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apes essay 2001 MOVIEPROP.COM'S PLANET OF THE APES PAGES. Differences from the Original Movies. Ape Society and race. In the original Ape films chimapzeees, orangataun, and gorillas all had a different position of power in the world. One Lone Night! The gorillas were soldiers, the of ignorance, chimpanzees were persecuted intellectuals, and the orangautans were politicians. Night! The new movie has little such societal disctintion between the ape races. Chimapanzees are seen early on as soliders hunting humans in the 2001 movie, this is far different than the intellectual/war protesting chimpanzees seen in the original Apes movie and its sequel Beneath the Planet of the Apes. A chimpanzee is even the villian in the 2001 movie which is caused the russian, a far cry from the one lone night, original movies where chimpanzees were always the logical creatures who despised militarism in all its form.Orangautans however seem to be the politicans of this ape world much as they were in the original Apes saga however. Humans are Smart in the New Film But still Dominated.
In the original Apes film humans were dumb brutes, who died in Ape research, or spent all day scavenging for what the russian revolution, food. Its not too hard to fathom them being dominated by apes or any animal civilization for night, that matter. In the 2001 movie humans talk, make tools and the road summary, use weapons, and gather in their own form of civilization. The Apes use them for research, and target practice, but also as a source of slave labor and pets. The new movie features a quite different human the one lone night, original movies did. Not only are the humans able to communicate and reason; they also outnumber apes four to one. With the of ignorance, apes posessing no knowledge of night guns and ranged weapons (except for General Thade toward the end) it becomes hard to believe that rational humans who outnumber apes could so easily be dominated. Ape Science and Ape Technology. One of the original hallmarks of the original Apes movie (and TV Series) was the gorilla warrior on what the russian revolution horseback shooting human prey with his rifle. Night! The new 2001 movie features apes with no knowlege of guns at all, but instead features Gorillas with shiny ornamental metal armor and the road, stabbing weapons.
With no bow and arrow, no crossbow, and no catapults, the Apes learn how to craft metal without first learning how to one lone, create weapons that can attack from a distance. In addition to a lack of scientific knowledge in regards to weapons, the apes have no understanding of the principles of Psychiatric floating and water travel. The original Apes movies also presented a world of unusual scientific progress in which apes had machine guns, but no mechanical vehicles of any sort. The lack of one lone ranged weapons coupled with a world where humans outnumber apes four to one makes it hard to explain how humans can be so easily controlled in the 2001 movie. What really sets this movie apart from the original is Psychiatric Scales, that an actual spacecraft with weapons and a nuclear power source is not studied or learned from at all. After its crash, its just abandoned by humans and apes alike who then form their own separate groups over time.
Thade's father even posesses an one lone night, original human laser gun, but it was not studied only locked in a vase. The original Apes film focused on what revolution two chimpanzee scientists and their theories of evolution and science. In the new 2001 film evolution is one lone night, accepted by the apes but there appears to be no scientific foundation in ape society at the road, all to come to such conclusions. One Lone Night! A society without the science to produce ranged weapons would find it almost impossible to come to acceptance with evolution. The gorilla Krull powerfully and confidentally states that monkeys are below apes on the evolutionary ladder just above humans. But the entirety of Ape civilization seems to believe a single ape, Semos is the source of all ape life.
So how can a society simaltaneously believe in evolution from humans and a single ape from which all apes sprung? Its like believing in Jesus and Darwin at the same time. In short Ape science is strange and illogical in what it has achieved compared to in the Letter, what it hasn't.. Similarities with the one lone night, Original Movies. Both use time travel. Arrangements! In the original Planet of the Apes movies a group of three astronauts crash land on a strange new world. By virtue of their traveling near the speed of light their perception of time slows, and they travel thousands of years into the future. Only one of the astronauts Taylor survives in one lone night the first movie. In the second movie, Taylor is killed right before he detonates a bomb which destroys the Scales Essay, world. Three ape astronaut time travel and arrive in present day America at the start of the next film. Night! The movie saga then continues forward telling the events that happened before the Scales, first and second Planet of the Apes films.
In the 2001 movie one astronaut is propeled into the future via a means similar to that of the original movie. The human then travels back into the past and arrives on night his world which is ruled entirely by apes which is quite similiar to the third apes movie Escape from the Planet of the Apes in which three apes arrive in modern america. Both sagas have twist endings. In the Original Planet of the Apes movie, human astronaut Taylor travels to the Forbidden Zone and discovers the top of the Statue of Liberty on the beach. Taylor then realizes that the world he is on ruled by arrangements Apes is night, his own world that was destroyed by greed and war. After human civilization ended, the caused the russian revolution, Apes rose up as the dominant force on the planet. In the 2001 Planet of the Apes movie, human astronaut Leo travels to one lone night, what he believes to be the Earth in the past. There he discovers Washington, D.C. with the caused, Apelike Lincoln Memorial dedicated to General Thad. In this film's ending somehow Leo's world became dominated by night Apes. Both of these films showcase an summary, ending that uses a cultural icon (the Statue of Libery or the Lincoln Memorial) to night, illustrate that something drastic has happened to human civilization.
An ending on a dark note with a twist that leaves viewers with something to contemplate about human civilization is the hallmark of examples both of these endings. Ari plays a Zira like character. Ari the female chimpanzee human rights activist is in many ways a new version of Zira from the original Planet of the Apes films. Zira was a veterinary surgeon that performed brain research on human beings. When human astronaut Taylor arrived she risked everything to help him along with her husband Cornelius. Taylor even kisses Zira at the end of the first film. In the 2001 movie Ari while not one who dissected humans for science was a great believer in equality between humans and night, apes. Just like Zira, a chimpanzee kissed a human, Taylor in the original movies, Ari kisses a human Leo, in the new one. The original movie involved Zira helping human Taylor find his way to the Forbidden Zone. In the new movie Ari helps Leo find his way to the forbidden zone.
So its easy to see that Ari's character basically fills the role that Zira played during the original Apes film.
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namiss resume This is the best way to manage and repair your business reputation. Hiding negative complaints is only a Band-Aid. Consumers want to one lone night, see how a business took care of social arrangements business. All business will get complaints.
How those businesses take care of those complaints is what separates good businesses from the rest. Consumers love to do business with someone that can admit mistakes and one lone, state how they made improvements. Corporate Advocacy Business Remediation and Customer Satisfaction Program. No! Better yet! Arbitrate to set the in the Scarlet Essay, record straight! ED Magedson – Founder. Likely in one lone night a Mall near you. FACE CREAM FRAUD? free skin cream trials.
Only thing. it's NOT free! ARE YOU A VICTIM? Contact Our Team Now: 20/20 exposes the what caused the russian revolution, real BBB. Submitted: Fri, October 04, 2013 Updated: Mon, July 21, 2014. National American Miss Avoid National American Miss like the one lone night, plague! Elmer New Jersey. *Consumer Comment : NAMiss is summary a Fabulous Program . *Consumer Comment : NAM for kids who want to excel in life skills. *Consumer Comment : I believe the lady.
*Author of original report : NOT MADE ABOUT OUR DAUGHTER NOT WINNING. *Consumer Comment : False Accusation. This is the one lone, best way to manage and repair your business reputation. The Road! Hiding negative complaints is only a Band-Aid. Consumers want to see how a business took care of business. All business will get complaints. How those businesses take care of those complaints is what separates good businesses from the rest.
Consumers love to do business with someone that can admit mistakes and state how they made improvements. Corporate Advocacy Business Remediation and Customer Satisfaction Program. Show customers why they should trust your business over your competitors. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on one lone this company? Are you also a victim of the same company or individual? Want Justice?
File a Rip-off Report, help other consumers to be educated and don't let them get away with it! A business' first. line of the russian defense. willing to make a. Does your business have a bad reputation? Fix it the right way. Set the record straight: My wife entered our seven year old daughter into the National American Miss (NAMISS) contest. When we were informed that our daughter was a finalist, my wife was told she needed to pay $240 to continue in the contest. One Lone Night! After she paid this amount, she told me they wanted another $240.00 to continue in the competition in addition to paying for a four day stay (accomodations and meals) at social arrangements a Hilton Hotel where the next level of night competition would take place.
When I researched NAM online, I read reports like: NAMISS is examples of ignorance a scam, it is a for one lone night profit business that earns millions annually. It is unethical, profit oriented, and preys on the parents of children who believe they are entering a legitimate contest. Based on the fact that there were 63 finalists from the road Southern California alone, it is clear that the aim for NAMISS to make money. When this became evident, we contacted NAMISS and said that our daughter would not be competing and we wanted our $240.00 back. We were told they have a no refund policy but would give us a $220.00 credit if our daughter wanted to one lone, participate the following year. Examples Of Ignorance! Unless parents are willing to invest thousands of one lone night dollars in this competition, they should avoid it like the the road, plague. This report was posted on one lone night Ripoff Report on 10/04/2013 09:19 AM and is a permanent record located here: http://www.ripoffreport.com/reports/national-american-miss/elmer-new-jersey-08318/national-american-miss-avoid-national-american-miss-like-the-plague-elmer-new-jersey-1089430. The posting time indicated is Arizona local time.
Arizona does not observe daylight savings so the post time may be Mountain or Pacific depending on of ignorance the time of year. Ripoff Report has an exclusive license to one lone night, this report. It may not be copied without the written permission of Ripoff Report. Rating Scales Essay! READ: Foreign websites steal our content. If you would like to see more Rip-off Reports on this company/individual, search here: In order to one lone night, assure the best results in your search: Keep the social, name short simple, and try different variations of the one lone night, name. How Electronic Commerce Is Affecting Essay! Do not include .com, S, Inc., Corp, or LLC at one lone night the end of the the russian, Company name. Use only the one lone night, first/main part of a name to get best results. Only search one name at a time if Company has many AKA's. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company?
Are you also a victim of the same company or individual? Want Justice? File a Rip-off Report, help other consumers to be educated and don't let them get away with it! Got Reports filed against you? Resolve the issues and what caused, rebuild trust through our Corporate Advocacy Program. Corporate Advocacy Program: The best way to manage and repair your business reputation. One Lone! Hiding negative complaints is only a Band-Aid. Consumers want to see how businesses take care of business. All businesses will get complaints. How those businesses take care of those complaints is what separates good businesses from the rest.
No! Better yet! Arbitrate to set the record straight! NAMiss is a Fabulous Program . SUBMITTED: Tuesday, August 16, 2016. POSTED: Tuesday, August 16, 2016. In February of 2016 when my 6 yr. old grand daugther was recommended to NAMiss, I was hesitant.I searched the internet, feeling this was a scam. After reading many pages, I thought, what the heck, we will go to vs. Reality Letter Essay, the orientation and see what it is all about.
My husband and one lone, I took our grand daughter to the orientation. Of Ignorance! The staff was wonderful. One Lone! They were very open about all the the road summary, cost for one lone the pageant and explained how we could manage sponership. While there, Olivia had 3 interviews. We left with a better feeling about the program.
The next day we received a phone call to inform us that Olivia had been chosen as a state finalist. We were all quite please and yes a bit nerveous too. Hearing so much bad stuff and not knowing anyone personally who had been there before can make one skepital. NAMiss kept us well informed with mail, phone calls and the the next time we went in April for the work shop. THis is when you have to pay the the russian, 1st half of night pageant fees.
Now it takes a diligent parent ( grand parent) and someone who is not shy to ask for sponsership money, which is what I did. By this time I had more than half of Psychiatric Rating Scales Essay what I needed. When we paid the $240.00 I did get a receipt and signed a paper that said it was non-refundable . (which I have read in places people saying that were offered no receipt and were not told the funds were not refundable). Olivia and her Poppop and I worked hard and had bake sales and raised enough money it cover all expenses, including her formal gown, 2 different slips for her gown, the alteration of the one lone night, gown, interview dress, 3 new pair of shoes, assessories, Poppop's tie to match Oliva's dress and most of our hotel stay. Olivia did not win princess of her division, but we came away happy. She won 3rd place on Top Model Search, 1st Runner up in Miss Pereonality, she was names as Miss Photogenic in How Electronic Is Affecting American Essay example the Princess division. It was a great experience for this little outgoing 6 year olf girl. She made many friends, she had a great time, she come away with new knowledge. Her Popop and I came away knowing new, wonderful parents and children and a wonderful program for any young girls.
So if you are one of those parents who gets a letter from NAMiss, please do not hesitate. You will not regret it and one lone, neither will your little girl. Industry Essay! It is one lone night well worth the money to see the summary, smile on that little girl's face, and night, who knows, maybe one day she will me Miss America. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? NAM for kids who want to excel in life skills. SUBMITTED: Tuesday, July 21, 2015. POSTED: Tuesday, July 21, 2015. Let me be upfront. Psychiatric! I have no relationship with NAM but only have met the owners and the nice folks that work with NAM.
As a rebuttal to the review indicating that NAM is one lone night a profit oriented company. I too own a large company and anyone with the ability to build a company deserves to make a profit. Of course NAM grosses millions but it costs millions to operate the company. If you think NAM should operate as as governmental entity you would have poor results. The Road! Compare NAM with any other pageant as we have and you will change your mind. One Lone! In fact, if you don't want to arrangements, invest in your child then don't blame NAM. It is the lowest cost life skill course in the market place. My daughter and one lone night, wife worked weeks and hours to prepare for a Florida pageant and the hard work paid off And won a Florida Miss. We participated in the National pageant and my daughter won a few events but not the National Competing and summary, losing teaches a child to work harder and that they are not losers but lost a competition. My wife as a Royalty Mom, worked hard at one lone night the recent Orlando July 2015 pageant and said she loved every minute of it.
In fact, my daughter had to help the other girls before they competed and she too honored. Behind the Is Affecting American Industry example, scenes there's so much that goes on night and she said that the amount of summary care and love in NAM toward the girls is remarkable. As a father, I am so pleased to see a company with great value and integrity. The experience for our daughter and all the other to compete with hundreds of remarkable young ladies while exercising their life skills is worth more ththe cost. Getting up in front of hundreds of strangers introducing oneself and having to interview in night front of 8 judges takes pure confidence. NAM teaches these young ladies real life experiences which is worth way more than what anyone has to invest.
We met parents that did not have the money but saved so theor daughters could compete each year. In fact they take their vacation this time each year. The Road Summary! To them it's the life skills and said their kids learn more at NAM than they learn all year long. How can you put a value on your kids future. Give your daughter the best. Invest in her future.
Be open minded. Trust NAM. They are the best. Night! And as a Father I am so pleased in the transformation in my daughter. Once you start networking with other parents at the events you will never kniw the Appearance vs. Reality Essay, value of what NAM will do for your child. If you don't get involved with her 100% before the pageant don't go. One Lone! Kids need parents guidance and not coaches that you hire. You will bond with your kid. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the Commerce Is Affecting American Industry Essay, company or individual, or can you provide insider information on night this company?
SUBMITTED: Monday, July 20, 2015. POSTED: Monday, July 20, 2015. I just finished the pageant this weekend and my daughter participated ---all I have to say is she had NO CHANCE because there were 102 finalists (obviousl they have no limit) and we dont have thousands to spend on various competetitions- it is social clear that if you have money to invest, you win! the concept is night good for the girls to have an in the Scarlet Letter Essay experience but realy comes down to deep the one lone night, parent's pockets are. Its mostly about money. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on examples this company? I believe the lady. SUBMITTED: Monday, March 16, 2015. POSTED: Monday, March 16, 2015. We were at a store and amodeling agency saw us and said the SAME exact thing, free shoot, free blah blah blah, only 500 bucks for the modeling classes held at night the hotel, the free shoot and such were on a saturday, in texas we have 3 days to cancel an order on our card. the only way that the company would do so is through fax machine m-f Sat, Sunday Monday, weekends count in this cancel rule in texas. Social! after you come off of the night, high that your kid could be a star you realize, HUHnow that i have come to mt senses what a joke. aww crap its tuesday, they wont refund my money :/ BOO barbrazone, in the road Califonia. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on one lone night this company?
SUBMITTED: Thursday, May 22, 2014. POSTED: Thursday, May 22, 2014. this is Psychiatric Rating Essay our 2nd yr attending Nam, and its anything but a scam.. my grandaughter 9 has gotten so much self confidence and night, self esteem. made many friends and took away so much. being just myself and NO help from family or friends, the Appearance in the Letter, team at NAM offered us a partial sponsor-ship and with out that help i would'nt have made it. So i am very grateful to them, and through out the pageant they were very helpful..Now back for our 2nd yr off the bat we were offered a 200 dollar discount for returning. One Lone! All girls returning get a discount. plus a single parent discount. Of Ignorance! so this time i had to pay very little. plus we came away with 5 trophey's last yr. and hope to get more this yr. One Lone! So i am very sorry u had a bad time, but had u stuck around u would have seen that NAM is AWESOME.. All the team is awesome , including ms Dawn Lee(lady in social charge of advertising contest).
Sincerely Rebecca Reyna. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? #6 Author of original report. NOT MADE ABOUT OUR DAUGHTER NOT WINNING. SUBMITTED: Friday, May 09, 2014. POSTED: Friday, May 09, 2014. Someone wrote and said we filed our report because we were mad that our daughter did not win. If the writer read our report, he or she would know that we asked for one lone night a refund for a competition in Commerce American Industry Essay example which our daughter never participated.
What we asked for was that NAMISS be upfront with parents at the very beginning about all the one lone night, costs involved. Is it too much to inform parents, If your child is chosen as a finalist, in addition to paying $480 to enter this round of the competition, you will also have to pay for accomodations and the road summary, food at a hotel where the pageant will be held over one lone night a three day period? Why anyone would question the need for transparency in these matters is the road summary beyond our comprehension. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the one lone night, company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Saturday, May 24, 2014.
POSTED: Saturday, May 24, 2014. Going to tell you why your rip off is full of you-know-what. My daughter participated in this program, and it was a great experience. Examples Of Ignorance! As far as you getting ripped off of your money, that is completely your fault. At the first meeting you attend, they tell you, out loud, spoken, not written in one lone night small print, that the cost of initial pagent entry is $480.00. You are advised to examples of ignorance, not just pay out of pocket, but to help your child go around your community and night, get business sponsors. Caused! That $240 was your first payment, and you payed that willingly. If they don't give refunds, it was your fault for not checking on that anyway.
With donations from local businesses and friends and family, we were able to pay for the entire thing without touching our own wallets. All of this information was given to you when you signed up. My daughter went out, earned the money, which was a life experience in itself. Night! They are not exploiting children. Rating! They have a no make up rule for contestants under the age of 12. Night! There is not judging on beauty. My daughter, while she did not win, still came out proud and confident in herself.
Any rip offs you experienced here were solely your fault. Examples Of Ignorance! This program was amazing and we would do it all over again if given the opportunity. Next time, actually listen, read, and one lone night, know what you are getting into before you throw a hissy fit about what YOU signed up for. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Wednesday, May 07, 2014. POSTED: Wednesday, May 07, 2014.
I work in summary the Chicago School System. I was speaking with a student who was rather excited by the prospect of one lone night being involved with this group. She went to social, the open call I guess and was informed that she was in. I was happy for her. She informed me that she needed sponcers and did not know how to go about it. I told her I would help her. She gave me a brochoure detailing sponcership. It is indeed geared toward businessness. It clearly states on one lone night the broshure that NAM IS BBB ACCREDITED. Revolution! So I went to the BBB , just to find out one lone, that they have a F rating and How Electronic American Essay example, are NOT Accredited.
So why would this professional brochure have this on there? I did not know how much the sponcership was until I researched the net. I have printed all out for the student. Along with complaints from around the net, as well as postive comments. I would have still sponsored her, however this false info on their hand out has me very concered, for it is indeed a lie, and that is night good enoug me to NOT place any of the road summary my hard earned money into the hands of one lone false and mis leading pratices. Are you an social arrangements owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Sunday, March 23, 2014. POSTED: Sunday, March 23, 2014. National American Miss is not a scam.
NAMiss is a peageant, a scholarship pageant. The company is a business, therefore they require money to run. One Lone! They also give every competitor a trophy and give away hundreds of Commerce Is Affecting Industry Essay example prizes. This is expensive. I competed last year and did very well. One Lone! I had sponsors pay for my $480 (which is higly suggested by the company rather than just paying it.) The pageant only costed my, personally, 500 or so dollars which includes: hotel, food, dress, interview outfit, shoes, etc. So, it is expensive becuase it is a business.
You would not complain about Tory Burch's prices making them a rip-off. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Tuesday, January 07, 2014. POSTED: Tuesday, January 07, 2014. It would appear that the Scales, complaint comes from a parent who is one lone night mad because their child didn't win. What Caused Revolution! First of all, the complaint wasn't filed during the night, time period between open calls and state level pageant. Appearance Letter! The complaint was filed after state level pageant took place and about a month before nationals. Second, the price given is an incorrect price. The true cost for National America Miss is as follows: open calls-FREE, state level: $495 any other costs are your choice to make (such as hotel stay, wardrobe costs, and any optionals that the child chooses to one lone, do NAM is American very upfront about all of this, they also inform you that the $495 entry fee is for the main pageant which includes intreview, personal introduction, formal wear.
Optionals are judged by a completely different panel of judges than the one lone, main competition.), and Rating, national level: $795 any other costs are again your choice to make. Open calls are just that, there is no competition and they only try to see if the girls are truly interested and night, give very detailed explanations and other information to the parents. Third, yes the payments for the entry fee can be made over a period of the road summary time. Night! Maybe you and your wife didn't pay attention when the went over this information and therefor should only blame yourselves for social not paying attention to details. Fourth, once again if you or your wife would have paid attention then you would know that most girls go out and get sponsorships to one lone, cover their entry fees. Sponsorships are fairly easy to get because it is a tax write off as advertisement for businesses. Fifth, it is very clearly stated in the paperwork that is handed out at every level in the NAM pageant that there are no refunds! NAM is arrangements a great opportinuty for girls to gain life skills that they will use in the world! They focus on night public speaking, interview skills, and teach the girls the values of Psychiatric Scales Essay helping each other. They also require each girl in every age group to do volunteer work and one lone night, maintain good grades.
My daugther had never participated in Psychiatric Rating Scales a pageant before joining NAM in 2013. One Lone Night! We do not have lots of How Electronic American example money. I watched my teenage daughter blossom during this experience and grow into a caring young lady. We were blessed to experience both state and national levels during 2013. She is already preparing for 2014 state level, and loving every minute. The state and national staff for NAM are very caring people and help in any way possible. Are you an one lone owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? Are you also a victim of the same company or individual? Want Justice?
File a Rip-off Report, help other consumers to be educated and don't let them get away with it! Got Reports filed against you? Resolve the issues and rebuild trust through our Corporate Advocacy Program. Corporate Advocacy Program: The best way to social, manage and one lone night, repair your business reputation. Hiding negative complaints is How Electronic Commerce American Industry example only a Band-Aid.
Consumers want to see how businesses take care of business. All businesses will get complaints. How those businesses take care of night those complaints is what revolution what separates good businesses from the one lone, rest. No! Better yet!
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Text, Cases Materials on Equity and one lone, Trusts. In order for Scarlet Letter, a settlor to create a valid inter vivos trust of property he owns absolutely, it is necessary both to constitute the trust perfectly and to meet certain statutory requirements. Discuss. Brief summary of the night concept of a trust. The need for title to the trust property to be effectively conveyed to the trustee, if not already present ( Milroy v Lord (1862) ). The statutory requirements for the validity of trusts of certain kinds of property (s 53 of the Law of Property Act 1925). The consequences of imperfect creation (brie?y). The trust is a unique creation of the examples of ignorance common law, and one of its most versatile concepts. Moreover, when the trustee holds property on trust for the bene?ciary, the trustee is submitting to one of the night most powerful forms of legal obligation known to English law. A trustee may well ?nd himself bound by onerous duties, either imposed by examples of ignorance the trust instrument, by statute, or by general principles of equity, and there are serious consequences awaiting any trustee who neglects his duties or breaches the terms of the trust. Likewise, the trustee is only the mere 'paper' owner of the property and, unless he is also a bene?ciary, will derive no bene?t from the trust property.
The trustee holds the trust property 'on trust' for the bene?ciary for the bene?ciary's use and one lone, bene?t, and the trustee may even be prohibited from being paid for his labours (although this will be rare for professional trustees: see ss 28-30 of the Trustee Act 2000). Necessarily, therefore, there must be clarity and certainty when establishing a trust. It is vital to be clear that the person to whom title to social arrangements, the property is transferred (or who already possesses it) is indeed bound by one lone night a trust and so may not use the property for himself. Similarly, the rights of the bene?ciaries must be established with certainty so that they may be allowed to enforce the trust should the trustee fail to carry out its terms. In other words, the need to determine where the real ownership of property lies and the need to Commerce American example, be certain about the one lone night nature of the ownership of the trustee and bene?ciary requires trusts to be created and evidenced with some measure of formality.
Of course, that is not to say that all trusts must ful?l the same requirements of form before they can be recognised and enforced. After all, it is common in English law for there to Rating, be different levels of formality when dealing with different types of property. For example, transactions concerning land - an immovable asset - have traditionally required a higher degree of formality than dealings with other kinds of property. Thus, it should come as no surprise to learn that the nature of the property which is to be the subject matter of the trust is relevant when considering how trusts may be validly created. In considering the creation of one lone trusts, it is important to realise that there are two distinct and separate issues which must be addressed. First, it is inherent in Appearance in the Scarlet, the concept of a trust that the trustee be invested with title to the trust property, either because he is already the owner of that property or because such title has been effectively conveyed to him by one lone night the settlor. Appearance Vs. Reality In The. Unless that is the case, the trust is said to be incompletely constituted and the bene?ciaries will have no claim on the trust property under the failed trust ( Milroy v Lord (1862) ). One Lone Night. A recent innovation created by the Privy Council involves the caused the russian revolution occasion where the settlor appoints multiple owners as trustees, including himself. If he manifests an irrevocable intention to create a trust, his retention of the property will be construed as one of the trustees thereby constituting the trust, whether with or without a transfer to the other trustees. One Lone Night. The maxim, 'equity regards as done that which ought to caused, be done' will be applicable, see Choithram v Pagarani (2001) . In cases where the trust property needs to be conveyed to a trustee, it is necessary to examine the particular type of trust property in one lone night, order to determine what must be done in Psychiatric Rating Essay, order effectively to transfer the title.
The requirements will be different for each type of property. Secondly, there are 'external' formality rules, imposed by statute, which regulate the night way in examples of ignorance, which trusts per night se can be created. These are to be found in the Law of Property Act (LPA) 1925 and they are designed to ensure that the creation of trusts of Appearance in the Essay certain kinds of property is not open to one lone, doubt and to minimise the the road potential for fraud by the trustee. Failure to ful?l these requirements renders the trust unenforceable, even if title to the property is one lone effectively vested in the trustee (s 53 of the LPA 1925). The ?rst issue is the How Electronic Commerce Is Affecting American Industry creation of one lone night a trust by establishing that the trustee has title to the property. Once again, a distinction needs to be drawn at the outset between situations where the existing owner of the trust property declares himself to be a trustee (self-declarations) and situations where the existing owner of property wishes to transfer the property to someone else as trustee (transfer and declaration). In the former case, the person who is to what the russian revolution, be the trustee already has title and, therefore, there is one lone no need to social, transfer the one lone property.
Consequently, there is no need for any formality for this aspect of trust creation. All that is needed for Rating Essay, an effective declaration of trust - or rather, a declaration by the current owner of one lone himself as trustee - is some clear evidence of what caused revolution a present and irrevocable declaration of trust, as in Paul v Constance (1977) , and this evidence may take any form. Indeed, there is no requirement that the declaration of trust ever be communicated to the intended bene?ciary ( Middleton v Pollock (1876) ). So, for example, if A, the owner of a book, declares that 'I now hold this book on trust for B', a trust will be created even if B is unaware of the fact, provided that there are no external formality requirements imposed by statute for one lone, the creation of trusts of books (which there are not). It is important to note, however, that for a declaration of what caused trust by night the present owner of the property to be effective, the circumstances of the case must not reveal a failed attempt by examples that owner to create a trust by the transfer of the trust property to another as trustee. In other words, declaration of oneself as trustee requires no formality, because the declarer already owns the property; but such a declaration will not be validly made if the owner had tried and one lone, failed to what the russian revolution, create a trust by the other method - transfer of property to a trustee - especially if that failure is one lone night due to Appearance vs. Reality in the Scarlet Essay, a defect in the formality requirements for night, the transfer of that property ( Milroy v Lord (1862) ). The intention to declare oneself a trustee is very different from the intention to transfer property to another as trustee and they are mutually exclusive. The second way in which trusts may be created is the effective transfer of property to the trustee.
As noted at the outset, unless the trustee has title to the property, the trust is incompletely constituted and the bene?ciaries have no enforceable claim to the property under the failed 'trust' ( Jones v Lock (1865) ). Thus, if the owner of property decides to create a trust by transferring that property to someone else as trustee, it is essential that the intended trustee obtains title to the property in the manner appropriate to the type of intended trust property. So, if S (the owner and 'settlor') decides to create a trust of his book by transferring the book to A on trust for B, legal title to the book must be effectively transferred to A if the trust is to be constituted and B is to have enforceable rights to revolution, it. In reality, then, it is essential to know how title to different types of property may be transferred. Indeed, there is nothing special about the rules we are about to night, consider, as they are the normal rules applicable to the transfer of title to summary, property whenever and whyever it is conveyed. It is just that, with trusts, the night trustee is receiving the property on behalf of someone else and not for his own use. Typical examples of the formality requirements for the transfer of title in property to the road summary, a trustee are: a deed or registered disposition for land (unregistered and one lone, registered respectively); execution of a share transfer form and registration as owner for stocks and shares; written assignment for choses in action; and delivery of arrangements possession or a deed of gift for personal property. It is clear, then, that the particular requirements for the effective transfer of title to a trustee depend upon the nature of the property being transferred and, in night, this sense, the formality requirements for the creation of a trust are really the formality requirements for the effective transfer of Rating ownership of property generally. Finally, before considering the 'external' formality requirements for the creation of a trust, it is necessary to consider brie?y one or two exceptions to the general principle just considered. First, a trust may be held to have been validly constituted, despite the fact that the one lone trustee has not formally received title, if failure to be invested with that title is because of non-compliance with some condition outside the control of the settlor or trustee. Thus, in Re Rose (1952) , a trust of shares in a private company was held to be perfectly constituted despite the fact that the legal title of the trustee had not been formally con?rmed at the relevant time by entry in the share register of the company. This was because transfer of of ignorance legal title was by registration in the company's register but its directors had a discretion to one lone, refuse such registration and registration had not yet taken place.
Given, then, that complete transfer of legal title was outside the what settlor's (and trustee's) control, lack of compliance was not destructive of the trust. Similarly, in night, Mascall v Mascall (1985) title to registered land was taken to have been effectively transferred by completion of the relevant land transfer form even though registration of that title by the registrar had not yet occurred. Likewise, in Pennington v Waine (2002) , the Court of Appeal decided that the execution and delivery of arrangements share transfer forms to an intermediary for the purpose of registering the one lone new owner was suf?cient to transfer the equitable interest. However, it is unclear whether legal title will be taken to have been effectively transferred if subsequent registration (of the private company's shares or registered land) does not take place and so the exception really allows the trust to be constituted in advance of the time that it technically occurs. Essay. Secondly, according to night, Re Ralli (1964) , it may be immaterial that the trustee acquires title to the trust property in a manner different from that which the settlor originally intended. So, even though the settlor has failed to transfer title to the trustee during his lifetime, if the intended trustee is also the settlor's executor under his will, when the social arrangements settlor dies, the executor (and trustee) will obtain legal title by virtue of his position as executor and the trust will thereby be constituted, albeit in a different manner from that which was intended. Thirdly, there are several other methods by which title to night, property may be effectively transferred from one person to examples of ignorance, another without the normal formality rules for that type of property being satis?ed. However, these are usually relevant when the transferee obtains the property absolutely and not as trustee - that is, they are used to make gifts, not to perfect trusts. Examples include the principles of donatio mortis causa and the law of proprietary estoppel.
We shall look now at the other major requirement for the valid creation of one lone night a trust: the caused the russian revolution external formality rules imposed by statute. In essence, these rules are necessary to ensure certainty in one lone night, dealings with certain kinds of property, especially land. In fact, the position in respect of How Electronic Commerce Is Affecting American example trusts of property created inter vivos is relatively straightforward. First, assuming that title to the property is with, or has been transferred to, the trustee, there are no further formal requirements for the creation of trusts of personalty (that is, not land or interests in land). So, trusts of property other than land may be created orally or in one lone night, writing and all that is needed is a declaration of self as trustee or an effective transfer of title to another as trustee. In the case of land, however, the creation of How Electronic Commerce Essay example a trust must be 'manifested and proved' in writing. Although the night trust does not have to be in writing, there must be written evidence of it, even if that evidence is summary not contemporaneous with the date of the creation of the night trust (s 53(1)(b) of the Psychiatric Essay LPA 1925 and Rouchefoucauld v Boustead (1897) ). Failure to comply with this evidential requirement renders the trust of land unenforceable, although there are exceptions for resulting or constructive trusts of land (s 53(2) of the LPA 1925 and night, Pettitt v Pettitt (1970) ). Likewise, the court may, in exceptional circumstances, allow oral evidence to prove the existence of a trust of land if this is necessary to prevent fraud by the trustee, as where the examples trustee dishonestly claims that there is no trust and night, that he may keep the property because of an absence of the How Electronic Commerce American Industry example necessary writing ( Rouchefoucauld v Boustead (1897) ). These, then, are the necessary formalities which must be met before a settlor can create an inter vivos trust of property which he owns absolutely. Night. Of course, if the trust is by will, then different considerations apply (see s 9 of the Wills Act 1837, as amended) and if the the road summary subject matter of the trust is itself an equitable interest (so that the trustee holds an equitable title on trust for another), there may be further formality requirements springing from the one lone requirements of examples of ignorance writing found in night, s 53(1)(c) of the LPA 1925. Finally, it is relevant to note that, in some circumstances, it may be dif?cult to distinguish between, on the one hand, the creation of a trust of pure personalty (no writing) or of land (evidenced in Is Affecting, writing) and, on the other, the transfer of an equitable interest in personalty or land under a trust which already exists.
The difference is, however, crucial, for the transfer of any equitable interest under an one lone existing trust - be it of personalty or realty - must actually be in writing under s 53(1)(c) of the LPA 1925. As the cases of Grey v IRC (1960) and Vandervell v IRC (1967) demonstrate, such a distinction is not always easy to draw. Note : This question is quite speci?c as it does not require consideration of trusts by will (testamentary trusts) or where the the road settlor has only a purely equitable interest. Understanding the distinction between creation of one lone trusts by declaration and by transfer of in the property is important, especially as the methods are mutually exclusive. Analyse the conditions necessary for the creation of valid secret trusts. One Lone Night. Are there any signi?cant differences between fully secret trusts and half-secret trusts? Testamentary trusts. Secret trusts as an exception to these formality requirements. Fully secret trusts: apparently absolute gifts and acceptance of the arrangements trust obligation. One Lone Night. Half-secret trusts: the examples of ignorance trust but no bene?ciary; communication and one lone night, acceptance rules.
Differences between fully secret and half-secret trusts. According to Pennycuick J in Re Tyler (1967) , the 'particular principles of law applicable to secret trusts are really concerned only with trusts created by will'. By virtue of s 9 of the Wills Act 1837 (as amended), no will shall be valid unless, inter alia , it is in writing and signed by Psychiatric Scales the testator and properly witnessed. One Lone Night. Further, all wills are public documents and any bequests and devises contained therein may be on Psychiatric Scales Essay view for all the world to see. One Lone Night. Naturally, however, there are some testators and testatrices who would rather keep certain legacies secret: perhaps a bequest to a mistress, or provision for children of an illicit liaison. Is Affecting American Industry Essay Example. The equitable doctrine of secret trusts allows shy testators to make 'private' bequests and night, so avoid embarrassment to many parties.
In essence, secret trusts are those trusts which, although contained in a will, are valid without the need to satisfy the of ignorance conditions laid down in s 9 of the Wills Act. One Lone Night. They allow the testator or testatrix to make such dispositions as he or she pleases without the details being made public, save only to the person who is bound to put into effect those wishes. Secret trusts fall into two categories: fully secret trusts and half-secret trusts. In a fully secret trust, property is given by will to a legatee absolutely without mention of any trust: the gift appears to be absolute and there is no trust on the face of the will ( Thynn v Thynn (1684) ). However, at any time during the testator's lifetime, the Psychiatric Scales details of a trust and the intended bene?ciaries thereof may have been communicated to the legatee - orally or in writing - and, if the legatee agrees, he will hold the property on trust for the 'hidden' bene?ciaries when the testator dies. Both the very existence of the trust and one lone night, the identity of the bene?ciaries are 'secret'. Of course, the onerous trust obligation cannot be imposed on a legatee of an absolute gift without that person's consent, and so it is essential that the fact of the trust and the details thereof are communicated to the legatee/trustee and accepted by him during the the road summary testator's lifetime ( McCormick v Grogan (1869) ), although either before or after the one lone night date of the social arrangements will is acceptable ( Wallgrave v Tebbs (1855) ). Moreover, acceptance of the trust obligation by the legatee/trustee can take any form and may even be implied from silence ( Moss v Cooper (1861) ). Once the one lone night trustee has accepted the trust obligation, he is usually barred from receiving any personal bene?t from the legacy, even though it appears to have been given to him absolutely. Thus, if the testator has communicated the fact of the trust to the legatee/trustee, but not the identity of the bene?ciaries, the trustee will hold the property on trust for those entitled to the residuary estate or the next of kin, as the case may be ( Re Boyes (1884) ). The only exception to summary, this is where the one lone fully secret trustee can prove that he or she also was intended to arrangements, be a bene?ciary under the secret trust, a dif?cult, though not impossible, task ( Irvine v Sullivan (1869) ). Turning now to half-secret trusts, it will be apparent that they are quite distinct from fully secret trusts, both as to the conditions for their validity and in the way they operate. In a half-secret trust, the bequest or legacy is given in one lone night, the will 'on trust' to a trustee, but the identity of the bene?ciaries is not disclosed ( Blackwell v Blackwell (1929) ). In other words, it is clear that the recipient is not entitled to take the gift absolutely, although for whom the trustee holds the property is Commerce Industry Essay secret. Crucially, in order for a half-secret trust to be valid - that is, enforceable by night the bene?ciaries - the details of the trust must be communicated to the trustee and accepted by him before or contemporaneously with the execution of the will ( Re Bateman (1970) ). It is Appearance in the Scarlet Letter not enough that the identity of the bene?ciaries be communicated at any point prior to one lone, the testator's death, although it is Appearance Scarlet Essay suf?cient if the trustee is given exclusive access to one lone, this information before the will is arrangements made, as where he is handed a sealed envelope or key to a safe at one lone night, the relevant time, even if this is not to be opened until after the testator's death ( Re Boyes (1884) ). Similarly, because the actuality of the trust is declared on the face of the will, a half-secret trust will be invalid if the information communicated to the trustee contradicts the will ( Re Keen (1937) ).
At ?rst sight, then, both fully secret and half-secret trusts appear to offer the testator two different routes to achieve the same end: the distribution of testamentary property to unnamed persons. Of course, the examples of ignorance fully secret trust offers more secrecy, because there is no written evidence of a trust at all, but this is not the one lone night only difference between the two concepts. We have seen already that there is Appearance vs. Reality Scarlet Letter a major difference in the communication rules for night, each type of trust, with the half-secret trust suffering from a more stringent requirement. For the fully secret trust, however, the fact that communication may occur at any time before or after the date of the will has important consequences. For example, it is often the case that a testator executes his will many years before his death but the law of fully secret trusts allows him to redirect his property by gaining a legatee's consent to the imposition of a trust for another person at any time after that. It is obvious that this is not at all consistent with the policy of the Psychiatric Rating Scales Wills Act 1837 - after all, the testator could have executed an amended will or codicil - and there is night a strong case for preventing the misuse of the principles of fully secret trusts in this way. Similarly, there is no Re Keen rule in summary, fully secret trusts that requires the terms of the will and the details of the trust to be consistent although, given that the will says nothing about one lone night, a trust in the ?rst place, there will always be an inconsistency if the legatee is holding the property for someone else. In addition to these differences concerning the circumstances in which fully secret and what the russian, half-secret trusts may come into existence, there are differences in the way they operate, not all of them logical or justi?able.
Thus, if a fully secret trustee does not accept the trust obligation, the property remains his under the will because the absolute legacy takes effect. Night. On the other hand, a half-secret trustee, being declared a trustee in the will, is forever barred from taking the property and must hold it for the residuary estate ( Re Keen (1937) ). Nor may a half-secret trustee qualify as a bene?ciary under the trust ( Re Rees (1950) ), whereas this appears possible under a fully secret trust ( Irvine v Sullivan (1869) ). Again, if a fully secret trustee dies before the testator, it seems that the trust will fail, being personal to the individual legatee/ trustee ( Re Maddocks (1902) ). This is social not so with a half-secret trust, where equity will intervene on the ground that 'a trust will not fail for want of a trustee' ( Sonley v Clock Makers Company (1780) ), although it is not clear why equity cannot intervene to save a fully secret trust in like manner. The same difference in result appears to exist if the trustee dies or revokes his acceptance of the trust before the testator's death, with the fully secret trust failing (although possibly the fully secret trustee cannot keep the property for himself) and night, the half-secret trust being supported by the appointment of a new trustee. Similarly, whereas a fully secret trust can be revoked and the road, replaced by a new fully secret trust by the testator at one lone, any time up to his death, a half-secret trust can only be revoked prior to death (thus leaving the property held on resulting trust) because it is impossible to arrangements, communicate details of new bene?ciaries after the will has been executed. Other differences also exist according to the number of trustees and the type of trust property. Thus, legacies to one lone night, two or more persons in Psychiatric Rating Scales Essay, the will as trustees (that is, a half-secret trust) will usually be to them as joint tenants and, therefore, a valid acceptance of the trust obligation by any one of night them will bind them all ( Re Stead (1900) ). However, in fully secret trusts, if there are two legatees/trustees, the examples gift in night, the will may be to them as tenants in examples, common or as joint tenants because they are not declared trustees. If it is to them as tenants in common, only one lone those who actually accept the trust are bound and the others may keep their own share ( Tee v Ferris (1856) ). Psychiatric Rating Scales. If, on the other hand, the gift is made to the legatees/trustees as joint tenants, an one lone night acceptance by any one before the summary will is one lone night made will bind all, irrespective of the wishes of the others, although acceptance after the will binds only those so accepting ( Re Stead (1900) ). Finally, there may well be differences in respect of the additional. formality requirements necessary to Industry example, establish secret trusts of land, although the issue is shrouded in doubt.
So, while it has been suggested that fully secret trusts of land do not need to one lone night, comply with s 53(1)(b) of the Law of Property Act (LPA) 1925, and, thus, do not need to what the russian, be evidenced in one lone, writing ( Ottaway v Norman (1972) ), there is clear authority that half-secret trusts of land must meet this requirement ( Re Baillie (1886) ). It is the road uncertain whether this is a justi?able distinction between fully and half-secret trusts of land and one lone night, there is much to Is Affecting American Industry Essay, be said for the Ottaway approach, as it seems illogical that a half-secret trust will be valid despite non-compliance with the formalities of the one lone night Wills Act 1837, but then fail because of lack of compliance with s 53(1)(b) of the LPA 1925. Indeed, it may well be that a half-secret trust of land can avoid being caught by s 53(1)(b) of the LPA 1925 on the ground that 'equity will not permit a statute (s 53) to be an instrument of fraud'. Be that as it may, the social point was not fully argued in Ottaway v Norman and an apparent distinction remains. In conclusion, then, although fully secret and half-secret trusts share the same general characteristic of being exempt from the formalities of the night Wills Act, they are not so similar when it comes to the conditions necessary for their existence, nor the way in which they operate. Whether this be right or wrong, it is reason enough to require a distinction to be made between the two concepts. To what extent is it necessary to be able to distinguish between a trust and a power, particularly when considering the How Electronic Commerce Is Affecting American Industry Essay example need for certainty of one lone objects under a discretionary trust or power of social arrangements appointment?
Trusts and powers in outline: certainty of bene?ciaries. Discretionary trusts. Powers: types of powers. Similarities and night, opportunities for confusion. Differences in subsidiary certainty rules: administrative unworkability and capriciousness.
The essential nature of a private trust is that a trustee will hold property on trust for identi?able bene?ciaries. Save in the case of charities and a small number of exceptional situations, it is revolution not possible to night, have a trust for a pure purpose. The essential duty imposed upon a trustee is to distribute the trust property according to the wishes of the settlor or testator and in conformity with the terms of the trust, and this is a duty which cannot be delegated to an agent or professional adviser: s 11(2) of the Trustee Act 2000. In this, they will be supervised by in the Scarlet Letter Essay the court and be subject to suit by any disaffected bene?ciaries: the night trust is what revolution mandatory and must be carried out. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance that the objects of the trust - the bene?ciaries - should be readily identi?able. In the language of Lord Langdale in Knight v Knight (1840) , 'every trust must have certain objects'. In many cases, of course, the bene?ciaries of night a trust will be named by the settlor and then there is no doubt that the certainty requirement is ful?lled, as where property is left 'on trust for Mr Smith and Mrs Jones'. However, in other cases, the settlor or testator may have decided to identify the bene?ciaries by a class description without naming them individually, as where property is given on trust 'for my relatives' or 'for my friends'.
Clearly, gifts on of ignorance trust for classes of persons who are not named must also have certain objects, for how else will the trustees know how to night, carry out the Psychiatric trust and the court be sure that they have done so properly? In similar fashion, the creation of a 'power of appointment' will only be valid if the objects of the power can be ascertained with certainty ( Re Gulbenkian (1970) ). A power of appointment is literally a power given to a person (who may or may not be a trustee) to decide the destination of property, often the one lone night property of a testator or settlor. It is similar to a trust save only that the donee of the power (the person who exercises the power) is not under a duty to distribute the property but has complete freedom whether to do so or not. The power is said to be voluntary, and if it is not exercised the social donee of the power may keep the property himself, or the settlor/ testator may have provided for a 'gift over in default of appointment' (that is, a direction as to where the property should go if the power is not exercised). One Lone Night. In general terms, powers of appointment fall into three classes: ?rst, general powers of appointment, where the donee has power to appoint the property among the whole world, including himself, and so such powers are akin to absolute ownership of the property (for example, Re Beatty (decd) (1990) ); secondly, hybrid powers of How Electronic American Essay example appointment, where the donee of the power has power to appoint the property among the whole world except a de?ned class of individuals (for example, Re Hay (1981) ); and thirdly, special powers of appointment, where the donee has power to appoint the night property among a de?ned class of individuals (for example, Re Gulbenkian (1970) ). Obviously, for powers of the second and third type, the excluded or included class of objects of the power must be de?ned with certainty in order that it is examples of ignorance possible to decide whether the power has been validly exercised or not. Night. An example is where the donee has power to appoint 'among his friends' or 'to anyone except his brothers'. There is, then, a fundamental difference in principle between a trust and a power: the former is mandatory and must be carried out, while the latter is voluntary and may go unexecuted. Unfortunately, in practice, it is very easy to confuse trusts and powers, especially since most powers are given to people who are otherwise trustees and who hold the property itself on trust but have a power (not a trust obligation) over it (being so called '?duciary powers').
In practice, very real problems arise because special powers given to the road, trustees can be virtually indistinguishable from discretionary trusts. A discretionary trust exists where trustees are under a duty to distribute trust property among a class of bene?ciaries (which a court will enforce), but have a choice as to which of those bene?ciaries shall actually bene?t and in what proportions. However, as we have seen, the donee of the power does not have to make any appointment at all and the court will not compel him to do so. In any given case, deciding whether there is a trust or a power - and consequently a duty to one lone night, distribute or not - depends on the court's construction of the instrument which establishes the arrangement. In The Scarlet Letter. On this, views can legitimately differ, as in McPhail v Doulton (1971) , where the question of construction as a trust or power went all the way to the House of Lords. It is now clear that there are crucial differences between a discretionary trust and a power and, although some case law has tended to blur the distinction somewhat by suggesting that a court might exercise a ?duciary power (one given to a trustee) where the donee is unable or unwilling to one lone night, do so ( Mettoy Pension Trustees Ltd v Evans (1990) ; Re William Makin Sons Ltd (1993) ), it is still important to Psychiatric Rating Essay, be able to distinguish between the night two concepts. For example, the scope of the duties of a trustee under a discretionary trust are wider than those of a donee of a power, even a ?duciary one. Obviously, discretionary trustees must carry out the trust and distribute the property, but their duty to caused the russian, consider when and to whom to distribute the property is much wider than that of a donee of a power.
A donee of a ?duciary power has merely to consider from time to time whether to exercise the one lone night power, and Appearance in the Scarlet Letter Essay, his survey of the range of objects of the class need not be as extensive as that undertaken by a discretionary trustee ( McPhail v Doulton (1971) ). Indeed, the donee of a pure power (that is, a donee not in a ?duciary position) seems to one lone night, be under minimal duties, perhaps only to social arrangements, protect those entitled in default of appointment by night not exercising the power in favour of anyone outside the class ( Mettoy Pension Trustees Ltd ). In one respect it has been recognised that discretionary trusts and powers of appointment should be subject to the same principles. The House of Lords, in McPhail v Doulton (1971) , decided that the test for deciding whether the objects of a discretionary trust were suf?ciently certain and the test for deciding whether the objects of Psychiatric Essay a power were suf?ciently certain, should be the same, not least because the classi?cation of a disposition as a discretionary trust or a ?duciary power usually turns on ?ne points of night construction. It would be inequitable to make their validity (if the tests were different) depend on such subjective issues. Social. Consequently, according to McPhail , the one lone test for arrangements, certainty of objects of a discretionary trust and a power is the Re Gulbenkian test, formally applicable only to powers: namely, that it must be possible to say with certainty whether any given individual is, or is not, a member of the night class of bene?ciaries or objects (the 'given postulant' test). No higher test was. needed for Appearance vs. Reality Letter, discretionary trusts (as was previously the case: IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust (1955) ) because, even if the court was called on to execute the discretionary trust, it did not have to divide the trust property equally and did not need to know all the members of the class: that, after all, was not what the settlor intended. The assimilation of the tests for certainty for these two concepts has brought considerable relief to those charged with making the dif?cult distinction in practice between a discretionary trust and a power. Of course, as we have seen, fundamental differences between the concepts remain and there will always be cases where it is night important to examples, make the distinction per se . For example, it seems that 'administrative unworkability' cannot invalidate a power in the same way that it can invalidate a discretionary trust, almost certainly because of the less pressing duties of a donee of a power ( R v District Auditor ex p West Yorkshire MC (1986) ). One Lone Night. Likewise, if 'capriciousness' has any application to powers (for example, Re Manisty (1974) ), it is the road unlikely that it adds anything to the rules concerning discretionary trusts. However, be that as it may, the night decision in McPhail should be welcomed because, although there are differences between discretionary trusts and powers, those differences are now related primarily to their operation, not to their validity.
Assess the validity of the following dispositions in the will of Thomas, who died in December 2006: (a) Ј10,000 to my Aunt Agatha, knowing that she will use the money in order to secure the examples of ignorance future of my daughters; (b) my houses in Penzance and St Ives on trust for my daughters, Amanda and Barbara, for their lifetimes and thence in equal shares between such of my other kinsfolk now living as may be resident in the county of Cornwall, save only that no person of the night Protestant religion shall be entitled to any portion; and. (c) the the road residue of one lone my estate to my Executors for such of my colleagues at work as they shall in social, their discretion think ?t. Thomas worked for the National Health Service at various hospitals throughout his life, but spent the one lone night last 10 years of his working life in the road, Penzance General Hospital, which was destroyed by one lone ?re just after his retirement in 2004. Certainty of intention: construction of the gift. Certainty of objects: ?xed trusts; conditions precedent. Certainty of objects: trust or power; test for certainty; construing the gift; evidential dif?culties; administrative unworkability. It is a cardinal principle of the law of examples of ignorance equity that a trust may only be valid - that is, enforceable by one lone night the bene?ciaries against the trustee - if it has been created with certainty of Psychiatric intention, certainty of night subject matter and certainty of objects ( Knight v Knight (1840) ). Along with the bene?ciary principle, these three certainties represent the inherent attributes of a trust. The requirement for certainty of American Essay intention (or certainty of words) ensures that the potential trustee of property is clearly placed under a duty to use the property in the way intended by the settlor or testator.
Such certainty exists where the words used by the settlor or testator reveal the imposition of a trust obligation on the intended trustee as distinct from an intention to transfer the night property to that person absolutely. It is what distinguishes a transfer by way of trust from a transfer by way of absolute gift ( Re Conolly (1909) ). American Example. The second of the three certainties, certainty of subject matter, requires that both the property which is to be the one lone night subject matter of the trust ( Palmer v Simmonds (1854) ) and the extent of the intended equitable owners' bene?cial interests ( Boyce v Boyce (1849) ; Re Challoner Club Ltd (1997) ; Margulies v Margulies (2000) ) are certain, or at least capable of being rendered certain. This will ensure that the trustee is aware of the precise scope of his or her duties under the trust. Thirdly, there must be certainty of objects in order that the trustee should know in whose favour he or she must perform the social trust, so identifying who may apply to the court should the trustee fail in this duty. The precise requirements of certainty of objects vary for different kinds of trusts and powers but, in one lone, all cases, a settlor's or testator's failure to de?ne their objects with suf?cient certainty will mean that the property is held on resulting trust for the settlor or residuary legatees ( McPhail v Doulton (1971) ). This particular problem concerns various aspects of the what caused 'three certainties', and night, each limb of Thomas's testamentary disposition will be considered in what caused, turn. (a) Ј10,000 to Aunt Agatha. The issue raised by one lone this disposition is whether the gift of Ј10,000 to Aunt Agatha is by way of trust or as an Appearance vs. Reality in the Letter absolute gift - in other words, whether there is suf?cient certainty of intention to create a trust. If a trust is created, then it becomes necessary to consider whether there are any valid objects of the trust and whether they are de?ned with suf?cient certainty. The imposition of one lone a trust over the money requires Thomas to have imposed a mandatory obligation upon Aunt Agatha to carry out examples, his wishes. This is purely a matter of construction of the words used ( Lambe v Eames (1871) ), although it is clear that precatory words (words of expression, hope or desire) will not of themselves impose a trust on the recipient of property in one lone, the absence of corroborative evidence ( Re Conolly (1909) ). In our case, the words used by Thomas are stronger than precatory words: Thomas does not 'hope' or 'wish' that Agatha will carry out his wishes, he.
'knows' that she will. However, it is Rating still not certain that this is enough to constitute a trust obligation. One Lone Night. For example, in Re Adams and the Kensington Vestry (1884) , a gift 'in full con?dence that . . Vs. Reality In The. .' was held to one lone night, be absolute and not mandatory in the way of a trust, and in Margulies v Margulies (2000) some communications from the testator were mandatory and some were precatory and examples, the court decided that this demonstrated an one lone night overall lack of How Electronic Commerce Industry Essay example intention to create a trust. On balance, it is likely that the bequest to Aunt Agatha will be construed as an absolute gift, essentially because of the absence of any other indication that this is intended to be a trust. Moreover, even if this disposition were construed to be a trust, there might well be certainty of objects problems. While it is obvious that a trust in one lone night, favour of 'my daughters' is perfectly certain as to objects, the social disposition in this case is 'in order to secure the night future of Essay my daughters'. A literal reading of this suggests that this is a trust for purposes connected with Thomas's daughters, and trusts for purposes are void ( Re Endacott (1960) ). Of course, it might be possible to construe the disposition (if it were a trust in the ?rst place) in favour of the daughters per se (compare Re Osoba (1979) ) or as a trust saved by the Re Denley principle. However, these dif?culties in de?ning the objects of the trust precisely only add to the doubts surrounding the night lack of certainty of intention (e.g., Re Kayford (1975) ). Consequently, in all probability, this is an absolute gift to Aunt Agatha, who may use the property for the bene?t of Thomas's daughters if she chooses, but cannot be compelled to How Electronic Is Affecting American Essay example, do so ( Lassence v Tierney (1849) ). (b) The houses in Penzance and St Ives. It is clear from the one lone night wording of the second disposition in Thomas's will that a trust is intended. Social Arrangements. Although use of the word 'trust' does not always impose a trust in law ( Tito v Waddell (No 2) (1977) ), there is nothing here to suggest otherwise.
Likewise, the subject matter of the trust is certain, always assuming Thomas did own a house in Penzance and St Ives. The problem is, then, one of certainty of objects. Clearly, there is no dif?culty with the life interests given to Thomas's daughters, who are both named. The disposition will operate under the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996, with Amanda and Barbara being given the rights to possession, etc, established by that statute. The problem arises with the class of persons entitled to night, the reversionary interests, being 'my kinsfolk now living as may be resident in the county of Cornwall' and then subject to an exclusion against any person of the Protestant religion. First, it is necessary to determine the nature of the trust affecting the examples of ignorance two houses for this will help determine whether there is night certainty of objects of the reversionary class. The houses are given in equal shares to the 'kinsfolk', etc, and thus Thomas has ?xed in advanced the examples share of each person within the class. The trustees have no discretion to apportion the trust property among the class but must divide it up equally. This is a ?xed trust and because the court must be able to execute the trust in default of the night trustees and divide the what caused the russian revolution property equally, the test of certainty of the objects is the 'complete list' test laid down in IRC v Broadway Cottages Trust (1955) . It must be possible to draw up a complete list of all Thomas's 'kinsfolk' who currently reside in the county of Cornwall. This may prove dif?cult, not because of the residence restriction, for that should be easy enough to determine, but because 'kinsfolk' is an imprecise concept. It will only be possible to draw up a list of kinsfolk if we know what 'kinsfolk' actually means.
Such inherent uncertainty in the concept used by Thomas to de?ne his class may prove fatal unless the court is prepared to one lone, rede?ne the concept for the trustees in the same way that the Court of Appeal rede?ned 'relatives' in Re Baden (No 2) (1973) . This should not be ruled out caused the russian, since a court of equity will generally prefer validity to invalidity, especially if the trustees' duties are not otherwise dif?cult to perform evidentially. Finally, even if the court adopts a benevolent attitude to the ?xed trust, there is night still the requirement that no person may have a share if he or she is 'of the Protestant religion'. Clearly, the point is that 'not being a Protestant' is to be a condition precedent for entry to the class of vs. Reality Essay bene?ciaries. Consequently, the scope of the condition precedent must also be certain because, otherwise, it will be impossible to determine who has been excluded. The test of certainty for conditions precedent is that it must be possible to say with certainty whether one person would or would not ful?l the condition ( Re Allen (1959) and Re Barlow (1979) ). As is clear from one lone night Re Tuck (1978) , a condition precedent related to religion can be regarded as certain under this test although, in that case, a third person was given the task of deciding who fell within the religious condition. Subject then to the road, it being possible to de?ne what quali?es a person as 'a Protestant', the night condition precedent will be valid. If the Psychiatric Scales ?xed trust for the class fails for other reasons, the validity or not of the condition precedent is irrelevant. (c) The residue of one lone night Thomas's estate. The gift of residue for 'such of my colleagues at work' raises, once again, the summary problem of certainty of objects, those objects being de?ned by reference to a class description.
As regards this disposition, it is clear that the executors are given a discretion as to whom from among the class they shall select to receive a portion of the residue, and in what proportions. So, this part of Thomas's will discloses either a discretionary trust for the class or a special power of appointment given to night, the trustees to Appearance vs. Reality in the Scarlet Essay, appoint among the one lone class. Of course, the difference is crucial so far as the executors are concerned because, if this is a discretionary trust, they are under a mandatory obligation to make a selection from among the caused the russian revolution class and distribute the property whereas, if this is one lone a power, they may decide not to distribute and cannot be compelled to do so. Whether this disposition discloses a trust or a power is a matter of of ignorance construction and, as McPhail v Doulton (1972) shows, the distinction is not always easy to draw. In our case, it is important that there is night no gift over in default of appointment, perhaps suggesting that the executors must choose from among the class, although the absence of a gift over does not always foretell a trust, since the testator may be content to allow the property to revert to next of kin if the caused the russian power is one lone not exercised ( Re Weekes (1897) ). On balance, however, given that the gift to this class is already of the residuary estate and consequently the bene?ciaries in default would be dif?cult to identify, we can legitimately surmise that Thomas intended this to be a discretionary trust. Since McPhail v Doulton , the test for certainty of objects of a discretionary trust and a power have been assimilated and, even if this is a power, the test we must apply is whether it is possible to say with certainty whether any given person is, or is not, a member of the the road summary class ( McPhail ). Unfortunately, although this test is one lone night easy to state, it is dif?cult to apply because the leading case on caused revolution its application ( Re Baden (No 2) (1973) ) gives us three alternative approaches. According to Stamp LJ, the test is satis?ed only if it is possible to say in fact whether any given person is, or is not, a member of the class and night, this requires both the class to be de?ned with precision and there to be enough evidence available to make positive or negative choices in Psychiatric Rating Scales, respect of all potential applicants. This is a strict test and if this is the correct approach, it is unlikely that Thomas's disposition will be valid: for example, in view of the ?re at his last place of work, will there be suf?cient employment records to one lone night, indicate with whom he worked, even if it were possible to say who then quali?ed as a 'colleague'? Secondly, even if we take Sachs LJ's approach, it may not be possible to hold this discretionary trust valid. Caused. In his view, the test is satis?ed if it is possible to say, in theory, whether any given person is, or is not, a member of the class, irrespective of whether there is enough evidence to make such a decision.
The class must be conceptually certain in the sense that the concept used by the settlor must be precise. The corollary is night that evidential dif?culties will not invalidate a trust because any person who cannot prove that he or she is what the russian a member of the night class will be deemed to be outside it. However, it is likely that Thomas's disposition cannot satisfy even this less strict version of the 'is or is not' test: that is, the concept of a 'colleague' may be too imprecise to allow us to say who is or is not within its ambit, even in theory. The only hope would be if the court were prepared to what the russian revolution, reinterpret 'colleague' in some way that made it more certain, perhaps as 'fellow employee' ( Re Baden (No 2) (1973) ). Finally, we come to Megaw LJ who proposed the least strict version of the 'is or is not' test, believing it to night, be satis?ed if it could be said of social a substantial number of persons that they were inside the class, even if it could not be said of every potential person whether he or she was or not. It may be that Thomas's dispositions would satisfy this version of the test for it seems possible to say of many people that they were his 'colleagues', even if we could not say de?nitely of every person who presented themselves whether they were or were not. Unfortunately, however, Megaw LJ's approach does seem at variance with that of the House of Lords in McPhail , and it is the view of the 'given postulant' test that is commonly criticised (being vague and imprecise). Most commentators prefer the approach of Sachs LJ. The conclusion is then that Thomas's third disposition fails for one lone, uncertainty of How Electronic Is Affecting American Industry objects. It may be that a court would be prepared to rede?ne the concept of 'colleague' so as to make it more certain and then apply the one lone night 'is or is not' test to the class description so rede?ned (as in Re Baden ), but that cannot be guaranteed. Indeed, even then, the executors face one more hurdle, for examples of ignorance, it may be that the class of the one lone discretionary trust is 'administratively unworkable' and so void for 'secondary uncertainty'. This concept was expounded by Lord Wilberforce in McPhail and social, it is night clear from R v District Auditor ex p West Yorkshire MC (1986) that if the settlor or testator stipulates a class so large that the trustees cannot effectively ful?l their duties, nor exercise their discretion properly under a discretionary trust, that trust will fail.
In our case, Thomas's large number of former places of work may bring the class description within this principle. This will be a matter of judgment, and many people would argue that a trust should not be void for How Electronic Commerce Is Affecting Industry Essay, administrative unworkability simply because the class is large, but only when this makes it impossible for the trustees to carry out their duties properly. Note: This is a typical problem on the three certainties, with concentration on certainty of one lone objects. When considering certainty of objects, it is important to appreciate that the three versions of the Baden test may cause different results for the validity of the trust or power. All must be considered and Baden should not be regarded as having a clear ratio decidendi . X, who has recently died, made a will in 2005 in which he made the following gifts: (i) Ј5,000 to C and D upon trust for such charitable or benevolent objects as Z, my trustee shall select. (ii) Ј250,000 to the University of London upon trust to revolution, establish and maintain in one lone night, perpetuity a School of Law Reform. (iii) Ј3,000 to examples, the trustees of the South Blankshire Methodist Conference for one lone, the promotion of physical recreation for Methodists in summary, South Blankshire. Consider whether these gifts are charitable. Gifts devoted exclusively for charitable purposes.
Trusts for the advancement of education. Exemption of charities from the perpetuity rule - excessive duration principle. Trusts for the promotion of sport. Recreational Charities Act 1958. Night. Public bene?t test. (i) Ј5,000 to C and D upon trust. Section 1 of the Charities Act 2006 de?nes a charity as any institution which is established for charitable purposes only and is subject to the jurisdiction of the High Court. Section 2 identi?es 13 purposes that are treated as charitable and declares that the institution in question is required to satisfy the public bene?t test. Caused Revolution. The ?rst question in issue is one lone whether this gift of Ј5,000 is charitable.
In the problem, the will transfers 'Ј5,000 to C and D upon trust for such charitable or benevolent objects.' This raises the question as to whether the test for vs. Reality in the Letter Essay, charitable objects is satis?ed. Charitable trusts, like private trusts, are subject to a test of certainty of objects. One Lone Night. A charitable trust is subject to a unique test for certainty of objects, namely, whether the objects are exclusively charitable. This is af?rmed in summary, s 1(1)(a) of the night Charities Act 2006. In other words, if the trust funds may be used solely for charitable purposes the test will be satis?ed. Indeed, it is unnecessary for the settlor or testator to specify the charitable objects which are intended to acquire the trust property, provided that the trust instrument manifests a clear intention to devote the funds for Commerce American, 'charitable purposes' the test will be satis?ed.
Referring back to the problem the question in turn concerns the construction of the expression, 'or'. If this conjunction is used disjunctively, as is the norm, it would follow that the test for certainty of charitable objects will not be satis?ed for benevolent objects that are not charitable are entitled to night, bene?t. In Chichester Diocesan Fund v Simpson (1944) , a testator directed his executor to apply the residue of his estate 'for such charitable or benevolent objects' as they may select. The executors assumed that the clause created a valid charitable gift and distributed most of the funds to charitable bodies. The court decided that the clause did not create charitable gifts and therefore the gifts were void. A similar result was reached in vs. Reality in the Scarlet Letter, Attorney General of the one lone night Bahamas v Royal Trust (1986) . Examples. The effect will be that a resulting trust for one lone night, the testator's residuary estate will arise. There is Commerce Industry a possibility that the court may, on construction, decide that the non-charitable purposes are merely incidental to the main charitable purposes, see Verge v Somerville (1924) . However, there is very little evidence on the facts of the problem that may support this contention. Alternatively, the legacy will be valid if the word, 'or' is construed conjunctively in the sense that only benevolent objects that are charitable are entitled to bene?t. Again, one would be hard pressed to convince a court of such construction.
The court will look at all the circumstances of the case, including the entire will and evidence that exists outside the will, to ascertain the intention of the testator. (ii) Ј250,000 to the University of London upon trust. In this problem, the issue is whether the donation of Ј250,000 to night, the University for the stated purpose is charitable. Social Arrangements. Does the gift advance education? The donation is to the University of London. This clearly is a charitable body that exists to advance education.
If, as is possible, the University is the trustee to promote the one lone stated purpose, the question arises as to whether the examples of ignorance stated purpose is charitable? A School of Law Reform within the University exists as a department to undertake the one lone task of examining the extent to vs. Reality in the Letter Essay, which the current law is satisfactory and in appropriate cases to suggest proposals for reform. One Lone Night. In the law of charities, education has been interpreted generously and is not restricted to the classroom mode of disseminating knowledge, but requires some element of instruction or supervision. Thus, research is capable of being construed as the caused the russian revolution provision of education; see Re Hopkin's Will Trust (1964) . In McGovern v Attorney General (1981) , a de?nition of advancement of education by way of research was laid down by Slade J. He posited that the requirements are that: (a) the subject matter of the proposed research is a useful object of study; and (b) it must be contemplated that the knowledge acquired as a result of the research will be disseminated to others; and (c) the trust is for the bene?t of the. public, or a suf?ciently important section of the night public. It would appear that a school to study the extent to which the law is in a satisfactory state would clearly satisfy the test laid down by Slade J. An additional issue is whether this purpose is political for if that be the case the gift will fail as a charity. Political activities include attempts to change the law and gifts to further the objects of political parties.
A trust for political purposes is incapable of subsisting as a charity for the court may not stultify itself by deciding that it is in the public good for the law to be changed, see National Anti-Vivisection Society v IRC (1948) , concerning the activities of the stated society and McGovern v Attorney General (1981) , where Amnesty International was declared to be a political organisation. The School exists only to study the extent to which the law is summary satisfactory; it is not designed to lobby Parliament for changes to be introduced. On this basis it is a charitable activity. A further point involves the reference to the school being maintained perpetually. Would this infringe the perpetuity rule? Although charitable trusts, like private trusts, are subject to night, the rule against remote vesting. Charitable trusts, as distinct from private trusts, are not subject to the rule against Appearance in the Scarlet Letter Essay excessive duration. Indeed, many charities (schools and universities) continue inde?nitely and rely heavily on perpetual donations. Accordingly, if the purposes are charitable the gift will not fail for infringing the perpetuity rule. (iii) Ј3,000 to the trustees of the South Blankshire Methodist Conference. The purpose as stated in this problem raises a number of issues.
Is the purpose as declared in the will, namely physical recreation, a charitable activity? In any event, would the public bene?t test be satis?ed? The donation contemplated appears to promote recreation under the guise of advancing religion. In other words the religious element seems to be purely incidental and the real purpose is to promote physical recreation simpliciter . A similar purpose was considered by the court in one lone, IRC v Baddeley (1955) . Here the House of Lords decided that the gift was void, as recreational activities or sport are not within the social arrangements preamble to night, the Statute of Elizabeth or the 'spirit and intendment of the preamble', see Re Nottage (1895) and IRC v City of Glasgow Police Athletic Association (1953) . Section 2(2)(g) of the Charities Act 2006 includes the advancement of amateur sport within the list of in the Scarlet Essay charitable purposes. One Lone. However, there is examples of ignorance little evidence in the will to night, indicate that the funds are to examples of ignorance, be used for the promotion of amateur sport. The Recreational Charities Act 1958 was passed in order to clarify the law regarding the provision of recreational activities. Section 1(1) of the Act stipulates that the provision of night recreational facilities shall be charitable if two criteria are ful?lled, namely: (1) the public bene?t test is satis?ed; and examples, (2) the one lone facilities are provided in the interests of social welfare. The 'social welfare' test will be complied with if two conditions are satis?ed as enacted in Commerce Is Affecting Essay, s 1(2). The ?rst requirement is continuous as stipulated in s 1(2)(a). The second requirement may be satis?ed in alternative ways either by proving that the facilities are available to one lone, a limited class of objects who have a need for such facilities by virtue of one or more of the factors enumerated within s 1(2)(b)(i) (such as a youth club or an organised outing for orphaned children) or 'the facilities are available to the entire public' (such as a public swimming pool or a public park) or 'female or male members of the public at large' (women's institutes, etc). These requirements are referred to as the 'basic conditions' (see s 2A of the 1958 Act as amended by the Charities Act 2006).
In Guild v IRC (1992) , the court decided that the test today is social arrangements whether the facilities are provided with the purpose of improving the conditions of life of the bene?ciaries, irrespective of whether the participating members of society are disadvantaged or not. In short, the material issue concerns the nature of the facilities rather than the one lone status of the participants. On this basis a strong case could be made out that the activities contemplated are within the Recreational Charities Act 1958. The de?nitive issue in this problem is whether the public bene?t test will be satis?ed. The public bene?t test is used to distinguish a public trust from Appearance Letter a private trust. A public trust is required to exist for the bene?t of the public (the community) or an appreciable section of society. A unique application of this test is reserved for one lone, trusts for the relief of poverty. The test of public bene?t is adopted in ss 2 and 3 of the Charities Act 2006.
Section 3(3) of the Act endorses the common law approach to the public bene?t test that existed prior to the introduction of the 2006 Act. The satisfaction of the test is a question of law for the judge to decide on the evidence submitted to the court. In IRC v Baddeley (1955) the court decided that the test will not be satis?ed where the the road summary intended bene?ciaries comprise a class within a class. Night. The facts of the problem refer to what caused, Methodists (a class) in South Blankshire (another class). In addition, the bene?ciaries must not be numerically negligible and night, comprise a suf?cient section of the community to be treated as charitable.
These are ?exible questions for Commerce Is Affecting American example, the court to decide.
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Analysis of speeches by Sadat and Bandler Essay. Night! For a speech to be effective it must address the context and audience carefully, to overall successfully sustain a strong argument and purpose. Caused! Sadat’s”Statement to the Knesset” spoken in 1977 clearly shows a deep understanding to his politically intellectual audience through a thorough exordium to one lone night explain his purposes of bringing peace based on justice to Israel and Egypt, as well as additionally touching on the themes of the road summary political and religious unity as well as presenting the injustices of the past that have hindered this need for one lone peace and reconciliation. Similarly, Faith Bandler’s speech, “Faith, Hope and Reconciliation” spoken in 1999 at Essay example, the Reconciliation Convention in Wollongong, shares similar values of unity, equality and peace, where an appeal to night pathos is utilized to appeal to her audience and to overall present her argument that activism should be maintained in the future and the need to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in order to revive hope. Bandler uses her personal and historical context to familiarize with her audience, overall addressing her context and arrangements, audience carefully. Ultimately, both speeches successfully address their similar type of audience in differing contexts, giving an effective speech with meaning and purpose. In both speeches, the reference of context is of major significance in creating a successful and effective address to the audience with meaning and purpose.
Sadat’s “Statement to the Knesset” was spoken in response to one lone night an invitation from the Jewish parliament which juxtaposes to the extraordinary context of the speech and Sadat’s own personal situation with the country of Israel. Sadat had been involved in many disputes with Israel, including the what caused the russian revolution, Six Day War against the country in 1967 as well as being responsible four years previous for initiating war on Egypt. By addressing the Knesset, Sadat was in danger of night assassination both in examples Israel and at one lone night, home in Egypt as he was contravening Arab policy of refusing to deal publically with the Jewish state which was established in 1948. To reflect this historical and Psychiatric Rating Essay, political context, Sadat opened in night an emphatically religious way with an Islamic tone by stating “In the name of God, the Gracious and the merciful” before he even addresses his audience, to present a sense of religious unity among his audience. This inclusion of social all religions is also supported when Sadat says “we all Muslims, Christians and Jews worship God” creating a notion of inclusiveness and appealing to pathos to relate to his diverse audience. As well as this, Sadat establishes his purpose of peace based on one lone justice and national unity through a detailed exordium which justifies his reasoning for speaking in Israel, which is vs. Reality in the Scarlet Letter Essay, “ to one lone shape a new life, to establish peace” among Israeli and Arab citizens, reflecting the kairos of the speech, overall conveying the context. Here Sadat is presented as a religious envoy and through an appeal to logos and Appearance in the Scarlet, pathos a sense of trust is built between him and his audience, therefore already presenting an night effective speech. Similarly, Bandler’s historical and personal context is addressed in her speech, “Faith, Hope and Reconciliation”, as she appeals to ethos and relates herself to her multicultural audience at the convention when she states “I was once here before”, where her personal hardship is the road, referred to when she was an activist. Bandler is one lone night, 79 years old and is at the end of her activism career after 50 years, so her colonial experience with the issues of reconciliation and unity are conveyed through a mournful tone and emotive diction in her exordium where she says the “terrible utterances” and “terrible tragedy” of “those who sponsored racism” made her feel “a little sadness”.
The anaphora of “terrible” is used to highlight the injustices of the past and to allow the caused the russian, audience to sympathise to the hardships that were faced. Bandler continues to establish her argument in the former half of her speech to her audience, by saying that “there are decent people out there” with “different cultures, different political beliefs” but “know there is a need to one lone night heal the wounds of the past”. Here the the road summary, repetition of “different” is used to relate to her diverse context and audience, and coupled with positive diction and an appeal to ethos, an effective speech is forming due to Bandler’s careful address to context and one lone night, audience. Scarlet Letter! Therefore, through careful consideration of audience and one lone, context each composer successfully allows for their speech to be effective. The theme of unity, politically and religiously, is clearly explored in both speeches through an appeal to audience and context, ultimately enabling them to be effective.
Sadat conveys a notion of unity within his speech through frequent repetition of inclusive terms such as “I have come to you” and “let us be frank” which enables his to establish trust with the audience and be portrayed as a trusting, spiritual envoy. An appeal to pathos and social, familiarity is also presented to his audience as within the speech’s context, Sadat is enabling his audience to sympathize with him as he feels it is “incumbent” of him to have come “to the farthest corner of the world” despite all the facts “surging on night him” by the Knesset. Here the context is reflected as Sadat risked life and death within Israel and his homeland to come and speak to the Israeli government about “peace based upon justice”. Sadat also conveys the theme of unity within his address when he references “Abraham – great grandfather of the Arabs and examples, Jews”. Abraham to the Arabs and Jews is seen as a patriarchal symbol in night both countries, which represents the inclusiveness of each country, overall allowing Sadat to establish himself once again as a peaceful and political envoy to the Knesset through his clever use of pathos and unity among his audience within the specific context of the speech. Through this notion of unity within Sadat’s speech he is able to reiterate his purpose of coming to Israel and to justify his reasoning to speak to the Knesset, which overall was to social establish “peace based on justice” between the two countries. Similarly, Bandler presents a sense of unity among her audience through her acknowledgement of one lone night her diverse and multicultural audience that when she states that they “may have different cultures, different political beliefs” but all share one view of supporting reconciliation.
Here Bandler reminds her audience of her purpose of her speech and through the repetition of “different” her careful address to context and audience is effectively shown. The theme of unity is additionally conveyed in Bandler’s speech through her use of colloquial language and appeal to ethos due to her personal hardships she has faced within the context of the speech, as she has just retired from 50 years of being an activist and fighting for reconciliation. Bandler says “there’s a fair bit to do about” “lightening the burden of the terrible baggage” which reflects the colloquial, informal language she uses to relate to her audience but reminds them of her purpose at the same time, showing her effective address to her audience. Her appeal to ethos is seen in examples her exordium when she states that “she has been here once before” which represents her own colonial, personal experiences overall suiting the kairos of the address. Again this appeal to ethos is night, reiterated in hr concluding paragraph where she says “dear friends” representing her familiarity with her context and audience, overall establishing a sense of trust and finally re-stating her point and linking it to the beginning of in the Essay her speech, through a cyclical structure. Ultimately, a sense of unity is conveyed within both speeches, through a careful address to context and audience to enable their purpose to be established successfully. The need for reconciliation and night, peace is a shared topic in both speeches, and through careful consideration of context and audience each speaker establishes their purpose and presents an Scarlet effective speech by addressing the injustices of the past. In Sadat’s exordium he clearly poses his point that he will “go to the end of the world” in night order to propose his purpose to Commerce Is Affecting American Industry his audience – “to shape new life, to establish peace”. Sadat frequently repeats the word “peace” throughout his address and due to this anaphorical phrase, he clearly justifies his intentions and emphasizes his purpose.
A notion of peace and reconciliation is also conveyed by Sadat within his speech to the Knesset as he references his historical context in a way that unifies his audience, showing his careful address to night context and audience. Sadat states that “we are still bearing the consequences of what caused four fierce wars waged within 30 years” and one lone, through use of logos to appeal to pathos he establishes peace through an acknowledgment of Psychiatric his context, ultimately emphasizing his purpose and creating familiarity with the Knesset. Through reference to the injustices to the past, Sadat also reinforces the one lone, need for reconciliation, ultimately strengthening his argument. What Revolution! He says “Ladies and night, Gentleman…it is incumbent…to overlook the social arrangements, past, with all its complexities and weighing memories, in a bold drive towards new horizons” and through the positive diction of “new horizons” Sadat enlightens his audience to reconcile and to “achieve a durable peace upon justice”. In the same way, Bandler speaks about the need to reconcile and make peace to her audience through the juxtaposition of past and present views, showing an address to her context, ultimately hoping to inspire her audience to look to the future and unify with each other. Throughout the ladder structured speech, Bandler frequently polarizes different views and opinions of two sets of people – those who are for reconciliation and those who are not – which overall emphasizes her point to the audience that “to move the process of reconciliation forward” it needs a “little more speed”. One Lone Night! For example, Bandler juxtaposes reconciliation activists as “decent people” who have “lived, breathed, struggled and climbed” to those who do not support the need to reconcile and who “close their eyes to the past…ignorance and blind…” and through this fluctuation in positive and negative diction between the two groups, the injustices of the past and Appearance vs. Reality Scarlet Essay, present is shown. The theme of reconciliation is also shown in the speech through Bandler’s use of dichotomy when she discusses the one lone, impact of the media and describes them as ”talk-back jockeys” “who are deliberately blinkered” and are “chained in their stubbornness” due to their views against peace and reconciliation today. This metaphor of horses shows the bias and Psychiatric Scales Essay, one-sided nature some people have against the need to reconcile and through the animalistic imagery she uses, her argument is strengthened. Overall, Bandler urges her audience for one lone the need to revive hope and to find a common ground to overcome differences, and through an appeal to pathos by the end of her address she challenges her audience of this by stating “If not now, when?
If not us, who? ”. This employment of rhetorical questions and hyperphora such as “What is the road summary, reconciliation about? It is about promoting discussion” used at the end of her address emphasizes her argument and includes her audience intending that the modern generations are responsible for reconciliation for today and in the future. One Lone Night! Through this challenge to her audience, the textual integrity of the speech is shown as the themes of what the russian peace; reconciliation and one lone night, unity are still relevant today despite the context bound nature of the topic and time. This contrasts to Sadat’s address as his speech is highly context bound due to the excessive amount of historical references used and because of Sadat’s situation at the time, modern audiences are less likely to fully grasp and resonate in the speech as much as those in 1977. Ultimately, Bandler and Sadat address their differing audience and context carefully to present an effective speech. In conclusion, through the discussion of the thematical issues of religious/political unity as well as peace and reconciliation, both Sadat and Bandler’s speeches are effective due to careful consideration of context and audience. As Sadat’s context is highly contextual to his specific situation at that time, his use of kairos and logos to his audience allows his speech to become effective as he reasons and justifies why he is coming to speak in Israel about the need to unify with Egypt. Similarly, Bandler’s use of pathos and personal context allows her audience to resonate with the issues of what caused revolution reconciliation and hope, overall presenting an effective speech. Showing this effectiveness is the fact that each speech was received well in each of their contexts, due to the positive and uplifting tone used by one lone Bandler and due to the courage and bravery Sadat showed when acknowledging the fact that Egypt was a state, showing the positive impact each address had upon their context of the russian time. Ultimately, in night order for a speech to be effective the composer must carefully address their audience and context and Rating Essay, both Sadat and Bandler achieve this. University/College: University of one lone California.
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Effectiveness of E-Learning Essay Sample. Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and one lone night monitor the learning that takes place. CAI uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process. What Caused The Russian Revolution. The computer has many purposes in the classroom, and night it can be utilized to what, help a student in all areas of the curriculum. Computer-assisted instruction allows the students to be active participants in their learning and to browse all the topics in one lone their own pace. “CAI may help students develop creative abilities and induce changes in the cognitive and affective outcomes”. According to Burkill (1998), CAI serves the purpose of summary providing flexibility in developing new knowledge and supporting competence in the use of information technology.1 The use of computers in education started in the 1960s.
With the advent of convenient microcomputers in one lone the 1970s, computer use in schools has become widespread from primary education through the university level and even in some preschool programs. Instructional computers are basically used in one of two ways: either they provide a straightforward presentation of data or they fill a tutorial role in which the student is tested on comprehension. If the computer has a tutorial program, the student is asked a question by the computer; the student types in Is Affecting American Essay example an answer and then gets an one lone immediate response to the answer. If the answer is correct, the student is routed to more challenging problems; if the answer is incorrect, various computer messages will indicate the caused revolution flaw in procedure, and the program will bypass more complicated questions until the student shows mastery in that area. One Lone Night. There are many advantages to using computers in educational instruction. They provide one-to-one interaction with a student, as well as an instantaneous response to the answers elicited, and allow students to the road summary, proceed at their own pace. Computers are particularly useful in one lone night subjects that require drill, freeing teacher time from Psychiatric Rating Essay some classroom tasks so that a teacher can devote more time to individual students. A computer program can be used diagnostically, and, once a student’s problem has been identified, it can then focus on the problem area. Finally, because of the one lone privacy and individual attention afforded by a computer, some students are relieved of the embarrassment of giving an incorrect answer publicly or of going more slowly through lessons than other classmates.2 E-learning is essentially the computer and social network-enabled transfer of night skills and knowledge.
E-learning applications and the road processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and digital collaboration. One Lone. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in Essay the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. The information and communication systems, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the one lone night learning process. 3 The term will still most likely be utilized as reference in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. Background of the Study.
One type of Computer-aided instruction (CAI) is the E-learning which Centro Escolar University adapted and will be the focus of this study. Utilizing E-learning is Psychiatric Essay, one of the one lone night ways of educating Nursing students of Centro Escolar University (CEU). It was 3 years ago since CEU started to use this type of Computer-aided instruction which is what revolution, considered to be the transformation of education through technology. Every student has his or her respective computer and is given a chance to browse all the topics all over again at their own pace. One Lone. Every topic has corresponding questions to be answered. Their answers will be then be checked and posted on their screen. Social Arrangements. The researchers wanted to determine the one lone effects of Computer-aided Instruction adapted by CEU College of Nursing to the Level IV students Batch 2012 in terms of: knowledge, skills and attitude.
Setting of the Study. The study would be held with the graduates of Bachelor of Science in vs. Reality in the Letter Essay Nursing Batch 2011-2012 at the school campus Centro Escolar University Mendiola, Manila in night order to gain a deeper insight into the effects of E-learning in their learning. Box no. 1 shows the effects of e-learning as a whole to caused the russian, CEU Nursing students and the problems they usually encounter. Box no. 2 shows the processing of the study. Box no.3 shows the outcome of the study. After implementing the processes, the researchers were able to determine the effects of e-learning in the learning of the CEU Nursing students. From the outcome researchers will give recommendation to improve the program for the benefit of the students.
Statement of the Problem. The study aimed to determine the effects of E- learning in night the learning of CEU nursing students. Specifically, this sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the strategies that enhance the learning of the social arrangements nursing students via e-learning? 2. What are the problems encountered by the CEU Nursing students in e-learning? 3. One Lone Night. What are the effects of e-learning in social learning of the CEU Nursing students? Assumptions of the Study. During the process of analyzing the possibilities regarding some consequences on the research status, the one lone following assumptions were made: The e-learning help the nursing students of CEU to easily to enhances their knowledge on all concepts especially in rendering nursing interventions to the road, the patient. One Lone. With regards to the problem they encountered in e-learning they are mainly technical such as computer mal function specifically logging of computer program Significance of the Study.
This study is expected to be a help in the following fields: To the college of nursing, this may help them to evaluate e- learning as a whole so that the nursing educators may be able to adopt the most effective teaching strategies that they see in e- learning. To the students, this may help them study in different ways in order to attain excellence in terms of their academics and skills Successful e-Learning programs require specific conditions and constant monitoring and a lot more research has yet to be done by the future researchers before an acceptable universal model can be developed. Commerce Is Affecting American Essay. This research will serve as a basis on their future researches. This study discusses some of the means of effectively evaluating, designing and managing e- learning programs and hopes to accurately envisage what the one lone night future may hold for the development of this strategy to the nursing profession. Caused Revolution. This may also be of one lone night help to attain a higher quality of learning. Scope and Delimitations of the Appearance vs. Reality Scarlet Letter Study. This study focused on the effects of E-learning to the learning or academic performance of the level IV nursing students batch 2011-2012 in Centro Escolar University only. The study will deal with the strategies that enhances the learning via e-learning, the effects of e-learning and the problems encountered by the said group of students. The respondents were limited to the 4th year students of Centro Escolar University College of Nursing enrolled in the S.Y. 2011-201.
Definition of Terms: To ensure maximum understanding and appreciation of the researched, some relevant terms are defined in this section; Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) – This is an example of one lone night a teaching strategy presented with the aid of a computer to share knowledge, skills and information to the students. CEU level IV Nursing student – This are the students who take up Bachelor of Science in arrangements Nursing and who is enrolled in one lone e-learning program of the institution. Examples. Develop- To bring out the capabilities or possibilities of. E-Learning – It is a way of delivery of night knowledge, training or education program by `electronic means to enhance the capabilities of the student. Rating. Effects – The process of bringing or producing a result whether it is positive or negative and advantage or disadvantage to the student. Teaching strategies – The process of sharing knowledge or thoughts to the students with the help of a computer. Review of Related Literature and Studies. This chapter includes the one lone night discussions on related foreign and local studies which provide relevant facts about the effects of computer aided-instruction to the students.
FOREIGN LITERATURE. In a classroom utilizing CAI, students often work independently or in pairs at computers around the room. Software effectively guides students through a series of interrelated activities and instruction, addressing a variety of learning styles. Nickerson (1995) points out that while technology does not promote understanding in and of itself, it is a tool that can help students view learning as a constructive process and use simulations to draw students’ attention.1 In relation to this topic it is said that CAI is arrangements, very helpful for night, the students with regards to the road, their education. The used of modern technology have great impact on the students compare to the traditional one. The Computer has become a part of life for many Filipinos, whether doing presentations, homework, researches, or using the Internet. One Lone. Due to modern technology, the demands of many people vary but these are still attained. Complicated tasks become easy and faster to accomplish through the emergence of computers.
In the the road late 1970s, computers made their way into early childhood classrooms in the United States. One Lone Night. In the Philippines, schools have been adapting the same practice of Is Affecting Industry Essay using computers as early as preschool. According to psychology and brain physiology research, people from the outside world access to night, knowledge and information, 80% of people’s vision through to get from the image. “Most of the human brain, memory is the scene in order to blur the image into right-brain. Thought process is Appearance in the Scarlet Letter Essay, left-brain side of the right brain can remember to read the image, while it symbolic, language-oriented process.” Psychologists confirmed that the same thing If you use a simple symbol or text calls for 10 seconds, with pictures only one lone offer half the time, with realistic images only need 1 / 3 of time. Since the 90’s into the computer at an unprecedented rate quickly becoming ubiquitous, especially in the economic developed areas of Appearance vs. Reality Scarlet Letter Shanghai, CAI (computer Assistant Instruction computer-Aided Instruction), as the richest of one lone teaching and learning of modern technology means the of ignorance application of secondary education has become a possibility. Multimedia technology has the set of night graphics, images, sounds, animation, text and other information functions, while the large amount of Psychiatric Scales Essay information after the computer network, information to change the speed sharing of information resources of the high, belongs to the past any kind of media cannot be compared. It is CAI teaching techniques into the background of such a large area of secondary school teaching.
New English textbooks based on “structure — function” system as the subject prepared. In the teaching process, especially in the stage of importing new courses to develop students to learn through hearing the new language materials, habits, through natural communication display the new language materials; create a scenario for one lone night, students to conduct classroom communicative activities. The CAI teaching letters to Psychiatric, a large number of one lone night abstract symbols by optimizing the plan, voice, language environment, fully embodies the what the russian revolution language features. Requires a lot of English language environment, the word number, and information processing best hero is none other than the natural non-multimedia. If we can give full play to night, the advantages of multimedia to accommodate a variety of conventional audio-visual means of long, so that teachers based on teaching requirements, through a simple operation can be put on CD-ROM, disk, etc. as the carrier of images, animation, spelling, writing, the application of language teaching information can be readily transferred out to make it flow in vs. Reality Letter Essay a different interface, and the students had used video and audio systems on display, attracting students to participate in learning. And my teachers according to learning needs and learning conditions, arbitrary control of the transmission of teaching information density and one lone transmission speed of information transmission channel of arbitrary choice and expanded at any time to study the efficiency and quality of feedback, then the social arrangements teaching of English in night the texts and pictures, colour, scene, the image realistic, interesting multimedia graphic environments, teaching effectiveness will be further improved. Appearance Scarlet Letter Essay. 5 In relation with this it is said that computer aided instruction is much helpful because people can have a better knowledge if it is presented through images and others. Development of information Technology and knowledge information society transfer brought huge change of education filed in the world. In fact, Educational infra of Philippines was meagre before 4. 5 years. One Lone Night. Also computing and Internet infra it will not support to education environment.
But Philippine education environment changed fast during 2000. 2006 years. Philippines making e-Learning systems for examples of ignorance, remote education environment. And, there is one lone night, progressing various project with more interest about e-Learning. The prime advocates that spearhead the drive to incorporate e-Learning technologies into the Philippines school system are educators from prominent universities like the University of the social arrangements Philippines which has established in 1995 the UP Open University (UPOU), as an alternative to traditional classroom. It has started offering fully accredited classes in one lone 2001. The use of e-learning facilities is a shared responsibility of the institution, the community, the teachers, and the learners. The design and development of e-learning facilities are not the hard part in promoting e-learning in the university. It is, therefore, recommended that any institution that wishes to develop e-learning facilities give importance to understanding teachers’ attitudes to change and formulate incentives so that integrating e-learning into teaching and learning becomes a reality.1 E-learning can be regarded as a relatively new concept in the Philippines and is still in its embryonic stage.
Although open and distance learning has been documented to be introduced in the Philippines way back in 1952 through the Farmers’ School-on-the-Air program over a one kilowatt radio station in the province of Iloilo, the development of distance education, much so of the e-learning environment lags far behind more industrialized countries due to a relatively lack of infrastructure, investment, and a pedagogy applicable to many Filipinos. The main barriers are: requirement for change; costs; poorly designed packages; inadequate technology; lack of skills; need for a component of face to-face teaching; time intensive nature of caused the russian e-learning; computer anxiety. One Lone. A range of solutions can solve these barriers. The main solutions are: standardization; strategies; funding; integration of Rating Scales e-learning into night, the curriculum; blended teaching; user friendly packages; access to technology; skills training; support; employers paying e-learning costs; dedicated work time for e-learning. Most universities are also investing in e-learning for Is Affecting American Essay, all different student categories, including health. In recent years, e-learning has become a high pro?le approach for pre-registration health students and for one lone, continuing professional development. The Road. Despite e-learning’s high pro?le, e-learning is not straightforward and very often raises many issues.
There is a slow adoption of e-learning mainly due to underdeveloped infrastructure, high cost and the propensity of the Filipinos to maintain the status quo instead of implementing changes in training and learning system and processes. The design for one lone night, a good formula to suit the social Filipino preference will open the opportunity for growth of e-learning in night the Philippines. What The Russian Revolution. It will benefit individuals who place high value on education and the desire to succeed. Even those self-motivated and dedicated adult learners are most likely to benefit from the program. One Lone Night. And those who belong to large organizations such as universities, big communities, large and medium-sized businesses that can reduce their training costs and improved learning standards. E-learning strategies covering the different educational sectors have recently been published. The Department for social, Education and Skills strategy, ‘Harnessing Technology: Transforming Learning and Children’s Services’ provides a joined up approach across schools, colleges, universities and adult and community learning organizations.
Its three objectives comprise: ‘Learning and help to improve outcomes for children and young people, through shared ideas, lessons and help for professionals, ‘Engage “hard to reach” learners, with special needs support, more motivating ways of learning, and more choice about how and where to night, learn, ‘Build an open accessible system, with more information and services online for parents and carers, children, young people, adult learners and employers; and more cross-organization collaboration to improve personalized support and choice, ‘Achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness, with online research, access to shared ideas and lesson plans, improved systems and processes in Appearance in the Scarlet Letter Essay children’s services, shared procurement and easier administration. E-learning establishes linkages and one lone night strengthens solidarity among eLearning practitioners, industry partners and institutions. It shows that both education providers (managers and trainers) and learners feel that e-learning is effective and improves education and training; the key bene?t of e-learning is the ?exibility it provides. Access to the site and Is Affecting Industry motivation to participate are fundamental to online learning. The initial session in the course was expanded to include learning activities designed to support participants to enter and utilize the program in order to minimize anxiety and promote technological confidence. Resources included printed instruction sheets to navigate the site and activities utilizing links to materials and practice technical skills such as sending a brief posting or attaching a file. 3 The Department of Education (DepEd) put emphasis on the need to develop e-learning via its five-year Information and Communication Technology for Education (ICT4E) Strategy Plan. Night. ICT4E aims to what the russian revolution, integrate ICT into every school’s curricula, develop programs, establish infrastructure and one lone come up with a system for evaluating the program’s effectiveness. Summary. DepEd has also strove to strengthen its Educational Technology Unit and conduct literacy training among teachers. Two years ago, more than 6,600 schools participated in DepEd’s Internet Connectivity Project. During that time, only 1,936 schools had Internet access.
Today, more than 3,127 schools are connected. Low student-computer and teacher-computer ratios pose the biggest challenge to one lone, the program, according to an education department report on ICT4E. Infrastructure and teacher competencies are also areas of concern as computer literacy is not a requirement for Psychiatric Scales, teacher certification and licensure. But despite all this, the department remains optimistic about the ICT4E program, saying that “meeting challenges by using the tools available creatively is night, key to effectively integrating ICT.” DepEd also encourages businesses and other organizations to share their expertise. To date, more than 10,000 teachers have undergone digital-literacy training in partnership with the private sector. The ReImaginED Executive Training, a series of consultations and workshops to help division and regional education administrators use the ICT4E program, is also being implemented. Philippines have adopted this technology for years which has been of the road great help to the Filipino students, workers and educators, etc. It comes with great cost but the benefits received by the Filipino people are sufficient enough to compete with other countries.
In using the E-learning, home works, reviews, guide and night many other academic related things are made easier and better to the russian, enhance the student’s capability of night using advanced technology. Which in the road years, may grow into a lot more comprehensive technology. Science and technology is one lone night, of great help to the Filipino society especially the Filipino nursing students for review and for preparation to of ignorance, exams. Kathleen Cotton found on night, her analysis about Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) that software can be used to help students develop their writing skills and contribute to higher quality written work. In addition to improving students’ writing abilities, use of writing software can foster positive attitudes toward computers, course content, and school in general. Computer software provides many instructional benefits, but (CAI) can have a much greater impact on student learning. In a classroom utilizing CAI, students often work independently or in pairs at computers around the room. Software on each computer effectively guides students through a series of interrelated activities and instruction, addressing a variety of learning styles.6 In this study because computers can display instructions or descriptions on demand, play audio of instructions or descriptions that students can hear through headphones and show video of a person talking to them, interspersed with visual depictions of material relevant to the activity, CAI is effective at delivering this content to students without ever tiring or getting impatient. Students enjoy working in a CAI environment because it provides them with immediate, positive feedback, grades all students fairly and provides them with more control over the speed at which instruction is delivered. According to the article “Computer-Aided Instruction(CAI) Within Clinical Nursing Education”, their purpose is to Rating Scales Essay, add to a knowledge base for night, the successful implementation of CAI within clinical nursing education.
This is based upon a two year study of CAI use within the clinical component of social one course within a baccalaureate nursing program. Night. Hales and Hannah have stated that the integration of the computer within nursing education needs to be planned. Hales also stated that there was a need for a body of knowledge that describes the planning and implementing of CAI. This literature would formulate a knowledge base for the effective and efficient use of CAI for not only classroom teaching, but also clinical teaching. 7 This study conclude the importance of assisting students to Essay, feel comfortable and confident as possible in patient care experiences that cannot be over emphasized. The use of simulations within clinical nursing education helps students to increase their confidence and comfort as they start new clinical experiences. Simulations offer students a safe way to get acquainted with some clinical situations prior to one lone, the real clinical experience. Caused The Russian Revolution. Learning can be enhanced with the appropriate use of simulations within clinical nursing education. According to the article “E-learning benefits nurse education and helps shape students’ professional identity” the properties intrinsic to the technologies used in e-learning allow students more flexibility over one lone the identities they adopt. They can also experiment with the identity of “professional nurse” in a safe environment where they can make mistakes without harming patients. 8 This study means that e-learning may restrict some learning opportunities for student nurses, although it may also facilitate the the road process of identity shift in ways that face to face teaching does not . One Lone. According to the article “Expanding nursing education through e-learning: A case study in Malaysia”, the School of Health Sciences, University Saints Malaysia (SHS) is planning to expand its contribution to produce more graduate nurses by How Electronic Industry example, offering a nursing degree through e-learning.
After three years of using e-learning by four lecturers in one lone seven nursing courses, we conducted a study to Psychiatric Rating Scales, get the lecturers feedback and to one lone night, compare the caused the russian students’ preference and their actual experiences in e-learning. Lecturers’ feedback were collected based on six open-ended questions. Feedback from all the one lone 36 final year nursing students were collected using Constructivist On-line Learning Environment Survey (COLLES)–the Student Experience/Preferred Form. Results show that lecturers and students have positive perception on e-learning. We believe blended learning is the social arrangements most suitable approach to one lone night, implement e-learning and social constructivism theory provides the dynamic view of learning. To increase success in e-learning implementation for examples of ignorance, the nursing program, lecturers should be educated regarding proper instructional design so that their content delivery blends well with the technology and pedagogy. 9 Based in this study e-learning has a powerful and one lone night effective tool for expanding nursing education to meet the demand for a labor force that is knowledgeable, highly skilled and equipped with positive values. Michael Szabo’s (2001) study showed that much research has been focused on the effectiveness of CAI, which is demonstrated through improved test scores (Williams Brown, 1990). Effectiveness has also been measured through “heightened affective responses, or better attitudes, reduced learning time, higher course completion rates, increased retention duration, and finally cost”. Generally the effectiveness of CAI has been determined by comparing CAI with traditional classroom instruction (Clark, 1985).10 LOCAL STUDIES. According to the study entitled “Issues in Learning, Effectiveness in an ICT-Based Philippine Education Environment”, learning across the world is rapidly changing and bringing about this change is the use of caused the russian revolution information and one lone communications technology (ICT) or simply, computers, which has advanced the access to information and is providing a richer, more immediate and the road summary relevant opportunities for those who have embraced it.
The use of ICT for education is revolutionizing the traditional classroom and encourages learners to progress outside of the four walls of classrooms, is more personalised and has become a powerful motivational tool. Today, the use of ICT in education is greatly helping developing countries to catch up with the education race becoming a great equalizer and providing access to ICT-based learning can help close the wide digital divide. One Lone. ICT-based learning is now recognized as an effective tool in social arrangements meeting the education objectives and night serve previously unserved sectors. The main rationale for this is an increasingly technology-oriented and globalizing world where the use of ICT in social education has become a critical factor to ensure that a country’s workforce is one lone, skilled and examples of ignorance prepared to meet the challenges of development and global employment opportunities. Thus, as ICT becomes part of the Philippine basic education landscape, the inclusion of basic learning competencies in computers to educate our Filipino learners so that they can be globally competitive and raise their personal and national esteem, and realize a progressive life will be no less than strategic. However, because of the fast pace in technology development, in the span of less than a generation, students have gone from studying with notebooks and textbooks to laptops, netbooks and, now, iPads. One Lone. But despite the prevalence of technology on campuses, studies indicate that computers alone can’t keep students from falling into the same weak study habits from days of pen and notebooks.
ICT-based learning has in fact presented new issues for learners. The Road Summary. The drop-out rates for night, learners who rely on ICT based modes of what caused revolution delivery is one lone, not significantly lower and in some instances even higher than traditional settings. The lack of face-to-face intervention between learners and their teachers in the case of distance education learners also gives rise to Essay, motivational issues which is a major factor in drop-out rates. ICT-based learning using learning management systems and internet-based learning applications is also not exempt from the intermittent inconveniences and less than stable delivery of the technology. One of the most challenging tasks that educators are facing when using ICT in their lesson and one lone course delivery is maintaining the learner’s attention and ability to be engaged. This problem is not due to the technology itself, since learners are in fact benefiting from the efficiency of ICT learning, but it is the fact that the time allotted for learning a given subject in a typical semester hasn’t changed, but the amount of information that needs to be covered continues to grow. Educators and trainers are therefore now faced with a different situation, that of choosing the right amount and quality of content that learners need to cover and retain rather than to try to absorb as much information as possible. Quantity is once again not necessarily better than quality. Studies showed that learner performance are significantly better when students use more powerful strategies when studying computer materials. These involve techniques and methods of using computer and internet features and applications that allow learners to filter information better and structure their learning experiences around topics that excite them. When students are given the opportunity to Psychiatric, pursue their own learning interests rather than what teachers tell them to, they tend to have better chances of choosing the right course major according to their interest, as well as their outside activities.
Methods and Procedure. This chapter presents the discussion on the research methodology study, the subjects, sampling technique, research instruments, procedure of night data gathering and statistical treatment that will be used for accurate analysis and interpretation of the Industry Essay fata gathered. Method. The researchers used descriptive method technique to gather the effects of e-learning in the learning of the nursing students of Centro Escolar University. According to Polit (8th edition), descriptive research focuses on the understanding causes of behavior, conditions, and situations and in which data gathering is done through observation, survey and interview.1 This was employed to gather the one lone necessary data about the evaluation of the 4th year nursing students in the effects of e-learning in the learning of the Centro Escolar University nursing students. Respondents of the Study. Respondents composed of 96 4th year nursing students who took up e- learning at Centro Escolar University. It composed of male and female students and their age range is from 18-21 years old. Sampling Technique.
The sampling method that was used is randomize sampling technique. In random sampling, each item or element of the population has an equal chance of being chosen at each draw. A sample is random if the method for obtaining the sample meets the criterion of randomness (each element having an equal chance at each draw). The actual composition of the sample itself does not determine whether or not it was a random sample.2 Researchers selected a group of what caused revolution subjects for study from a larger group. Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. Every possible sample of night a given size has the examples of ignorance same chance of selection. Data Gathering Instrument. Researchers used questionnaire as a tool in one lone gathering data.
Likert Scale is used, wherein each of the four responses would have a numerical value which would be used in order to analyze the examples of ignorance effects of e-learning, the following likert scale was used: Score| Verbal Interpretation| Limits| 4- Highly Effective| Very useful in producing intended effect/result| 3.5-4.0| 3- Effective| Produces an intended effect/result| 2.5-3.49| 2- Ineffective| Does not produce and intended effect/result| 1.5-2.49| 1- Highly Ineffective| Having no beneficial use or incapable of functioning usefully| 0.5-1.49| | Score| Verbal Interpretation| Limits| 4- Always| Problems that encountered all the times| 3.5-4.0| 3- Often| Problems that encountered most of the time| 2.5-3.49| 2- Seldom| Problems encountered sometimes| 1.5-2.49| 1- Never| Never been encountered problems.| 0.5-1.49| Validation of the one lone Instrument. The researchers prepared questionnaire was recheck and Is Affecting Industry validated by experts and professionals in E-learning.
Valuable suggestions were given to night, make it topically substantial and technically accurate. Data Gathering Procedures. Phase I: The researchers identified the problem, send research proposal to Dean for her approval and after approval, collection of related literature studies about the topic to get a bigger idea was done. Psychiatric. Phase II: The researchers interviewed the 4th year nursing students of night batch 2012 about the activities in e-learning. Phase III: The researchers formulated questionnaires based on the statement of the problem, checked by the research adviser and send to mathematics department for validation. Phase IV: The researchers revised the How Electronic Is Affecting American Industry Essay questionnaire and distributed the questionnaires to night, the 96 4th year nursing students from batch 2012 who took up e- learning. The data gathered were tallied. Phase V: Consultation to the Math Department for the statistical treatment.
Data gathered were tabulated, interpreted and Appearance vs. Reality in the Scarlet Letter analyzed. Night. Send the research output to the English Department for editing. Revising and finalizing the corrected research output. Statistical Treatment of Data. Researchers used Standard Deviation’s formula. Standard Deviation is the square root of the mean of the squared deviations from the mean of a distribution. A measure of variability which reflects the typical deviation from the mean.3. Phase I:The researchers identified the problem, send research proposal to Dean for her approval and Psychiatric Rating Scales after approval, collection of related literature studies about the topic to get a bigger idea was done.
Phase II:The researchers interviewed the 4th year nursing students of batch 2012 about the activities in e-learning. Phase III:The researchers formulated questionnaires based on the statement of the problem, checked by one lone night, the research adviser and send to mathematics department for Appearance Scarlet Letter Essay, validation. Phase IV:The researchers revised the questionnaire and one lone night distributed the questionnaires to examples, the 96 4th year nursing students from one lone batch 2012 who took up e- learning. The data gathered were tallied. Phase V: Consultation to the Math Department for the statistical treatment. Data gathered were tabulated, interpreted and arrangements analyzed. Send the research output to the English Department for editing. Revising and finalizing the corrected research output. According to the interpretation, information technology helps meet today’s medical students’ needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video Presentation, Exercises/Quizzes and Modules are highly effective.
Video presentation is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the night content’s delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. Arrangements. The results demonstrated a positive effect on program outcomes as streaming video became more readily available to night, students. Based on these findings, streaming video technology seems to be a viable tool to complement in-class delivery methods, to Psychiatric Rating, accommodate the needs of one lone night medical students, and to provide options for meeting the challenges of delivering the undergraduate medical curriculum. Psychiatric Rating Scales. As necessary as ongoing assessment is for both teachers and students, many teachers complain that constant testing and night quizzes stifles their creativity and what caused revolution destroys student interest, at a time when motivation is mandatory for the current crop of night media-saturated students.
Teachers can assess student learning and evaluate the quality of their own teaching, without losing the interest of their students is to implement quick quizzes throughout daily instruction to ensure that students understand what you’re teaching and — when they don’t — to understand where your teaching has missed the mark. Based from the gathered data, it is found that there are many problems encountered using E-learning’s and some of the road them are technical skills to access computer technology and the E- learning. They noted that the night complex nature of the E content demanded high technical literacy of caused revolution participants engaged in them, they found technological requirement challenging due to a lack of one lone familiarity with the university E- learning system and recently updated ICT facilities, as well as with the multimedia operations themselves. Students felt they needed not only to be familiar with new technologies but also able to deal with technical problems encountered. Technological challenges are broadly defined as challenges surroundings issues of familiarity with new technology and How Electronic Commerce Is Affecting Essay technical problems encountered using E- leanings and some of the study support that access from the home page was slow and based on the data gathered majority of the student answered seldom.3. Effects of E-learning. EFFECTS| Mean| SD| VerbalInterpretation| 1. Enhanced knowledge on night, all the concepts in Nursing care management| 3.54| 20. How Electronic Commerce Is Affecting Industry. 76| 20.
Highly Effective| 2. Enhanced knowledge about anatomy and physiology| 3.38| 20.95| Effective| 3. Enhanced knowledge about pathophysiology of different diseases| 3.61| 29.94| Highly Effective| 4. Night. Enhanced knowledge about drugs and its effect to the body along with nsg. Care mgt.| 3.34| 15.11| Effective| 5. Decreased motivation in reading books related to nursing| 2.38| 24.22| Ineffective| 6. Dependency to technology with regards to what caused revolution, studying is increased| 2.57| 12.35| Effective| 7. Helps students for preparation in the Philippines Board Examination| 3.12| 14.41| Effective| 8. Decreased usage of library sources| 2.66| 10.7110.71| Effective| 9. Has long period of time between questions| 2.7| 9.94| Effective| 10. E-learning helps to improve outcomes for children and young people through ideas, lessons and one lone night help for professionals| 3.09| 10.39| Effective| 11. It decreases teacher-student interaction| 2.83| 7.79| Effective| 12. Students work independently in different activities offered by E-learning| 3.04| 10.42| Effective| The table 3 illustrates the mean score of the Psychiatric Essay effects of E-Learning. Two of the effects of e-learning are with verbal interpretation of highly effective: enhanced knowledge on all the concepts in one lone nursing care management with 3.54 and enhanced knowledge about patho-physiology of what different diseases with 3.61.
While the others are with verbal interpretation of effective: enhanced knowledge about anatomy and physiology with 3.38, enhanced knowledge about drugs and one lone its effect to the body along with nursing care management with 3.34, dependency to technology with regards to studying is increased with 2.57, helps students for preparation in the Philippines Board Examination with 3.12, decreased usage of library sources with 2.66, has long period of time between questions with 2.7, e-learning helps to improve outcomes for children and young people through ideas, lessons and help for professionals with 3.09, it decreases teacher-student interaction with 2.83 and students work indepenently in different activities offered by E-learning with 3.04. One of the effects of e-learning is verbally interpreted as ineffective which is the Industry example decreased motivation in reading books related to nursing with 2.38. One Lone. Overall, the outcome of the questions in verbal interpretation is Effective. Summary of findings. 1. Effects of Different Strategies in E-Learning. Majority of the respondents agreed that modules, simulations, exercises/quizzes, video presentation that are used as an e-learning strategy help them to enhance their knowledge.
These strategies improved their critical thinking ability and refresh their minds on their past topics or lessons. Social. 2. One Lone Night. Problems Encountered in E-learning. The two often encountered problems in e-learning are: computers hang during session and inadequate time to read and copy the lectures. While the Scales other three problems which are seldom encountered are: access from the home page was slow, the layout and structure of the software are difficult to navigate, and correct answers are marked wrong and one lone inadequate time to analyze questions. Rating Essay. 3. One Lone. Effects of E-learning. Enhanced knowledge on all the concepts in Nursing Care Management and in the Letter Essay pathophysiology of different diseases were found to be highly effective when it comes to night, the effects of e-learning to the learning of the the russian respondents.
Majority of the results on the effects categorically found to be effective. Conclusion. Based on the findings, the researchers come up with the following conclusions: We therefore conclude that E-learning offers great promise for enhancing the quality of education beside traditional classroom. However, not only separate learning but also face to face learning has advantages as well as downsides. In that case, many researchers believe that the combining two educational methods can be effective ways in improving educational future. E-learning is effective at delivering contents like instructions or descriptions that students can hear through headphones and show video presentations related to the activity to students without ever tiring or getting impatient. Students enjoy working in an E-learning environment because it provides them with immediate, positive feedback, grades all students fairly and provides them with more control over the speed at which instruction is delivered. After a thorough analysis of data, the research study suggests that E-learning as a part of the curriculum of the nursing students from the batch 2009-2012 had been an effective method of learning. Though the teacher-student interaction is decreased, the level of independence and competence of the students is enhanced. It is therefore recommended to one lone night, the College of Nursing to implement the said subject as part of the curriculum for the future batches of nurses in Centro Escolar University.
Polit, Denise E.Nursing Research: Generating and what caused the russian Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice 8th Edition. New York USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Inc. Yabut, MS, Urgiano, Santos, De Guzman, Ph.D “Statistics”. Appendix B p. 260 B. Electronic Source. http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v16n1/ragasa%20pdf.html 4/2/2008 5http://eng.hi138.com/?i6379. http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v16n1/ragasa%20pdf.html 4/2/2008 http://pppjj.usm.my/mojit/articles/pdf/August05/06-Article-036- pdf http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/computer-assisted+instruction http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/130589/computer-assisted-instruction-CAI 1http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/profdev/profdev180.shtml. Paradise, Andrew. 2008 State of the Industry Report.
Rep. Alexandria: ASTD Research Department, 2008. Tavangarian D., Leypold M., Nolting K., Roser M.,(2004). Is e-learning the Solution for Individual Learning? Journal of one lone e-learning, 2004. http://www.nursingtimes.net/e-learning-benefits-nurse-education-and-helps-shape-students-professional-identity/5011215.article Patrick D. Bridge, Ph.D., Matt Jackson, Ph.D., and Leah Robinson, Ed.S. (2009) (Sandra Romo 2010) Is this the perfect essay for Psychiatric Scales Essay, you? Save time and order Effectiveness of night E-Learning. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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