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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The dreaded DBQ, or document-based question, is an essay question type on the AP History exams (AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History). For the DBQ essay, you will be asked to analyze some historical issue or trend with the aid of the magic, provided sources, or documents, as evidence. The DBQ is an unfamiliar type of in-class essay for many students, but it does not need to be a source of dread or panic. In this guide I'll go over the DBQ's purpose and Control Essay, format, what the documents are and how to use them, how this type of essay is scored, and how to prepare. I'll tell you everything you need to rock this unique type of essay! Note: The rubric, guidelines, and skills tested for all of the History APs are identical; only the historical source material is damnation different.

As a veteran of the DBQ, I'm here to answer all your questions. Why do the AP History exams even have a document-based question? What will it look like on the exam? What are these documents, anyways? Let's dive right in. This baby is too young to be diving into the DBQ!

The point of the document-based question is not to est analisi torment you but actually to damnation put you in the historians shoes as an interpreter of historical material. Cool, right? The DBQ is testing your ability to: create a strong thesis and support that thesis with the aid of the documents provided analyze sources for Control, characteristics such as authors point of view, the damnation magic, author's purpose, the audience, and context make connections between the documents bring in outside knowledge to strengthen the argument. This may sound like a tall order, but you probably already use all these skills all the time. Suppose your friend asks for your help in deciding whether to buy a particular new brand of soccer ball. You have used the soccer ball, so you have personal knowledge about it, but he doesnt just want your opinionhe wants evidence! (Your friend takes buying soccer balls very seriously). Wilfred Dulce Est Analisi. So first, you collect information (your documents). Damnation Magic. These could include: online reviews of the soccer ball your brothers opinion the chart, price at the store the cost of other soccer balls ads for magic, the soccer ball. Control Essay. Next, you'll analyze these documents to damnation make a decision about whether the ball is a good purchase for your friend or not. For that, you might: Assess bias (also known as the authors point of amd intel chart view): Maybe the soccer ball ad isnt the most objective measure of the balls quality.

Maybe your brother hates soccer. Consider the magic, authors audience: Maybe that review of the soldier during the civil war, soccer ball was written for professional soccer players, and you want to know how it is for casual players! Think about the context of magic your friend's decision: What time of year is it? If its right around Christmas, maybe your friends mom will get it for him as a present. What you already know about inferno preview soccer is part of the magic, context as well--you know your friend wont want a ball thats too bouncy, for example. Buying the right soccer ball might have higher stakes than the AP exam.

If you were going to go back and write an essay for your friend about this after you've reviewed your documents, your thesis might be something like one of these examples: This soccer ball is a good purchase for che guevera history, my friend because it has all the elements of a good soccer ball at magic, a great price point. This soccer is not a good purchase for my friend right now because even though it looks amazing, I know my friends birthday is in a week and inferno preview, his sister might buy it for him. Then you would use the documents and your outside knowledge (for example, your experience with the soccer ball and damnation magic, your knowledge about soccer) to support that claim. That's a document-based question! In fact, I would assert that the DBQ is the easiest essay to score highly on in the AP History exams. As overwhelming as it might be now to think about all of that information getting thrown at you at once, think of it this way: Instead of relying primarily on your knowledge, the DBQ gives you a bunch of sources to use in your analysis. This means you dont have to be worried youll waste five minutes racking your brain trying to remember the name of chart that guy who did that thing. Its important to bring in some outside information for a top score, but the main thing you need to do is analyze . 95% of the damnation, info you really need is there. You just have to learn how to use it.

Let's move on to test formatting so you know what to expect from document-based questions. Prioritizing In Nursing. What Does the magic, DBQ Format Look Like? Each of the AP history tests has one DBQ, and it is always the first question in the test booklet for che guevera, the writing section (Part II of the exam). Magic. When you open your booklet and turn to the DBQ, you will see the inferno preview, instructions, the prompt, and then the documents. You will have a 15-minute reading period, with a recommended 40 minutes of writing time. The test has two essays, and you will have 90 minutes total to plan and write them. You won't be forced to move on from one essay to the other, so be sure to budget your time carefully. You are not required to use the entire reading/planning period. You can begin writing whenever you wish. Damnation Magic. However, be sure you plan carefully because the in nursing, writing will go much faster if you have a good outline. That covers the general format, but no doubt you want to hear more about these mysterious documents.

Stay tuned! What's the Deal With These Documents? You will receive up to damnation magic seven sources. These could be primary or secondary, and they could take almost any form: l etters, newspaper articles, maps, pictures, cartoons, charts, and so on. You will need to use all or all but one of the documents in your essay. You should go further in-depth on Control Essay at least four of the documents. (See the damnation, rubric breakdown section below for more details). For US History, no DBQ will focus exclusively on the time period prior to 1607 or after 1980, although they may focus on che guevera a broader time period that includes one of those time periods. Magic. Don't worry, they won't be original copies. Now that we've discussed the et decorum, purpose, format, and document protocol of the damnation, DBQ, we need to discuss scoring.

How much is the DBQ worth on your exam? And how do those pesky AP graders even score it? How Much Is the Document-Based Question Worth? The DBQ is wilfred owen dulce 25% of your total grade. The entire second section of exam is magic 50% of your grade, and there are two equally weighted essays. The rubric the graders use is equivalent freely available to damnation you on the College Board website.

Don't worry if these look like gibberish to you. I'll break it down briefly here, and go even more in-depth on Control Essay my article about how to prepare for and write a DBQ. Damnation. There are four categories in che guevera history, this rubric: thesis, analysis of the document, using outside evidence, and synthesis. You can score up to seven points. One point for having a clear, historically plausible thesis that is located in the introduction or conclusion. You can get another point here for having a particularly good thesis that presents a nuanced relationship between historical factors, and damnation, doing a good job supporting that thesis in life the civil war, your essay. One point for using 6-7 of the documents in magic, your essay. Easy-peasy.

One point for doing further analysis on four of the documents. This further analysis could be on any of the following points: authors point of view authors purpose historical context audience. Just be sure to soldier life the civil tie any further analysis back to your main argument! One point is damnation just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to write several sentences about it but the contextual information can be very general. One point is for being able to inferno preview name an additional specific example relevant to your argument that is not mentioned in the documents.

Don't stress if you freeze up and can't remember one on test day. This is damnation magic only one point and it will not prevent you from getting a 5 on the exam. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is wilfred owen est analisi probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the essay. Still with me? Just remember: the damnation magic, most important thing is having a strong thesis that is amd intel chart supported by the information in the documents and whatever other related information you have around in your brain. If you are an auditory learner, I recommend the following video, which breaks down all the components you need to magic get a seven . If this seems like a lot to take in, don't worry. You dont have to get a perfect score on the DBQ to get a five on the AP. Somewhere in the 5-6 range can definitely get you there. To get a 3 on the exam (which still gives you course credit at a lot of colleges), you only need a 3 on the DBQ. (See page eight of this document.) Additionally, overall historical accuracy is important but not 100% necessary for every tiny detail of the essay.

Anything that is in the documents should be correct, but when you start to bring in outside sources for your DBQ essay on unionization and working conditions and wilfred dulce et decorum, you cant remember if the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire was in 1911 or 1912, just pick one and dont sweat it. If minor details are incorrect and damnation, dont detract from the amd intel, overall meaning of the damnation, essay, you wont lose points. Now that you understand the purpose, format, and rubric for document-based questions, I'll give you some tips on prioritizing how to magic get the score you're aiming for. Two things will help you crush the DBQ: prepping beforehand, and hitting all the right notes on che guevera history test day! Rock the DBQ like Jimi rocked the 1960s.

Try out the damnation, practice DBQs available online at inferno preview, the College Board website: look here for AP US History (and here for a complete APUSH practice test), here for AP European History, and damnation, here for AP World History. You dont necessarily have to write an entire essay every time you practiceits also helpful to read the question and texts and then create outlines with a thesis. Ask a trusted teacher or advisor to look over your practice drafts and/or outlines with the rubric and advise what you might be missing. Make sure you know general historical trends/periods so you can get that point for context. Transmission Control Essay. You can find more prep tips in my article on how to write a DBQ. Read the question carefully . Make sure you know what is damnation being asked before you start trying to answer. Amd Intel. While you read the documents, take notes on what they mean, who is damnation writing, etc. Come up with your thesis before you start writing, or your essay will be a sad, directionless mess, like a boat with no rudder, lost at sea forever. If you arent sure of your thesis yet, brainstorm in your notes not while you are writing.

Once you have a thesis, stay on topic. If youre writing about how Smaug wrecked the Forbidden Mountain, dont start talking about how amazing and clever Bilbo is, even if its true. Make sure you use all the documents doing so gets you easy points. However, dont simply regurgitate sources with no analysis. If you find yourself doing a lot of Source A says blah, and amd intel equivalent chart, Source B says blah, and Source C says blah. make sure you are using the documents to make a point , and not letting the documents use you. A great way to analyze the documents is to damnation magic make connections between them! Who agrees? Who disagrees? Why? Dont forget to provide context, one outside example, and a connection to during the civil war another period/area/historical theme if you can!

Thats three points right there. And there you have it! You are ready to start prepping for success. Magic. Abraham Lincoln believes in you! I know I just threw a lot of during information at damnation, you. So here are some key takeaway points: The document-based question is a way for in nursing, the AP to test your skills as a historian! Dont panic! It doesnt have to be overwhelming, even though you are getting tons of information thrown at you in a short time. The DBQ is magic based on skills that you can learn and practice : writing a strong thesis, using given evidence to support an argument, making connections between different documents and pieces of prioritizing in nursing evidence, placing specific information in a broader context, analyzing an authors intent, bias, audience, etc.

Need more study resources for AP World History ? See our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Damnation. Need more resources for AP US History ? Try this article on the best notes to use for amd intel chart, studying from one of our experts. Magic. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Or just looking for general information about your upcoming APs ? See here for instructions on how to register for AP exams, complete 2016 test dates, and information on how much AP tests cost (and how to get AP financial aid). Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the inferno preview, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for damnation magic, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and inferno preview, Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at damnation, Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

Follow us on all 3 of amd intel equivalent our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and damnation magic, we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on equivalent Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

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Matewan: film and working class struggle. On 19 May 1920 a party of 12 Baldwin-Felts private detectives led by Albert and Lee Felts arrived in the small town of Matewan, West Virginia. They had been busy evicting the families of striking miners from damnation magic, company housing on behalf of the Stone Mountain Coal Company and were now on their way back to the Baldwin-Felts headquarters in Bluefield. Their presence in Matewan was deliberately provocative. The town was a stronghold of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW), a centre for inferno preview its organising activities in Mingo County. Only a fortnight earlier the union had held a rally attended by over 3,000 miners, black and white, in the town. Now an armed confrontation was to take place on the main street between the Baldwin-Felts men and Matewan's mayor, Cabell Testerman, and chief of police, Sid Hatfield, both former miners and staunch UMW supporters. The Felts brothers claimed to have a warrant for Hatfield's arrest and after an argument one of them shot Mayor Testerman dead. In the exchange of gunfire that followed Hatfield and his deputies, all striking miners, killed seven of the detectives, including both Felts brothers. Two striking miners, Robert Mullins and Tot Tinsley, were killed. 1.

This gunfight was celebrated as a great victory by the UMW in West Virginia and damnation magic led to a dramatic increase in in nursing, membership. Damnation Magic! So eager was the union to exploit this triumph over the hated Baldwin-Felts agency that they actually had a silent film, Smilin' Sid , starring Hatfield himself, made of the episode. The film was shown to enthusiastic, cheering miners throughout the West Virginia coalfield. Inferno Preview! 2 Over 60 years later, in damnation, 1987, the life war gunfight was to be the subject of another film, Matewan , written and directed by the radical independent film maker, John Sayles. The so called 'Matewan Massacre' was, however, only one episode, and by no means the most dramatic, in the long bloody struggle to damnation magic organise West Virginia. This particular phase, immediately after the First World War, was to culminate in the march on company controlled Logan County by over 15,000 armed miners and in the week long battle for Blair Mountain which only came to an end with the intervention of federal troops. According to one historian the Blair Mountain battle 'was the largest single armed conflict between labour and Control Protocol Essay capital in American history. In this confrontation blacks and whites fought side by side for magic a common cause'. 3. This article hopes to achieve two objectives: first of all to discuss the Sayles' film, both its strengths and amd intel equivalent chart its weaknesses, and second to examine the UMW's great historic attempt to organise the West Virginia coalfield in this period. Although discrepancies between the film and the historical record will be mentioned, it is not the intention to criticise Sayles for deviating from the 'facts'.

His film was not a documentary but is damnation best regarded as a powerful fictional celebration of inferno preview working class struggle and solidarity that made dramatic use of the historic Matewan episode. It has to be judged in these terms. At the same time it will also be argued here that the UMW's defeat in West Virginia was one of the decisive struggles in post First World War America. The quite incredible heroism of the miners and their families, both black and white, in the face of brutal, murderous repression is still an inspiration. John Sayles is without doubt the most important radical film maker at work in damnation magic, the United States today. He first broke into the film industry as a scriptwriter, working on cheap Hollywood productions such as Piranha (1978), The Lady in Red (1979) and Alligator (1980) among others. All these scripts have 'subversive elements': 'government-released piranhas in domestic waters, unionisation and war feminism, corporate corruption and pollution.' According to damnation Sayles himself, his original idea for Alligator was to have the monster that emerges from the soldier the civil Milwaukee sewers eat 'its way through the socio-economic system'. 4 His earnings from scriptwriting financed his own early films (his first film cost $60,000 to make and magic his second $300,000), but since then he has been able to raise more substantial sums: Matewan , for example, cost $4 million to make. Since his first film, The Return of the Secaucus Seven in 1979, Sayles has written and directed another seven films: Lianna (1982), Baby, It's You (1982), The Brother From Another Planet (1984), Matewan (1987), Eight Men Out (1988), City of Hope (1991) and Passion Fish (1992). At the time of writing, another film-- The Secret of Roan Irish --is in post-production. He has also directed a number of in nursing rock videos for Bruce Springsteen and damnation wrote and the civil war produced the damnation American TV series Shannon's Deal . Sayles is prioritizing also an accomplished novelist and short story writer.

His best novel is the outstanding Union Dues , first published in 1977, but more recently he has published a controversial anti-Castro novel, Los Gusanos (1991). 5. Why did Sayles decide to magic make a film about a miners' strike in West Virginia in the early 1920s? He gives his reasons in the book that he wrote about the making of Matewan , Thinking In Pictures : In the late sixties I hitchhiked through the area several times and most of the people who gave me rides were coal miners or people with mining in their families. Amd Intel Equivalent! They spoke with a mixture of pride and resignation about the damnation mining--resignation about amd intel chart how dark and dirty and cold and wet and damnation magic dangerous it was and che guevera pride that they were the people to do it, to do it well. The United Mine Workers were going through heavy times then. Their president, Tony Boyle, was accused of having his election opponent, Jock Yablonski, murdered. The coal companies and most of the damnation magic political machinery that fed on owen dulce et decorum them and damnation even the UMW hierarchy denied even the Protocol Essay existence of damnation magic black lung disease and refused any compensation for it.

All this was added to the usual mine accidents and disasters and wild fluctuations in coal prices. But every miner I talked to would shake his head and say, 'Buddy, this ain't nothin' compared to what used to go on. I could tell you some stories'. The stories would be about their grandfathers and inferno preview uncles and fathers and mothers, and the older men would tell their own stories from damnation, when they were young. If storytelling has a positive function it's to put us in touch with other people's lives, to help us connect and draw strength or knowledge from people we'll never meet, to che guevera history help us see beyond our own experience. The people I read about in the history books and the people I met in the hills of Kentucky and West Virginia had important stories to tell and I wanted to damnation magic pass them on. 6.

Matewan tells the story of an Control Protocol, incident in the struggle to unionise Mingo County in magic, the West Virginia coalfield. The film begins underground with a coalface being blown. While the che guevera miners wait for damnation magic the explosion, news is passed round that the Stone Mountain Company has imposed a wage cut. The American miners--all white--strike, but the Italian immigrants employed by the company stay at work. The strikers are evicted from prioritizing, their company houses and establish a colony outside the town of Matewan. Once the scene is set, we are introduced to the film's main protagonist, Joe Kenehan, a union organiser on his way to Matewan by train.

Also on the train are black miners being brought in as strikebreakers and Kenehan watches as they are physically attacked by the strikers. Kenehan's first successful intervention in the conflict is to persuade the strikers that the way to damnation magic defeat the company is to ally with the black and Italian miners rather than trying to inferno preview drive them out. Sayles does not show the black miners responding to an appeal for working class solidarity from the whites. Instead Kenehan challenges the racism of the white miners and succeeds in persuading them to accept the appeal for working class solidarity made by the black miners who were unaware that a strike was in progress and make it clear that they are not scabs. His strategy works, and in a dramatic scene both the damnation Italian and the black miners join the strike under the guns of the company guards. Kenehan preaches a doctrine of during war working class solidarity and consistently argues against recourse to damnation force. The strikers, he insists, must not allow themselves to be goaded into violence, no matter what the provocation. Instead they have to during rely on their unity to bring them victory. Much of the damnation film deals with the conflict between the company spy and Control agent provocateur, C E Lively, who advocates the dynamiting of company property and armed attacks on the company guards, and Kenehan, who continues to urge restraint. Lively nearly succeeds in framing Kenehan as a spy, but is himself unmasked and magic forced to flee for his life. His efforts to provoke violence continue, and culminate in the chilling murder of a teenage miner, Hillard, who is caught stealing coal from the company tip.

This killing is one of the causes of the climactic gunfight in Matewan . Another cause of the final confrontation is the conduct of Matewan's chief of police, Sid Hatfield. Much to Kenehan's amazement, he does not side with the company. Although he is inferno preview not shown as a union man, Hatfield nevertheless protects the rights of the miners against the company gun thugs. Magic! He continually interferes with the intimidatory tactics of the two Baldwin-Felts agents in in nursing, the town, Hickey and Griggs. The decision is taken to eliminate him.

The gunfight on the main street of Matewan ends with the Baldwin-Felts agents either dead or driven off, but this victory is marred by magic the death of Joe Kenehan. His belief in a non-violent victory through working class solidarity dies with him. Although the film ends here, the narrator, the young miner Danny, tells of amd intel chart how the union went down to a violent defeat as Kenehan had foretold, but reaffirms his own commitment to the union cause. Sayles quite deliberately decided to make Kenehan a pacifist. His intention was to give the film a parable quality, a moral dimension that questioned both the use of violence to win the strike and the viability of magic pacifism when confronted by the Baldwin-Felts agents. The first decision he made in writing the script: . Wilfred Dulce! was not just to pick a side and magic then root for that side to be left standing when the Control smoke cleared, but to magic question the violence itself, to question it politically, strategically, morally. To bring the questioning of this violence to the foreground I made the amd intel chart fictional protagonist of the story, the union organiser Joe Kenehan, a pacifist. Not a reformed gunslinger who pulls his holster and guns off the wall in damnation, the last reel to wipe out the bad guys and thrill the audience, but a real pacifist, a guy who does not kill people no matter what. A guy trying to preach turning the other cheek in the land of an eye for an eye. And in Transmission Protocol Essay, having Joe question violence, pacifism is damnation magic also questioned.

For Sayles, 'the backbone' of the film is amd intel whether Kenehan can get justice for the miners 'without a gun'. There are other questions, issues and themes in the film but 'that is the spine you have to keep coming back to, the central question that drives the damnation magic plot'. Transmission Essay! 7 Of course, how an audience will react to the issue of violence is determined to a considerable extent by the politics they bring to the film. Damnation Magic! A liberal audience, for example, would regard both company and union violence as equally appalling, while a revolutionary socialist audience would regret that the miners weren't better armed and equivalent that some of the Baldwin-Felts agents got away. Nevertheless the film does make it absolutely clear that, whatever Kenehan's beliefs, his own survival is in fact dependent on other men having guns and being prepared to use them, on Hatfield, on damnation the striking miners and, on one occasion, on the intervention of the hill people. His death in the final gunfight is arguably testimony to the fact that his beliefs are, in the end, irrelevant. Once again, however, one's view derive from one's politics. Much could be made of the fact that in the final scenes of the film young Danny has a Baldwin-Felts agent at his mercy and, instead of shooting him, lets him escape. This apparent endorsement of inferno preview Kenehan's pacifism has to be balanced against damnation, the fact that Danny's mother, Elma, has just shot and killed Hickey, another Baldwin-Felts agent. The man Danny could not bring himself to shoot was unarmed and running for his life.

The man Elma shot was still armed and preparing to shoot down an unsuspecting deputy. Danny's act of mercy was only made possible because Hatfield and his deputies had already shot it out with the Baldwin-Felts agents and won. The test of history pacifism is not sparing the unarmed agent but sparing Hickey and accepting the consequences that would have followed. At the very least, however, the damnation film succeeds in raising important issues for thought and discussion. One other point worth making here is wilfred est analisi that the whole question of pacifism which Sayles makes the backbone of the film would in fact have been altogether incomprehensible to the miners struggling to build the union in West Virginia in 1920. In circumstances where activists and damnation magic organisers were routinely beaten and killed by che guevera company guards and private detectives, the readiness and ability to defend oneself was essential for survival. According to one union organiser, carrying a gun became 'automatic, like putting on magic a tie or lacing one's shoes'.

8 Clearly a man with Kenehan's convictions would never have been able to play a leading role in the kind of struggle that took place in West Virginia. His pacifism would have prevented him from amd intel equivalent chart, effectively opposing the coal companies and would have made it impossible for the union to organise. Magic! Only the history fact that the striking miners were armed prevented the coal companies driving them back to work at damnation gunpoint. In this respect, the film can be seen to be addressing Sayles's concerns rather than those of the miners of the time whose concern was not about whether or not to use firearms, but how to get more of them. It is worth briefly noting here a number of other ways in which Sayles has adapted the historical record for che guevera history dramatic purposes. Magic! First of all, and in some ways most importantly, the miners in West Virginia were ethnically mixed long before the 1920s. Owen Dulce! When strikebreakers were brought in they confronted strikers who were both black and white and who included many immigrants. Sayles dramatises to good effect the magic achievement of black and white unity against prioritizing in nursing, the bosses whereas in fact this was not an issue in the West Virginia coalfield at this time. A related point is that the leader of the damnation black miners, 'Few Clothes' Don Chain, marvellously played by James Earl Jones, was a historic figure, but in the earlier 1912-1913 strike, not in Essay, the post-war conflict. Joe Kenehan is, of course, a fictional character, but more to damnation the point is the fact that outside organisers did not play a leading role in the conflict which was locally led by amd intel equivalent men like Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney, Frank Ingham, Bill Blizzard and Sid Hatfield.

Hatfield's role in particular was crucial: far from being an even handed mediator enforcing the law, he was an active UMW supporter, a key figure in the union's early successes in Mingo County and tremendously popular with the rank and damnation magic file miners. In Nursing! Another fictional liberty is damnation Sayles's portrayal of the baptist preacher in che guevera history, Matewan as a company stooge (incidentally he plays the character himself). This was indeed the case in company towns, but not in damnation, Matewan, an independent town with elected officials, where the baptist church served as a union meeting place. Unfortunately C E Lively was a historic figure. One critic of Matewan , Stephen Brier, has argued that the film: lacks any sense of capitalism as a system, or of Transmission Control Protocol individual capitalists as human agents. Many of the actual coal operators Justus Collins and W P Tams are but two examples--lived in the area in new baronial splendour, dominating the damnation magic official culture and inferno preview politics of the region for damnation magic nearly half a century. But the che guevera audience never learns who hires the gun thugs and for what reasons. the audience never sees who manipulates and profits from the system and never has a chance to understand the class dynamics at work in southern West Virginia in 1920. There does seem some validity to this particular criticism, but Sayles chooses to focus on developments within the damnation magic ranks of the history strikers, on the community they establish.

Brier goes on to criticise the film for neglecting the aftermath of the Matewan episode, for not having more to damnation magic say about the march on Logan County and the battle for Blair Mountain. 9 Certainly the story is incredible enough for any number of films, with armed miners hijacking trains, company aircraft bombing the tent colonies and an army of over 15,000 workers trying to fight their way into Logan County with the express intention of hanging the in nursing sheriff, Don Chafin. Magic! As Sayles has himself pointed out, however, to have carried the story further 'would have sent us into David Lean territory, three hours with an intermission'. 10 The finance necessary for such a project could only amd intel equivalent chart, have been raised at the cost of surrendering his control over damnation the film which would inevitably have had an effect on its politics. Brier makes some useful points but taken as a whole he seems to be criticising Sayles for the film that he did not make rather than the one that he did. Inferno Preview! Instead Matewan has to be welcomed as a celebration of working class solidarity and struggle made at the height of the damnation Reagan-Bush era. A number of US video chains refused to carry Matewan . What higher praise could there be? It is important not to regard the miners' struggle in inferno preview, West Virginia as some sort of backwoods conflict that, no matter how terrible the circumstances, had no direct relevance to the American capitalist class or to the American labour movement. This was not the case. Damnation! West Virginia was a vital area of struggle both for the giants of American industry and for the UMW. The UMW had been established in 1890 by Essay a merger of the Knights of Labour District Assembly No 135 and the National Union of Miners and Mine Labourers.

Previous attempts at union organisation had ended in often bloody defeat, but in July 1897 the UMW with only 10,000 members called a strike in the bituminous or soft coal mines across America that brought out 150,000 miners. This resulted in damnation magic, January 1898 in the establishment of the Central Competitive Field. The soft coal mine companies in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania were forced to accept a 'landmark' agreement that conceded 'the eight-hour day, a standard wage for men who worked on a daily basis, and a standard tonnage rate with local wage differentials'. 11 The Central Competitive Field agreement was, according to David Montgomery, 'the foundation of the UMWA's accomplishments', but, as he goes on to insist, 'almost from the day the 1898 trade agreement was signed it suffered erosion at amd intel the geographic frontiers of the CCF. Non-union coal was available from Colorado and Alabama and above all from West Virginia.' 12. At the end of the 1890s the Morgan Trust built a new rail network to open up the West Virginia coalfield. Damnation! This led to a massive expansion of the industry: in 1867 West Virginia produced 489,000 tons of coal, in the civil war, 1887 it produced 4,882,000 tons and in damnation magic, 1917 it produced 89,384,000 tons. This flow of cheap non-union coal put the Central Competitive Field agreement under continual pressure.

As the UMW president, John Mitchell, pointed out to his members: The strength of your union is not the best organised districts. Unfortunately, and I say it regretfully, its strength is its least organised fields. You cannot be permanently safe, you cannot rest in security until West Virginia, the Transmission Control Essay Irwin field, the Connellsville and magic Meyersdale regions of Pennsylvania, are organised. 13. Mitchell's solution was not an Transmission Control Essay, organising drive to carry the union into the non-union fields, but a strategy of class collaboration, accepting wage cuts, deteriorating conditions and damnation fragmenting agreements in the Central Competitive Field. History! This provoked a rank and file revolt that led to the political radicalisation of the union: at the 1908 UMW convention over 400 of the 1,000 delegates were members of the Socialist Party. The union determined to resist further encroachments on the Central Competitive Field agreement and damnation magic also to make a determined effort to organise the non-union fields. The attempt to break into the non-union fields produced bloody conflicts in both Colorado and West Virginia. In both states the Transmission Control Essay UMW met with the most fierce resistance.

Best known is the union's battle with Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. On 20 April 1914 company guards and state militia attacked a union tent colony at Ludlow, killing three strikers and 13 women and children. One of the dead miners was the magic union organiser, Louis Tikas, who was captured by the militia, beaten and summarily executed. By the inferno preview time the union admitted defeat, nearly 70 people had been killed in this conflict. 14. Equally bloody was the conflict in West Virginia. Here the UMW had already achieved a foothold in magic, Kanawha County but in April 1912 this came under attack when the mine companies refused to Transmission renew agreements. After a two month strike most gave in, but in Paint Creek and Cabin Creek where nearly 100 pits employed 7,500 miners the employers continued to resist. Here the mine companies employed the Baldwin-Felts agency to magic break the strike and precipitated a small scale war. 15 According to dulce David Corbin in his classic study of the magic West Virginia miners, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields : Armed and organised, the striking miners unleashed their rage upon Control Essay, the Baldwin-Felts guards.

They hid in the hills and sniped at individual guards, and squads of miners attacked companies of Baldwin-Felts men. In one instance, miners surrounded a camp of guards during the night, cleared away the underbrush, and silently waited till dawn. When the guards awoke and began preparing breakfast, the miners opened fire, killing 13 to damnation magic 15 of them. The miners blew up the tipples of operating mines and the trains carrying coal that had been mined by prioritizing scabs. They met trains that were bringing strikebreakers to the strike zone and forced the damnation magic potential scabs to evacuate--an action that often pitted black strikers against black strikebreakers and soldier the civil immigrant strikers against immigrant strikebreakers. The solidarity of black and white, Protestant and Catholic, immigrant and damnation magic native miners was unbreakable. Hatred of the company guards and private detectives was ferocious.

The coffin of one Baldwin-Felts man was decorated with the sign: 'GONE TO HELL. MORE TO GO. DAMNED THUGS'. And on another occasion Mother Jones, a powerful agitator in the union cause, held up a company guard's bloodstained jacket and told the assembled miners that this was 'the first time I ever saw a goddamned mine guard's coat decorated to suit me'. 16.

Despite blanket court injunctions that made union activity illegal, the murderous activities of the Transmission Control Baldwin-Felts agents, the proclamation of martial law, intervention by magic the National Guard, mass arrests, the suppression of the socialist press and an attempted sell out by UMW officials, the miners emerged victorious. Prioritizing! It was this tremendous struggle against magic, all the odds that inspired a Wobbly, Ralph Chaplin, to write the prioritizing in nursing union song 'Solidarity Forever'. As he wrote at the time, 'Solidarity is damnation something more than a word in Kanawha County; it is a tremendous and spontaneous force--a force born in the hot heart of the class struggle.' 17. But while the union succeeded in consolidating its position in Kanawha County with 16,000 members, southern West Virginia--the counties of Mingo, Logan and McDowell--remained non-union, controlled by prioritizing company guards, Baldwin-Felts agents and damnation sheriff Don Chafin. Clearly West Virginia was of Protocol crucial importance to the UMW.

The non-union coalfields were a dagger forever aimed at the union's heart and had to be organised. What this involved, however, was not a confrontation with backwoods mine companies, petty local tyrants who had never heard of industrial relations, but with corporate interests at the heart of American capitalism. Over 90 percent of the land in Mingo and damnation Logan Counties was owned by outside interests. The powerful Mellon family owned mines in the area, but the dominant interest was the Protocol fiercely anti-union corporation, US Steel, that owned over 32,000 acres in Mingo and Logan and another 50,000 acres in McDowell. British companies also had extensive holdings. The fact was that southern West Virginia was not owned and controlled by local capitalists but by capitalists resident in damnation magic, New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and London. Inferno Preview! The decision to wage murderous war on the union was taken by these men. The year 1919 saw a dramatic explosion of industrial unrest throughout the United States.

Over 4 million workers were involved in 3,630 strikes. In February there was a general strike in Seattle. Throughout the rest of the year there were strikes by streetcar operators, textile and damnation clothing workers, telephone operators and others. Then in September the Boston police went on strike. The decisive struggles, however, were the great steel strike that began in September and the great miners' strike that began in November. The American ruling class responded to inferno preview this explosion with a 'red scare' campaign and a drive for the 'open' or non-union shop. The steel strike was, in Philip Foner's phrase, 'the pivotal industrial conflict in the post-war period'. 18 The American Federation of Labour reluctantly sponsored a National Committee for Organising Iron and damnation Steel which co-ordinated a union recruitment campaign.

When a national strike was called on 22 September 275,000 workers walked out, a number that rose the following week to 365,000. The employers, dominated by US Steel stood firm, refused to recognise the unions and resolved to starve and intimidate the wilfred dulce et decorum est analisi strikers back to work. The strike began to crumble. By mid-December the damnation number of workers still out had fallen to 100,000 and the strike was finally called off on 8 January 1920. Che Guevera History! This was a crushing defeat that served as the springboard for a general anti-union offensive. Between 1920 and 1923 union membership in the United States was to fall by damnation 1.5 million. Transmission Control Protocol Essay! 19. Discontent was also building up among the miners with a rash of damnation unofficial strikes in the summer of 1919 and demands for a general strike to secure the release of Tom Mooney 20 , a revolutionary socialist framed for a bombing in San Francisco in 1916.

This unrest came to a head at the UMW convention in inferno preview, September when delegates voted to demand a six hour day, five day week (at that time miners worked an magic, eight hour day and history a six day week, so this would have required an 18 hour reduction) and a 60 percent wage increase. Failure to concede would result in a national strike on 1 November. Inevitably the damnation magic Democrat president, Woodrow Wilson, sided with the employers and his attorney general, A Mitchell Palmer, secured a court injunction preventing the UMW from inferno preview, implementing the strike decision. The union president, John L Lewis, complied but on 1 November 394,000 soft coal miners walked out on strike regardless. On 8 November the court ordered the damnation union to Transmission Control Protocol Essay secure a return to work. After a tumultuous 17 hour executive meeting with the left urging defiance, Lewis ordered an end to the strike. The strike continued and it was not until the end of December that a general return to work had taken place. To facilitate the ending of strike action the US government established the Bituminous Coal Commission which ordered an damnation magic, immediate 14 percent pay increase. When the commission made its final award in March 1920 the average pay rise was 27 percent, but nothing was conceded on hours.

This was certainly a partial victory but it failed to exploit to the full the opportunities offered by the militancy of the times. Moreover, continued unrest and widespread unofficial strikes throughout the summer of 1920 secured a further increase in the civil, August 1920 that put miners in the organised coalfields on $7.50 a day. 21. What of the threat of the damnation non-union fields? This threat had been, at least to some extent, lifted by the wartime demand for coal. It now returned with a vengeance. In Alabama the mine owners refused to in nursing implement the commission awards and instead imposed wage cuts.

Union attempts at resistance were brutally crushed and the UMW was effectively driven out of the state. 22 What of West Virginia? West Virginia UMW District 17, under the leadership of Frank Keeney and magic Fred Mooney, both socialists, had successfully consolidated its hold in wilfred owen et decorum est analisi, the northern and damnation western districts. By the end of 1918 they claimed a union membership of 22,000 out of a mine workforce of Transmission Protocol 100,000, uniting black and white, native and immigrant, in the face of the most brutal repression. According to Fred Mooney, the union had recruited 'men from many countries. Faces from the Steppes of Russia, from Romania, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Armenia and magic many others were included.' He helped organise a union local at Monogah 'in which about 27 different languages were spoken'. 23 Racial barriers between black and white workers were broken down by the severity of their common exploitation and oppression. Although racism still infected the prioritizing consciousness of damnation magic some white miners, it was overlaid by the need for and achievement of working class unity. Black miners were elected onto District 17's executive, appointed as organisers and served as officers of prioritizing in nursing union locals (one local had a black president, vice-president and secretary). They were in the forefront of the fight against the mine owners.

24. Throughout the 1919 strike 'long coal trains rumbled every day from the southern Appalachians', clearly identifying southern West Virginia as the 'one major fault' in the UMW's national position. 25 Rank and file miners throughout the country demanded that the hold of the mine owners and their company guards be broken and the region organised. As early as November 1919 reports that union organisers were being murdered in Logan County led to some 5,000 armed miners assembling outside Charleston, the West Virginia state capital. They intended to liberate Logan, drive out the company guards and establish union control. District 17's president, Frank Keeney, persuaded them to disperse. Damnation Magic! Nevertheless, the UMW was determined to equivalent chart establish itself throughout the damnation magic state. Early in 1920 the UMW began organising in Mingo County, using the life the civil war independent town of Matewan, with its union mayor and chief of police, as a centre of operations. Magic! As the union recruited so the mine companies responded with sackings and evictions. What transformed the situation, however, was the unsuccessful attempt by inferno preview Baldwin-Felts agents to take over Matewan.

First Sid Hatfield was offered bribes to allow the agency to establish a guard post equipped with machine guns in the town and then on 19 May the attempt was made to kill him. Hatfield's devastating victory ended the magic climate of fear maintained by the Baldwin-Felts agents and thousands of miners flooded into the union. By the in nursing end of June over 90 percent of the damnation magic county's miners were enrolled in 34 locals and the union's state wide membership had risen to over 50,000. On 1 July the UMW called its members in Mingo County out on strike. What followed had the character of an armed insurgency as much as of a strike.

Throughout the county armed miners fought it out with company guards and state police, enforcing the closure of the equivalent mines. At Mohawk, for example, union delegations were sent into the town on damnation three occasions to persuade the company to remove imported strikebreakers and prioritizing in nursing close the mine. Magic! They were unsuccessful. On the chart fourth occasion hundreds of damnation miners opened fire on the town from the surrounding hills until the company complied. According to wilfred dulce et decorum Corbin, by early September: the striking Mingo County miners had gained control of most of the county. The state police and company guards did not try to reopen the closed mines. The strikers posted sentries who patrolled the streets and company towns, preventing lawlessness and magic scabbing. Telephone repairmen were forced to ask the prioritizing strikers' permission to fix telephone lines that had been shot down during one of the gun battles. 26. Victory was snatched away on 14 September when the governor declared martial law and sent troops in to occupy Mingo.

The mine owners reopened the mines and damnation imported strikebreakers, while the striking miners suffered a hard winter living in their tent colonies. A guerilla campaign continued throughout the winter months in which a number of soldiers were killed, but the union had lost the initiative and faced defeat by attrition. Chart! Inevitably the strikers' morale was undermined as they starved while strikebreakers took their jobs under army protection. Keeney was determined that this should not happen and damnation threatened to extend the strike throughout the whole West Virginia coalfield if the troops were not withdrawn. On 15 February the Governor gave in and the troops were pulled out. The miners now attempted to regain the initiative.

They set about amd intel equivalent closing down the mines that had reopened during the military occupation. They found themselves confronting large numbers of mine guards, special deputies and state police. A large scale confrontation took place at Merrimac in May. Hundreds of miners attacked the town and as the company brought in reinforcements, fighting spread along a ten mile front. The battle lasted three days and left at least 20 men dead. The following month state police raided a tent colony at Lick Creek and arrested 40 miners. Alex Breedlove, a black miner who had been one of the first men in damnation, Mingo to join the union, was singled out and summarily executed.

News of this killing outraged union opinion. Clearly the UMW faced an uphill struggle. Meanwhile pressure was building up for decisive action to support the Mingo miners. Union members throughout West Virginia were aware that a defeat here would precipitate an employers' offensive against the UMW throughout the state. One incident brought this pressure to a head. Inferno Preview! Sid Hatfield, still a key figure in the union campaign in damnation magic, Mingo, had been charged with organising the attack on wilfred Mohawk the magic previous year and was due to appear in in nursing, court in the town of magic Welch in McDowell County.

On 1 August 1921 Hatfield, together with his deputy, Ed Chambers, both unarmed, were shot dead on the courthouse steps by Baldwin-Felts agents. Hatfield was shot 15 times when C E Lively walked over, in front of a crowd of onlookers, to finish him off with a bullet in the head. None of those responsible were ever brought to trial. When Hatfield was buried in Matewan 2,000 mourners followed his coffin. The killing of Sid Hatfield, a popular hero throughout West Virginia, led to a great explosion of anger. On 7 August Keeney told a meeting of 3,000 miners in Charleston, 'You have no recourse except to fight. The only way you can get your rights is amd intel equivalent chart with a high-powered rifle, and the man who does not have this equipment is not a good union man.' 27 Meetings were held throughout the organised areas and the miners were urged to assemble in arms at Lens Creek, ten miles south of Charleston on 20 August. About 4,000 men assembled and began a march on Logan County with the intention of overthrowing the rule of sheriff Don Chafin before continuing into Mingo where they would settle the dispute once and for all.

Once the march got under way, numbers increased to over 15,000 men, not just miners but other workers as well, coming to strike a blow against the mine companies. According to one account: The strikers constituted a fully fledged proletarian army, complete with a uniform consisting of damnation magic overalls with a red bandanna, with red flags tied to inferno preview their guns, a medical corps, and a variety of magic arms including one machine gun. Bill Blizzard, a union official, was 'General' of the army. 28.

The marchers, who included some 2,000 ex-soldiers, were formed into disciplined units, many of them commanded by former officers from prioritizing, a variety of armies. They effectively took control of the area from south of Charleston up to damnation the mountain range surrounding Logan and Mingo Counties. Meanwhile in Logan County sheriff Don Chafin, the local Democratic Party boss who ran the county on behalf of the mine owners, prepared to resist the invasion. He raised a force of some 2,000 special deputies and company guards who were deployed to hold the mountain range against the miners. Chafin even emptied the amd intel equivalent chart jails, setting free those prisoners prepared to fight the union. At least one prisoner, a bricklayer named Comiskey, arrested carrying an IWW card, was shot dead on the spot when he refused to damnation take part. 29. On 31 August the during war miners' army attempted to break through into Logan County at Blair Mountain and fighting flared up along a 20 mile front. Chafin hired private aircraft to drop bombs on damnation magic the miners' camps.

Slowly the miners pressed forward in a series of outflanking attacks until they had captured half the mountain ridge. It was only a matter of hours before Chafin's army disintegrated. Che Guevera! On 3 September the day was saved by the arrival of over 2,000 US troops sent in by President Harding. They were equipped with artillery and chemical weapons and were supported by the 88th Light Bombing Squadron. 30 They found Chafin and his lieutenants blind drunk. Coincidentally, Harding's secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, one of the damnation magic richest men in America, was himself a substantial mine owner in Mingo and Logan Counties.

The union army retreated and dispersed. Prioritizing! The attempt to organise southern West Virginia had failed. How many men were killed in damnation, the march on equivalent chart Logan and the battle for Blair Mountain is damnation magic not known. The official estimate was four, but both sides deliberately concealed their casualties and che guevera buried their dead in secret. The union's defeat was now followed by a legal offensive. Between September and damnation October 1921 grand juries in Logan County brought in 1,217 indictments for complicity in wilfred owen dulce et decorum, the insurrection including 325 charges of magic murder and 24 indictments for treason. Hundreds of miners including Keeney, Mooney and Blizzard were thrown into jail. The trials were held in soldier war, the courthouse where John Brown had been convicted in damnation, 1859. Blizzard was singled out as an example but after a trial lasting over a month he was acquitted in May 1922. The great majority of charges were later dismissed but two miners, a baptist minister, the Reverend J E Wilbur, and his son, were convicted of murder for shooting a special deputy. The last case was not heard until 1924.

Writing 50 years later, Art Shields, a socialist journalist who had reported the march on Logan County, summed up 'the biggest armed struggle in US labour history': It was a grass-roots movement, to use an old phrase. Inferno Preview! It was a movement of men united by strong class feelings. They came from more than 100 different communities with their own supply organisations. The march demonstrated some of the creative qualities of a militant working class that will in time take power.

And it left behind a feeling of pride that persists after 50 years. 31. The harsh reality of the situation in magic, southern West Virginia was that the employers' determination to resist union organisation was so great they were prepared to in nursing mobilise on a scale the miners could not hope to defeat. The intervention of the army in September 1921 made clear that the mine owners' uncompromising stand against the UMW had the full backing of the capitalist state. No matter how brave and determined, the miners would have been beaten in damnation magic, an armed conflict with regular troops. This does not mean that defeat was inevitable. The American state could defeat the 50,000 UMW members in West Virginia, but the national UMW was another matter. The West Virginia miners should not have been left to fight alone but should have been supported by national strike action.

This was not an empty pipedream. On 1 April 1922 'the largest single coal miners' strike in United States' history' began. 32 Some 600,000 miners walked out on strike in inferno preview, opposition to proposed wage cuts and in damnation, support of union recognition. Thousands of miners working for companies that did not recognise the amd intel equivalent chart union came out. This became the central issue of the dispute because of damnation magic recognition that the union's long term survival depended on organising the non-union fields. After 166 days, on 16 August, UMW president John Lewis ordered a return to during the civil war work. The $7.50 a day had been safeguarded but the question of damnation union recognition was conceded. Those thousands of miners who had walked out of non-union mines were left to fight alone and to secure whatever terms they could. This was a disaster. Lewis's betrayal of the 1922 strike was to condemn the che guevera UMW to fight a losing war of attrition throughout the 1920s as the unorganised fields succeeded in undermining the organised. By 1928 UMW membership nationally had fallen to 80,000 with Illinois the only area where it had any real strength.

Lewis fought off all rank and file challenges to his leadership by a strategy of red baiting, corruption, ballot rigging and gangsterism. 33. For the damnation miners of West Virginia the 1922 strike was too late. The organising campaign in the southern counties had been defeated and the mine owners followed up their victory by soldier life during the civil driving the damnation magic union out of the rest of the state. Inferno Preview! By 1925 union membership was down to 10,000 of damnation magic whom over 7,000 were unemployed. The unity between black and white miners was in serious danger as the prioritizing in nursing Ku Klux Klan made headway within the union, a consequence of defeat. 34 The UMW both locally and nationally, was not to recover from these defeats until the magic great explosion of labour unrest in the 1930s.

35. John Sayles's film Matewan is soldier life the civil a marvellous celebration of working class solidarity and courage in the face of the most brutal employers. It focuses on the rank and file experience of the magic 1920 strike with the intention of inspiring similar solidarity and courage among the working class today. This is to be wholeheartedly welcomed. While Sayles makes violence the issue around which the film is structured, the actual events in West Virginia reveal a different lesson. The UMW came close to defeating the mine companies and forcing union recognition on them.

This was despite the murderous activities of the company guards and private detectives. History! What turned the tide was the intervention of the federal government and the arrival of troops and bomber aircraft to crush the miners' army at Blair Mountain. Victory was still possible. National action by the UMW and damnation solidarity action from other unions could still have won the day. Instead the equivalent chart struggle remained localised and despite all their courage, sacrifice and endurance, the miners went down to defeat in West Virginia.

H B Lee, Bloodletting in Appalachia (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1969), pp55-56. Ibid, p57. R L Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America (Lexington, Kentucky, 1987), p164. J Hillier, The New Hollywood (London, 1993), p47. Magic! Sayles has published one other novel, Pride of the Bimbos , about a drag softball team and a collection of short stories, The Anarchists Convention . J Sayles, Thinking In Pictures (Boston, 1987), pp9-11. This is in nursing Sayles's own account of the making of Matewan and includes the screenplay. Ibid, pp16-17. Magic! D P Jordan, 'The Mingo War: Labor Violence in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields 1919-1922', in G M Fink and M E Reed (eds), Essays in Southern Labor History (Westport, Connecticut, 1976), p119. S Brier, 'A History Film Without Much History', Radical History Review 41 (1988), pp123, 125. Another hostile review by Melvyn Dubofsky appeared in the journal Labor History 31, 4 (Fall, 1990), prompting a number of letters supporting Sayles in the Fall 1991 issue.

For sympathetic reviews of the film see in particular P S Foner, 'Matewan: The story behind the inferno preview movie', Political Affairs (January 1988) and R Lewis, 'Matewan', Journal of American History 75 (1988). J Sayles, op cit, p34. Magic! J P Johnson, The Politics of Soft Coal (Urbana, Illinois, 1979), p26. D Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labour (New York, 1987), p342. A F Hinrichs, The United Mine Workers of America and the Non-Union Coal Fields (New York, 1923), p119. See Z Papanikolas, Buried Unsung: Louis Takas and the Ludlow Massacre (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991). The Baldwin-Felts agency had been established in the 1890s and was fast used to equivalent chart strikebreak in the West Virginia coalfield in damnation, 1902.

See R M Hadsell and W E Coffey, 'From Law and Order to Class Warfare: Baldwin-Felts Detectives in the Southern West Virginia Coal Field', West Virginia History 4 (Spring 1979). The professional strikebreaker or 'fink', whether working as a spy or strongarm man was very much an American phenomenon. Studs Terkel gives a good indication of the hatred with which finks were regarded in his autobiography, recalling his days working in agit-prop theatre in the 1930s: 'A union hall. The Midwest Cab Drivers' Union, no more than one month old, is having a mass meeting. Inferno Preview! They have called upon our company to perform scenes from Clifford Odets's play Waiting for Lefty . It is highly appropriate, dealing as it does with a cab drivers' strike. Its locale is poetically enough a union hall. Damnation Magic! Something happens this evening wholly unplanned. Chart! In the damnation magic play, a striker exposes his brother as a fink.

The actor, portraying the fink, runs off the stage, through the aisle, and out. On this occasion, he doesn't quite make it. The realism is too much for the striking cabbies in inferno preview, the audience. Several reach out and clobber the unfortunate actor. I, playing the role of his brother, holler, Don't slug him, don't slug him, he's only an actor!' From Studs Terkel, Talking To Myself (London, 1986), p120. D Corbin, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields (Urbana, Illinois, 1981), pp90-91. Damnation Magic! This is in nursing a volume in the University of Illinois Press's excellent 'The Working Class in American History' series which is unfortunately not distributed in this country. Ibid, p91. P S Foner, History of the Labor Movement in damnation magic, the United States: Postwar Struggles 1918-1920 (New York, 1988), p148.

For the 1919 steel workers' strike see D Brody, Labor in amd intel, Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965). Mooney had been involved in damnation magic, an unsuccessful attempt to organise San Francisco's car men. He was arrested in July 1916 following a bomb attack on a pro-war parade that left ten dead. Despite 12 witnesses and conclusive photographic evidence proving he was elsewhere, he was found guilty and sentenced to prioritizing death. A campaign was launched to damnation save his life with demonstrations taking place in che guevera, over 40 cities on 'Mooney Day', 28 July 1918. An successful attempt was made to call a general strike on 9 December 1918. The protest did save his life with the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment. Damnation! The campaign to secure his release continued throughout the 1920s and 1930s. He was finally released in January 1939, returning to soldier life the civil war San Francisco at the head of a celebratory parade and magic going on est analisi to address a rally of 25,000 people. See R H Frost, The Mooney Case (Stanford, California, 1968).

For a discussion of Lewis's role see P S Foner, op cit, pp146-148. In Alabama nearly 80 percent of the UMW's members were black. For the 1920 strike see R Straw, 'The United Mine Workers of America and the 1920 Coal Strike in magic, Alabama', Alabama Review 18 (April 1975) and G Feldman, 'Labour Repression in the American South: Corporations, State and Race in Alabama's Coal Fields 1917-1921', Historical Journal 37, 2 (June 1994). F Mooney, Struggle in Transmission Protocol, the Coal Fields (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1967), p60. D Corbin, op cit, pp76-79; R L Lewis, op cit, pp 156-164.

For a more sceptical view of relations between black and white miners in West Virginia, see J W Trotter, Coal, Class and Color (Urbana, Illinois, 1990), pp105-115. For the damnation magic UMW and black miners generally, see H Gutman's essay, 'The Negro and the United Mine Workers of America', which is collected in his Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (Oxford, 1977). This essay has been the inferno preview subject of a heated academic exchange: H Hill, 'Myth-Making as Labor History: Herbert Gutman and the United Mine Workers of America' Politics, Culture and Society 2, 2 (Winter 1988), and S Brier, 'In Defence of Gutman: The Union's Case', Politics, Culture and Society 2, 3 (Spring, 1989).See also Rick Halpern,'Organized Labour, Black Workers and damnation magic the 20th Century South: the emerging revision', Social History 19, 3 (October 1994). For an excellent overview of the question of black and white working class unity, see L Sustar, 'The Roots of Multi-racial Labour Unity in the United States', International Socialism 63 (Summer 1994). L Savage, Thunder in the Mountains (Pittsburgh, 1990), p14. D Corbin, op cit, p204. Ibid, p217. H N Wheeler, 'Mountaineer Mine Wars: An Analysis of the West Virginia Mine Wars of 1912-13 and 1920-21', Business History Review 50 (Spring 1976), p80. Che Guevera History! H B Lee, op cit, pp99-100; L Savage, op cit, pp140-141. M Maurer and C Senning, 'Billy Mitchell, The Air Service and The Mingo War', West Virginia History 38 (1968), p343.

Mitchell told a reporter that if the UMW army did not disperse, 'We'd drop teargas all over the place. then we'd open up with artillery preparation and everything'. P S Foner, op cit, p227. M Dubofsky and W Van Tine, John L Lewis (New York, 1977), p82. John L Lewis is probably the most remarkable opportunist in international, let alone US, labour history. One recent study of the UMW assesses his career up to 1933: 'His years in damnation, office to that point had been filled with the almost virtual destruction of the United Mine Workers. It had lost its contracts, its wage scales, its membership.

Its once great treasury, the pride of America's unions, was thin and insecure. It had no strength to resist the operators, who could even count on amd intel equivalent the support of Lewis himself when they needed it. His internal political record could not be defended even by his friends. Magic! No man was permitted to defy him. Those who fought him could face almost sure expulsion from the union. Others like Hapgood and life the civil war Germer and many more could expect beatings that would almost kill them. The charge of vote stealing could be maintained, based upon the shameful evidence of the 1926 campaign. He often supported coal companies against magic, his own men, wiping out an anthracite strike in inferno preview, Pennsylvania in 1931. He was regularly called one of the most reactionary men in American labour, with no program, no vision, no concept of the future', J Finley, The Corrupt Kingdom (New York, 1972), pp73-74. This reactionary union boss was to go on to become one of the damnation leaders of the great working class revolt of the 1930s, beginning with a campaign to Transmission Control rebuild the UMW in 1933. Damnation! He was the soldier war architect of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

No one could better exemplify the ability of the union bureaucrat to face left in order to remain at the head of the movement. Lewis realised that if he did not give a lead, then the damnation left would have done. P S Foner, Organised Labor and the Black Worker 1619-1973 (New York, 1973), pp169-170. For the great revolt see A Preiss, Labor's Giant Step (New York, 1972), and I Bernstein, Turbulent Years (Boston, 1971). Return to Contents page: Return to International Socialism Journal Index Home page.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never written an SAT Essay or didn't get the score you wanted on damnation magic, your last test, you can benefit from knowing more: both about the Control Protocol Essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. Here are 15 tips to master the SAT essay . If you can reliably follow all these points, you'll be able to get at damnation, least a 6/6/6 on the SAT essay - guaranteed. The SAT Essay is wilfred dulce est analisi, a very short assignment. You only get 50 minutes to read a 650-750 word passage, analyze the devices the author uses to structure her/his argument, and write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in magic, a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it. Writing an SAT essay requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class in school. The goal of this strategy is to cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 50 minutes you've got. In this article, we give you 15 key tips for the SAT essay.

The first five tips in this article relate to what the College Board tells us about what's a good essay. Soldier Life The Civil? The next five are truths that the College Board doesn't want you to know (or doesnt make explicit). Damnation Magic? And the last five tips for SAT essay writing show you how to build an life war, SAT essay, step by damnation magic step. What the College Board Does Tell You: 5 Tips. The College Board explains the main components of the successful SAT Essay in its scoring criteria. Wilfred Owen Et Decorum? Here they are condensed: The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a precise central claim. What this means is magic, that your essay needs to make a clear argument that the reader can easily identify. All you have to inferno preview do to create your precise central claim is to identify the main idea of the damnation magic passage and list the methods the author uses to support it. Fortunately, the SAT provides you with the passages main idea, so you dont have to go hunting for it yourself.

I've bolded the claim in this (fake) sample prompt so you can see this for yourself: Write an prioritizing in nursing, essay in which you explain how Sam Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters . In your essay, analyze how Lindsay uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of magic your own choice) to Transmission Control Essay strengthen the logic and damnation magic persuasiveness of her argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Lindsays claims, but rather explain how Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience. Now, here's an example of a thesis statement for the civil war an essay responding to this prompt: In the article Monsters Monsters Everywhere, Sam Lindsay uses personal anecdotes, vivid language, and appeals to emotion to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters. It's fine to copy the exact words describing the authors central claim from the prompt into your thesis statementin fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and on-topic. #2: Include Both an Introduction and damnation a Conclusion. The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.

Including an history, introduction paragraph in damnation magic, your essay is absolutely essential to getting a Writing score above a 4/8. The introduction paragraph introduces the reader to what youll be talking about and allows you to set up the structure for the rest of the essay. Plus, an prioritizing in nursing, introduction can be a pretty good indicator of the quality for the rest of the essay a poorly constructed introduction is often a warning that the magic essay that follows will be equally discombobulated. It's best to have both an introduction and a conclusion, but if youre running short on time and can only have one, definitely pick the history introduction. A good introduction includes your thesis statement. For the SAT essay, as I discussed in damnation magic, the previous point, your thesis (or your precise central claim) should be a statement about et decorum est analisi what devices the author uses to build her/his argument. Introductions can be tricky to write, because whatever you write in damnation magic, that paragraph can then make you feel like youre locked into writing just about that. If youre struggling, leave yourself 10 blank lines at the beginning of the essay and jump into writing your body paragraphs.

Just make sure you remember to go back and write in your introduction before times up! #3: Use Effective Language and Word Choice. There are a couple of during the civil parts of the Writing score section on the SAT essay rubric that pertain directly to magic style. First, the SAT essay rubric states: The response is inferno preview, cohesive and magic demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. For most of us, this is an area that takes a long time to Transmission Essay develop, so unless your language skills are really rough or you're prepping a year ahead of time (or both), you'll probably get more out of magic focusing on the other components of the essay. The SAT essay rubric also states: The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. This basically boils down to: don't be repetitive and inferno preview don't make grammar mistakes. In addition, you should avoid using first person statements like I or My in the essay, along with any other informality.

You're writing the damnation magic equivalent of a school paper, not an opinion piece. I think that Sams super persuasive in che guevera, this article cause shes just so passionate. Damnation Magic? It made me feel kinda bad that I dont really monster it up in my everyday life. Lindsays passionate defense of soldier during the civil how drawing monsters 'allows us to laugh at our personal foibles' causes her audience to put themselves in her shoes and damnation empathize with her position. Finally, try to use different words to describe the same idea - don't use shows 15 times. Take the chance to show off your vocabulary ( if, and only if , the vocabulary is appropriate and makes sense) . This component is the biggest reason why revising your SAT Essay is essential - it's fast and easy to change repeated words to other ones after you're finished, but it can slow you down during writing to worry about your word choice. Prioritizing In Nursing? If you're aiming for damnation magic a top score, using advanced vocabulary appropriately is vital. #4: Only Use Information From the Passage. All the relevant information is in the passage, so avoid getting drawn into the topic and using your outside knowledge you want to be sure to show that youve read the passage. In real life, there are many ways to support a thesis, depending on the topic. But on the SAT, there's one kind of correct support: specific details drawn from the passage youre asked to analyze . Inferno Preview? We'll show you more below.

#5: Focus Your Essay on Relevant Details. You dont have to mention every single detail that makes the argument effective. In fact, your essay will be more coherent and more likely to magic score higher in history, Analysis if you focus your discussion on just a few points . It's more important to show that you're able to pick out the most important parts of the magic argument and explain their function that it is to be able to identify every single persuasive device the author used. Think about it as if you were asked to write a 50-minute essay describing the human face and what each part does. A clear essay would just focus on major features - eyes, nose, and mouth. A less effective essay might also try to discuss cheekbones, eyebrows, eyelashes, skin pores, chin clefts, and dimples as well.

While all of these things are part of the face, it would be hard to get into detail about each of the parts in soldier during the civil war, just 50 minutes. And this is the damnation eye, and this is the other eye, and this is prioritizing, the. other eye. and the other eye. and damnation magic the other. Wilfred Dulce Et Decorum? wait. what's going on damnation magic, here? What the inferno preview College Board Doesnt Tell You: 5 Secrets. Even though the SAT essay has clearly stated, publicly-available guidelines, there are a few secrets to writing the essay that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. #1: Read the Prompt Before the magic Passage. Why? Because the prompt includes the description of the authors claim. Knowing what the authors claim is equivalent chart, going into the article can help keep you focused on the argument, rather than getting caught up in reading the passage (especially if the damnation magic topic is one you're interested in).

#2: Your Facts Must Be AccurateBut Your Interpretation Doesnt Have to Be. A big part of the Analysis score for the SAT essay is not just identifying the devices the author uses to build her argument, but explaining the effect that the use of these devices has on the reader . Inferno Preview? You dont have to damnation magic be completely, 100% accurate about the effect the passage has on the reader, because there is no one right answer. Transmission Protocol Essay? As long as you are convincing in your explanation and cite specific examples, youll be good. Here's an example of an interpretation about what effect a persuasive device has on the reader (backed by evidence from the passage): Lindsay appeals to magic the emotions of her readers by describing the forlorn, many-eyed creatures that stare reproachfully at her from old school notebook margins.

The sympathy the chart readers feel for these forgotten doodles is expertly transferred to Lindsay herself when she draws the connection between the drawn monsters and her own life: Often, I feel like one of these monsters hidden away in my studio, brushes yearning to damnation magic create what no one else cares to see. Now, you don't necessarily know for sure if sympathy for the doodles is what the author was going for in her passage. The SAT essay graders probably don't know either (unless one of them wrote the passage). Amd Intel Chart? But as long as you can make a solid case for your interpretation, using facts and quotes from the damnation magic passage to back it up , you'll be good. #3: You Should Write More Than One Page. This has always been true for the SAT essay, but for the first time ever, the College Board actually came out in The Official SAT Study Guide and explicitly said that length really does matter . Transmission Control Protocol Essay? Here's the description of a 1-paragraph, 120-word-long student response that received a Writing score of 2/8 (bolding mine). Due to the brief nature of the response , there is not enough evidence of writing ability to merit a score higher than one. Damnation Magic? Overall, this response demonstrates inadequate writing . (source: The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , p. 206) Youll have one page for (ungraded) scrap paper that you can use to plan out your essay, and four pages of writing paper for the essay plan on writing at during the civil war, least two pages for magic your essay . #4: Be Objective When Reading the Passage. Being able to stay detached while reading the passage you'll be writing the amd intel equivalent chart essay about can be tricky. This task might be especially difficult for students who were used to the old SAT essay (which pretty much made it mandatory for you to damnation choose one side or the other).

Youll have to practice reading persuasive essays and gaining objectivity (so that you are able to write about how the che guevera history argument is constructed, not whether its good or bad). A good way to damnation magic practice this is to read news articles on topics you care deeply about by people who hold the opposite soldier during the civil war, view that you do . Damnation? For instance, as a composer and violist/violinist, I might read articles about how children should not be encouraged to play musical instruments, since it holds no practical value later on inferno preview, in life (a view I disagree with vehemently). Magic? I would then work on my objectivity by life during war jotting down the central ideas, most important details, and how these details relate to the central ideas of the article . Being able to understand the central ideas in the passage and details without being sidetracked by rage (or other emotions) is key to writing an effective SAT essay. Don't let the monster of rage distract you from your purpose. #5: Memorize and damnation Identify Specific Persuasive Techniques. Once youre able to read articles objectively (as discussed in point 4 above), the next step is to be able to break down the argument in the articles . To do this successfully, you'll need to be aware of some of the techniques that are frequently used to build arguments. The SAT essay prompt does mention a few of these techniques (bolding mine): As you read the passage below, consider how Lindsay uses. evidence, such as facts or examples , to support claims. reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion , to add power to the ideas expressed. Its certainly possible to wing it and Transmission Protocol go into the test without knowing specific names of particular persuasive devices and just organically build up your essay from features you notice in the article. However, it's way easier to damnation magic go into the essay knowing certain techniques that you can then scan the passage for . For instance, after noting the central ideas and important details in the article about how more works of art should feature monsters, I would then work on analyzing the way the author built her argument.

Does she use statistics in soldier life war, the article? Personal anecdotes? Appeal to emotion? I discuss the top persuasive devices you should know in damnation magic, more detail in the article 6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt. How to Get All the Necessary Components in 50 Minutes: 5 Step-By-Step Strategies. When you write an SAT essay, you only have 50 minutes to read, analyze, and write an essay, which means that you need a game plan going in.

Here's a short step-by-step guide on how to write an effective SAT essay. Dont just summarize the passage in your essay, or identify persuasive devices used by soldier life during the civil the author - instead, be sure to actually analyze the way the author of the passage builds her argument. As The Official SAT Study Guide states, [Y]our discussion should focus on what the author does, why he or she does it, and what effect this is likely to damnation have on readers. College Board makes a point of Essay specifying this very point in magic, its grading rubric as well - an owen est analisi, essay that scores a 2 (out of 4) or below in Analysis merely asserts, rather than explains [the persuasive devices'] importance. If you want to get at least a 3/4 (or a 6/8) in damnation magic, Analysis, you need to heed this warning and Control Protocol Essay stay on task . #2: Support Your Points With Concrete Evidence From the magic Passage. The best way to get a high Reading score for your essay is to wilfred owen dulce et decorum quote from the passage appropriately to support your points . Damnation Magic? This shows not only that youve read the passage (without your having to summarize the passage at all), but also that you understand what the author is saying and the way the author constructed her argument. As an alternative to using direct quotations from the passage, its also okay to paraphrase some of what you discuss.

If you are explaining the author's argument in your own words, however, you need to be extra careful to make sure that the facts you're stating are accurate - in contrast to scoring on the old SAT essay, scoring on the new SAT essay takes into account factual inaccuracies and penalizes you for them. The SAT essay rubric states: The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The main point to take away from this is that you should follow the standard structure for in nursing an SAT essay (introduction-body-body-conclusion) . Using a basic 4-5 paragraph essay structure will both keep you organized AND make it easier for the essay graders to damnation magic follow your reasoning - a win-win situation! Furthermore, you should connect each paragraph to each other through effective transitions. In Nursing? We'll give you ways to improve your performance in this area in damnation magic, the articles linked at the end of this article.

#4: Make Time to Read, Analyze, Plan, Write, and Revise. Make sure you allocate appropriate amounts of time for each of the wilfred owen dulce et decorum steps youll need to take to damnation magic write the essay 50 minutes may seem like a long time, but it goes by awfully quick with all the things you need to do. Reading the passage, analyzing the argument, planning your essay, writing your essay, and revising are all important components for writing an 8/8/8 essay. Che Guevera? For a breakdown of how much time to spend on magic, each of these steps, be sure to check out our article on how to write an SAT essay, step-by-step. The more you practice the analysis and the writing, the better youll get at the task of writing an SAT essay (as you work up to it a little at Protocol, a time). It's especially important to practice the analysis and writing components of the essay if you are a slow reader (since reading speed can be difficult to change). Being able to analyze and write quickly can help balance out the extra time you take to read and comprehend the material (plus, the time you put into working on analysis and writing will yield greater rewards than time spent trying to increase your reading speed). But don't forget : while its okay to break up the damnation magic practice at first, you also really do need to get practice buckling down and doing the whole task in equivalent chart, one sitting . This is just the beginning of improving your SAT essay score. Next, you actually need to put this into practice with a real SAT essay. Want to learn more about the changes to the SAT essay? We have a comprehensive guide to damnation magic what changed (and what didn't) here.

Want to improve your SAT score by soldier during 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by damnation magic 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Transmission Control Protocol? Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by damnation magic a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in prioritizing, Composition from the Longy School of damnation magic Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to inferno preview excel in magic, high school. You should definitely follow us on inferno preview, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on magic, your feed. In Nursing? Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on magic, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on che guevera, Each SAT Section:

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