained eye. There are thousands of different styles of congress of vienna, fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and counting crows, thank you letters. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and congress of vienna, sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the letters. This is poem most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, “Sans” being French for “without” is congress of vienna lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is allen black cat a matter of personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another.

Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HR’s personal preference is impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to of vienna browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the most, however the smaller the font size the harder these become to read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and mixed research, too bloated at congress, 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to The Down Fall of Rose Essay learn that there is no one single correct resume font size. There are “safe bets” like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to congress of vienna what is a very delicate process. Resume writing is counting crows ready not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Congress! Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at traveled poem, 10.5 and congress, too bloated at 11.5.

To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust it’s size accordingly, using one –tenth of crows i am ready, a decimal place to fine tune the final size. See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the congress mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an applicant’s resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an traveled, applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and font size and style adjustments. Just remember, don’t sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the single-minded goal of fitting to one page. A resume is valued for the sum of of vienna, all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and crows ready, font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and congress, bullet points. These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the just read information for Planning, a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for example to of vienna emphasize the statement above.

Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the counting crows page into too many pieces and of vienna, obstruct the readers eye from Essay Remedies Throughout Century, moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and congress of vienna, is the safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of a deviation as is acceptable.

Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message. Only use one style on a resume, never mix and match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of The Down and Blanche Essay, nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of how you can use color on your resume. If an applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and of vienna, subtle reigns supreme in Medicine and Herbal the Sixteenth Century the resume world. The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on of vienna, the experiences, achievements and skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors.

Colors on resumes are meant to assist the communication of the Essay Remedies the Sixteenth information, not detract or take away from its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for a purpose and is the best possible choice. After the content of congress, a resume, next in traveled poem importance comes the formatting, the margins, the fonts and the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, it’s time to print and distribute. This is congress where paper comes into the path play. Not sure which kind of paper is best for you? Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy. White paper is the of vienna traditional color choice for Planning for Retirement, resumes written by congress of vienna amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesn’t contribute anything either.

White is traditional and crows, a safe choice for congress, resumes of research, all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to congress of vienna add style to mixed research any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or “cream” hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isn’t the conservative approach, it is by no means “radical” and congress of vienna, thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in Medicine and Herbal Remedies Throughout Century office and home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is acceptable for a resume however for such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is of vienna just slightly weightier and feels better in the hand. Crows I Am! Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is bordering on of vienna, excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for resume paper weight. Paper texture is determined by its composition and Essay, the press used to manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon them to give them a unique feel to the touch. Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at least 25% cotton composition.

The more cotton the stronger the of vienna paper and Planning, crisper it feels. Many colored and textured papers are already manufactured as “premium” and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of 50-100%, resulting in congress of vienna a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5” X 11”; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to Remedies Throughout Century this rule. 8.5” X 11” is the size that filing units are built to contain, the size scanners are by default set to process, and the size common manila envelopes are made to congress of vienna contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to Essay be impressive to even the most critical of human resources managers. Don’t want to go through the hassle of creating your own resume? We encourage you to use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into of vienna one of our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews. We also invite you to download those resume templates for free, and and Herbal the Sixteenth Century, insert the bullet point yourself. If you’re having trouble coming up with bullet points, take inspiration from our numerous industry resume samples and congress of vienna, writing tips. Additional Resume Aesthetic Resources.

What a well written comprehensive piece! Thank you so very much! We are glad that you found it helpful! Glad you like it! very informative…. Thanks a lot. You’re Welcome! We like Bookman Old Style the most. This is allen poe the black very helpful. Thank you. #128578; Share Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in of vienna recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of edgar allen black, candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in congress of vienna such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on Medicine Remedies the Sixteenth, their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an of vienna, impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the traveled, position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by congress of vienna, the keywords they choose to less use.

Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to congress of vienna simply list a string of phrases. Methods. Josh Ridgeway, director of congress, MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of the path traveled, those skills in action. Congress Of Vienna. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and Planning Essay #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of congress of vienna, time. Counting. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from congress, paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the crows i am ready, candidate brings to the table.

Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to of vienna express them. Counting I Am Ready. Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and of vienna relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in the path less traveled poem a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to of vienna want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ready, ones that will help you succeed. Congress Of Vienna. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects.

On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and Fall Williams and Blanche DuBois completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Congress. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. Counting Crows. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and congress of vienna directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and The Down Williams and Blanche Essay example customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of of vienna, strategy at Medicine Throughout Century social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for of vienna, new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors.

Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for the path traveled, nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and congress of vienna analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. The Down Of Rose Essay Example. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism.

She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Of Vienna. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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Car Accident Essay Essays and congress of vienna, Research Papers. The world would be a much better place if there were fewer car accidents . Car accidents happen daily . and regularly these days. Essay Medicine Throughout The Sixteenth Century? They leave pains behind for of vienna, the victims’ families. Many people think that they will never get involved in car accidents . They don’t wear their seat belts, they drive after drinking, and The Down Williams and Blanche DuBois Essay example, they use their cell phones while driving. Congress? They do all these things without even giving a second thought, yet all these things are preventable. No one knows what will happen to them in the. Accidents , Automobile , Driving 949 Words | 3 Pages. Explanatory Synthesis Essay of Car Accident. many causes of car accidents . Teenage drivers are involved in numerous crashes because of their immaturity. The radio, . electronics, or other people can distract the driver. Accidents are also associated with bad weather.

Even though speeding is against the law, individuals do it anyway, leading to poe the, lose of control over their vehicle. Drinking and driving is a very dangerous cause of car crashes. Traffic accidents can harm or possibly kill someone. Congress Of Vienna? People involved in edgar black cat these accidents may have to face. Accidents , Road accidents , Traffic collision 899 Words | 3 Pages. head: THE CAR ACCIDENT Running head: THE CAR ACCIDENT The Car . Accident Catrina S July 22, 2011 It was one of the most terrifying days of my life, the congress, day of my car accident . Disappointment, disbelief, and fear filled my mind as I was lying on my side. Less Traveled? I was sandwiched between the cold dirt and the hot metal of the car . The weight of the car was pressed down on the lower half of my body with monster force. It did not hurt, my body was numb. All I could feel was the congress of vienna, hood of the car stamping. Debut albums , English-language films , Father 1101 Words | 3 Pages.

Related Relative Risk of Drivers Fatalities and Driver Involvement in Fatal Crashes in Relation to Driver Age and Gender. JORNAL OF STUDIES ON . ALCOHOL.387-395 Problems that motivated the researchers to do this study: * The number of deadly car accidents in edgar allen cat the U.S. caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol has increased in the past decades making alcohol one of the main factors of fatal crashes. * The legal level of of vienna, BAC (blood alcohol concentration) in the U.S. has changed. 31 states. Alcohol , Alcohol dehydrogenase , Blood alcohol content 660 Words | 3 Pages. ? Car Accident Horror, disbelief and fear filled my mind as I lay on my side, sandwiched between the cold, hard tar and the . mangled k metal of the car . The weight of the car pressed down on the lower half of my body with monster force. It did not hurt, my body was numb. My lungs felt pinched shut and the path less, air would neither enter nor escape them. My mind was buzzing.

What had just happened? In the distance, on that cursed road, I saw cars driving by completely unaware of what happened, how I felt. I. Centre-right , Debut albums , English-language films 865 Words | 3 Pages. Lindsey Borassi English 101 Car Essay #4 April 27, 2011 It couldn’t have been a more of an everntful day. My father was . working at Friendly Honda on Route 44 at the time, therefore he recived a low price on the hoopty. For my sixteenth birthday a tan 1995 Honda Accord was sitting in my driveway waiting for me to drive it. Congress? Though it was slightly rusted over The Down Fall Williams and Blanche DuBois the right rear tire, I was grateful to even have a car to call my own at the age of Sixteen.

I was even more grateful when I found out. Acura TL , Automobile , Brake 920 Words | 3 Pages. life can be gone. Congress Of Vienna? what is a car accident , its an undesirable or unfortunate happening that occurs unintentionally and usually . results in harm, injury, damage, or loss. Millions of people die from car accidents and many have long term injuies from accidents . In 2004 6.2 million accidents was reported to the police 2.8 million were injured and Essay and Herbal Throughout the Sixteenth Century, 42,636 were killed. 36 percent of crashes involved alcohol and usually happens at of vienna, midnight on the weekends. (Common Cause of Accidents ). Drunk driving, drowsy. Accidents , Alcohol , Automobile 975 Words | 3 Pages. Car accidents happen everywhere, every day to even the most careful drivers. In my country Saudi Arabia this problem has been . a scary ghost to every part of the DuBois Essay, Saudi family because of the pain and the regret when someone dies or has a bad injury in the family, but there is always some steps to prevent these accidents . These steps are as followed : First, you have to of vienna, check your car from time to time and never drive on a slick tire. Also blinkers, headlights, and. Accidents , Crash , Saudi Arabia 418 Words | 3 Pages.

Reflective Journal: The Car Accident. (Revision B) 06 - Assignment 1_6 When I got into a terrible car accident last year, I thought it was the worse time in and Herbal Remedies Throughout Century my life. . Congress? Little did I realize that this experience would help me grow, and The Down Fall of Rose Williams DuBois, even inspire me – not despite the horrific nature of the event, but because of congress of vienna, what happened. Most of the time when people go through huge things in life whether it’s good or bad, the outcome is them learning something from whatever happened. My accident has changed my life for the better and honestly I don’t. American films , Automobile , Crash 1080 Words | 2 Pages. Americans are hurt or killed in counting crows car accidents . Many factors can play into an accident . Road condition, mechanical . failure, driver error, or simply an 'act of God'? Despite the countless reasons for a car accident , one factor is always present, no matter what the case: physics. Every accident that has ever occurred has involved physics. Congress? Using references found in the class text, in science journals, and on the Internet, I will prove this to you.

Take, for example, two cars traveling in opposite directions. Automobile , Classical mechanics , Crumple zone 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Sabrina Turner October 27, 2010 ENG, 025 Essay 3 Rough Draft CHEVY VS. FORD Ford . I Am? cars are pretty good cars , although they are innovative and congress, surprising at times, they are a little mariachi. According to Planning Essay, the book Chevy Stoked Cars , “Ford associations with speed were information, cruise control, power windows and congress, locks and a tilt and telescope steering column. When push comes to counting, shove Fords might seem to be the best decision for those looking.

Automobile , Chevrolet , Ford Focus 653 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Road Accidents !! Lack of road-sense has further complicated the congress of vienna, matters. Mixed Research Methods? Driving licenses are given on illegal . Congress? gratifications to the authorities and traffic rules and poe the cat, regulations are thrown to the winds. Overloading is one of the major factors of road- accidents and deaths. The condition of the vehicles is hardly found road-worthy. The unmanned railway level-crossings further add to the chaos and congress, confusion. Planning Essay? The multiplicity of authorities and congress of vienna, utter lack of coordination among them is another. Road accidents , Road transport , Traffic 1888 Words | 5 Pages. from 2BTracked Saudi, are a Tracking Solution Company connected to the Dutch 2BTracked, in mixed methods the International market since 2004 that have invested heavily . on Telematics Products and congress, Software, searching for Essay the Sixteenth, ways to control and of vienna, minimize traffic accidents and derive insurance costs.

It is with immense joy and Planning for Retirement Essay, honor that we address to you this summarized report on the functions and congress, benefits we can obtain through the 2Btracked Driver Behavior Solution. The Path Less Traveled Poem? Tracking needs have long overcome the congress, simple. Accidents , Corporate Average Fuel Economy , Fuel economy in automobiles 683 Words | 5 Pages. Organising a Discursive Essay about Car Use. Organising a Discursive Essay about Car Use The two most common types of essays are the argumentative and the . discursive.

An argumentative essay opens with a boldly expressed point of counting crows ready, view and then the rest of the essay presents arguments (examples, proof or logic) to support that point of view. Normally, it refers to opposing arguments but demonstrates that these are weak or even false. (Look at this essay about zoos for an example.) A discursive essay presents both sides of the issue in a. Air pollution , Article , Automobile 1455 Words | 6 Pages. HFCC English 1/30/2015 0 to 100 Real Quick If you could have any car in the world, what would you choose? Some might say a 1970 Dodge . Of Vienna? Challenger R/T, or a 2002 R34 Skyline GT-R, or perhaps a 2015 BMW M5. There are so many varieties of automobiles, from sports to of Rose Williams and Blanche DuBois, luxury. Today’s cars , compared to the first ones sold, are very complex and congress, have astonishing features. From the very first car productions around 1910, to sportier cars in the 1950’s, to today’s speedy and beautiful automobiles, the evolution.

Automobile , Dearborn, Michigan , Diesel engine 900 Words | 5 Pages. trailing behind. Oscar loves winter, so of course he had to roll around in the fresh, soft recently fallen snow before getting into the green monster. . After he was done kicking snow in every direction and was covered head to paw he finally got into the car so we could begin our three hour road trip to grandmas in Farmington Hills. Our trip had not gotten off to the best start, we only DuBois example made it half way down our road, Belmont, when Oscar decided we wanted to shake the snow off himself. Snow flung everywhere. Automobile , English-language films , Family 1872 Words | 5 Pages. Teenager Cause Higher Number of of vienna, Car Accident. ?Teenager Cause Higher Number of Car Accident Generally we know teenager is the future generation of our humanity . which in term of leadership, knowledge, creativity, innovative and of course crime as well. Even at this moment as we relaxing sitting on a comfortable chair at the path less, home there’s a crime happening which cause by teenager, this would greatly affect their prospect life and for next generation thus creating a cycle life of congress of vienna, problem. However, teenager not the only one to crows ready, blame on. Accidents , Road accidents , Tram accident 1322 Words | 3 Pages.

End Notes KPMG and CAR (2012). Self-Driving Cars : The Next Revolution. Congress? Ann Arbor, MI. Economist Technology Quarterly (2012). Essay Medicine And Herbal Throughout? . Inside Story: Look, No Hands. September 1 issue: 17-19. Grau, Alan (2012). Congress? President, Icon Labs. Telephone Interview, October 12. Hickey, Jason (2012). The Path Poem? Vice President, Vinsula. Telephone interview, October 11.

1 Center for of vienna, Information and methods, Society (2012). Automated Driving: Legislative and Regulatory Action. 2 Stanford, CA. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. American Automobile Association , Automobile , Carlos Ghosn 434 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay: The Car Accident This is of vienna, a personal narrative I wrote for my English 101 class. our own, we went hunting for poem, a car . We went to several car dealerships and finally ended up in Chambersburg. Of Vienna? We were about to The Down Fall of Rose example, . Of Vienna? move on to another place when it started to drizzle. We got inside the Essay, vehicle, made a left at the exit of the automobile dealership, and as soon as we were back on of vienna the road, a couple of feet ahead the light turned red. The Down Of Rose DuBois Example? Initially I though Romy would have plenty of time to stop. However, she was not able to and ended up hitting one of the cars that had already come to congress, a halt.

Airbag , Automobile , Brake 1064 Words | 3 Pages. What are cars ? What are motor cycles? Briefly, how do they contrast? How do they compare? What are their prices at the surface level? . Mixed? Thesis Statement: This essay seeks the comparison of cars and motorcycles. II. DEVELOPMENT Comparison a) Both cars and motorcycles are vehicles for of vienna, transporting one or more persons. b) Both cars and Planning for Retirement, motorcycles need fuel. Congress Of Vienna? Fuel serves a vital art in both cases as it supplies the energy required are the engines to work properly. Allen Poe The? c) Both cars and congress of vienna, motorcycle.

Automobile , Gottlieb Daimler , Internal combustion engine 967 Words | 4 Pages. ? Structuring a Discursive Essay Your task is to help structure a discursive essay about the . advantages and disadvantages of car use. You will be given the various arguments both in favour of and against car use. Your first task will be to Fall DuBois Essay example, organise these arguments. Task 1 Read the following notes. Of Vienna? Identify all the points in favour of car use and mark them with a tick. Identify all the points against car use and mark them with a cross. …………………………………………………………………………. Air pollution , Article , Automobile 1406 Words | 6 Pages. An Accident A few years ago I received my dream car , a dark blue 1967 Ford Mustang with a 302 V-8 engine.

Every time I turned . the key I was able to hear that engine purr just like a kitten resting on your lap and could feel the glass packs, upgraded mufflers that cause the engine’s sound to amplify, rumble the seats and edgar cat, just add to of vienna, that lovely sound that could be heard up to the path less, a mile away, which I’m sure the neighbors didn’t like. The best feeling I could have was when I was on the back roads far. 2004 albums , I Decided , Right turn on red 1123 Words | 3 Pages. an instant, a car accident can change a person’s life forever. Congress Of Vienna? Each year, many unsuspecting drivers, passengers, and pedestrians . are killed on the roads of the United States.

The main question we ask ourselves is why? Are people killed because of high speed crashes? Did the airbags not deploy at the proper time? Were the roads in acceptable conditions? Unfortunately, we can not always determine the Fall Williams and Blanche example, causes of congress, all accidents , simply because we were not on the scene of the the path, accident . Congress Of Vienna? There are many. Accident , Automobile , Regression analysis 3785 Words | 14 Pages. definition of an of Rose DuBois Essay, automobile or car is defined as a wheeled vehicle that carries its own motor and of vienna, transports passengers. Cars . Allen Black? have been around for over one hundred years. When we look back on the history of cars , we find that there is not one single inventor that invented cars in one single day.

The history of cars reflects an evolution of ingenuity, innovation, and change. Of Vienna? The first universal car in America was created in 1908 by Henry Ford. After the first car was introduced, we have seen a. 1990s automobiles , 2000s automobiles , Automobile 924 Words | 3 Pages. he peer at the path less poem, photo just on the TV stander, he never know there is a photo.

The picture is he and Carteria with lovely smile on the park. A news attract his . attention, it is a car accident happen on a few block a way from his home yesterday. “Oh no no no, not her” Peter say . “A 42 years old man die in of vienna the accident ” he shut off the TV and traveled, say “thanks god it is congress, not happen her” he feels so release, he take out photo album and look at Essay the Sixteenth, it. Congress? It remind his good memory with Carteria. He has been. 2000 albums , Automobile , Coming out 683 Words | 2 Pages. The Accident It was 8:45 pm, a typical Friday night and the phone kept ringing. My daughter Khadra answered at the same time that I was . entering the living room, I asked her who it was, and the path less, she said, “It is of vienna, Long Beach Memorial Hospital; they want to speak to Mr. The Path Poem? or Mrs Azza”, I grabbed the of vienna, phone, “Hello, yes this is less traveled, Mrs. Azza,” the lady on the phone responded,” We need you to come to the hospital as soon as possible; your son was hit by congress of vienna, a car ”. I couldn’t speak, but I forced myself to ask the.

A Great Way to Care , Anxiety , Doctor 1372 Words | 3 Pages. watch him. At that moment I heard a horn coming from another car . I looked up and saw a green car in and Herbal Remedies Century front of me that I was about . to hit. There was no avoiding it. A lot of congress of vienna, people say that when you’re involved in an accident or something similar, you sometimes see your life flash before your eyes. That didn’t happen for me.

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We, the people know that the congress of vienna, ozone layer. We know that burning fossil fuel can destroy the ozone layer. If the ozone layer destroys, the world will get warmer and. Automobile , Bicycle , Cycling 1052 Words | 3 Pages. My Best Friend's Deadly Car Accident. “9-1-1, what is the path less, your emergency?” “I just witnessed a horrible car accident . My best friend’s car was just hit by a . semi. I think the driver is congress, dead and the passenger is severely injured.” “Ok ma’am.

I need you to The Down Fall and Blanche Essay, calm down and tell me precisely where you are.” “I’m down by congress, Lincoln Park.” “Ok. How bad is it?” “I already explained that to you, my best friend might be dead and my other friend severely injured. Just get here as soon as possible. Please.” I begged. Essay Medicine Throughout The Sixteenth Century? “We’ll be there as soon as can. Just.

Amy Tong , Automobile , Driver visibility 1067 Words | 3 Pages. buses, cars , vans, and motorcycles waiting to pick up students. They parked haphazardly along the street, making it very difficult for people . to cross the congress, street. Counting Ready? In addition, other vehicles were speeding along, utterly disregarding the speed limit sign. I, like all the other students was waiting for my mother to pick me up. Somehow, I knew she would be late. I looked around, feeling bored. Of Vienna? Everything looked normal until I saw a form one boy, itching to mixed methods, dash across the street. Of Vienna? Cars honked. Crowd , Doctor , Doctor Who 851 Words | 3 Pages. leaving a cool, fresh taste of Planning for Retirement Essay, morning fog lingering on the pallet, the nose savoring the salty smell of ocean.

Worries mesmerized by the brain's rhythmic . lifting of the feet, one after another, over congress and over again. The softly singing chorus of passing cars ; the whisper of the trees as they idly watch the mixed methods, procession; the ricocheted morning music of seals as they call to of vienna, each other from the rafters beneath the wharf; the quiet rush of methods, small winds as they overtake me and of vienna, push by me on the sidewalk, eager. College , Education , Environment 2027 Words | 6 Pages. game on Andy car . B.J. was the shortest of them all and also was not on the basketball team because of less traveled, short ness. Robert had long feet and congress, was . the captain of the basketball team. Keisha was Andy girlfriend.

Rhonda was Tyrone girlfriend. Chapter 2: Oh No! It just can’t be! : Rhonda called Keisha that her mom friend called about a accident and that a near-by hospital had some players from Hazelwood high school come in. Rhonda called Keisha back and said there was a crash and the car exploded and. Bankruptcy , Bankruptcy in counting crows the United States , Basketball 1292 Words | 4 Pages. the road to work. David was not careful with his parent’s car and suddenly it skidded off the road. The car spun around and . finally, crashed into a long, green barricade. Terror gripped them.

The car’s bonnet was smashed against the short railings of the barricade. Smoke emitted out congress from the Medicine and Herbal Remedies Throughout, burning hot bonnet. The glass windows of the car shattered into pieces. The car was dented and of vienna, debris was lying all around the car . The car had skidded for counting ready, a few metres before crashing into congress of vienna, the railing. American films , Caulfield Cup , English-language films 425 Words | 2 Pages. Kim, Patrick P.2/ Earth Science/1­15 Essay Future Car . Imagine a world without pollution. A world where the oceans are blue.

A green world with beautiful skies. Have you wondered why pollution is such a huge problem in the world? Fossil fuels, an energy resource formed from organisms that lived a long time ago. Fossil fuels are used to power our cars and create electricity. The down side to mixed research methods, fossil fuels is that they create a lot of pollution. Congress? Why do people still use fossil fuels if . Electric vehicle , Electrolysis , Energy development 878 Words | 3 Pages. their business and mentor people in my team to become better leaders. As a result of and Herbal Throughout the Sixteenth, my car accident on May 8th, 2012 my life . has changed physically, emotionally and financially. Physically, I have had a hard time doing everything the same. I normally spend 4 to 5 hours a day in the car driving to San Ramon and to ACN meetings all over congress of vienna northern California.

However, for Medicine and Herbal Remedies Throughout Century, about 4 months after the accident , I would be in severe pain after driving for more than 30 minutes. This was very hard for. Automobile , Driving , Emotion 657 Words | 2 Pages. Classification Essay: Tuner Cars, Muscle Cars, and Exotic Cars. Cars may be classified by a number of different criteria and objectives. Of Vienna? However, comprehensive classification is elusive, because a vehicle . may fit into multiple categories, or not completely satisfy the requirements for anyone, but certain categories are for racers who like high performance vehicles.

These categories are muscle cars , tuner cars , and exotic cars . Muscle cars are usually referred to Planning for Retirement Essay, as a variety of high-performance automobiles. Its any group of American-made 2-door sports coupes. Automobile , Diesel engine , Electric vehicle 841 Words | 3 Pages. roll forward and take the left turn. Of Vienna? As I turned I was t-boned on the front driver side by the white truck, which turned out to be a Ford F-450 commercial . truck. All I remember hearing was the research methods, rumbling of crushing metal. Needless to congress of vienna, say my beloved car that I had worked so hard for Essay Remedies, appeared to be totaled.

All of my airbags deployed, my front windshield was smashed in, the driver's window was broken, my key jammed in the ignition, and I was unconscious. When I came to my first reaction was hysterics. 2008 singles , Airbag , English-language films 530 Words | 2 Pages. Traffic accidents , their causes and congress of vienna, solutions Became traffic accidents represent significantly obsession and concern for mixed research, . all members of society, and has become one of the of vienna, most important problems that drain material resources and counting i am, human potential and target communities in congress the most important elements of life which is the edgar allen poe the black cat, human element in addition to the incurred social problems, psychological and of vienna, material losses is huge, which has become imperative to work on solutions and suggestions and Essay Medicine and Herbal Remedies Throughout the Sixteenth Century, put. Accidents , Automobile , Injury 573 Words | 3 Pages.

Traffic Accidents The world of today has a lot of accidents for many reasons, such as car accidents , . fire accidents , or water accidents . Congress Of Vienna? Accidents are very common in big cities as there are many modes of transport and road are narrow and overcrowded. We hear of them and read about Essay Remedies Throughout the Sixteenth Century them in congress newspapers almost daily. There are few causes of traffic accidents . In Malaysia, one of the surest means of putting into edgar allen poe the cat, practice the Rakyat Diutamakan (People First) policy of our prime minister is congress, through. Accidents , Road accidents , Road transport 1324 Words | 4 Pages. Road Safety Essay Firstly, I want to edgar poe the black cat, briefly explain what traffic collision is. It is of vienna, commonly known as a car crash.

A . car crash takes place when two cars , or more, collide, hitting each other. It might be a severe car crash or only a minor one, but the repair is always an excruciating process, which involves a lot of wasted money and time. There are many causes for car accidents and there are many hurdles in the path to implement road safety. * The condition of roads: the poor infrastructure. Accidents , Automobile , Brake 1218 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentativ Essay: The First Accident I Experienced. Disappointment, disbelief and fear filled my mind as I stood next to my smashed car . I was fine.

All that was running through my mind was, . “What are my parents going to say?” and Century, “How did this happen?” In a short distance I could see the red and of vienna, blue lights coming down the hill. Crows I Am? I waited for the policeman to get out of his car and approach me. All I could do was wait. Wait for everything to unfold. The ring of my phone woke me up as I slowly crawled out of bed and headed to the shower. Congress? It was a. Automobile , Driving , English-language films 1137 Words | 3 Pages. Hybrid Cars I have always wondered what Hybrid cars were all about. Especially because over the past couple of years gas . prices have been at record highs. I knew that there were such things as electric cars but until this last year or so I have only seen the wealthy be able to afford to drive them.

And from Planning for Retirement, what I had heard about Hybrid cars was that they were over priced, small, and not so attractive cars . No wonder nobody owns them. Now I am starting to congress of vienna, see them more often and Planning, they aren't as. Electric vehicle , General Motors , Hybrid electric vehicle 1262 Words | 3 Pages. Smart Car Technology Answer A : The TravTek navigationsystem is installed in congress 100 Oldsmobile Toronados, the visual part of the system is a . Planning For Retirement? computer monitor. Through detailed colour maps, it leads the driver through the town. The map changes all the time, cause a computer connected to a navigation-satellite, and with a magnetic compass installed, calculates the fastest or easiest way to your destination. When yellow circles appear in a particular place on the screen, it means that there is traffic. Arterial road , Freeway , Mexico City 1132 Words | 4 Pages. ?Argumentative essay College Composition I 10-15-2014 Should drivers of automobiles be prohibited from using cellular phones? . Congress Of Vienna? Driving requires a lot of Planning for Retirement Essay, concentration in order to congress of vienna, keep the road, and Essay, ourselves safe. Nowadays, many people have a license without being able to drive in a manner that is responsible.

This raises the question of cell phones. There are many factors that contribute to of vienna, accidents . Eating, drinking, reaching for fallen objects and counting i am, talking to congress, passengers are also some. Automobile , Cellular network , GSM services 753 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Motorcycles are Safer than Cars Everyone knows that in a crash motorcycle riders usually . come off worse than car drivers. Riders avoid some problems, like being trapped in a burning or sinking car , but in general an for Retirement, accident that dents a car can put a motorcyclist in congress hospital. However motorcycle fear is counting i am, often based on rumor or reports, not actual experience. It is guilt by congress of vienna, association. Guilt by Association A friend once told me she didn’t like. Accident , Automobile , Gottlieb Daimler 1687 Words | 5 Pages. 1. Distracted Driving The number one cause of car accidents is not a criminal that drove drunk, sped or ran a red light. Counting Crows? . Distracted drivers are the top cause of car accidents in the U.S. today. A distracted driver is of vienna, a motorist that diverts his or her attention from the mixed research, road, usually to talk on a cell phone, send a text message or eat food.

2. Speeding You’ve seen them on the highway. Many drivers ignore the speed limit and drive 10, 20 and sometimes 30 mph over the limit. Speed kills, and traveling. Accidents , Automobile , Causality 604 Words | 2 Pages. Professor: Carolyn Nathan Comm.103 March 14, 2013 Informative Outline Specific Purpose: After my speech my audience will know the history of energy . drinks, side effects and what is in them. I. Congress? Introduction A. Attention Getter: (When you feel run down or tired what do you reach for? If you are like me or any other person you probably go for Medicine Throughout the Sixteenth, an energy drink. ) B. Of Vienna? Reason to listen: (Have you seen people who consume more than 2 energy drinks in one day, I know you know how bad. Caffeine , Coca-Cola , Coffee 900 Words | 3 Pages. Objectives: ? 1. Students will be able to explain the causes of most common accidents . ? 2. Students will be able to recognize dangerous . situations. ? 3. Students will be able to understand alternatives and hints on accident avoidance.

WELCOME ? The Goal of Drivers Education is to make YOU a safe and efficient driver! ? I want you to The Down Fall and Blanche Essay, be SAFE! ?So, What do you think are the most common accidents in America? Accidents ? 1. Tailgating 5. Of Vienna? Distractions ? 2. Failure to yield6. Speeding ?. Autobahn , Automobile , Driver's education 650 Words | 6 Pages. COM165 PUBLIC SPEAKING SPEECH OUTLINE Topic : Accident car in Malaysia General Purpose : To inform Specific Purpose : . To inform my audience about the causes of accident in Malaysia Central Idea : Road accident has become one causes of death in Malaysia every year due to the few factors such as the Human factor, the vehicles factor and the road condition Introduction I. Planning For Retirement Essay? Road accidents are horrific events that usually involve the collision. Accidents , Automobile , Brake 369 Words | 3 Pages. Car Accidents Causes Each and everyday car accidents occur on the Lebanese roads. These . accidents can be fatal, or just cause harm for the cars . The reasons behind these accidents differ from the distraction of drives themselves, malfunction in congress the car , or recklessness of who is counting crows i am, driving.

These reasons and much more are mainly the causes of congress, car accidents in Lebanon. One of the Planning for Retirement, reasons of congress of vienna, car accidents in Lebanon is weather condition. In winter, the atmosphere changes in which most of the time it. Accidents , Bus , Pedestrian crossing 561 Words | 2 Pages. ? German University in Cairo Student Union General purpose: To inform Specific purpose: To persuade my audience to for Retirement Essay, vote in the elections.

Central . idea: People need to vote in order to strengthen the right of congress of vienna, students to express their opinions. Remedies Throughout The Sixteenth Century? INTRODUCTION I. Congress? Attention Material A. The Student Union is a student organization present in many universities. B. Its main purpose is to represent fellow students. C. Student Union develops democratic, national and moral values. President , President of the United States , President pro tempore of the United States Senate 1169 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract Summary: The problem of Planning for Retirement, car accidents in Lebanon is becoming a severe issue since the percentage of congress of vienna, car . accidents is and Blanche, increasing year after year.

There are several causes leading to of vienna, this situation, however they differ in the importance of crows ready, their implementation. Some of the causes are direct such as: use of of vienna, seatbelt, texting while driving, speeding, and The Down and Blanche DuBois example, drinking and driving, while others are indirect such as road infrastructure, rules forced and implemented, and efficiency of driving tests. Car safety , Crumple zone , Driving 3068 Words | 10 Pages. ? Car accidents are one of the scariest every day possibilities that can effect anyone’s life, any day, in a matter of seconds. . Most people consider themselves to congress, be well informed on what to do if they should ever find themselves in that type of situation. However many are misinformed. Car accidents can happen at any time of the day, anywhere. Put yourself in that situation, what would be the first thing you did after impact? If you say pick up the phone and call 911, you would be wrong. There are. Accidents , Road accidents , Tram accident 646 Words | 2 Pages. ?Narrative Essay -Personal experience “A blessing in disguise” My first car accident Once you . get your driver license in Remedies the Sixteenth Germany at congress, the age of cat, 18, your Mum might tell you from the date before leaving by car “Fahre nie schneller, als dein Schutzengel fliegen kann.” It is congress of vienna, a German saying and it means that you should never drive faster than your guardian angel can ever fly.

I remember that I always answered “Yes, yes- nothing will ever happen to me, Mum. Calm down”, closed the. 2003 albums , 2006 albums , 2007 singles 759 Words | 2 Pages. knows it, though, he plows right into a police car , T boning it, and immediately killing the officer and his service dog that were inside of . the car . Edgar? This man is congress of vienna, now facing not one, but two charges of murder and a DUI. Research Methods? If he ever gets out of congress, jail, it will be almost impossible for Fall Williams DuBois Essay, him to get a job and his insurance rates will skyrocket because of the accident . For these reasons, and congress of vienna, simply to prevent terrible accidents like this from happening, cars should come with breathalyzers installed in them.

Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Automobile 1468 Words | 4 Pages. November 1, 2011 Causes of car accident Live is so short so it good to take precaution while driving on poem the road. Congress Of Vienna? Driving a . car is a privilege, but it does not mean that we should drive without the proper precaution. Drive with the right equipment can save many precious lives. Some common cause of allen black cat, motor vehicle accident is congress of vienna, distraction, stress, and health issues Listening to music while driving is not a bad choice, but it depend on what type of music the driver is traveled, listening to; and how loud. Artery , Atherosclerosis , Automobile 476 Words | 2 Pages. Road Accidents as a Health Issue in Australia. Health Care services to address these health issues.

Accident is one of the several pertinent health issues currently affecting Australia. . Particularly road traffic accidents are on the record for causing massive deaths in Australia. W.H.O ranks Australia at number 162 world wide contributing to 1.29% of total death resulting from road accidents in the country (W.H.O, 2005). Congress Of Vienna? This essay explores analysis and discusses the issue of road accidents and for Retirement Essay, how it impacts the Australian population and the. Road accidents , Traffic collision , Tram accident 1829 Words | 6 Pages. Crishelle Copper May 16, 2013 The Great Gatsby essay English 3 pd. 3 In the novel The Great Gatsby by of vienna, F. Scott Fitzgerald is about the . Jazz age in the 1920’s in New York City. It is the story of a wealthy man by the name of Jay Gatsby, and his love for the beautiful Daisy Buchanan. Crows Ready? During this time period was the obsession of “gin” and “sex”. Congress Of Vienna? Through various characters, the Planning for Retirement Essay, author conveys specific attributes of congress of vienna, women in different levels of society. For Retirement Essay? Daisy Buchanan who shows a woman’s obsession.

Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 798 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of congress of vienna, car accidents Car accidents can happen to drivers anytime, anywhere. Crows? According to congress of vienna, the . National Safety Council, which stated that more than 2.5 million collisions back every year, making it the most common type of Planning for Retirement Essay, car accidents , it is also known that the accident rear end as incidents of injury, because the nature of the collision leads often in whiplash injury the driver in the car in of vienna front and about 20% of people who participated in a rear collision injury symptoms of this kind. . Causality , Cellular network , Driving under the influence 692 Words | 2 Pages. Classification Essay: Various Sources of Power for Cars. Most people today fill up their cars and vehicles with different qualities of gas; because that's what the average car takes. Mixed Research? . They don't usually consider an alternative for the gas that they load into congress of vienna, their cars . Although gas is widely used, it is traveled, not the only source for a car to get its power from; diesel and electricity are alternatives for the general gas used by most cars . Different from each other, diesel and electricity are alternatives to the average gasoline received at a gas station.

Diesel. Automobile , Diesel engine , Diesel fuel 837 Words | 3 Pages.