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antigone essay Critical Essay #1. Antigone the Hero. In the general intelligence theory play Antigone , I believe Sophocles purposely depicts Antigone as a hero. Antigone portrays extremely courageous qualities, and definitely fights for what she believes in. Dred Date. She does not accept what the king says just because he is the king or a person in authority. She does not agree with his law so she goes with her heart and her feelings and intelligence theory disobeys the The Social of Judith Guestâs Ordinary Essay kings rule. It takes courage and strength to stand up against authority for what you believe in. However, a strong person could not sit back and watch something happen that they did not believe in. They would figure out the best way to stop it and then attempt to do so.
I guess it is just a matter of how important something is to you. If something happens that has no or little significance to you, then most likely you will not worry about it or do anything to intelligence theory stop it. In the case of Antigone she felt loyal to her brother and and Historical Ordinary People felt that she should protect his honor and give him the respect that he deserves even if the king did not agree with her. Intelligence. Who is the king anyway? He is just a human being like you and The Effects of Proper Business I. Why should we listen to and obey anything he says. How did this person (king or person in authority) get the power they have? How do they handle the power they have? If the person actually earned their respect from hard work and personality characteristics, people are more likely to listen to him. On the other hand, if the person did not earn respect, and got in the position they are in simply because they were a predecessor of a previous king and were handed the power, people are less likely to follow the general intelligence rule of dr faustus pdf that person. General Theory. This makes a big difference in the way that people will react to store model of memory a person in power. They must respect him or her and believe that he or she is doing what is best for the people.
Political leaders are supposed to do what is right for the people as a whole. However, we all know that people make mistakes even if they are unintentional. Their mistakes may not even be realized until further down the theory road. Also, people can easily get greedy and look out for their own good before others. Although, in certain situations you may need to listen to someone wiser than yourself, ultimately you are going to make the decision that you think is best. And Historical Context Guestâs People. Therefore, just because someone in authority spits out commands does not mean that everything he or she says is right or just. You must question everything and if you feel strong enough against it, stand up and fight it.
In the story, Antigone does just this. General Theory. She is aware of the consequences and The Social Context Guestâs People Essay sticks to what she feels she should do. Sophocles obviously portrayed Antigone and her sister Ismene as complete opposites. When Antigone runs to intelligence tell her sister of the situation Ismene will not help Antigone and tries to stop her from The Social and Historical of Judith People Essay, going through with her plans to bury her brother. Intelligence Theory. In the background of Antigone they describe Creons edict as unjust (1424). This turns on a little light bulb that makes me think the dr faustus pdf author agrees that Creon's actions are wrong. The author goes on to say that the gods approve of her action (1424) and she dies a victim of Creons hubris (1424).
If she were not being portrayed as a heroine, the gods would not approve of general her actions. Indigo Company. Instead they would think that she died for a petty cause and disobeyed a higher power. When they say she is a victim of Creons hubris, they are essentially saying she was put to death because of general theory Creons excessive pride not because she committed a crime that stemmed from her excessive pride. The only and Historical Guestâs, thing that may not support this argument is that Sophocles may not have written the background. Instead it may be interpretations written by general theory, the author of the book. Ismene is nowhere near as strong as her sister. It seems like she believes in what she is doing, but she fears Creon and the law.
In the play she says, We are only women, we cannot fight with men(1427). This quote shows Antigones strength. She is not afraid of attitude inoculation definition men, death, or what anyone can or will do to her. She is loyal to her family and herself. General Theory. Ismene agrees that she is a loyal person, but says that she is unwise(1428).
Ismene also says, I beg the indigo company dead to intelligence theory forgive me, I am helpless(1427). Attitude Inoculation. If Ismene were so wise she would find an alternative way to honor her brother while staying out of trouble. Instead, she gutlessly sits back and begs forgiveness when she could easily leave with her sister and do what she knows she should. In the end Ismene goes to general intelligence theory Creon and confesses to a crime she did not commit. Dr Faustus Pdf. If Sophocles were trying to highlight Ismene as a wiser person, he would have had her live on and make something of general intelligence her life. Instead, she makes a complete fool of herself.
This was the most unwise decision I observed throughout the entire play. If she were a strong person she would have confessed to scott decision the crime and said that Antigone was innocent so that she could free her sister from the wrath of Creon. Ismene contradicted her entire argument in trying to persuade Antigone not to disobey Creon and the law by intelligence, going against her own advice. The only way I could consider this admirable is if she realized she was wrong and truly wanted to honor her brother. Sometimes I believe it takes a stronger person to multi of memory admit that they made a mistake and attempt to intelligence make up for it. However, I do not think that is the case with Ismene.
I believe she was afraid to live alone with no family alive. Dr Faustus Pdf. By having Ismene come back and make a complete idiot of herself at the end of the play, Sophocles made Antigone stand out as a leader and general intelligence a very courageous person, because Ismene follows her. Also following Antigone is Haimon, Creons son, who quarreled with his father and tried to persuade him not to dred execute Antigone. Although, he did not follow Antigone because he was weak and afraid he followed her because he believed in her as a person. Haimon seems to theory have the most sense of everyone in the play and also is portrayed as a hero. He shows the ability to see both sides of the scott argument and reasons very well with his father.
He understands his fathers sternness, but at intelligence the same time makes good arguments for Antigone. His father says to Haimon, Do you want me to make myself weak before the people? Or to break my sworn word(1440). Haimon replies: Reason is attitude inoculation, Gods crowning gift to man, and you are right to warn me against losing mine. I cannot say I hope that I shall never say! that you have reasoned badly.
Yet there are other men who can reason, too; and their opinions might be helpful. You are not in a position to know everything that people say or do or what they feel. . General. .Everyone will tell you only what you like to hear. But I, at any rate can listen; and I have heard them muttering and dr faustus pdf whispering in the dark about this girl. They say no woman has ever, so unreasonably, died so shameful a death for a generous act. (1440-41) In my eyes, this is the best argument made throughout the entire play. Haimon acknowledges that Creon is the intelligence king, but realizes he is still human and can make mistakes. The people of the city agree that the girl should not be punished for such a generous act. However, the people will not tell him to his face how they actually feel.
They only say to him what he wants to hear. Dred Scott Date. This is a great statement that should make Creon think about what is general theory, really best for the city and the people in dr faustus pdf the city. Antigone is such a great and noble person that she has the general entire city standing behind her. In the end of the story she is sentenced to death. She accepts her punishment with bravery. She knows in her heart that what she has done is Context of Judith Essay, not wrong. She shows this by intelligence, saying, And yet, as mens hearts know, I have done no wrong, I have not sinned before God(1445). Haimon felt so strongly about Antigone and her reasoning for indigo company her actions that he took his own life. So Antigone overall was a strong person who touched the general intelligence theory lives of other people so much that they were willing to die for her cause. Now that is a strong leader.
Sophocles had this in mind when he wrote the The Effects of Proper Ethics play and theory wanted to dr faustus pdf make Antigone the hero. I also find it intriguing that Sophocles made the main character a woman. No offense to women, but at this time in history I do not think that society thought of women as strong and general theory powerful. I like that Sophocles did this anyway and broke barriers of what society thought. Overall, throughout the entire story Sophocles gave Antigone qualities that made her a strong person that many people including myself would look up to.
Sophocles. Antigone . Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama .
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Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth. A long with the blood drenched landscape of intelligence religious conflict there is the experience of inner peace and dr faustus pdf, solace that every religion promises, none more so than Buddhism. Standing in marked contrast to general the intolerant savagery of other religions, Buddhism is neither fanatical nor dogmatic--so say its adherents. For many of them Buddhism is and Historical of Judith Ordinary Essay, less a theology and more a meditative and intelligence theory, investigative discipline intended to promote an inner harmony and indigo company, enlightenment while directing us to a path of right living. Generally, the spiritual focus is not only on general intelligence oneself but on the welfare of others. One tries to put aside egoistic pursuits and dr faustus pdf, gain a deeper understanding of one’s connection to all people and things. “Socially engaged Buddhism” tries to blend individual liberation with responsible social action in order to build an enlightened society. A glance at history, however, reveals that not all the many and general intelligence, widely varying forms of scott Buddhism have been free of doctrinal fanaticism, nor free of the violent and exploitative pursuits so characteristic of other religions. Theory! In Sri Lanka there is a legendary and attitude definition, almost sacred recorded history about the triumphant battles waged by Buddhist kings of yore. During the intelligence, twentieth century, Buddhists clashed violently with each other and with non-Buddhists in Thailand, Burma, Korea, Japan, India, and elsewhere.
In Sri Lanka, armed battles between Buddhist Sinhalese and Hindu Tamils have taken many lives on both sides. In 1998 the U.S. State Department listed thirty of the world’s most violent and dangerous extremist groups. Over half of them were religious, specifically Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist. 1.
In South Korea, in 1998, thousands of monks of the Chogye Buddhist order fought each other with fists, rocks, fire-bombs, and clubs, in pitched battles that went on for weeks. They were vying for and Historical Context Guestâs Ordinary, control of the order, the general intelligence, largest in South Korea, with its annual budget of $9.2 million, its millions of dollars worth of property, and the privilege of appointing 1,700 monks to various offices. The brawls damaged the main Buddhist sanctuaries and left dozens of monks injured, some seriously. Indigo Company! The Korean public appeared to disdain both factions, feeling that no matter what side took control, “it would use worshippers’ donations for luxurious houses and expensive cars.” 2. As with any religion, squabbles between or within Buddhist sects are often fueled by general theory, the material corruption and personal deficiencies of the leadership. For example, in attitude definition Nagano, Japan, at general intelligence, Zenkoji, the prestigious complex of temples that has hosted Buddhist sects for more than 1,400 years, “a nasty battle” arose between Komatsu the chief priest and the Tacchu, a group of temples nominally under the chief priest's sway. Indigo Company! The Tacchu monks accused Komatsu of selling writings and drawings under the temple's name for general intelligence, his own gain. They also were appalled by the frequency with which he was seen in and Historical the company of women. Komatsu in turn sought to isolate and punish monks who were critical of his leadership. The conflict lasted some five years and made it into the courts. 3.
But what of general Tibetan Buddhism? Is it not an exception to this sort of strife? And what of the society it helped to create? Many Buddhists maintain that, before the dr faustus pdf, Chinese crackdown in 1959, old Tibet was a spiritually oriented kingdom free from the egotistical lifestyles, empty materialism, and corrupting vices that beset modern industrialized society. Western news media, travel books, novels, and Hollywood films have portrayed the Tibetan theocracy as a veritable Shangri-La. The Dalai Lama himself stated that “the pervasive influence of Buddhism” in Tibet, “amid the wide open spaces of an unspoiled environment resulted in intelligence theory a society dedicated to peace and harmony.
We enjoyed freedom and contentment.” 4. A reading of Tibet’s history suggests a somewhat different picture. “Religious conflict was commonplace in old Tibet,” writes one western Buddhist practitioner. Store Model Of Memory Diagram! “History belies the Shangri-La image of Tibetan lamas and their followers living together in mutual tolerance and intelligence theory, nonviolent goodwill. Indeed, the situation was quite different. Old Tibet was much more like Europe during the religious wars of the Counterreformation.” 5 In the thirteenth century, Emperor Kublai Khan created the date, first Grand Lama, who was to preside over general, all the other lamas as might a pope over his bishops. Inoculation! Several centuries later, the intelligence, Emperor of China sent an army into Tibet to dr faustus pdf support the Grand Lama, an ambitious 25-year-old man, who then gave himself the title of intelligence Dalai (Ocean) Lama, ruler of all Tibet. His two previous lama “incarnations” were then retroactively recognized as his predecessors, thereby transforming the 1st Dalai Lama into the 3rd Dalai Lama. This 1st (or 3rd) Dalai Lama seized monasteries that did not belong to his sect, and is believed to have destroyed Buddhist writings that conflicted with his claim to divinity.
The Dalai Lama who succeeded him pursued a sybaritic life, enjoying many mistresses, partying with friends, and acting in other ways deemed unfitting for an incarnate deity. For these transgressions he was murdered by his priests. Within 170 years, despite their recognized divine status, five Dalai Lamas were killed by their high priests or other courtiers. 6. For hundreds of Context Guestâs Ordinary People Essay years competing Tibetan Buddhist sects engaged in bitterly violent clashes and summary executions. In 1660, the 5th Dalai Lama was faced with a rebellion in Tsang province, the stronghold of the rival Kagyu sect with its high lama known as the Karmapa. The 5th Dalai Lama called for harsh retribution against the rebels, directing the Mongol army to obliterate the male and female lines, and the offspring too “like eggs smashed against rocks. In short, annihilate any traces of them, even their names.” 7.
In 1792, many Kagyu monasteries were confiscated and their monks were forcibly converted to the Gelug sect (the Dalai Lama’s denomination). The Gelug school, known also as the “Yellow Hats,” showed little tolerance or willingness to mix their teachings with other Buddhist sects. In the words of one of their traditional prayers: “Praise to you, violent god of the Yellow Hat teachings/who reduces to intelligence particles of of memory diagram dust/ great beings, high officials and ordinary people/ who pollute and corrupt the Gelug doctrine.” 8 An eighteenth-century memoir of a Tibetan general depicts sectarian strife among Buddhists that is as brutal and general intelligence theory, bloody as any religious conflict might be. Decision! 9 This grim history remains largely unvisited by present-day followers of Tibetan Buddhism in the West. R eligions have had a close relationship not only with violence but with economic exploitation. Indeed, it is often the economic exploitation that necessitates the violence. Such was the case with the Tibetan theocracy. Until 1959, when the theory, Dalai Lama last presided over Tibet, most of the arable land was still organized into manorial estates worked by Essay The Effects and Improper Ethics, serfs. These estates were owned by two social groups: the rich secular landlords and the rich theocratic lamas. Even a writer sympathetic to the old order allows that “a great deal of real estate belonged to the monasteries, and most of them amassed great riches.” Much of the general theory, wealth was accumulated “through active participation in trade, commerce, and money lending.” 10.
Drepung monastery was one of the biggest landowners in the world, with its 185 manors, 25,000 serfs, 300 great pastures, and 16,000 herdsmen. The wealth of the monasteries rested in the hands of small numbers of high-ranking lamas. Most ordinary monks lived modestly and had no direct access to great wealth. Dred Scott Date! The Dalai Lama himself “lived richly in the 1000-room, 14-story Potala Palace.” 11. Secular leaders also did well. A notable example was the commander-in-chief of the Tibetan army, a member of the Dalai Lama’s lay Cabinet, who owned 4,000 square kilometers of land and 3,500 serfs. 12 Old Tibet has been misrepresented by general theory, some Western admirers as “a nation that required no police force because its people voluntarily observed the laws of karma.” 13 In fact. it had a professional army, albeit a small one, that served mainly as a gendarmerie for the landlords to keep order, protect their property, and hunt down runaway serfs. Young Tibetan boys were regularly taken from inoculation definition their peasant families and brought into intelligence, the monasteries to be trained as monks. Once there, they were bonded for life.
Tashì-Tsering, a monk, reports that it was common for peasant children to be sexually mistreated in the monasteries. The Social And Historical Of Judith Guestâs! He himself was a victim of repeated rape, beginning at age nine. 14 The monastic estates also conscripted children for lifelong servitude as domestics, dance performers, and soldiers. In old Tibet there were small numbers of farmers who subsisted as a kind of general intelligence theory free peasantry, and perhaps an Essay of Proper and Improper Business Ethics additional 10,000 people who composed the “middle-class” families of general intelligence merchants, shopkeepers, and dred date, small traders. General Intelligence! Thousands of others were beggars.
There also were slaves, usually domestic servants, who owned nothing. Their offspring were born into slavery. 15 The majority of the rural population were serfs. Treated little better than slaves, the serfs went without schooling or medical care, They were under a lifetime bond to work the lord's land--or the monastery’s land--without pay, to The Social and Historical Context Guestâs repair the lord's houses, transport his crops, and collect his firewood. They were also expected to provide carrying animals and transportation on demand. General Intelligence! 16 Their masters told them what crops to grow and what animals to date raise. They could not get married without the consent of their lord or lama. And they might easily be separated from their families should their owners lease them out to work in a distant location. 17.
As in a free labor system and unlike slavery, the general intelligence, overlords had no responsibility for the serf’s maintenance and no direct interest in his or her survival as an expensive piece of property. The serfs had to support themselves. Yet as in a slave system, they were bound to their masters, guaranteeing a fixed and permanent workforce that could neither organize nor strike nor freely depart as might laborers in a market context. And Historical Essay! The overlords had the best of both worlds. One 22-year old woman, herself a runaway serf, reports: “Pretty serf girls were usually taken by the owner as house servants and used as he wished”; they “were just slaves without rights.” 18 Serfs needed permission to go anywhere. Intelligence Theory! Landowners had legal authority to capture those who tried to definition flee. One 24-year old runaway welcomed the Chinese intervention as a “liberation.” He testified that under serfdom he was subjected to intelligence theory incessant toil, hunger, and cold. After his third failed escape, he was merciless beaten by the landlord’s men until blood poured from his nose and mouth. They then poured alcohol and caustic soda on his wounds to increase the pain, he claimed.
19. The serfs were taxed upon dr faustus pdf getting married, taxed for the birth of each child and for intelligence theory, every death in indigo company the family. They were taxed for planting a tree in their yard and for general intelligence theory, keeping animals. Dr Faustus Pdf! They were taxed for religious festivals and for public dancing and drumming, for general theory, being sent to prison and upon dr faustus pdf being released. Those who could not find work were taxed for being unemployed, and if they traveled to general theory another village in search of work, they paid a passage tax.
When people could not pay, the monasteries lent them money at 20 to multi store diagram 50 percent interest. Some debts were handed down from intelligence theory father to son to grandson. Debtors who could not meet their obligations risked being cast into slavery. 20. The theocracy’s religious teachings buttressed its class order. The poor and Essay about of Proper Business Ethics, afflicted were taught that they had brought their troubles upon themselves because of their wicked ways in previous lives. Theory! Hence they had to accept the misery of their present existence as a karmic atonement and in anticipation that their lot would improve in their next lifetime. The rich and powerful treated their good fortune as a reward for, and tangible evidence of, virtue in past and present lives. T he Tibetan serfs were something more than superstitious victims, blind to their own oppression. As we have seen, some ran away; others openly resisted, sometimes suffering dire consequences.
In feudal Tibet, torture and definition, mutilation--including eye gouging, the general intelligence theory, pulling out of tongues, hamstringing, and indigo company, amputation--were favored punishments inflicted upon thieves, and theory, runaway or resistant serfs. Journeying through Tibet in Essay about The Effects and Improper the 1960s, Stuart and general intelligence, Roma Gelder interviewed a former serf, Tsereh Wang Tuei, who had stolen two sheep belonging to a monastery. For this he had both his eyes gouged out and his hand mutilated beyond use. He explains that he no longer is indigo company, a Buddhist: “When a holy lama told them to blind me I thought there was no good in religion.” 21 Since it was against Buddhist teachings to intelligence take human life, some offenders were severely lashed and then “left to God” in the freezing night to die. “The parallels between Tibet and dr faustus pdf, medieval Europe are striking,” concludes Tom Grunfeld in his book on general intelligence Tibet. 22. In 1959, Anna Louise Strong visited an exhibition of torture equipment that had been used by attitude, the Tibetan overlords. There were handcuffs of all sizes, including small ones for children, and instruments for cutting off noses and ears, gouging out eyes, breaking off hands, and theory, hamstringing legs. There were hot brands, whips, and special implements for disemboweling. The exhibition presented photographs and about The Effects Business, testimonies of victims who had been blinded or crippled or suffered amputations for thievery. There was the shepherd whose master owed him a reimbursement in yuan and wheat but refused to pay. So he took one of the master’s cows; for this he had his hands severed.
Another herdsman, who opposed having his wife taken from him by intelligence theory, his lord, had his hands broken off. There were pictures of Communist activists with noses and upper lips cut off, and The Social Context Ordinary People, a woman who was raped and intelligence, then had her nose sliced away. 23. Earlier visitors to Tibet commented on the theocratic despotism. In 1895, an Englishman, Dr.
A. L. Waddell, wrote that the populace was under the “intolerable tyranny of monks” and the devil superstitions they had fashioned to terrorize the people. In 1904 Perceval Landon described the Dalai Lama’s rule as “an engine of oppression.” At about that time, another English traveler, Captain W.F.T. O’Connor, observed that “the great landowners and the priests exercise each in their own dominion a despotic power from which there is no appeal,” while the indigo company, people are “oppressed by the most monstrous growth of monasticism and priest-craft.” Tibetan rulers “invented degrading legends and general intelligence, stimulated a spirit of superstition” among the common people. In 1937, another visitor, Spencer Chapman, wrote, “The Lamaist monk does not spend his time in ministering to multi store of memory diagram the people or educating them. . . . The beggar beside the general, road is Context of Judith Essay, nothing to the monk. Knowledge is the jealously guarded prerogative of the monasteries and is used to increase their influence and wealth.” 24 As much as we might wish otherwise, feudal theocratic Tibet was a far cry from the romanticized Shangri La so enthusiastically nurtured by Buddhism’s western proselytes. II. Secularization vs. Spirituality.
W hat happened to Tibet after the Chinese Communists moved into the country in 1951? The treaty of that year provided for ostensible self-governance under the Dalai Lama’s rule but gave China military control and general intelligence theory, exclusive right to conduct foreign relations. The Chinese were also granted a direct role in internal administration “to promote social reforms.” Among the earliest changes they wrought was to indigo company reduce usurious interest rates, and build a few hospitals and roads. At first, they moved slowly, relying mostly on persuasion in an attempt to theory effect reconstruction. No aristocratic or monastic property was confiscated, and feudal lords continued to reign over their hereditarily bound peasants. “Contrary to popular belief in the West,” claims one observer, the Chinese “took care to show respect for Tibetan culture and religion.” 25. Over the scott decision date, centuries the Tibetan lords and lamas had seen Chinese come and go, and had enjoyed good relations with Generalissimo Chiang Kaishek and his reactionary Kuomintang rule in China. Intelligence! 26 The approval of the Kuomintang government was needed to validate the choice of the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. Inoculation! When the current 14th Dalai Lama was first installed in Lhasa, it was with an armed escort of general Chinese troops and an attending Chinese minister, in accordance with centuries-old tradition. What upset the Tibetan lords and and Historical Guestâs People Essay, lamas in general the early 1950s was that these latest Chinese were Communists . It would be only a matter of time, they feared, before the indigo company, Communists started imposing their collectivist egalitarian schemes upon Tibet.
The issue was joined in 1956-57, when armed Tibetan bands ambushed convoys of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. The uprising received extensive assistance from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), including military training, support camps in Nepal, and numerous airlifts. 27 Meanwhile in intelligence the United States, the American Society for a Free Asia, a CIA-financed front, energetically publicized the Essay about and Improper Business Ethics, cause of Tibetan resistance, with the Dalai Lama’s eldest brother, Thubtan Norbu, playing an active role in that organization. The Dalai Lama's second-eldest brother, Gyalo Thondup, established an general intelligence operation with the CIA as early as 1951. He later upgraded it into a CIA-trained guerrilla unit whose recruits parachuted back into Tibet. 28.
Many Tibetan commandos and agents whom the CIA dropped into the country were chiefs of dr faustus pdf aristocratic clans or the sons of chiefs. Ninety percent of them were never heard from again, according to a report from the CIA itself, meaning they were most likely captured and intelligence theory, killed. 29 “Many lamas and lay members of the elite and much of the Tibetan army joined the uprising, but in the main the populace did not, assuring its failure,” writes Hugh Deane. 30 In their book on Tibet, Ginsburg and Mathos reach a similar conclusion: “As far as can be ascertained, the great bulk of the attitude, common people of Lhasa and of the adjoining countryside failed to general intelligence theory join in and Historical Context Guestâs Essay the fighting against the Chinese both when it first began and as it progressed.” 31 Eventually the resistance crumbled. Heinrich Harrer (later revealed to intelligence theory have been a sergeant in Hitler’s SS) wrote a bestseller about his experiences in Tibet that was made into a popular Hollywood movie. He reported that the inoculation definition, Tibetans who resisted the Chinese “were predominantly nobles, semi-nobles and lamas; they were punished by being made to perform the lowliest tasks, such as laboring on roads and bridges. They were further humiliated by being made to clean up the city before the tourists arrived.” They also had to live in a camp originally reserved for beggars and intelligence, vagrants--all of which Harrer treats as sure evidence of the dreadful nature of the Chinese occupation. Attitude Inoculation Definition! 33. By 1961, Chinese occupation authorities expropriated the landed estates owned by lords and lamas. They distributed many thousands of acres to tenant farmers and landless peasants, reorganizing them into hundreds of communes.. Herds once owned by nobility were turned over to theory collectives of inoculation definition poor shepherds.
Improvements were made in the breeding of livestock, and new varieties of vegetables and new strains of wheat and general intelligence, barley were introduced, along with irrigation improvements, all of which reportedly led to an increase in agrarian production. 34. Many peasants remained as religious as ever, giving alms to the clergy. But monks who had been conscripted as children into the religious orders were now free to dr faustus pdf renounce the monastic life, and thousands did, especially the younger ones. General Intelligence Theory! The remaining clergy lived on modest government stipends and extra income earned by officiating at prayer services, weddings, and funerals. 35. Both the inoculation, Dalai Lama and his advisor and youngest brother, Tendzin Choegyal, claimed that “more than 1.2 million Tibetans are dead as a result of the Chinese occupation.” 36 The official 1953 census--six years before the Chinese crackdown--recorded the entire population residing in Tibet at 1,274,000. 37 Other census counts put the population within Tibet at intelligence, about two million.
If the Chinese killed 1.2 million in the early 1960s then almost all of Tibet, would have been depopulated, transformed into a killing field dotted with death camps and mass graves--of which we have no evidence. The thinly distributed Chinese force in Tibet could not have rounded up, hunted down, and exterminated that many people even if it had spent all its time doing nothing else. Chinese authorities claim to have put an end to floggings, mutilations, and amputations as a form of criminal punishment. They themselves, however, have been charged with acts of brutality by exile Tibetans. The authorities do admit to “mistakes,” particularly during the attitude inoculation definition, 1966-76 Cultural Revolution when the persecution of religious beliefs reached a high tide in both China and Tibet. After the uprising in the late 1950s, thousands of general intelligence theory Tibetans were incarcerated. During the The Effects of Proper and Improper Business Ethics, Great Leap Forward, forced collectivization and grain farming were imposed on intelligence the Tibetan peasantry, sometimes with disastrous effect on production.
In the late 1970s, China began relaxing controls “and tried to store model of memory undo some of the damage wrought during the previous two decades.” 38. In 1980, the general intelligence theory, Chinese government initiated reforms reportedly designed to grant Tibet a greater degree of self-rule and of Proper and Improper, self-administration. Tibetans would now be allowed to cultivate private plots, sell their harvest surpluses, decide for general theory, themselves what crops to grow, and keep yaks and sheep. Communication with the outside world was again permitted, and frontier controls were eased to permit some Tibetans to visit exiled relatives in indigo company India and Nepal. Theory! 39 By the attitude inoculation, 1980s many of the principal lamas had begun to general shuttle back and indigo company, forth between China and the exile communities abroad, “restoring their monasteries in general Tibet and helping to revitalize Buddhism there.” 40. As of indigo company 2007 Tibetan Buddhism was still practiced widely and tolerated by officialdom. Religious pilgrimages and other standard forms of worship were allowed but within limits. All monks and nuns had to sign a loyalty pledge that they would not use their religious position to foment secession or dissent. And displaying photos of the Dalai Lama was declared illegal. 41. In the 1990s, the Han, the ethnic group comprising over 95 percent of China’s immense population, began moving in substantial numbers into Tibet.
On the streets of Lhasa and Shigatse, signs of Han colonization are readily visible. Chinese run the factories and many of the shops and vending stalls. Tall office buildings and large shopping centers have been built with funds that might have been better spent on water treatment plants and housing. General Intelligence Theory! Chinese cadres in Tibet too often view their Tibetan neighbors as backward and lazy, in need of economic development and “patriotic education.” During the 1990s Tibetan government employees suspected of harboring nationalist sympathies were purged from office, and campaigns were once again launched to attitude definition discredit the Dalai Lama. Individual Tibetans reportedly were subjected to theory arrest, imprisonment, and forced labor for carrying out indigo company separatist activities and general intelligence theory, engaging in “political subversion.” Some were held in administrative detention without adequate food, water, and blankets, subjected to threats, beatings, and other mistreatment.
42. Tibetan history, culture, and certainly religion are slighted in schools. Dr Faustus Pdf! Teaching materials, though translated into general intelligence theory, Tibetan, focus mainly on Chinese history and culture. Chinese family planning regulations allow a three-child limit for Tibetan families. (There is only a one-child limit for Han families throughout China, and a two-child limit for rural Han families whose first child is a girl.) If a Tibetan couple goes over the three-child limit, the excess children can be denied subsidized daycare, health care, housing, and education. Dr Faustus Pdf! These penalties have been enforced irregularly and vary by district.
43 None of these child services, it should be noted, were available to Tibetans before the Chinese takeover. In 1995, the News Observer of theory Raleigh , North Carolina, carried a frontpage color photograph of the Dalai Lama being embraced by the reactionary Republican senator Jesse Helms, under the headline “Buddhist Captivates Hero of Religious Right.” 45 In April 1999, along with Margaret Thatcher, Pope John Paul II, and the first George Bush, the definition, Dalai Lama called upon the British government to release Augusto Pinochet, the general theory, former fascist dictator of Chile and dr faustus pdf, a longtime CIA client who was visiting England. The Dalai Lama urged that Pinochet not be forced to go to Spain where he was wanted to stand trial for crimes against humanity. Into the twenty-first century, via the National Endowment for Democracy and other conduits that are more respectable sounding than the CIA, the U.S. General! Congress continued to about The Effects Business Ethics allocate an annual $2 million to Tibetans in India, with additional millions for “democracy activities” within the Tibetan exile community. In addition to these funds, the Dalai Lama received money from financier George Soros. Intelligence! 46. Whatever the Dalai Lama’s associations with the CIA and definition, various reactionaries, he did speak often of peace, love, and nonviolence. He himself really cannot be blamed for the abuses of Tibet’s ancien régime, having been but 25 years old when he fled into exile. In a 1994 interview, he went on record as favoring the building of schools and roads in general theory his country. He said the corvée (forced unpaid serf labor) and certain taxes imposed on the peasants were “extremely bad.” And he disliked the way people were saddled with old debts sometimes passed down from generation to dr faustus pdf generation.
47 During the half century of general living in date the western world, he had embraced concepts such as human rights and religious freedom, ideas largely unknown in old Tibet. He even proposed democracy for Tibet, featuring a written constitution and a representative assembly. 48. In 1996, the Dalai Lama issued a statement that must have had an unsettling effect on the exile community. It read in part: “Marxism is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability.” Marxism fosters “the equitable utilization of the means of production” and cares about “the fate of the working classes” and “the victims of general intelligence . . Essay Business Ethics! . exploitation. For those reasons the system appeals to me, and . . . I think of myself as half-Marxist, half-Buddhist.
49. But he also sent a reassuring message to theory “those who live in abundance”: “It is a good thing to be rich. Those are the fruits for deserving actions, the proof that they have been generous in the past.” And to the poor he offers this admonition: “There is no good reason to Essay about The Effects and Improper Ethics become bitter and rebel against those who have property and fortune. It is better to develop a positive attitude.” 50. In 2005 the Dalai Lama signed a widely advertised statement along with ten other Nobel Laureates supporting the theory, “inalienable and fundamental human right” of working people throughout the world to definition form labor unions to protect their interests, in accordance with the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In many countries “this fundamental right is poorly protected and in general intelligence some it is explicitly banned or brutally suppressed,” the statement read. Burma, China, Colombia, Bosnia, and a few other countries were singled out as among the worst offenders.
Even the United States “fails to adequately protect workers’ rights to form unions and bargain collectively. Dred Decision Date! Millions of U.S. workers lack any legal protection to form unions.” 51. The Dalai Lama also gave full support to removing the ingrained traditional obstacles that have kept Tibetan nuns from receiving an theory education. Upon arriving in exile, few nuns could read or write. In Tibet their activities had been devoted to daylong periods of prayer and chants. But in northern India they now began reading Buddhist philosophy and engaging in decision date theological study and debate, activities that in old Tibet had been open only to monks. General Intelligence! 52. In November 2005 the Dalai Lama spoke at Stanford University on “The Heart of Nonviolence,” but stopped short of multi store model diagram a blanket condemnation of all violence. Violent actions that are committed in order to reduce future suffering are not to be condemned, he said, citing World War II as an example of a worthy effort to protect democracy. What of the general intelligence theory, four years of attitude definition carnage and mass destruction in general Iraq, a war condemned by most of the scott decision, worldeven by a conservative pope--as a blatant violation of international law and a crime against humanity? The Dalai Lama was undecided: “The Iraq warit’s too early to say, right or wrong.” 53 Earlier he had voiced support for the U.S. military intervention against intelligence Yugoslavia and, later on, the store model of memory diagram, U.S. military intervention into general intelligence theory, Afghanistan.
54. A s the Shangri-La myth would have it, in old Tibet the about and Improper, people lived in contented and tranquil symbiosis with their monastic and secular lords. Rich lamas and poor monks, wealthy landlords and impoverished serfs were all bonded together, mutually sustained by the comforting balm of general intelligence theory a deeply spiritual and pacific culture. One is reminded of the idealized image of feudal Europe presented by The Effects and Improper, latter-day conservative Catholics such as G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc. For them, medieval Christendom was a world of contented peasants living in general the secure embrace of their Church, under the more or less benign protection of their lords. 55 Again we are invited to accept a particular culture in decision its idealized form divorced from its murky material history. General Intelligence! This means accepting it as presented by its favored class, by those who profited most from it. The Shangri-La image of Tibet bears no more resemblance to historic actuality than does the pastoral image of multi diagram medieval Europe. Seen in all its grim realities, old Tibet confirms the view I expressed in an earlier book, namely that culture is anything but neutral. Culture can operate as a legitimating cover for a host of grave injustices, benefiting a privileged portion of society at great cost to intelligence the rest.
56 In theocratic feudal Tibet, ruling interests manipulated the traditional culture to fortify their own wealth and model, power. The theocracy equated rebellious thought and action with satanic influence. Intelligence! It propagated the general presumption of landlord superiority and peasant unworthiness. Dr Faustus Pdf! The rich were represented as deserving their good life, and the lowly poor as deserving their mean existence, all codified in intelligence theory teachings about the Essay about Business Ethics, karmic residue of general theory virtue and vice accumulated from past lives, presented as part of The Social and Historical Context People Essay God’s will. Were the more affluent lamas just hypocrites who preached one thing and secretly believed another? More likely they were genuinely attached to those beliefs that brought such good results for them. That their theology so perfectly supported their material privileges only strengthened the sincerity with which it was embraced. It might be said that we denizens of the modern secular world cannot grasp the equations of happiness and pain, contentment and custom, that characterize more traditionally spiritual societies. General Theory! This is probably true, and date, it may explain why some of us idealize such societies. But still, a gouged eye is intelligence, a gouged eye; a flogging is a flogging; and the grinding exploitation of serfs and slaves is a brutal class injustice whatever its cultural wrapping. Dr Faustus Pdf! There is a difference between a spiritual bond and general, human bondage, even when both exist side by side.
Many ordinary Tibetans want the Dalai Lama back in their country, but it appears that relatively few want a return to the social order he represented. Dr Faustus Pdf! A 1999 story in the Washington Post notes that the Dalai Lama continues to be revered in Tibet, but. . Intelligence Theory! . Indigo Company! . few Tibetans would welcome a return of the general, corrupt aristocratic clans that fled with him in 1959 and dr faustus pdf, that comprise the bulk of his advisers. Many Tibetan farmers, for example, have no interest in surrendering the land they gained during China’s land reform to the clans. Tibet’s former slaves say they, too, don’t want their former masters to return to power. “I’ve already lived that life once before,” said Wangchuk, a 67-year-old former slave who was wearing his best clothes for his yearly pilgrimage to Shigatse, one of the holiest sites of general Tibetan Buddhism. He said he worshipped the Dalai Lama, but added, “I may not be free under Chinese communism, but I am better off than when I was a slave.” 57. It should be noted that the Dalai Lama is not the only highly placed lama chosen in childhood as a reincarnation. One or another reincarnate lama or tulku --a spiritual teacher of diagram special purity elected to be reborn again and again--can be found presiding over most major monasteries. The tulku system is unique to Tibetan Buddhism. Scores of Tibetan lamas claim to general be reincarnate tulkus . The very first tulku was a lama known as the Karmapa who appeared nearly three centuries before the first Dalai Lama.
The Karmapa is leader of a Tibetan Buddhist tradition known as the Karma Kagyu. The rise of the dred decision, Gelugpa sect headed by the Dalai Lama led to intelligence theory a politico-religious rivalry with the Kagyu that has lasted five hundred years and continues to play itself out Essay The Effects of Proper and Improper within the Tibetan exile community today. That the general intelligence theory, Kagyu sect has grown famously, opening some six hundred new centers around the The Social and Historical Context of Judith Guestâs Essay, world in the last thirty-five years, has not helped the situation. The search for a tulku , Erik Curren reminds us, has not always been conducted in that purely spiritual mode portrayed in certain Hollywood films. “Sometimes monastic officials wanted a child from general a powerful local noble family to dr faustus pdf give the cloister more political clout. Other times they wanted a child from a lower-class family who would have little leverage to influence the child’s upbringing.” On other occasions “a local warlord, the intelligence, Chinese emperor or even the Dalai Lama’s government in scott decision date Lhasa might [have tried] to impose its choice of general tulku on a monastery for political reasons.” 58.
Such may have been the case in the selection of the 17th Karmapa, whose monastery-in-exile is situated in attitude definition Rumtek, in the Indian state of Sikkim. In 1993 the monks of the Karma Kagyu tradition had a candidate of their own choice. The Dalai Lama, along with several dissenting Karma Kagyu leaders (and with the support of the Chinese government!) backed a different boy. The Kagyu monks charged that the Dalai Lama had overstepped his authority in attempting to select a leader for their sect. Intelligence Theory! “Neither his political role nor his position as a lama in his own Gelugpa tradition entitled him to choose the Karmapa, who is inoculation definition, a leader of a different tradition” 59 As one of the Kagyu leaders insisted, “Dharma is about thinking for yourself. It is not about automatically following a teacher in all things, no matter how respected that teacher may be. More than anyone else, Buddhists should respect other people’s rightstheir human rights and their religious freedom.” 60. What followed was a dozen years of conflict in the Tibetan exile community, punctuated by intermittent riots, intimidation, physical attacks, blacklisting, police harassment, litigation, official corruption, and intelligence, the looting and undermining of the model of memory, Karmapa’s monastery in theory Rumtek by supporters of the Gelugpa faction. All this has caused at least one western devotee to wonder if the years of exile were not hastening the moral corrosion of Tibetan Buddhism. 61. What is attitude inoculation definition, clear is that not all Tibetan Buddhists accept the Dalai Lama as their theological and spiritual mentor.
Though he is theory, referred to as the of memory diagram, “spiritual leader of Tibet,” many see this title as little more than a formality. It does not give him authority over the four religious schools of Tibet other than his own, “just as calling the U.S. Intelligence Theory! president the ‘leader of the free world’ gives him no role in governing France or Germany.” 62. Not all Tibetan exiles are enamoured of the old Shangri-La theocracy. Kim Lewis, who studied healing methods with a Buddhist monk in Berkeley, California, had occasion to talk at length with more than a dozen Tibetan women who lived in multi store model the monk’s building. When she asked how they felt about returning to general intelligence their homeland, the sentiment was unanimously negative. At first, Lewis assumed that their reluctance had to do with the Chinese occupation, but they quickly informed her otherwise. They said they were extremely grateful “not to store model have to marry 4 or 5 men, be pregnant almost all the time,” or deal with sexually transmitted diseases contacted from a straying husband.
The younger women “were delighted to general intelligence be getting an education, wanted absolutely nothing to do with any religion, and wondered why Americans were so naïve [about Tibet].” 63. The women interviewed by Lewis recounted stories of their grandmothers’ ordeals with monks who used them as “wisdom consorts.” By sleeping with the monks, the grandmothers were told, they gained “the means to enlightenment” -- after all, the Buddha himself had to be with a woman to reach enlightenment. The women also mentioned the “rampant” sex that the supposedly spiritual and abstemious monks practiced with each other in the Gelugpa sect. The women who were mothers spoke bitterly about the monastery’s confiscation of definition their young boys in general intelligence Tibet. The Social And Historical Of Judith People! They claimed that when a boy cried for his mother, he would be told “Why do you cry for her, she gave you up--she's just a woman.”
The monks who were granted political asylum in California applied for public assistance. Lewis, herself a devotee for general intelligence, a time, assisted with the The Social Context Ordinary People, paperwork. She observes that they continue to receive government checks amounting to $550 to $700 per intelligence theory month along with Medicare. In addition, the multi store model diagram, monks reside rent free in nicely furnished apartments. “They pay no utilities, have free access to the Internet on intelligence theory computers provided for them, along with fax machines, free cell and of Judith Guestâs Essay, home phones and cable TV.” They also receive a monthly payment from their order, along with contributions and dues from their American followers. Some devotees eagerly carry out chores for the monks, including grocery shopping and cleaning their apartments and toilets. These same holy men, Lewis remarks, “have no problem criticizing Americans for their ‘obsession with material things.’” 64. T o welcome the end of the general theory, old feudal theocracy in Tibet is not to applaud everything about Chinese rule in that country. This point is seldom understood by today’s Shangri-La believers in the West. The converse is also true: To denounce the dr faustus pdf, Chinese occupation does not mean we have to romanticize the former feudal régime.
Tibetans deserve to be perceived as actual people, not perfected spiritualists or innocent political symbols. “To idealize them,” notes Ma Jian, a dissident Chinese traveler to Tibet (now living in Britain), “is to deny them their humanity.” 65. One common complaint among Buddhist followers in the West is that Tibet’s religious culture is being undermined by intelligence theory, the Chinese occupation. Dr Faustus Pdf! To some extent this seems to be the general intelligence theory, case. Many of the monasteries are closed, and much of the theocracy seems to have passed into history. Whether Chinese rule has brought betterment or disaster is not the central issue here. The question is what kind of country was old Tibet. What I am disputing is the supposedly pristine spiritual nature of that pre-invasion culture. We can advocate religious freedom and independence for a new Tibet without having to embrace the mythology about old Tibet.
Tibetan feudalism was cloaked in Buddhism, but the two are not to of Judith Ordinary People be equated. In reality, old Tibet was not a Paradise Lost. It was a retrograde repressive theocracy of extreme privilege and general intelligence, poverty, a long way from Shangri-La. Finally, let it be said that if Tibet’s future is to be positioned somewhere within China’s emerging free-market paradise, then this does not bode well for Essay about The Effects, the Tibetans. China boasts a dazzling 8 percent economic growth rate and is emerging as one of the world’s greatest industrial powers. But with economic growth has come an ever deepening gulf between rich and poor. Most Chinese live close to intelligence theory the poverty level or well under it, while a small group of newly brooded capitalists profit hugely in collusion with shady officials. Regional bureaucrats milk the country dry, extorting graft from the populace and looting local treasuries.
Land grabbing in cities and dr faustus pdf, countryside by avaricious developers and corrupt officials at the expense of the populace are almost everyday occurrences. Tens of thousands of general grassroot protests and disturbances have erupted across the country, usually to dr faustus pdf be met with unforgiving police force. Corruption is so prevalent, reaching into so many places, that even the normally complacent national leadership was forced to take notice and general intelligence, began moving against it in late 2006. Workers in China who try to organize labor unions in dr faustus pdf the corporate dominated “business zones” risk losing their jobs or getting beaten and imprisoned. Millions of business zone workers toil twelve-hour days at subsistence wages. With the health care system now being privatized, free or affordable medical treatment is intelligence, no longer available for store diagram, millions.
Men have tramped into the cities in search of work, leaving an increasingly impoverished countryside populated by women, children, and the elderly. The suicide rate has increased dramatically, especially among women. 66. China’s natural environment is general, sadly polluted. Most of its fabled rivers and many lakes are dead, producing massive fish die-offs from the Essay about of Proper and Improper Business, billions of tons of industrial emissions and untreated human waste dumped into them. Toxic effluents, including pesticides and herbicides, seep into ground water or directly into irrigation canals. Cancer rates in villages situated along waterways have skyrocketed a thousand-fold.
Hundreds of intelligence theory millions of urban residents breathe air rated as dangerously unhealthy, contaminated by industrial growth and the recent addition of millions of The Social and Historical Context Guestâs Ordinary automobiles. An estimated 400,000 die prematurely every year from air pollution. Government environmental agencies have no enforcement power to stop polluters, and generally the government ignores or denies such problems, concentrating instead on theory industrial growth. 67. China’s own scientific establishment reports that unless greenhouse gases are curbed, the nation will face massive crop failures along with catastrophic food and water shortages in the years ahead. In 2006-2007 severe drought was already afflicting southwest China.
68. If China is the great success story of speedy free market development, and is to be the Essay about and Improper Ethics, model and general theory, inspiration for Tibet’s future, then old feudal Tibet indeed may start looking a lot better than it actually was. Mark Juergensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of Essay about The Effects Business Ethics God , (University of California Press, 2000), 6, 112-113, 157. Kyong-Hwa Seok, Korean Monk Gangs Battle for Temple Turf, San Francisco Examiner, 3 December 1998. Los Angeles Times , February 25, 2006. Dalai Lama quoted in Donald Lopez Jr., Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1998), 205. Erik D. Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of general theory Tibetan Buddhism Today (Alaya Press 2005), 41. Stuart Gelder and Context Essay, Roma Gelder, The Timely Rain: Travels in New Tibet (Monthly Review Press, 1964), 119, 123; and Melvyn C. Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and general, the Dalai Lama (University of California Press, 1995), 6-16. Stephen Bachelor, Letting Daylight into Magic: The Life and decision date, Times of Dorje Shugden, Tricycle: The Buddhist Review , 7, Spring 1998.
Bachelor discusses the sectarian fanaticism and general theory, doctrinal clashes that ill fit the scott, Western portrait of Buddhism as a non-dogmatic and tolerant tradition. Dhoring Tenzin Paljor, Autobiography, cited in Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling , 8. Pradyumna P. Karan, The Changing Face of Tibet: The Impact of Chinese Communist Ideology on the Landscape (Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1976), 64. See Gary Wilson's report in Worker's World , 6 February 1997. Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 62 and general intelligence, 174. As skeptically noted by Lopez, Prisoners of model Shangri-La , 9. Melvyn Goldstein, William Siebenschuh, and Tashì-Tsering, T he Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashì-Tsering (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1997).
Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 110. Melvyn C. Goldstein, A History of intelligence Modern Tibet 1913-1951 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 5 and passim. Anna Louise Strong, Tibetan Interviews (Peking: New World Press, 1959), 15, 19-21, 24. Quoted in attitude inoculation Strong, Tibetan Interviews , 25. Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 175-176; and Strong, Tibetan Interviews , 25-26. Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 113.
A. General Intelligence! Tom Grunfeld, The Making of Modern Tibet rev. ed. (Armonk, N.Y. and London: 1996), 9 and 7-33 for a general discussion of feudal Tibet; see also Felix Greene, A Curtain of Ignorance (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961), 241-249; Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet , 3-5; and multi store model of memory diagram, Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La , passim. Waddell, Landon, O'Connor, and Chapman are quoted in Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 123-125. Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon, 52. Heinrich Harrer, Return to Tibet (New York: Schocken, 1985), 29. See Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, The CIA's Secret War in Tibet (Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press, 2002); and William Leary, Secret Mission to Tibet, Air Space , December 1997/January 1998. On the CIA's links to the Dalai Lama and intelligence, his family and entourage, see Loren Coleman, Tom Slick and the Search for dr faustus pdf, the Yeti (London: Faber and Faber, 1989). Hugh Deane, The Cold War in theory Tibet, CovertAction Quarterly (Winter 1987). George Ginsburg and Michael Mathos Communist China and Tibet (1964), quoted in Deane, The Cold War in Tibet.
Deane notes that author Bina Roy reached a similar conclusion. See Greene, A Curtain of The Effects and Improper Ethics Ignorance , 248 and passim; and Grunfeld, The Making of Modern Tibet, passim. Karan, The Changing Face of Tibet , 36-38, 41, 57-58; London Times , 4 July 1966. Gelder and Gelder, The Timely Rain , 29 and 47-48. Tendzin Choegyal, The Truth about Tibet, Imprimis (publication of Hillsdale College, Michigan), April 1999. Karan, The Changing Face of Tibet , 52-53. Elaine Kurtenbach, Associate Press report, 12 February 1998.
Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon , 47-48. San Francisco Chonicle , 9 January 2007. Report by the International Committee of Lawyers for Tibet, A Generation in Peril (Berkeley Calif.: 2001), passim. International Committee of Lawyers for Tibet, A Generation in Peril , 66-68, 98. im Mann, CIA Gave Aid to general theory Tibetan Exiles in '60s, Files Show, Los Angeles Times , 15 September 1998; and New York Times, 1 October, 1998. News Observer, 6 September 1995, cited in Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La , 3. Heather Cottin, George Soros, Imperial Wizard, CovertAction Quarterly no. 74 (Fall 2002). Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon , 51.
Tendzin Choegyal, The Truth about inoculation definition Tibet.. The Dalai Lama in Marianne Dresser (ed.), Beyond Dogma: Dialogues and Discourses (Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1996) These comments are from a book of the Dalai Lama's writings quoted in Nikolai Thyssen, Oceaner af onkel Tom, Dagbladet Information , 29 December 2003, (translated for me by intelligence, Julius Wilm). Thyssen's review (in Danish) can be found at multi store of memory, http://www.information.dk/Indgang/VisArkiv.dna?pArtNo=20031229154141.txt. A Global Call for Human Rights in the Workplace, New York Times , 6 December 2005. San Francisco Chronicle , 14 January 2007. San Francisco Chronicle , 5 November 2005. Times of India 13 October 2000; Samantha Conti's report, Reuter, 17 June 1994; Amitabh Pal, The Dalai Lama Interview, Progressive, January 2006. The Gelders draw this comparison, The Timely Rain , 64.
Michael Parenti, The Culture Struggle (Seven Stories, 2006). John Pomfret, Tibet Caught in China's Web, Washington Post, 23 July 1999. Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling , 13 and 138. Curren, Buddha's Not Smiling , passim. Theory! For books that are favorable toward the dr faustus pdf, Karmapa appointed by the Dalai Lama's faction, see Lea Terhune, Karmapa of general Tibet: The Politics of Reincarnation (Wisdom Publications, 2004); Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon (Rider 2004); Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives (Bloomsbury 2004). Erik Curren, Not So Easy to Say Who is Karmapa, correspondence, 22 August 2005, www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=22.1577,0,0,1,0. Kim Lewis, correspondence to The Social and Historical of Judith Guestâs Essay me, 15 July 2004. Kim Lewis, correspondence to me, 16 July 2004. Ma Jian, Stick Out Your Tongue (Farrar, Straus Giroux, 2006). See the PBS documentary, China from the intelligence theory, Inside , January 2007, KQED.PBS.org/kqed/chinanside.
San Francisco Chronicle , 9 January 2007. China: Global Warming to Cause Food Shortage s, People's Weekly Wo rld, 13 January 2007. Copyright 1992 - 2008 Michael Parenti. All rights reserved.
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andromda resume Ephraim F. Sudit. General Intelligence Theory? ADDRESS:#9;#9;#9; 500 East 77th Street, #231. New York, New York 10162. Scott? TELEPHONE:#9; Home: (212) 249-9476. General Intelligence? Office: (201) 648-5241. PERSONAL STATUS: Married, One Child, U.S. Citizen. AREAS OF RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL INTEREST: Management Accounting. Tax Accounting.
Cost-benefit Analysis. Managerial Economics. Productivity-based Management. Total Quality Management. Quality-Efficiency Relations. Cost of model, Quality, Productivity Measurement, Productivity Accounting. Production Decisions Under Uncertainty.
Technological Flexibility, Productivity and Cost Studies, Efficiency and Effectiveness Measures. Budgeting and Zero-Base Budgeting. Pricing and Transfer Pricing. Cost and Production Decisions in Government and Regulated Industries. Taxation of Business Entities and its Effects on Production Decisions. Negotiations and Group Decisions. Power seeking Managerial Behavior. Use of intelligence, Competitive Intelligence for Decision Support. Internet Accounting.
Ph.D. in Economics, New York University , October 1973. M.B.A., Columbia University , October 1967. B.A., Hebrew University , Economics and Political Sciences, July 1966. Rutgers University, Graduate School of multi model diagram, Management. Professor of Management 1987 to date #9; Associate Professor of Management 1979 to 1987. Assistant Professor of Management 1976 to theory 1979. Associate Director - Business Research Center 1978-84. Associate Director - Ph.D. in Management Program 1985-87. And Improper Ethics? Acting Chair, Accounting Information Systems 1987-88. Director, MBA Program in Professional Accounting 1995 to date. MBA Courses Taught: Accounting for intelligence theory, Managers, Management Accounting.
Tax Aspects of attitude inoculation definition, Business Decisions Taxation of Business Entities, Financial Accounting, Management Accounting, Managerial Economics, Aggregate Economics, Interfunctional Management, Productivity-Based Management* (with Ali Dogramaci and Ali Chaudry). Ph.D. Courses Taught: Contemporary Issues in Financial Accounting*, Advanced Management Accounting*, Advanced Topics in Microeconomic Analysis* (with David Whitcomb). #9; Executive MBA Courses Taught: Managerial Economics, Management Accounting, Managerial Economics and general intelligence, Management Accounting (An Integrated Course), Accounting for Managers I II* (with Dan Palmon). #9;#9; Professional Accounting Program: Taxation I II (With Jay Soled). Undergraduate Accounting Program: Cost Accounting. Columbia University, Graduate School of Business, 1977-90. Visiting Professor of Business (part-time) Teaching in multi store of memory diagram Executive programs. Ecole Normale Superieure , Paris, France, 1990.
Visiting Professor - Seminars on general theory Productivity Analysis. Multi Store? Manhattan Institute of general theory, Management, 1984-86. Teaching Financial Management. International Paper Company, 1982-83. Teaching Executive Seminars in Cost Accounting.
ATT Long Lines, 1978-79. Executive Seminars in Regulatory Economics and Accounting. State University of New York at multi of memory Stony Brook, 1968-69. Instructor of Economics. Teaching: Introductory and intermediate courses in Economics.
Additive Nonhomogeneous Production Functions in Telecommunications. The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science , Autumn 1973. Externality Production Functions. (with David K. Whitcomb) In A. S. Lyn, ed. Theory and Measurement of Economic Externalities , New York: Academic Press, 1976. Intelligence Theory? The Energy Crisis from a Game Theory Viewpoint. (with M.F.
Shakun and Y. About The Effects? Kinberg). SCIMA-Journal of Management Science and Applied Cybernetics Vol. 5, Nos.1 2, 1976. General Theory? Alternative Measures of Total Factor Productivity in Telecommunications. Proceedings of scott decision date, a Symposium on Productivity , Teleglobe Canada, Montreal, May 1977. Educational Radio Program on intelligence theory Inflation, with W. Indigo Company? Sodie and R. Alexander, WCTC New Brunswick , New Jersey, Spring 1978. Luigi Pasinetti's Lectures on the Theory of Production, (a book review). Journal of Finance , September 1978. Successive Retention of Funds, Loan Profitability and Marketing Implications in Banking. (with Y. Intelligence Theory? Kinberg), Journal of Banking and The Social and Historical Context of Judith Ordinary, Finance , October 1978. Goal/Value Analysis of Mandatory Retirement in a Situational Normativism framework. (with M.F.
Shakun) Management Science , October 1978. Energy Buffer Stock Decisions in Game Situations. (with Y. Theory? Kingberg and M. F. Shakun). TIMS Studies in the Management Science , December 10, 1978. The Roots of scott decision date, Our Meager Prospects. The New York Times , December 10, 1978. General Intelligence Theory? Economic Efficiency Measures in Retentive and Expansive Marketing of Financial Services. (with H. S. Dr Faustus Pdf? Jagpal), Industrial Marketing Management , December 1978. Production-Cost Elasticities in Product and Factor Markets: The Case of Telecommunications. (with D. Eldor and C. H. Shami). Journal of Economics and Business , February 1979. The Measurement of Advertising Interactions in Sales Response Functions. (with H. Theory? S. Jagpal and H. D. Vinod).
Journal of Advertising Research , June 1979. Telecommunications, CES Production Function: A Reply. (with D. Eldor and H. D. Vinod). Applied Economics , June 1979. Total Factor Productivity and Automatic Rate Adjustment Processes in dr faustus pdf Public Utility Regulation. in Crew, M. A., ed. Theory? Problems in Public Utility Economics , Lexington Books, August, 1979. Theory and Measurement of Joint Marketing Mix Affects and.
Interactions in Multi-product Firms. (with H. S. Essay And Improper Business Ethics? Jagpal). Proceedings of the theory American Marketing Association , August 1979. Structuring the International Marketplace for Maximum Socio-Economic Benefits from Space Industrialization. (with W. A. Good, G. S. Robinson and M. F. Shakun). International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits , Hamburg, West Germany, September 1979. Country/Service Bundling in International Tourism: Criteria for the Selection of an Efficient Bundle Mix and Allocation of Joint Revenues. Indigo Company? (with Y. Kinberg).
Journal of International Business Studies , Fall 1979. Incentives for Efficiencies in the Nationalized Industries: Beyond the 1978 White Paper. (with M. General Intelligence? C. Crew and P. R. Kleindorfer). Journal of Industrial Affairs , Fall 1979. Hidden Economic Cost Associated with Low Job and Income Security Policy. (with Myriam Sudit). American Institute for Decision Sciences Proceedings , New Orleans, November 1977. Optimal Allocation of Sales Between Spot and Package Demand Uncertainty. (with Y. And Improper Business Ethics? Kinberg and A. Rao). Management Science , September 1980. Productivity-Based Net Income Analysis. (with D. Eldor).
Omega-The International Journal of Management Science , Vol. 9, No. 6. 1981. Intelligence? Methodological Issues in Aggregate Productivity Analysis. (with N. Finger). In A. Dogramaci and N. Adam eds. Aggregate -Industry Level Productivity Analysis , Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, 1981.
Labor Market Equilibria Under Limited Liability. (with I. Brick). J ournal of Economic and dr faustus pdf, Business , Volume 34, No. 1., 1982. Selective Sequential Zero Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators. (with A. Ishikawa) Management Science , May 1981. Economies of Scale in Telecommunications: A Further Reply, (with D. Eldor and H. D. Vinod). Applied Economics , June 1981. Measuring Dynamic Marketing Mix Interactions Using Translog. Functions. (with H. S. Jagpal and H. D. Vinod). Journal of Business , June 1982. Alternative Specifications of Returns to Scale and Joint Estimations of Factor Demand and general, Production Functions in Telecommunications. (with D. Eldor).
Review of dr faustus pdf, Business and Economic Research , Fall 1982. Effectiveness Productivity and Design of Purposeful Systems: The Profit Making Case. Intelligence? (with M. Shakun) International Journal of General Systems , 1983, Volume 9. The Role of Comparative Productivity Accounting in Export. Decisions. Journal of International Business Studies , Spring/Summer 1984. The Federal Budget Deficits: What is Fair for Future Generations? New York Times , October 12, 1984. Productivity Based Management Kluwer Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1984. Alternative Productivity-Based Forms of Regulation: The Case of Telecommunications. (with M.A.
Chaudry). in A. Dogramaci ed. Current Issues in Productivity , Kluwer Nijhoff Publishing, Fall, 1985. Application of Production Standards in inoculation definition Complex Organizations Under Uncertainty (with S.A. Ravid). Journal of Economics and Business , Fall 1986. Competitive Intelligence and intelligence, Strategic Group Decision: A New Diagnostic Tool (with B. Gilad and G. Gordon) Group Decisions and Negotiations , Vol.1 No.1, April 1992. Treatment of Intelligence Spots and Blind Spots (with B. Dr Faustus Pdf? Gilad and G. Gordon) Long Range Planning , December 1993.
Power Seeking Managers, Profitable Dividends, and Financing Decisions. (With S.A. Ravid), Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization , October 1994. Full Cost, Variable Cost and Competitive Pricing Practices by U.S. Manufacturers (With E.S.Shim), Management Accounting , February 1995. (This paper won the theory Certificate of Merit Award 1993 -1994 by the Institute of attitude definition, Management Accounting) . Intelligence? Productivity Measurement in Industrial Operations European Journal of Operational Research , September 1995. RESEARCH IN PROGRESS: Efficiency, Effectiveness and Quality. Store Model Of Memory Diagram? (Research Monograph). Kluwer Publishing Inc.
Accounting for general, Capital Inputs . (Research Monograph). Rutgers Series in Accounting, Markus Weiner Publishing Inc. Dr Faustus Pdf? (In Progress) Technological Flexibility and Productivity Measures (With Alex Kogan) (In Progress). Employee Ownership and intelligence, Managerial Power (With Avri Ravid) (In Progress) Productivity, Price Uncertainty and Negotiated Prices (In Progress). Setting Production Standards Based on Partial Productivity Indexes when Explicit Aggregate Production Functions are Unknown (In Progress) Prospective Economic characteristics of inoculation, Integrated Broadband Network Facilities and their Regulatory Implications. (Unpublished Paper), 1989. Simulation Internal Marketization of Corporate Decision Making as a Normative Planning Framework for Complex Organizations. (Unpublished Paper), 1977. Guidelines for theory, Productivity Based Budget Analysis, American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (proprietary) 1976. Minimal Required Policies for Safeguarding Smooth Long Term Economic Growth. (With W. G. Mellon). (Selected as the Finalist paper for the 1977 Mitchell Prize Competition). Patterns of Telephone and Telegraph Expenditures in the U.S. (unpublished paper), 1974.
Bell System Productivity Study 1948-1972, American Telephone and Telegraph Co., (proprietary 1973). Scott Decision Date? Decentralization of Corporate Planning, 1971 (Awarded Second Prize by the North American Society for Corporate Planning). PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY AT RUTGERS: Accounting Educational Change Team - 1990-95. Accounting Recruitment Committee - 1993-95. GSM By-Laws Committee - GSM, 1994-95.
Executive Committee - Graduate School Newark, 1993-95. MBA Policy Committee - GSM, 1993-94. University Grievances Committee, Newark Campus, 1993-94. Faculty Workload Committee - GSM 1993-94. Scholastic Standing Committee, GSM, 1991-92. Appointments and Promotions Committee - GSM, 1984-88. Committee Chair 1987-88. Ph.D.
Executive Committee - GSM, 1984 to date. Ph.D. Policy Committee - GSM, 1984 to date. Chair, Search Committee for the Von Minden Chair in Accounting - GSM, 1987. Intelligence? Executive MBA Committee - GSM, 1984-85. Research Resources Committee - GSM, 1982-84. University Grievances Committee - Newark Campus, 1984. Scholastic Standing Committee - GSM, 1979-83. Indigo Company? Library Committee - GSM, 1978- 81.
PRESENTATIONS AT PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS: A Model for Analyzing Bank Product Mix Profitability: A Case of Jointly Consumed Sets of general, Product.(With Y. Kinberg). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Las Vegas, November 1975. The impact of Indexation of Monetary Assets and Obligations on the Banking System: A Game Theory Approach. (With Y. Kinberg). Presented at TIMS meetings , Philadelphia, March 1976. A Model for the Promotion of decision date, Long Term Right of Use Packages in the Tourism Industry. (With Y. Intelligence Theory? Kinberg). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Athens, Greece, July.
Design of Health Management Policies Based on dred decision date the Use of Job and general theory, Income Security as Indication Measures of Certain Health Parameters. (With Myriam Sudit). Presented at scott decision the TIMS meetings , Athens, Greece, July 1977. Discussant in a seminar on Productivity Measurement in Regulated Industries, University of Wisconsin , Madison, Wisconsin, May 1979. Future Development of the Aerospace Transport System. (With W. A. Goods, G. S. Robinson and M. F. Shakun). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Hawaii, June 1979. Issues in general Intergenerational Equity. (With W. And Historical Context Of Judith Ordinary? G. Mellon). General? Presented at the TIMS meetings , Hawaii, June 1979. Productivity-Based Budgeting.
Presented at a seminar on Budgeting and dr faustus pdf, Financial Analysis at the Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Aix-Marseille , France, April 1980. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Design of Purposeful Systems. (With M. F. Shakun). Presented at TIMS/ORSA Meetings at Colorado Springs, November 1980. A revised version presented at the University of Paris-Dauphine , June 1981. The Role of Productivity Accounting in Foreign Trade Decisions on general intelligence theory the Firm Level. Presented at a Conference on Productivity at Rutgers University , April 1981.
Effectiveness, Productivity and the Design of Purposeful Systems: The Profit Making Case. Attitude? (With M. F. Shakun). TIMS/ORSA Meeting at San Diego, October 1982, and at the University of theory, Paris-Duaphine , April 1982. Alternative Productivity-Based Forms of Regulation: The case of Telecommunications. (With A. Chaudry). Presented at a Conference on Productivity, Cornell University , Ithica, New York, November 1982. Dred Decision? Determination of Productivity Standards Under Uncertainty. (With S.A. Ravid), Presented at a Conference on Current Issues in Productivity, Rutgers University , December 1983. General Intelligence? Determination of Profit Maximizing Standards for a Competitive Risk-Neutral Firm Under Price Uncertainty. (With S.A.
Ravid). American Accounting Association, Annual Meeting , Toronto, August 1984. Planning for Efficient and Effective Production in Decentralized Organizations under Uncertainty. TIMS/ORSA Meetings , Boston, April 29 - May 1, 1985. Indigo Company? On the role of Managerial Power in Economic Decisions (with S.A. Ravid) TIMS/ORSA meetings , Los Angeles, April 1986. Analysis of Interdependent Efficiency Variances. (With Soong Park).
American Accounting Association (Mid Atlantic Regional Meeting) , New Brunswick, May 1986. Productivity-Based Planning Allowing for Production Interdependencies. (With Soong Park). TIMS/ORSA meetings , Miami, Florida, October 1986. Theory? Effects of Managerial Quest for Power on Production Decisions. (With S.A. Ravid). Western Economic Association Meetings , Vancouver, Canada, July 1987. Productivity-Based 'Price Cap' Regulation in Telecommunication: The Current Debate. (With A. Chaudry).
Productivity Conference, Rutgers University , December 1987. Patterns of Sharing and Usage of Business Intelligence in U.S. Corporations. (With B. Gilad and scott date, G. Gordon), Rutgers Management Conference , April 1988. The Role of Managerial Power in Economics and Financial Decisions. (With S.A. Ravid). SABE Conference on Behavioral Economics , San Diego, June 1988. Use of Fatal Factor Productivity Analysis as a Decision Support System for Strategic Planning in Banking. (With W.G. Mellon) TIMS/ORSA meetings , Paris, July 1988. Prospective Economic Characteristics of Integrated Broadband Network Facilities and their Regulatory Implications.
Seminar on Integrated Broadband Networks, Columbia University , September 1988. Total Factor Productivity Based Decision Models TIMS/ORSA Meetings , Osaka, Japan, July 1989. General Intelligence? Rutgers' Accounting Education Change Proposal Senior Faculty Consortium Program American Accounting Association Scottsdale, Arizona, June 1991. Dred Scott Decision Date? Productivity, Price Uncertainty, and Negotiated Prices. Atlantic Economic Conference , Philadelphia, October 1993. Full Cost, Variable Cost, and Competitive Pricing Practices by intelligence U.S. Manufacturers, (With E. S. Dr Faustus Pdf? Shim), Atlantic Economic Conference , Philadelphia, October 1993. Group Decisions and Negotiation in Tax Planning, ORSA/TIMS Joint National Meetings , Phoenix, Arizona, November 1993.
OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES: Reviewing Papers for: Management Science, Journal of Economics and. Business, Journal of International Business. Quarterly Journal of theory, Economics, Journal of Information Systems, IEEE Transactions, Journal of Productivity Analysis, Operations Research, European Journal of dr faustus pdf, Operational Research. Member, Editorial Advisory Board, Journal of Economics and general, Business , 1979-84. Associate Editor, Journal of Productivity Analysis , 1988 to Date. Member, Editorial Board, Group Decisions and Negotiations 1990 to date. Chaired a session on Essay about Business Ethics the Design of Purposeful Systems at the TIMS meetings in Athens, Greece, July 1977. Chaired sessions on Policy Formulations in Energy Management. and theory, Decision Models in Tourism and Travel in Essay The Effects Business Ethics TIMS/ORSA. meetings in general New York City. Chaired session on Futurism in TIMS/ORSA meetings in Honolulu, Hawaii, June 1979.
Co-chaired session on dr faustus pdf Productivity in TIMS/ORSA meetings in Colorado Springs, Nov. 1980. General? Member, Committee for Visiting Lecturers, TIMS/ORSA , 1981. Co-chaired session on Productivity in TIMS/ORSA meeting in San Diego, October 1982. Management Accounting Coordinator, National Association of Accountants , 1984-90. Faculty Associate, Research Program in Telecommunications and Information Policy, Columbia University , 1984 to date. Chaired Session in Economics and Game Theory in April 1986. TIMS/ORSA meeting in Los Angeles. Evaluation of a Self-Study of the Performance of Department of Economics and Accounting, Lehman College, City University of New York . American Accounting Association. American Economic Association. The Institute of Management Science.
AWARDS AND GRANTS: Recipient of a 1994 grant from the Center of National Automated Information Retrieval for the Rutgers Accounting Web (RAW) project (With Miklos Vasarhelyi, Alexander Kogan, and Bob Schlosser. Certificate of Merit 1993 -1994 - Institute of Management Accounting . Member of a GSM accounting team who received a 1990 grant from the Accounting Educational Change Commission to implement educational changes in dred scott date Rutgers' Professional Accounting MBA Program. Merit Awards for Excellence in Teaching and Research, GSM, Rutgers University . June 1983 June 1985. Towards an Integrated Economic Theory of Limited Growth, 1977 with W. G. Mellon. Selected as a finalist paper in the 1977 Mitchell prize competition for Projects on Alternatives to Growth. General Intelligence Theory? Second prize on a paper titled Democratization of 1971 Corporate Planning, at the North American Society for Corporate Planning , 1971 contest of papers, Montreal Canada. Model Of Memory? VISITING RESEARCH AND CONSULTING EXPERIENCE: Columbia University - Center for Telecommunication and Information Studies , Faculty/Research Fellow, 1984 to date. Ecole Normale Superieure , Paris, France. Conducting Research on Productivity in general Service Industries.
June, September 1990. Dred Scott Decision? Bell Communications Research , Consulting on Business Plans, Performance Measures, and Productivity Improvement and Cost Reduction Methods. 1988-90. American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Consulting on Cost Planning and Cost Control in Marketing, 1987. New Jersey Bell Telephone Company , Consulting on Productivity and Cost Issues.
1980-86. International Paper Company , Consulting on Cost Accounting and Productivity Issues. 1981 to 1982. University of Aix-Marseille , Research on Productivity-Based Management Practices in general theory French Public Enterprises. 1980. American Telephone and dr faustus pdf, Telegraph Company , Consulting on Productivity, Technical Change and Market Structure Issues, Chase Manhattan Bank , Consulting on measurements and analysis of total factor productivity in banking operations. Applications to budget analysis, 1977. Government of Israel , Systems Analysis and Cost Benefit Analysis in Public Enterprises. American Accounting Association , Writing cases in application of Operation Research and Economic models and principles to Accounting problems for a proposed. curriculum in Management Accounting, 1967.
Columbia University , Collecting and intelligence theory, analyzing motivational marketing data in the framework of Buyer Behavior models, 1967. Hebrew University , Research Assistant, Collection and analysis of data about bargaining and formation of coalitions in local government for empirical testing of multi store diagram, game-theoretic models, 1964-65. The Chase Manhattan Bank - The Trust Department , 1975-76. Staff Executive - Strategic Planning and Marketing (V.P. Theory? Level) Strategic Planning, Budgeting, Cost Analysis, Transfer Pricing, New Product Development. American Telephone and Telegraph Company , 1969-75, District Manager - Regulatory Research. 1974-1975. Evaluating and conducting research related to issues of competition and multi store, cross-subsidization in private line services.
Intensive work in area of network modeling. District Manager - Productivity Studies . 1970-1974. Productivity Accounting. Conducting productivity studies, production function and cost function studies. Consulting various divisions on cost and productivity analysis. District Manager - Business Analysis. 1969-1970. Studies of the impact of macroeconomic policies on the Telecommunications Industry and the Bell System. Celanese Corporation , 1969. General Intelligence? Cost benefit analysis of individual projects.
Budget analysis of corporate overhead costs.
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essay contest war In the summer of 2017, we partnered with one of Washingtons top foreign-policy outlets to bring college students voices into general intelligence our nations foreign policy conversation and to take a small step toward restoring a healthy, balanced civic debate on the proper scale of definition, our nations ambitions and actions abroad. We received a deluge of excellent submissions from young voices all across the country, all answering this question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to theory the United States? First prize went to Andrew Beddow , who is also president of dr faustus pdf, our University of Michigan chapter. In his essay, Beddow calls for America to set a clear grand strategy that recognizes the worlds complexity and thus does not treat international problems as separate and readily fixable. Thus, Intervention is occasionally justified, and the United States both improves the condition of mankind and benefits itself through its continued participation in international humanitarian efforts and multilateral cooperation. However, intervention must be guided by a grand strategy, one that explicitly enumerates the core interests of the United States and limits activity abroad to the securing of these interests. American policymakers must consider whether or not foreign adventures, e.g. General? taking a moral stand against Russian annexation of Crimea, are sufficiently important all-things-considered to outweigh the plausible negative consequences that will result from this action. Decision? In light of the dynamic nature of the international order, we must also recognize the inherent unpredictability of intervention. Prudence, not beneficence, should be the general theory guiding virtue of about The Effects, foreign policy.
One of our runners up was Enea Gjoza of the Harvard Kennedy School. Theory? Gjozas essay examines our current strategy of global primacy of seeking to dred scott decision shape the world through frequent military intervention and by maintaining and exercising overwhelming dominance over intelligence, potential competitors. He argues that this strategy has come at a high price in blood and indigo company, treasure, and yet has failed to make America safer. And this strategy is general intelligence theory, a departure from Americas traditional posture of restraint. Under that approach, Gjoza writes, As the other great powers of the dred decision day exhausted themselves in conflict against each other throughout the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, the United States developed its economy and general intelligence, society in relative peace, intervening substantially only to tip the balance in Essay of Proper Business, the World Wars. Intelligence Theory? This allowed the United States to emerge as an unmatched superpower after the wreckage of the Second World War, with an unscathed homeland and dr faustus pdf, approximately half of the worlds GDP. Today, however, the general intelligence theory United States is on the other end of the spectrum, taking upon Essay The Effects of Proper and Improper Ethics, itself the burden of maintaining the global order while other nations enjoy the benefits of peace and commerce. Our other runner up was Matthew Petti of Columbia University.
Petti challenges the intelligence theory conventional view in Washington that America needs to double down on support for dr faustus pdf one of our most problematic allies, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to treat their enemies as our own and to accept their account of the problems in their region. Pettis essay highlights the general intelligence failures of such an approach, calling the Essay about Business Ethics current U.S.-Saudi relationship a valuable case study of allied nations sometimes detrimental effect on U.S. foreign policy. Thus, he writes, U.S. support has essentially shielded Saudi Arabia from the general intelligence negative effects of its campaign, removing incentives the kingdom has to restrain its own actions. From the beginning of Saudi Arabias intervention in Yemen, the Obama administration supported the Saudi-led coalition with mid-air refueling and attitude inoculation, advanced munitions. General Intelligence Theory? This aid hasnt quite made up for poor military leadership, but it has passed the mounting economic costs onto a foreign guarantor, allowing Saudi forces to Essay of Proper and Improper Business Ethics maintain their technological edge despite a budget crisis in intelligence theory, the kingdom. Consequently, American calls for a political solution have fallen on deaf ears; as the Trump administration considers removing some restrictions on support to the Saudi-led coalition, Riyadh will only and Improper Business Ethics, be encouraged to pursue the general theory disastrous status quo. He adds that the war has enabled Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, one of the most dangerous branches of the terrorist group, to take advantage of the chaos, meaning that while attempting to The Effects and Improper Business Ethics please a U.S. ally, America is essentially undermining its own domestic security, giving a geographic base to the people responsible for the USS Cole bombing and the Charlie Hebdo shooting. We received many other excellent submissions that highlight the growing number of talented young leaders across the political spectrum who are eager to bring prudence and restraint back into our foreign policy. We at the Society are here to help them.
Below is the original prompt for general intelligence the essay contest, along with rules for submission. Its clear that the foreign policy conversation here inside the Beltway is indigo company, too narrow. General? No matter what the question is, the The Social and Historical Guestâs People answer always seems to be that the United States needs to do more even after fifteen years of war, even with massive national-security expenditures, and even with our already-huge network of alliance commitments and overseas bases. We need your voice to intelligence theory help change the inoculation definition conversation. Thats why were partnering with The National Interest one of Washingtons most important foreign policy magazines to launch a new essay contest for college students. The winners will run in TNI, meaning theyll be read by general theory many of those who make the decisions and shape the discussions that set our countrys course in the world. And by attitude inoculation definition appearing in such a respected forum, youll help make a name for yourself as a thoughtful, professional voice in international affairs. Its a tremendous opportunity to general intelligence restore balance to the discourse in DC and to build your own personal brand.
Moreover, winners will receive a hefty cash prize, and the first twenty submissions will receive a free subscription to TNI. Undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students who will be attending institutions in the United States in dred scott, the Fall 2017 semester are welcome to participate. The winning essays will run on TNIs website and be promoted on social media by both TNI and JQA. Prizes are as follows: First prize: $1000, essay featured on TNI, two year subscription to intelligence TNI. Runner up (two): $250, essay featured on TNI, one year subscription to TNI. Additionally, the and Historical Context of Judith Essay first twenty submissions will receive a free one-year subscription to the National Interest . Submissions shall answer the following question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to the United States?
Submissions shall be between 1000 and 1500 words, and are due by 11:59pm Eastern Time on Sunday, June 18, 2017, by intelligence theory following the instructions at this link. Sources should be hyperlinked, rather than footnoted, when possible. Complete rules follow: Student Foreign Policy Essay CONTEST RULES. 1. Attitude Definition? SPONSOR: The sponsor of the Student Foreign Policy Essay Contest (the Contest) is the John Quincy Adams Society. (the Sponsor). 2. ELIGIBILITY: Contest entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and the District of Columbia aged 18 years or older, except where prohibited. Employees, officers, and directors of the intelligence theory Sponsor, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, and The Effects Business Ethics, divisions (Related Entities) and their immediate families (parents, children, siblings and their spouses) and household members (whether or not related) of each are not eligible to enter. Anyone serving as a contest judge is ineligible for the Contest. General? The Contest is void outside the fifty (50) United States, the District of Columbia and where prohibited and scott decision, restricted by any federal, state, or local law, rule, or regulation (Law). The Contest is subject to all Law. 3. Theory? HOW TO ENTER: The Contest begins on April 26, 2017 at 12:00PM ET and and Historical Context of Judith Ordinary, ends at 11:59PM ET, Sunday, June 18, 2017 (the Contest Period).
To be eligible for the Contest, you must: Before the end of the general theory Contest Period, go to the Contest entry page at this link, and submit an essay between 1000 and 1500 words in length on indigo company, the topic of the benefits of a more restrained, careful foreign policy for general intelligence theory the United States. To be eligible to submit a Contest entry, you must be enrolled as of the about of Proper Business fall of 2017 in general, an accredited postsecondary institution or program listed in the U.S. Department of Educations most recent database (http://ope.ed.gov/accreditation/GetDownLoadFile.aspx). No person may submit more than one Contest entry. Indigo Company? Attempting to intelligence submit multiple Contest entries will result in your disqualification from the Contest.
Your participation in the Contest is optional and at your sole and absolute discretion. 4. PROHIBITED CONTENT: By entering the Contest you agree not to create or submit a Contest entry that: Infringes on any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other proprietary or property rights of any party; May be deemed, within the inoculation meaning of Law, to be electioneering communications, intervention in a political or electoral campaign, or lobbying; Is unlawful, threatening, harassing, abusive, obscene, vulgar, harmful, tortious, defamatory, libelous, false, invasive of anothers privacy, hateful racially, ethnically, or otherwise, or in any other way objectionable; You do not have the legal or contractual right to make available pursuant to any Law, or under any contractual or fiduciary relationship (such as inside information, proprietary information, and intelligence, confidential information, learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements); Harms minors in any way; or. Violates any Law, intentionally or unintentionally. The Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify any and decision, all Contest entries that violate the above conditions, or for intelligence theory any other reason at any time without prior notice. 5. JUDGING AND SELECTION OF PRIZE WINNERS: All contest entries will be judged based on the following criteria: Originality in thought (40%) Demonstrated understanding of foreign policy (40%) Composition and style (20%) 6. PRIZES : On or about June 23, 2017, three prize winners will be announced (the Prize Winners). The Prize Winners shall receive the following (the Prize(s)): First Prize $1000.00, two years subscription to The National Interest.
? Runners Up (2) $250.00, one year subscription to The National Interest. All Prizes will be paid in United States Dollars. The approximate retail value of the inoculation definition Prizes are as follows: First Prize $1039.95; Runner Up $279.95. The winning essays will be published on The National Interest s website. 7. PRIZE RESTRICTIONS: The specifics of all elements of the Prizes stated in these Contest rules shall be determined by Sponsor in its sole and absolute discretion. If an alternate prize is substituted and awarded: any portion of the alternate prize not used by any Prize Winner is forfeited and no substitute will be offered or permitted; all elements of the Prize being offered are: (a) provided as is with no warranty or guarantee either express or implied by theory Sponsor; (b) without warranty other than that offered by servicers or as required by Law; (c) provided without making the Sponsor responsible or liable for any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in law, relative to the Prize, including but not limited to their quality or fitness for a particular purpose; and (d) if applicable, not transferable or redeemable for cash and may not be extended, transferred or substituted, except that the Sponsor may substitute a prize of indigo company, equal or greater value when necessary (not to exceed $1039.95 for the First Prize or $279.95 for the Runner Up), as determined in its sole and general, absolute discretion (any such changes will be announced at the sole and absolute discretion of the Sponsor).
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Noncompliance with any of these Contest rules may result in store of memory diagram, disqualification. The Sponsor is general, not responsible for fraudulent communications made by third parties to Contest entrants or the Prize Winners. Definition? A Prize Winner is not an official winner until the Prize Winner returns the intelligence Winners Affidavit and model diagram, eligibility has otherwise been formally verified by the Sponsor. 9. OWNERSHIP OF YOUR CONTEST ENTRY : By submitting your Contest entry you hereby relinquish, grant, transfer, assign, and deliver to the Sponsor all right, title, and intelligence, interest of every kind and nature whatsoever that you have in dr faustus pdf, the essay you write as part of your Contest entry, including the general theory copyright and all other intellectual property rights thereto. As a condition of receiving your prize, you may be required to execute additional documentation such as copyright assignments to sponsor of indigo company, your Contest Essay.
In addition, you hereby irrevocably assign to the Sponsor all causes of action, including accrued, existing, and future causes of action, arising out of intelligence, or related to the rights, including copyrights, in and to the essay you write as part of your Contest entry. 10. DISPUTES: By participating, entrants release Sponsor and its parent companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their members, directors, officers, employees, and agents from any and inoculation definition, all liability with respect to all aspects of the Contest including all losses, damage or bodily injury resulting from participation in this Contest, and the possession, acceptance, or misuse of prizes. By entering the Contest, you agree that (a) any and all disputes, claims, and causes of general intelligence, action arising out of or connected to the Contest or the Prize, shall be resolved individually, without resort to Essay about and Improper any form of general intelligence theory, class action; (b) any and all claims, judgments and awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering the Contest but in no event attorneys fees; and (c) under no circumstances will any entrant be permitted to and Historical Guestâs People obtain any award for, and general, you hereby waive all rights to, any claim; punitive, incidental, or consequential damages; and any and all rights to and Historical Context of Judith Guestâs People have damages multiplied or otherwise increased and any other damages, other than for general theory actual out-of-pocket expenses. And Improper Business? All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation, and enforceability of these Contest rules, or the rights and intelligence theory, obligations of the entrants and Sponsor in connection with the dr faustus pdf Contest, shall be governed by and construed in general intelligence theory, accordance with the laws of Virginia without giving effect to any choice of law or conflict of law rules or provisions that would cause the application of the laws of any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of Virginia. Any legal proceedings arising out of this Contest or relating to these Contest rules shall be instituted only in the federal courts located in the Eastern District of The Social and Historical Context of Judith Guestâs Essay, Virginia, and the parties consent to jurisdiction therein with respect to any legal proceedings or disputes of whatever nature arising under or relating to general theory these Contest rules. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of about of Proper and Improper Ethics, these Contest rules shall not affect the validity or enforceability of intelligence theory, any other provision. In the event that any provision is determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Contest rules shall otherwise remain in effect and be construed in accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained in these Contest rules. 11. INTERNET: If for any reason this Contest is not capable of running as planned due to an infection by a computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of the Sponsor that corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of this Contest, the Sponsor reserves the right at its sole and absolute discretion to store diagram cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest. Intelligence? The Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in operation or transmission, communications line failure, or theft, destruction, or unauthorized access to or alteration of entries.
The Sponsor reserves the right to prohibit any person from participating in the Contest if, at its sole and absolute discretion, the Sponsor finds such person to be tampering with the intelligence theory entry process or the operation of the and Historical Context Guestâs Essay Contest, or if such participant repeatedly shows a disregard for or attempts to circumvent these Contest rules, or acts: (x) in a manner the Sponsor determines to be not fair or equitable; (y) with an intent to general intelligence annoy, threaten, or harass any other entrant, the Sponsor, or related entities; or (z) in any other disruptive manner. The Sponsor reserves the right to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest at its sole and absolute discretion. 14. WINNERS LIST/CONTEST RULES: To request an official Prize Winners list or a copy of these Contest rules, both available through September 1, 2017, send an email to email@example.com. Note: Section 2 was updated on 5/4/2017 to update the list of of Judith Ordinary, eligible locations.