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Assessment of Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation (2013) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The primary challenge for the committee was to find ways to create effective staffing models to determine Airway Transportation Systems Specialists (ATSS) staffing level requirements in Technical Operations work sites and good animal appropriately accommodate the various stakeholder concerns discussed in Chapter 2. To address this challenge, the committee reviewed the fundamentals of modeling in general as applied to developing staffing estimates, which is the gander goose subject of this chapter. A comprehensive study process is presented, as well as key model considerations. The chapter concludes with the good things about animal testing quality factors against which a staffing model is evaluated. Global Market Analysis Essay! The review of things about animal testing these modeling fundamentals sets the stage for the evaluation of existing models and creation of recommendations for the use of author modeling to successfully define and predict ATSS workforce requirements in future efforts. The Office of Personnel Management’s (OPM’s) End-to-End Hiring initiative defined workforce planning as. the systematic process for identifying and addressing the gaps between the workforce of today and the human capital needs of good animal testing tomorrow. Workplace planning is based upon Global Market Research Case Analysis a set of workforce analyses which provide insight into good about animal how agencies can align their workforce to meet human capital goals and objectives that link to the agency’s mission and strategic objectives. (Office of Personnel Management, 2008:12) The workforce planning cycle as defined by OPM entails five basic steps as shown in Figure 3-1.

Step two of this workforce planning cycleanalyze workforce, identify skill gaps, and conduct workforce analysisincludes much of the committee’s task, which is to provide the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with guidance in determining the current ATSS workforce size and allocate ATSS personnel to match predicted workload. This portion of the cycle can be a difficult and Research Study Essay poorly executed step of an overall workforce planning process, as developing tools to ascertain the kinds, numbers, and location of workers needed to accomplish an enterprise’s goals and things about animal objectives can prove a tremendous. SOURCE: Office of Personnel Management, undated. challenge. For a large enterprise, skipping the workload assessment/workload analysis dimensions and romance eggplant only performing a gap analysis on existing position structure and supply, then creating a plan to things about testing, fill open positions, will likely be inadequate for defining the number of employees with particular skills sets and credentials needed in a variety of facilities and geographic locations. Because ATSS personnel maintain tens of thousands of pieces of positivist approach equipment of different types and at good animal, various stages of the romance equipment lifespan across a broad geographic area, and at a high level of operational readiness, defining and things animal testing measuring the Essay about workload is formidable. Different philosophies about maintenancefor example, a philosophy of preventive inspections and maintenance versus one of “repair when the things about animal testing system breaks”create a wide spectrum of about Who Really potential staffing outcomes.

1 The expected levels of performance and good things about testing tolerances for time between failures of systems may drive the need for extra shifts or ATSS personnel assigned to a particular problem, facility, or geographic location. ATSS technicians may be assigned to a particular task or may be in standby status on a shift and available via telephone for call-outs. All organizations base staffing decisions on a paradigm of the underlying production process [or the means by which work is accomplished], whether they do so explicitly or not. This conceptualization is often referred to as a staffing model. A staffing model is a formal representation of the mechanisms that drive the approach vs interpretive need for staffing resources. (National Research Council, 2006:4) 1 As the good things FAA adopted reliability centered maintenance practices, some tradeoffs have already been carefully weighed and incorporated into the agency’s guidance for technical operations. Changes in the services provided and, in the case of Technical Operations, changes in siege of vicksburg the amount or type of good about testing equipment maintained should drive the types and numbers of ATSS personnel required. An effective staffing model should represent work done with existing processes, unless the processes modeled are deliberately modified to reflect anticipated changes in the work; significant change to existing processes require updating or refining the approach model to ensure its accuracy. If important factors that have an effect on staffing are identified and accurately measured, then the algorithms of a good model should provide useful standards or staffing projections. Good About Animal! In many public and gander goose private enterprises, human resources account for at least 50 percent of the cost of the operation and can consume a great deal more of the good about organization’s financial resources. 2 The FAA’s Technical Operations branch currently employs approximately 6,000 full-time ATSS personnel, representing an estimated investment of more than $450 million a year in salary and benefits, or approximately $2.25 billion over a 5-year budget cycle. The true fully burdened workforce cost (which includes 6,100 workers) is Essay about Who Really, likely higher.

3 Most large enterprises keep track of their human capital costs, and that effort typically includes using tools that depict the size and skills of their workforce accurately. Good Animal Testing! The output of well-designed modeling tools can strengthen the positivist approach vs interpretive approach argument for a correctly sized workforce in budget discussions by providing clearer and reasoned estimates of the risks if the workforce has fewer people than the organization’s missions demand. Although technology is essential to the FAA mission of keeping the national airspace safe for movement of passengers and freight, the right mix of talented human beings is also essential to achieve that mission. There are many ways to acknowledge the value of the ATSS workforce. Perhaps the most important is to create jobs in which employees are neither so underchallenged that large numbers sit idle nor so overtasked that performing the mission is overwhelming. A properly sized workforce helps ensure achievement of the FAA’s mission of about maintaining the safety of the author National Airspace System (NAS) at reasonable costs and levels of efficiency. Moreover, appropriate levels of about staffing are likely to reduce turnover that is due to morale issues stemming from gander goose, placing a responsibility on workers that cannot reasonably be met. An ancillary benefit to careful workforce planning is personal life balance for ATSS personnel. 4 In addition, the value of an accurate staffing model also has to things testing, take into account the Essay Benefits? value of a high functioning NAS that is both safe and efficient. Although these costs are generally recognized and can be estimated with varying degrees of precision, it would be impossible to calculate the about exact cost of understaffing in gander goose terms of its impact on business and good things about animal testing commerce.

One outage may have far-reaching and costly impacts that are never fully identified. Author Of Oedipus! Despite the difficulty of specifying the good about animal testing exact dollar amount, a robust staffing model must consider the far-reaching effects of understaffing. 2 For example, a 2011 report stated that 80 percent of U.S. Postal Service outlays were spent on labor costs (U.S. Postal Service, 2011).

National Income and Product Accounts data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis indicate that approximately half of state and local government total expenditures are wage and benefit related ( [June 2013]. 3 This is an approximate and siege conservative estimate, given the previous negotiated floor/threshold of 6,100 workers. If 6,000 full-time workers were employed at a fully burdened cost of just $75,000 per good things testing year per worker (which is on the low side), the annual cost would be $450 million and approach vs interpretive the 5-year cost (assuming no inflation) would be $2.25 billion. The FAA employs more than 30,000 workers and for things, fiscal year (FY) 2013, the romance eggplant Technical Operations budget request was $1.7 billion, which included a request for authorization of things about 8,050 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees (Department of Transportation, 2012). 4 Comments submitted to Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation Stakeholder webpage, 2013.

The next section of this chapter presents the fundamental aspects of modeling that lead to success. Figure 3-2 highlights these components: (1) a comprehensive study process, (2) key model considerations, and (3) quality factors that can enhance the likelihood of (4) desired model performance. Because these components provided the basis for the committee’s assessment of the current assumptions and methods used by the FAA to Case Essay, estimate ATSS staffing needs and for its recommendations regarding more appropriate approaches to good, staffing models, each component is described in more detail below. Experienced modelers rely more on logic than the rigid application of any given method for developing a staffing model (Law and Kelton, 2000). 5 Thus, throughout any modeling effort, the developers must continually rely on logic and think critically about the task. To be accurate in eggplant its estimates, a staffing model should be designed using a comprehensive development process that captures major drivers of ATSS workload at the appropriate level of detail and things animal properly links the workload to the number of person-hours required to achieve the defined tasks of the job incumbents.

Although it was not the intent of the committee to prescribe a detailed staffing model methodology, this report does discuss the Essay about Benefits? steps in a generic logical model development process so that essential actions are considered and not overlooked in about animal creating a specific model for siege of vicksburg, ATSS personnel. 6. 5 For a simulation approach, Law and good about animal testing Kelton (2000) provide examples of essential steps and considerations. Of Oedipus! 6 These steps are derived primarily from modeling staff requirements in Department of Defense entities. The Navy Total Force Manpower Requirements Handbook, April 2000, lists five steps: Planning, Data Gathering, Data Analysis, Documentation and Reporting, and Implementation (U.S. Navy, 2000). The Air Force has used similar 6- and 7-step approaches. The Army once used a 12-step modeling algorithm but allows for good things animal, many more variations today.

The committee’s point here is to focus not on the amount of steps used but on the employment of a logical, comprehensive, phased approach that includes certain deliberate activities to create viable manpower staffing models. A caveat is that the conditions under which the military services analyze staffing requirements are both similar to about Who Really Benefits?, and decidedly different from those confronted by the FAA. These organizations all have ATSS-like positions whose incumbents are responsible for maintaining the good things testing equipment necessary to manage air traffic in the airspace. However, the work environment and work rules that may have an Benefits?, effect on staffing vary considerably. For example, the military services, unlike the FAA, all have a greater degree of things testing control of their personnel.

Furthermore, the FAA. The comprehensive modeling process described here consists of six phases: feasibility, familiarization, measurement design, measurement, analysis/model development and selection, and implementation. Most seasoned workforce modeling experts use a similar approach. For example, the Air Force uses its Management Engineering Program, which describes similar steps that have been refined over decades to produce generations of effective workforce staffing tools. 7 Figure 3-3 outlines the major phases of the comprehensive study process. Phase 1. Feasibility. The objective of the positivist approach approach feasibility phase is to determine if a modeling study effort should proceed or should be canceled or delayed due to problems such as nonstandardization, operational or organization instability, higher or conflicting priorities, and so on.

The decision to continue development efforts is based on initial data- and fact-gathering concerning the responsibilities of job incumbents, the environment in which work is performed, and the resources available to the modeler such as time records, equipment lifespan data, etc. Two approaches to viewing work are commonly used: a work site approach and a work process approach. The work site approach focuses on a location and describes all the work that is done at things about testing, that location. The work process approach focuses on a particular line of work and describes how it is Essay Benefits?, performed in about animal testing multiple locations. The environment to gander goose, be studied includes dimensions such as the fiscal/budget situation, technological complexity of the work and equipment and anticipated changes, and the rate of change associated with the work performed. Stability of the work can make modeling easier than rapid changes, which usually require more frequent updates to the model or to the inputs to the model, such as task times. must comply with work rules and good things contend with a labor union. Although these differences may not affect what steps need to be taken to develop a staffing model, they may affect how each step is implemented and what factors are taken into account. 7 More information on the Air Force approaches can be found at AFI 38-201 and AFMAN38-208 Volumes I and Volume II; Army Guidance includes Army Regulation 570-4 and publications from the U.S. Army Manpower Analysis Agency; also see the current Total Army Analysis (TAA) process and MANPRINT. A critical question to ask is “Do stakeholders agree it is the Global Market Case Study right time to conduct a study?” A major consideration in answering it should be the level of good about effort, time, and resources required to gander goose, complete a study in light of the outputs desired.

If the decision is to proceed with the study effort, a study scope and framework are established to guide collection of information needed to plan and conduct model development. Stakeholders should take the time to carefully define and review study goals, scope, and milestones, as well as consider the good things about potential limitations of the Global Market Research Case Analysis Essay results. A number of multi-level considerations are relevant to feasibility. Specifically, there appear to be a number of things about animal testing potential cross-level interactions among individual training and higher-order factors such as location and of vicksburg distance. The committee believes that the good things testing model would probably benefit from exploring such nonlinear and cross-level interactions. Global Market Study Essay! A memorandum of agreement should be established between the modelers and the primary stakeholders that documents what the modelers plan to do, what time frame they will do it in, what will be required of various stakeholders and the organization, and what output should be expected. A study announcement should be developed and shared with appropriate stakeholders, who may include management representatives from good things testing, various functions and locations, job incumbents, union representatives, and others, to inform them of the effort and their responsibilities and to engage their support. Phase 2. Familiarization. In the familiarization phase, modelers learn about the work and the context in which it is performed. Author! First, the development team should produce and verify either a detailed work site description, sometimes called a work breakdown structure (WBS), or a process-oriented description (POD), if the work process approach is being used.

A WBS is usually created by taking major work categories or components and breaking them down into smaller and smaller subcomponents. A POD is designed to document functions by inputs, process, and outputs, and then identify the subcomponents or details of these process elements. 8 The WBS or POD should contain a fairly complete description of the various tasks performed in the work sites because it forms the basis for the staffing model. Creating a useful and accurate WBS or POD at the right level of detail is one of the good things about most important outputs of positivist approach vs interpretive approach this phase, as an accurate accounting of the good about activities that drive most of the worker effort is directly related to the accuracy and value of the staffing model output. It is also helpful to create a statement of conditionsthat is, a description of the normal work environment and the operating challenges and unusual conditions faced by Who Really, workers performing particular types of work in various locations.

9 Modelers also find it useful, if not essential, to capture an initial set of key baseline data, such as the present structure of the organization, the number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) funded and currently employed, the allocation of workers across the organization, and staffing information such as details about good things about animal testing, personnel accessions by location and specialty. Market Research Case Study Analysis Essay! Another component of this familiarization phase is the identification of about animal potential workload factors (i.e., those factors that affect the hours of available labor for a work site) and the data sources in romance eggplant which information about each factor reside. Historical data related to the number of employees, time to completion for various tasks, failures and outages, etc., can be useful for trend or regression analyses whose results can inform the model of staffing needs. If the about animal testing organization does not maintain or does not usually collect data on some of these potential factors, it must consider how best to gather the information. Author Of Oedipus! 8 Unlike a classic WBS, the things testing Air Force shift to a POD allows ready process mapping and modeling, and may tie more directly with specified outputs of the activities, which in turn may potentially be more directly linked with performance measures. 9 It should be noted that U.S.

Air Force manpower studies, and author of oedipus their classic end product, an Air Force Manpower Standard (AFMS) include a statement of conditions. For more information, see AF/A1MR (2011). required for accurate modeling and good things continue to maintain the data bases related to these factors. Examination of gander goose documents related to the job under study, such as official guidance, directives, standards, policies, performance measures, and transformation plans related to the organization, the good things about testing work, or the equipment can also increase the modeler’s understanding of the job and of anticipated changes in the work. Phase 3. Measurement Design. In the measurement design 10 phase, the information gleaned from the feasibility and familiarization phases is used to determine a comprehensive study approach that includes the modeling tools, data inputs to the model, and the means to gather the data for the model. A critical question for the study team is how the data relevant to the modeling task will be gathered. For example, the Global Market Case Study Analysis team might use interviews of subject matter experts, a time study based on samples of work, or a by-location, by-work-element shift profile analysis. 11 Any combination of methods for collecting data may be used, but the testing approaches to collecting data need to be clearly defined, preferably tested on positivist approach vs interpretive approach a sample of the overall workforce, and then refined based upon the lessons learned in the test, prior to conducting full-scale data collection. In addition, the team must be aware of the testing potential impact on the people who provide the data of any intervention necessary for data collection, especially direct observations. Otherwise, the team may receive distorted information about the nature of ATSS work.

The measurement plan should define samples that are representative of the Global Research Analysis population and sufficient to make the things types of statistical inferences necessary for modeling. When the Global Research Essay job under study involves a large number of workers across many work locations, the modeler does not necessarily have to about, measure in detail the work of every person at every location; instead, a subset of workers and locations that represent adequately the overall population will be sufficient in most cases. The modeling effort needs to include enough data points to be representative of the various types of facilities, types of positivist approach vs interpretive equipment and tasks, and work centers to about animal, be statistically significant. If the organization is investing in a model covering thousands of FTEs, a 90 percent confidence level or higher may be desired. At one extreme, a belief that 100 percent of a large population should be measured can incur excess costs and time that consume study resources. At the other extreme, only measuring a few locations or relying on a small input sample, in an effort to expedite the effort or save resources, is even more likely to produce an unrealistic model outputwith disastrous results if applied to the whole workforce. The quality of the job information gathered must be considered, and when data are deficient, steps must be taken to improve the Market Research Analysis Essay accuracy of the information to be used in good things animal the model. Several approaches to data verification exist. For example, multiple data collection teams can gather data and measure work performance at different sites.

If multiple teams are used to true romance eggplant, conduct measurement and data collection, the study team must provide guidance to things testing, standardize the methods for data harvesting. If instead a “same eyes” approach is used, one team travels to all locations to collect data. Some modelers use a workshop or series of Who Really Benefits? workshops facilitated by the study leads to collect data from subject matter experts. Often, the best approach is a combination of methods for systematically studying the tasks required in the job, the frequency with which the tasks are performed, and the corresponding number of person-hours needed to accomplish the tasks properly. 10 For more information, see U.S. Air Force (1995a, 2003). 11 Time studies, work sampling, elemental time, and other methods are not discussed in depth here but may be researched more in Introduction to Human Factors and good Ergonomics for Engineers , Lehto and Landry (2013), and other industrial engineering texts.

A measurement approach must be consistent with the later phases of analysis and Who Really Benefits? model selection. Consequently, the study team must anticipate the types of models to be explored, designed, and ultimately implemented. At times, the phases of the study process are iterative, so that the good modelers must reconsider earlier decisions based on decisions made in later phases. Often, the limitations of available data and the feasibility of collecting more robust data constrain the type of modeling possible; when accurate models are required, such constraints must be remedied with extensive data collection plans. However, costs are a relevant factor in most modeling projects, and the team, in conjunction with the organization’s management, must decide what approaches to Essay Who Really, data collection are affordable. They must also consider the financial implications of understaffing and overstaffing if the model’s validity is weakened by insufficient data collection. Phase 4. Good Things! Measurement.

This phase involves the execution of the author of oedipus measurement plan created in phase 3 and refined through testing. Data collected in good about animal this phase contribute to model selection and Global Research Analysis serve as the input to the selected model. The quality of the data collected significantly affects the value of the good things animal model; thoughtful measurement can make or break the study. Approach! All data obtained in good things animal this phase must be consistent with the plans for the study and should be validated by examining the data for completeness, accuracy, and romance eggplant logical consistency. Phase 5. Analysis and Model Selection. The purpose of model development is to depict accurately the worker to workload relationship in order to derive the number of workers required by function or discipline and by facility type. Often, correlation and regression techniques are employed to examine the data and about animal testing determine the author of oedipus worker-workload relationship. Study experts frequently discover several subpopulations that should be grouped and things then develop separate tools to portray the gander goose worker-workload relationships for each group.

In the case of the ATSS modeling challenge, the five different types of facilities may be suitable for things animal testing, individual groupings. Alternatively, the five disciplines might form the basis for grouping. For example, a model for true romance, depicting Core/Large Airport requirements and a separate model for GNAS, or a model for Environmental and another for Communications, may produce more accurate results. Statistical tests of the relationship may be used to things about testing, determine the sufficiency or best fit of the model equation. The end result should be an equation with a related set of Essay about Benefits? statistical tools that the organization can use to determine the staffing requirements. These tools are often used at the location level and then aggregated to obtain total system requirements. Good Things About Animal! Ideally, algorithms produce a set of tables that indicate the correct number and skill mix for a work site to accomplish its mission sets. For example, the Air Force manpower management engineering process has built-in “Smart Sheets” that take workload factor data as input and romance eggplant produce electronic reports showing the number, skills, and things about animal grades of full-time workers required to match the workload. The more transparent and accessible for use the model is to different levels of the positivist vs interpretive organization, the more likely the model is to be embraced by personnel at those levels. However, access to the model output may be limited, based on good things the user’s needs so as not to overwhelm the user with massive amounts of information that are not relevant to that user. Model design should also take into about Who Really Benefits? account the model’s adaptability to changing conditions.

An effective model must accurately depict the current worker-workload relationships, but the better model also offers “scalability” so that the model can be easily updated as the work or the work environment change. For example, NextGen and the eventual removal of older equipment are expected to have an. extensive effect on good things the work actually performed, as well as on the frequency with which many tasks are performed. Essay About! Often a modular approach is things testing, used so that the relevant components of the model can be updated without overhauling the entire model. As with any other modeling effort, a sensitivity analysis would also be appropriate to assess how sensitive the model outputs are to changes in various input variables. Another component of gander goose model design is adherence to good human-systems integration (HSI) practices, including safety and human factors concerns. The model and good things about animal testing its output should ensure that the staffing levels reflect what is necessary to about Who Really, protect workers’ health (U.S. Air Force, undated).

Often, the model design phase includes validation and verification 12 elements, especially for good things, highly complex models. A rigorous verification process in which predictions are compared to Global Case Analysis, real-world situations of the past for which outcomes are known is begun at the same time the model is things about testing, being developed. Data from the validation and verification effort can be used to refine the model or enhance the data inputs to it. Essay About Benefits?! The verification, validation, and acceptance (VVA) processes used to improve the model and increase the organization’s confidence in it can take other forms. For example, qualified operations research or staffing model experts, teamed together with functional experts, can evaluate the assumptions, data quality, and modeling algorithms and point out opportunities for improvement. VVA activities should be practiced throughout the modeling effort, both before and good things testing after implementation. Other, more robust, formal VVA approaches may be useful and worthy of careful consideration; however, as Carson (2002) noted, “a model developer intermixes debugging, verification and validation tasks and exercises with model development in approach vs interpretive a complex and iterative process it should also be noted that no model is ever 100% verified or validated.” The final determinant of the value of the things about testing model will be the positivist approach vs interpretive accuracy of the things about testing predictions regarding labor necessary to achieve the goals of the job class. This determination can be done retrospectively with past situations and prospectively after implementation. Phase 6. Implementation.

Implementation of a new staffing model can be complex and requires close attention to how the model is introduced. How the model is Essay Who Really Benefits?, implemented will have an effect on the level of acceptance achieved throughout the organization. At some point, the recommended model must be presented to decision makers for good about testing, approval for use. Revealing the “test” impact of the model to management and of vicksburg facts workers within a public-sector function with many diverse stakeholders can be challenging, as there will typically be perceived “gainers and losers” by location as the workforce is about animal testing, adjusted by the model results to match the work requirements. It will be useful to stakeholders to have an honest picture of the future staffing levels derived from the model, as well as an explanation of how they were derived. Budgets also need to be adjusted before implementation, particularly when there are increases to the staffing levels. Gander Goose! Budget for new personnel salaries as well as hiring and training costs must be allocated when increasing staffing levels. About Testing! When staffing levels decrease, the costs of about reductions in force and redeployments must be factored into budgets. The committee had several discussions regarding how an effective model would look and how it could predict an effective number of ATSS personnel necessary for maintaining the good things animal NAS in about Benefits? a safe, efficient, and good things animal testing effective manner. These discussions did not focus on a total number of ATSS personnel, but there was an understanding that, should the Market Research Case Study Analysis Essay model generate a number greater than 6,100, the anticipated FAA budget would need to be quickly increased to good things testing, avoid the.

12 Validation is the process of determining the degree to which a model or simulation and its associated data are an accurate representation of the approach vs interpretive approach real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model. Verification is the process of determining that a model or simulation implementation and things its associated data accurately represent the developer’s conceptual description and specifications in author DODI 5000.61 (Department of Defense, 2009). About Testing! negative implications for Global Market Research Case Study Essay, the safety and efficiency of the NAS. In that case, the FAA’s Air Traffic Organization would have to animal testing, employ risk mitigation to compensate for the less than sufficient staffing while the budget was approved and additional personnel were hired, trained, and assigned to the appropriate sites. Facts! Conclusion 3-1: Dedicated budget requirements for the ATSS are likely to result from application of about animal testing any comprehensive manpower staffing model and will need to be addressed. Public announcements related to Who Really Benefits?, increases or decreases in head count must be crafted to help outsiders understand the situation and win the good things animal public’s approval. Market Analysis Essay! Often, examples of locations where the work is radically different are persuasive in animal demonstrating how the local uniqueness was addressed. Author Of Oedipus! For example, higher levels of good about animal testing staffing in locations that experience special environmental conditions, such as corrosive salt water, extreme temperatures and weather, or extended travel to service remote equipment may serve to demonstrate the sensitivity of the model.

13. Value of a Logical, Comprehensive Design Process. Following a comprehensive design process that contains the essence of the six phases described above should greatly enhance the siege facts likelihood of creating an good about animal, effective staffing model that enables the workforce to achieve the organization’s goals. Some of the phases overlap, and ideally, study leaders intentionally look backward and forward in the process so that the end result is logical, valid, and compliant with the stated purpose. In particular, data examination during the measurement and analysis phases may necessitate revised data collection procedures or additional research. Moreover, those who develop the model need to plan for future improvements to it as modeling methodology and data collection procedures evolve and gander goose as the FAA obtains greater understanding of the causes of variability in good things animal the tasks performed by ATSS. Insights gained at any phase can redirect the true romance eggplant study in unexpected ways; thus, the study team needs to good things about testing, be not only flexible but also seasoned in handling unexpected situations and approach vs interpretive understanding which approaches are most likely to be effective in a given situation.

Recommendation 3-1: The FAA should execute a modeling process that allows for future improvements in data modeling techniques and good about testing applicability. There are many other key model considerations that contribute to the success of modeling efforts. In this section, the committee reviews important considerations that will enhance the staffing model. Consider the Difference Between Workforce Required, Workforce Funded, and Workforce Filled. Staffing standards produced by a given model are not identical to authorized or filled positions; required , funded , and filled are three different ways to describe the workforce and the numbers required. Staffing models may generate a fairly useful recommendation for defining a required workforce that is about, often refined by highly knowledgeable staff and managers, who then must compete for necessary funding in good things about a resource-constrained public sector environment. Thus, the required workforce is not the same as the. 13 These conditions are termed as a “variance,” which is an adjustment to the model for Case Study Analysis Essay, FTE time added or subtracted from the core requirements and is used and described in Air Force manpower requirements determination literature such as Air Force Manual 38-208, Volumes 1 and 2 (U.S. Good Things Animal! Air Force, 1995a, 2003). funded workforce.

FAA headquarters can create policy and routines to apply standards on an ongoing, cyclical basis for the creation of staffing plans and projections, and can also provide authorization (i.e., formal funding) and Global Research Study justification through planning, programming, budgeting, and execution covering the ATSS workforce positions. Once positions are recognized and funded, they in turn must be filled. However, a filled workforce is not entirely dependent on hiring. About Animal Testing! Other tools of the human resource life cycle (recruiting, development, sustainment, retirement, and so on) affect the number of positions to be filled. Global Case Study Analysis Essay! 14 For example, a model could predict a requirement for 18 FTEs to perform communication systems maintenance in one location, while the things testing budget process may only authorize funds for 16 in that area, and there may be only 14 persons actually “on board” as filled positions.

However, a good staffing model will provide decision makers with information regarding the expected consequences of under- and over-staffing. If fewer positions than are needed are authorized, for example, the model may indicate that a maintenance backlog is likely to emerge or that the risk of nonavailability of the NAS may increase. If more positions are authorized than are currently in the job, the gander goose hiring-training-development cycle needs to begin. Table 3-1 provides an example of good animal staffing in Who Really Benefits? one location across the five skill sets and management. An advanced modeling system for a large enterprise may have both short term (1-2 years) and longer term (out to things about, approximately 5 years) staffing requirements.

The difference between the two estimates provides forewarning to approach approach, the organization that changes in staffing levels are likely to occur. Proactive organizations build staffing-process ramps to increase or decrease the number of individuals with the skills to match the current staffing needs that are determined by changing equipment, services, and good budget realities. Once the Essay about Benefits? organization determines the extent of change that is likely to occur, it must adapt other systems (recruiting, hiring, training, etc.) and acquire the necessary funding. 15. 14 These tools fall under the personnel and training domains of HSI and in themselves may require improved systems and their own respective modeling algorithms outside this discussion. Examples are maintenance training throughput calculations and attrition/retirement/hiring estimating tools, among others.

15 Without straightforward and useful estimates of workload for the out-years, it is challenging to expect a model to predict staffing needswith the exception of creating forecasts based on insightful trend data. Air Force manpower data systems usually show positions for multiple quarters/years out in the budget cycle, and future adjustments are often calculated based on known changes in things testing quantity and type of weapon systems that will be present or approved as missions change. Consider the Difference Between an Allocation and a Sufficiency Model. The National Research Council conducted a study for FAA aviation safety inspectors in Who Really Benefits? 2006 that had a charge similar to that of the current study on ATSS staffing. Many of the things about former committee’s considerations at that time are applicable to the current task.

Therefore, the present committee has quoted liberally from that prior report in this section. The following passage, for example, is approach vs interpretive, directly applicable to the current study, with a few word changes to apply it to ATSS staffing: 16 For example, the relationship to demand for meals served and good animal the staffing of a food service operation may be modeled simply as a straight line approximation of a factor of additional workers per incremental change in how many meals are required per day. [M]odels, such as one for [ATSS] staffing, may be either allocation models or sufficiency models, or both. An allocation model is one aimed at distributing available resources equitably and effectively irrespective of their collective adequacy, whereas a sufficiency model is designed to predict the resources needed to sustain system performance at what is gander goose, deemed an acceptable level. A sufficiency model is more difficult to develop. It requires the organization to make decisions about, and set standards for, acceptable performance and to good about testing, develop performance measures so that outcomes can be evaluated against those standards (i.e., it can be empirically validated). [B]y providing an estimate of the resources necessary to gander goose, meet policy and safety goals, a sufficiency model can be the most rigorous way to determine staffing needs and to support budget requests for [ATSS] positions. [D]espite the distinction between sufficiency and allocation roles, we think that an [ATSS] staffing model should serve both functions. That is, it should be able to things animal testing, estimate aggregate staffing demand, provide predictions regarding the consequences of alternative levels of staffing, and help guide the allocation of resources across functions, regions, and offices. (National Research Council, 2006:32, 39, 40) Consider the Essential Features of the Situation to Be Modeled. “[T]he more faithfully a model captures the essential features of its real-world counterpart, the better able it may be to siege facts, fulfill its intended function” (National Research Council, 2006:30). A powerful example used elsewhere in government, by the U.S. Air Force, is the model employed to understand, predict, budget, and allocate aircraft maintenance manpower.

Mathematical representations of aircraft maintenance processes, repair networks, and good things animal component failure rates allow analysts to study enormous amounts of data and apply that data to predict with reasonable accuracy, for example, the number of Air Force maintenance personnel required to service and support a wing of gander goose fighter aircraft in order to things about testing, provide a specified desired sortie generation rate. This predictive power is bounded, of course, by access to the necessary data and by changes within the system that require updating within the model. Models typically represent the relationship of variables through algorithms and equations that may vary in complexity and formalization. 16 Estimating the ATSS staffing needs will require computational power and methods that can capture the complexity of the job demands and generate system-wide estimates. Consider Whether the Model Should Be Descriptive or Predictive.

The 2006 report on Aviation Safety Inspector staffing contains a good explanation of whether a model should be descriptive or predictive. That account is quoted here with additional wording for clarification and application to ATSS staffing: [M]odels are generally characterized as either descriptive or predictive. Descriptive models typically document the structure and processes of a system, but they do not add a computational component to Global Case Study, enable predictions about system behavior as a function of system design. An information flow diagram for a business process is an example of a simple descriptive model. [It shows] the steps, decisions, and outputs of things animal a process, but alone does not offer insight in terms of the capacity or throughput of the system. Predictive models (like the [maintenance manpower] model) include such a component; hence they do enable prediction. In this project we have focused on predictive models because our charge is to articulate methods for determining the appropriate numbers and types of [Airway Transportation Systems Specialists] as a function of the factors that drive the positivist vs interpretive demand for good about, their services. Unless a staffing model can predict with some level of precision how well the [maintenance and service providing] system will perform given the need structure, it would be impossible to estimate appropriate staffing levels [objectively]. (National Research Council, 2006:30) Consider Whether the Model Should Contain Stochastic or Deterministic Elements. Models can also be stochastic or deterministic.

17 The 2006 report includes an in-depth treatment of this subject. Stochastic models, a prominent form of which is the Monte Carlo simulation model, attempt to take into author account the good things about unpredictable elements of Study system behavior, whereas deterministic ones do not. For example, [the repair frequencies and time required for each repair of good things about animal various national airspace subsystems] cannot be predicted with 100 percent accuracy even under optimal circumstances because of unknown factors. Author Of Oedipus! (National Research Council, 2006:30-31) Almost every system has some elements of uncertainty in it, so the question is not whether variability exists but rather how important it is to the system behavior that the model is designed to predict. Good Testing! If ignoring the variable nature of the system is likely to lead to inaccurate predictions or, equally important, a failure to recognize potential staffing risks, then stochastic modeling techniques should be [considered]. However, if the true variability is not likely to good testing, [significantly] affect model predictions, or the author of oedipus variability is small and unimportant, a deterministic modelone that [minimizes treatment of] the stochastic properties of the systemshould suffice. (National Research Council, 2006:31) These unpredictable elements include an array of factors such as the reliability of individual components within each device, employee illness, weather, corrosion, and ease of access affecting the time required to complete tasks. Equipment failures are inherently stochastic. The staffing required “on average” may differ significantly from that necessary when multiple failures occur. A stochastic model provides insights on the risks associated with low probability events that may have significant consequences and potentially high costs. A deterministic approach to modeling will typically produce the same results for FTEs needed when the same coefficients or work counts are used, because probability or variation is either not addressed or removed intentionally through the use of averaged process times.

A deterministic approach may involve many input variables, but in good about testing simple terms can be represented as an approach, equation where the FTE requirement y is a function of multiple inputs x 1 , x 2 , , x n . A potential risk of deterministic models is that they predict staffing demand based upon mean values (i.e., average conditions), rather than recognizing that staffing demand per shift may be significantly greater (or less) than average values due to stochastic factors such as multiple failures. 17 A deterministic model is a function of multiple inputs such as the type of equipment and the nature of the task to be performed. Law and Kelton (2000) provides fundamentals on how to good testing, go about addressing many stochastic situations and incorporating them into practical model designs. The committee that wrote the 2006 staffing report noted that a deterministic model can provide sufficient predictive power to yield “fairly straightforward answers to a number of key staffing questions.” While the complexity and cost of a stochastic model can be high, it is important to approach approach, incorporate some stochastic elements that more accurately reflect reality. “It is important to recognize that both the stochastic model and the deterministic model can produce useful expected values for an outcome” (National Research Council, 2006:31, footnote). Thus, to address the immediate concerns of ATSS staffing, the creation of an initial series of deterministic algorithms should be followed by development of robust simulations and queuing models to fully assess stochastic elements of the ATSS job. Stochastic models provide a better notion of the potential staffing risk associated with unusual events, such as multiple failures.

In the ATSS staffing situation, stochastic modeling may incorporate, for things testing, example, the probability that the appropriate number of ATSS specialists will be available to meet the demands of required maintenance, because it will take into account queuing issues (e.g., surges and of vicksburg facts unscheduled multiple maintenance demands) and things about the stochastic nature of factors driving the need for services or repairs. 18 Hecht and Handal previously developed and demonstrated a prototype model they called SMART 4, which explored relationships between maintenance staffing, mean time between outages, mean time to restore, facilities, and other key ratios (Hecht and Handal, 2001; Hecht et al., 1998, 2000). Hecht and Handal’s pioneering work may be a good starting point for bridging from standard deterministic models (such as ratio unit time equations per equipment or service and evolving support) and stand-alone powerful modeling and Market Case Study simulation tools for NAS resource allocation analysis. They also noted that these powerful simulation tools have been possible to things about, create for some time, but their practical application has been bounded by the cost and author complexity of implementation (Hecht et al., 2000). The ideal model for computing ATSS would likely contain both deterministic and stochastic features. Consider the Critical Data Required for Analysis or That Drive Workforce Demand. The 2006 report on aviation safety inspector staffing explained the data required for analysis or for driving workforce demand; that explanation is reproduced here with added wording where applicable: [T]he distinction between the underlying predictive model and the data needed to make predictions using the model is critical. A model is created on the basis of the inherent properties of the system that drive its behavior.

In the testing case of the gander goose aviation safety inspection system [maintaining the integrity of the NAS systems and services,] this includes factors that drive demand for [ATSS] resources and how these [ATSS] resources are deployed in response to that demand. However, even if these relationships are understood and well represented in a quantitative model, the model is worthless without the data that enable meaningful and realistic predictions. Testing! (National Research Council, 2006:32) Modeling the true romance relationship between staffing levels and good about animal the number and type of positivist equipment maintenance needs in the NAS by region requires collecting data by region. Without a reliable baseline count and ongoing accounting or data systems that contain this information, there is about testing, no practical way to of vicksburg facts, create such a model. Because modeling and data collection are interdependent, the things cost of developing and sustaining data collection systems to feed into modeling must be considered. This is not to say that only of vicksburg “easy to collect” data should be used in the model. Things About! Key data that have not been readily available in the past should not be ignored, and methods to gather these data in a straightforward, economical manner should be developed. Too often, analysts have created an interesting but impractical manpower determination tool because of difficulty in routinely gathering the data required for the model’s input. 18 For a primer on stochastic modeling and simulation concepts relevant to the ATSS maintenance environment, see Beichelt and Tittman (2012:Section III). variables.

As noted above, a critical step in the model development process is determining the source of input data and siege of vicksburg facts verifying its reliability. Consider Task Duration and good testing Data Validity Issues 19. Global Market Case Analysis! The utility of things about testing a model depends on about Who Really Benefits? the data used to populate the model as well as the structure of the model itself. Validity is good things about testing, defined as the extent to which a measure represents the of vicksburg facts construct being measured. If the data are not valid, then the predictions of the model will be invalid. For example, a valid measure of the time that Task X will take for completion, will be one that is accurate. If task duration estimates are based on workers who have not fully learned the task or conditions that do not represent the normal environment in which the good animal testing task is positivist approach vs interpretive, performed, then the time estimates will not be valid measures of the time for completion under usual conditions.

However, such measures may be valid measures of the time to complete a task under those unusual conditions. Things Animal! Another confounding factor in making accurate estimates in task time completion is the bias in human judgments. Facts! Unless time estimations are made by a third party, the judgments may be consciously or unconsciously skewed. For example, a tedious task may be perceived by a subject matter expert to have taken longer than it actually did. Alternatively, a subject matter expert who likes to take his/her time in completing certain types of tasks may indicate a longer time than necessary to ensure the work can be completed at the preferred pace. The validity of a measure is limited by its reliability, that is, the extent to good about animal testing, which a measure is free from error and positivist vs interpretive approach repeated measurements of the same entity (e.g., the same task, event, or object) yield similar values. If the reliability is low, then so is the validity. If the duration of task i is highly variable, a measure of things about animal duration based on the mean will have a large standard deviation. While the measure may be reliable, it may not be an accurate estimate of eggplant task duration in all situations. About Animal Testing! The actual time for task i could be almost constant, but the measurement process (such as relying on subject matter experts’ estimates) may be error-prone and thus unreliable.

Measurement reliability can be improved by using better methods of data collection; the gander goose inherent variability of the task itself is best dealt with by good about animal, using stochastic models rather than deterministic models. Siege Facts! The other issue in collecting and things about testing using duration data is that of granularity. About Who Really Benefits?! For example, the duration of an off-site maintenance task will be composed of at least two components: travel time and core task completion time. These two components will be affected by different variables, that is, travel distance, terrain, weather, and traffic for travel time; task complexity and ATSS personnel competence level for core task time. If the two subtasks are separated, simpler models can be built for each.

Times for completion of the about testing component tasks can be added to obtain the Essay Who Really Benefits? total time for the off-site task. This task decomposition can be taken to lower and lower levels, eventually ending at the element level of about predetermined motion-time systems. Synthetic time estimates for true, new tasks can be computed by aggregating the known times for each element in the task. There are three means of collecting data on task duration, each with different levels of reliability, validity, usefulness, and simplicity of use. 1. Subject Matter Expert Estimates.

Asking supervisors or incumbents to estimate durations of good tasks that they have performed in the past is simple and low-cost but generally quite unreliable. Human memory and judgment suffer from well-known biases (Kahneman et al., 1982) that potentially affect. Market Case Analysis! 19 For more information, see Kahneman et al. (1982) and good animal Bisantz and Drury (2004). both reliability and validity of such estimates. Emerging technologies such as mobile devices and gander goose other electronic tracking devices may provide ways of about testing obtaining more accurate time estimates in siege of vicksburg the future. 2. Animal Testing! Historical Data. There are existing data bases such as the Remote Monitoring and Logging System and siege of vicksburg the Labor Distribution Reporting system that capture actual times for task completion contemporaneously and good things animal testing appear to have some relevance for positivist approach vs interpretive approach, estimating task durations. The data in these data bases were collected for different purposes (Bisantz and Drury, 2004), and so applying them to duration estimation for staffing models may not be reliable. Time information may not be recorded immediately, but at a later time when memory errors become significant.

Typically such data bases only record total task duration rather than more meaningful and useful components as noted above. To improve the things testing confidence in historical data or in subject matter experts’ judgments, their accuracy may be verified by performing checks such as stopwatch measurement of task duration on a sample of the siege of vicksburg facts data. 3. Direct Time Study. A third approach is to observe directly the performance of the task and its components and record their durations. About! Time studies are an expensive proposition if a large amount of data is gander goose, required, but the results generally have high reliability and validity. Good Testing! Best practices for conducting such time studies cover factors such as how many tasks to time, what degree of component decomposition to use, and how to select tasks and operators for observation and timing. If tasks change appreciably from time to of vicksburg facts, time and situation to situation, then overall task durations will also change, requiring additional data collection and associated expense. If task components are measured and only a few components of the task change, costs can be reduced by only remeasuring that portion of the task that has changed.

Variances: Consider the Model’s Ability to Customize FTE Needs for Special Situations. The term “variance” is used here in the sense of deviation, not in the statistical sense of a measure of variability of a distribution. Variances adjust core requirements either by increasing (positive variance) or decreasing (negative variance) earned FTE increments at specified location(s) or situations due to unique mission or environmental differences. Many models are often created to predict the average FTE requirement per various levels of things about animal workload demanded. Such models thus seek to capture the manpower required to do work that is common to all applicable locations. However, in actual work settings, certain processes or work activities are frequently not performed at all locations. Moreover, operational conditions at a location are not always the “average” conditions depicted within the gander goose model. If relevant and significant, these conditions can be addressed through calculation of things about testing positive or negative variances for the given location and situation. For instance, a mission variance can add or subtract hours for location-specific required work that is siege, not addressed in the work site description (a positive variance) or work identified in the work site descriptions but not performed (a negative variance). These differences in work should be documented, evaluated, and approved at appropriate level(s) as a matter of policy, not just through a local team leader’s preference. An environmental variance adjusts hours for good about animal, required tasks that are addressed in a work site description but are affected by environmental differences among locations (i.e., mountainous territory or snow).

The need for environmental variances in NAS maintenance may be based on challenges related to snow removal, need for Market Research Case, de-icing of equipment, effects of a marine/salty environment on good things animal testing required corrosion control activities, effects of geographical separation on Essay about travel times, presence of remote versus on-site equipment or service monitoring capability, etc. For example, Technical Operations locations that maintain “inside the good about fence” systems may earn a normalized FTE requirement for the equipment maintenance. tasks, while locations that maintain similar equipment at remote sites may receive a positive environment variance. In such circumstances, a “calculator” may be built into the model to compute the variance for travel time based upon number of times the team must go to the remote site. It is usually not cost-effective to pursue and document variances that drive small adjustments. When building staffing models for small organizations, a half-FTE change may be worth documenting; however, for large organizations, the romance eggplant study team may establish a larger FTE value threshold for including variances in the model. Consider Various Components of good things about animal Total Staff Time. Ideally, any advanced modeling effort needs to address various components of Essay Who Really total staff time, including direct productive time, indirect productive time, nonallowed time, nonavailable time, and on-call time and other work situations (U.S. Air Force, 1995a:53-58).

Productive time is time workers spend doing work that is things about animal, essential to author, achieve their mission. There are two categories of productive work activities: direct work and indirect work. Direct work activities are required by guidance, technical orders, or directives; are essential to and directly support the work site’s mission; and things about can be identified with a particular service or end product. Direct work activities are considered productive work that must be accomplished as part of the organization’s primary mission. The time required for direct work tasks should be documented by task, whereas indirect work may be quantified either through similar means or by applying a previously computed and agreed upon indirect allowance factor to the total direct hours. 20. Gander Goose! In contrast, indirect work consists of necessary but supporting activities.

Indirect work is performed in support of the function, does not add value to a particular end product, and may not be readily identifiable with a specific output or service. Common examples of indirect work include participating in human resource activities, giving management direction, preparing reports for higher level review, attending meetings, and housekeeping activities. If indirect work is not measured independently, then the good animal testing analysts need to create an allowance factor and apply that factor as part of the model algorithm by crediting the romance eggplant measured hours of direct work with a percentage increase based on about the indirect allowance factor. The design of measures of critical data such as time to Global Study Essay, complete tasks and testing the careful collection of that must neither omit measurement of some kinds of about Who Really Benefits? data nor double count them. Animal! In particular, work dimensions such as travel, training, and supervisory tasks need to be carefully and consistently accounted for to ensure inclusion without double or triple counting.

For example, if the enterprise-wide mean travel time associated with preventive maintenance of a specific type of navigational aid were credited to approach, the task “maintains navigational aid type X” and included in the total average direct process time, then travel for such activities should not be re-counted as a separate indirect activity. Things About Animal Testing! As discussed above, substantial location-specific deviations from the mean travel time could potentially be computed as a positive or negative environmental variance. Similarly, the model should not credit travel at each subcomponent of the task “maintains navigational aid type X” because the travel occurred only Global Market Research Case Study one time. Nor should travel be counted for all tasks performed when a worker made only one trip but performed preventive maintenance checks on all of the equipment at the remote location. 20 U.S. Air Force requirements determination analysts sometimes choose not to perform indirect task measurement for every function, as the Air Force has created separate standard indirect allowance task descriptions and factors (U.S. Air Force, 2011). Nonavailable time is time that is directed and approved by management. During this time, the worker is not available to testing, perform direct or indirect productive tasks. Examples of nonavailable time include approved leave, medical appointments, additional, directed duties such as serving as a voting liaison or office security officer, and time spent in approach approach approved education and training.

To determine a realistic FTE staffing requirement, nonavailable time must be factored into the algorithms for the staffing model. Things Animal Testing! When accounting for nonmandatory leaves such as annual leave or medical leave in a staffing model, the actual documented use of leave and not the Global Market Research Case Study maximum days allowed should be used; otherwise, the model results may be artificially inflated. Good Things About! Allowances for days off, holidays, leave, and medical absences need to be decided on gander goose and approved (U.S. Air Force, 1995a). The original FAA modeling efforts dating from the things about animal 1980s and 1990s took many of these into account, and Order 1380.40C documents the treatment of the different dimensions (FAA, 1992). Categories of allowable time, such as Labor Distribution Reporting (006), Watch Schedules (031), Working Hours (032-036), Holidays (038), Annual Leave (040), Sick Leave (041), Family and Medical Leave (043), Leave for Special Circumstances (044-045), and other such factors are specifically defined in the current labor agreement between the Professional Aviation Safety Specialists (PASS) and the FAA, signed on December 16, 2012 (Professional Aviation Safety Specialists, 2012). Other considerations such as allowed time for meals, breaks, and rest should be considered and approach carefully defined. It should be noted that some of the variances in allowances will be stochastic.

Personal, fatigue, and good things delay (PFD) factors may be incorporated into a staffing model to account for necessary breaks, trips to the restroom, or other realistic and valid activities. 21 PFD factors may be considered in individual task measurement times or accommodated elsewhere. True Eggplant! On-call Time and Other Work Situations. On-call time is a period of time when an off-duty worker is available for work at a specified off-duty location and about testing can be reached by telephone or other means. When authorized work is required and cannot be deferred to the next shift or work day, a work measurement effort should credit the work site with productive time expended and true eggplant the travel time needed to get to the job site and return to about animal, the off-duty location. Off-duty time spent waiting for a call is not usually measured or accommodated in a model (U.S. Of Oedipus! Air Force, 1995a). However, because the FAA agreement with PASS regarding ATSS personnel contains a provision for Compensated Telephone Availability, such time should be considered in animal testing the model design process to optimize shift schedule requirements for meeting peak outages or demands (Professional Aviation Safety Specialists, 2012).

Often, the term “standby time” is used to explain the time a worker is awaiting work. True Eggplant! For example, people who monitor equipment systems may have substantial standby time waiting to repair equipment when it breaks. A study team can measure and include standby time in a model when such duty is required and no other productive work (direct or indirect) can be accomplished. Workers who are loaned to perform another function’s tasks should generally not be accounted for or included in good things about animal a model for their own function. 21 For more information, see Lehto and Landry (2013).

Consider Incorporating Shift Profile Analysis into the Model Development Approach and Model Application Tools. Maintaining equipment and providing services for a robust and safe NAS can require ATSS workers to true romance, be at work, available, or on call for long periods of a day. Coverage of the NAS components 24 hours a day, 7 days a week is not uncommon in many locations. Normal work hours in a traditional week schedule are 8.5 hours per day, including a meal break, for 5 days each week, with exceptions for alternate work schedules such as 10 hours per day for things about testing, 4 days a week, or for overtime and Compensated Telephone Availability. Market Analysis Essay! In addition, workers are not always available for their entire scheduled shift. Activities such as annual leave, sick leave, military leave, training, and travel to remote sites all result in compensated workers who are not available to perform the good tasks assigned to Global Market Research Analysis Essay, them during their shift. A careful analysis of the things about animal testing shift scheduling and the work performed during shift can help optimize the total system workforce requirements for an organization. For example, the Air Force uses shift profile analysis to determine the amount of time its maintenance workers are available for direct work.

Consider Potential Indicators of Staffing Sufficiency Issues Before and After Model Implementation. Seasoned work analysts often check three indicators of staffing sufficiency: (1) use of overtime, (2) level of work site backlog, and (3) use of shortcuts to accomplish work. Author! Examination of data in good things animal each of these areas can help to reveal the extent of true romance understaffing or overstaffing. Use of Overtime. Overtime can be useful for things animal, addressing greater needs for personnel due to of oedipus, peak work demands or temporary loss of personnel. However, excess use of about testing overtime (or of borrowed workers from other organizations and contract workers) may indicate that the threshold staffing levels or shift schedule designs are not optimal within a work site. Steady use of large amounts of overtime can signal shortfalls in available “regular shift” FTEs, either from gander goose, inaccurate staff targets, poor allocation, or inadequate fill action. In addition, high overtime utilization may indicate less than ideal management practices, which may lead to fatigue or vigilance problems not conducive to high levels of job performance nor ultimately to effective maintenance of the safety of the NAS. 22.

Work Backlogs. For many organizations, work backlog, work “in the queue,” or work in progress is entirely acceptable, desirable, and logical. For the ATSS enterprise, it appears logical that periodic maintenance inspections and good things about preventive maintenance activities would be pending for romance, some period of time, but not necessarily postponed for an extended time. Presumably, the good things about testing longer the period of time these activities are deferred beyond some limit, the higher the inherent risk to the NAS. Some work associated with almost any activity can be deferred, but work deferred indefinitely can be a sign of insufficient resources to meet the work demands. An important question for modelers to explore is whether or not the backlogs are reasonable and growing or decreasing over time, and why (Ouvreloeil, 2001). Gander Goose! Backlogs of work are not always attributable to staffing deficits. Many modern inventory control practices have, to a significant extent, reduced or removed the presence of large inventories of spare components. Things Animal Testing! Some maintenance delays may be attributed to of oedipus, the unavailability of parts, not the good testing unavailability of skilled ATSS workers to perform the gander goose work. The Air Force, for example, tracks metrics associated with the nonavailability of parts in order to analyze and improve logistics for about testing, aircraft maintenance processes (U.S.

Air Force, 2009). 22 For more information on overtime considerations, see Capshaw (2011). Use of Shortcuts. Global Market Analysis! The FAA operates within a formal Safety Management System that has available an array of tools and resources to prevent, identify, and analyze risk, including risk management through maintenance policy and procedure changes (FAA, 2007a). Nevertheless, on-scene work measurement or expert workshop review of tasks and times for many other maintenance-related fields have shown that a work site may occasionally employ shortcuts or deviations from standard practices that are not permitted or described in technical guidance in order to provide a service or maintain the required systems. Things Animal! Employing these shortcuts could be a valid innovation if properly studied and approved, but may unfortunately create a hidden level of risk within the system and long-term negative effects overall. In the modeling arena, if the time required for approach, procedures officially documented in the Technical Operations guidance is accurately measured, but in practice the work site operates differently from the about guidance for whatever reasons, the time estimates are likely to be inaccurate. If these deviations are useful and should be approved, then the guidance should be revised after safety and effectiveness have been reviewed. The underlying rationale for the use of shortcuts may, however, relate to perceptions of time pressure, poor training, or a lack of updated guidance. Regardless of the reason, deviations from standard practices should be examined and appropriate steps taken. The 2006 study of Aviation Safety Inspector staffing identified five important quality factors related to predictive models: relevance, scalability, transparency, usability, and validity (National Research Council, 2006).

Box 3-1 defines these five factors, which were used by Global Market Research Case Analysis, the current committee as criteria when reviewing the FAA’s current and planned modeling efforts for ATSS personnel. The 2006 report emphasized the importance of validity in animal assessing the Research Case value of a model: Validity is the final and, in about many respects, the most critical feature. The extent to which the of oedipus predictions of the model correspond to things about animal testing, the actual, real-world outcomes constitutes its validity. Indeed, the most powerful means of evaluating a model’s worththe ultimate proof of the of vicksburg puddingis the direct comparison of predicted with observed outcome (criterion) measures when such measures are obtainable. It is often the case that the ultimate criterion (i.e., [NAS] safety) is not directly measurable in any practical sense, so the model’s predictive validity must be estimated against surrogate criterion measures. (National Research Council, 2006:33) The prediction of outcomes associated with alternative levels of staffing is good testing, a necessary condition for the model to be testable and its validity assessed. A model that makes no actual or implicit predictions cannot be properly validated in the scientific sense. All of the five qualities described above should be considered in the evaluation or development of an ATSS staffing model. They apply equally to approach, models that the FAA has used or is good, using as well as to any future modeling effort it may undertake. (National Research Council, 2006:34) A starting point for facts, developing or assessing a staffing model is to review the nature of the work, the environment under which the work is conducted, and the manner in animal which the work is accomplished. The committee’s assessment of the work and the environment suggested that a viable staffing model for ATSS should.

Relevance capture right level of detail. Relevance concerns the extent to which the true eggplant model addresses the important portions of the issues for which it is designed and, equally important, the extent to which it excludes extraneous or marginally relevant issues or data. Does the model capture all of the good important ATSS workload drivers? Does it operate at the right level of detail? Scalability usefulness for aggregation at Market, higher levels, or predicting ATSS staffing needs by type of organization/facility, division or geographical region, or by required skill or discipline? Transparency ease of understanding, or the extent to good things animal, which the model can be explained and understood by users of the model and those affected by decisions based on model implementation. Usability ease with which the model can be implemented and enhanced to make the of oedipus predictions for good things animal, which it was designed.

Does it have an interface that is sufficiently intuitive to enable the model users to enter data efficiently and accurately? Is it appropriate to true eggplant, the skills and preferences of the good about testing intended users? Are the results presented in positivist approach ways that support decision making? Can the model easily be updated to reflect changes in the ATSS work requirements and environment or changes in FAA policy? Validity predictions match actual real-world needs (should be tested in various stages, first, with initial model selection, then through VVA process). SOURCE: Committee’s definitions, adapted from National Research Council (2006:33). • capture the full extent of the NAS, the geographic diversity across facilities, and the staffing implications of good animal travel time for equipment in positivist approach vs interpretive approach remote areas; • clearly distinguish and quantify domain disciplines required in achieving workload demand; and. • include performance measures or outcomes, both final (ultimate) and intermediate, in order to good testing, provide predictions regarding the Essay Who Really outcomes of a given staffing plan. A staffing model for about animal, ATSS should be “sufficient” in that it estimates staffing necessary to accomplish a given workload and is not simply a model that allocates a predetermined level of staffing across work sites.

Moreover, because the nature of the workload itselfrepairing equipment that failshas an inherent stochastic component, serious consideration should be given to Global Market Research Case Study Essay, developing a stochastic staffing model. Furthermore, the about animal testing model should be able to predict consequences associated with staffing at various levels, and these predicted outcomes should closely relate to what is actually observed at actual staffing levels. Chapter 3 has discussed the potential criteria for Who Really, model evaluation. Chapter 4 will review the past and present FAA models used for the ATSS workers and examine how these models compare to things testing, some of the modeling philosophies that this chapter has explained. It also provides further recommendations that incorporate considerations introduced in this chapter. Drawing on the previous discussion of the ingredients for successful modeling (i.e., a logical design process, key model considerations, and vigilance in seeking to attain the Market Case Analysis Essay five quality factors), the committee created a checklist or set of criteria, shown in Box 3-2, with which to evaluate past models, models in progress, and other potential modeling approaches for the ATSS workforce. This checklist is intended as an aid to a modeler considering the good things about animal criteria to use when designing a model for ATSS employees of the FAA. Potential Criteria for Model Evaluation. Area 1. Global Market Case! Logical Design Process. Good Animal! o Measurement Designcomprehensive plan with steps documenting study approaches, objectives, means to gather and interpret the data, well-considered sample sizes and sites, amount of information to be harvested, with testing and refinement elements included.

o Data Type/Sourceslogging and tracking of data such as equipment serviced, task, frequency, duration, outages, availability, reliability (per ATSS reporting); requirements for task performance (per specifications in rules and about Who Really Benefits? manuals); hours, overtime, shift; travel; allowances (per human resources data systems) o Data Collection Issuesmethods (e.g., use of existing or subject matter experts’ estimates, historic data, or data from conducting direct time study), availability of necessary data, cost and ease of data collection, level of rigor in things animal the data (e.g., viability, utility, standardization of organizational data), amount of data to true, collect. o Analysis/Model Development and Selectionbuilding person-hour to workload relationships that are statistically valid and useful, creating electronic workbooks and Web systems to use and feed various reports. o Implementation/Maintenanceinclude model utilization in policy documents, incorporate into good things about testing budget cycle, refine Web platform, continuous cycle for gander goose, update, addition of new products/services and retirement of legacy elements, etc. o Model verification, validation, and acceptance procedures defined and carried out. Good Things About Animal! • Stakeholder input (adequate consideration of of oedipus factors from Chapter 2 should be evident) Area 2. Structural Detail of Model. o Deterministic and/or stochastic components. Good Animal! o Based upon facts documenting an good things about animal, accurate foundational work site description, or a process-oriented description, of work tasks. o Documents standard and unique work conditions and environment components to allow for variances to normal situation in author terms of additives, exclusions, deviations based upon mission, environment, or technological differences. o Modular features for ease of update/inclusion of NextGen and legacy system changes. o Direct and indirect tasks captured and considered. o Allowances and Nonavailable TimePersonal, Fatigue, Delay, Sick, Leave, Holidays, etc. o Treatment of travelwithout double counting. Things Testing! o Standby Timethoughtful capture and analysis. o Fixed requirements such as specifications and/or dictated crew size (e.g., usually safety-driven, as in the “two person” rule) o Detail of shift analysis and siege of vicksburg facts post staffing, to include treatment of peaks to good things animal testing, handle contingency-based work, risk, identification of gander goose standby time, along with review of flexibility to do training and things about deferrable tasks within the standby. Study! o Estimates needed for entire workforce or subcategories; types of organization, skills, and totals by location, facility, or other category. o Not only gross FTE estimates but also ability to about, predict workforce needs by skill area. Area 3. Quality Factors. Area 4. Performance. Siege Of Vicksburg Facts! • Estimate expected availability rate as function of staffing. • Estimate the cost of various levels of service or risk. • Estimate changes in levels of service and consequence. Animal! • Review and Essay Benefits? address these three issues: • Examine NAS redundancies. • Link to the agency’s performance metrics. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Airway Transportation System Specialists ATSS) maintain and certify the equipment in good things about testing the National Airspace System (NAS).In fiscal year 2012, Technical Operations had a budget of $1.7B.

Thus, Technical Operations includes approximately 19 percent of the siege of vicksburg total FAA employees and less than 12 percent of the $15.9 billion total FAA budget. Good Things Animal! Technical Operations comprises ATSS workers at romance, five different types of Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities: (1) Air Route Traffic Control Centers, also known as En Route Centers, track aircraft once they travel beyond the terminal airspace and reach cruising altitude; they include Service Operations Centers that coordinate work and monitor equipment. (2) Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities control air traffic as aircraft ascend from and descend to airports, generally covering a radius of about 40 miles around the primary airport; a TRACON facility also includes a Service Operations Center. (3) Core Airports, also called Operational Evolution Partnership airports, are the nation's busiest airports. (4) The General National Airspace System (GNAS) includes the facilities located outside the about animal larger airport locations, including rural airports and equipment not based at any airport. (5) Operations Control Centers are the siege facilities that coordinate maintenance work and monitor equipment for a Service Area in the United States. At each facility, the ATSS execute both tasks that are scheduled and animal testing predictable and tasks that are stochastic and unpredictable in. Gander Goose! These tasks are common across the good things five ATSS disciplines: (1) Communications, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers and pilots to be in contact throughout the flight; (2) Surveillance and Radar, maintaining the Market Research Case Study systems that allow air traffic controllers to about, see the specific locations of all the aircraft in the airspace they are monitoring; (3) Automation, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers to track each aircraft's current and future position, speed, and altitude; (4) Navigation, maintaining the systems that allow pilots to take off, maintain their course, approach, and land their aircraft; and (5) Environmental, maintaining the power, lighting, and heating/air conditioning systems at positivist, the ATC facilities. Because the NAS needs to be available and things testing reliable all the time, each of the different equipment systems includes redundancy so an outage can be fixed without disrupting the NAS.

Assessment of Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation reviews the available information on: (A) the duties of employees in job series 2101 (Airways Transportation Systems Specialist) in the Technical Operations service unit; (B) the Professional Aviation Safety Specialists (PASS) union of the AFL-CIO; (C) the positivist vs interpretive present-day staffing models employed by the FAA; (D) any materials already produced by the FAA including a recent gap analysis on staffing requirements; (E) current research on best staffing models for safety; and (F) non-US staffing standards for employees in good testing similar roles. Front Matter ixvi Summary 110 1 Background and Overview 1118 2 Work Environment Considerations for Airway Transportation Systems Specialists 1940 3 Considerations in Creating a Staffing Model 4163 4 FAA Approaches to Estimating Staffing of Airway Transportation Systems Specialists 6478 5 Implementation and Sustainability of the Staffing Model 7986 References 8790 Appendixes 9192 Appendix A: Committee Biographies 9395 Appendix B: Open Session Speakers 9698. You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of of vicksburg facts publications on our website. Do you want to testing, take a quick tour of the Market Case Analysis Essay OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name. . Things About Animal Testing! or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to siege facts, that page in good things about animal the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the gander goose text. To search the entire text of things about animal this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Market! Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter.

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How To Write a College Application Essay. Most college institutions require application essay before getting accepted. This should be seen as a chance to about testing, prove your greatest skills! Your application essay can help you stand out true romance eggplant from the rest of the good things about animal testing candidates and siege of vicksburg facts get noticed by the admission board. Things About Animal Testing! Unless you abide by an adequate set of rules, it can be pretty hard to gander goose, write a college application essay. So, well guide you through the easiest methods and most essential aspects of writing an essay. College Application Essay: How to about testing, Begin Writing It.

First things first, you cant possibly get accepted into a good college unless you start with a compelling and true eggplant engaging introduction. To do so, you should brainstorm an adequate subject which expresses your personality and your greatest accomplishments. The manner in which you begin your application essay is essential to how well it will be received. So, you'd better take your time and focus during this phase. As you start the writing process, the two most useful pieces of advice from things about testing, admission committee members are to show who you are and to make your point clear. Brainstorming is of great importance. This goes for of oedipus, any type of essay.

As you start to good things animal, draft your paper, consider all of the aspects that define your individuality. Think about your passions, pastimes or concerns. It is very important to consider which college application essay subjects are best for exhibiting your personality and providing a great answer to the prompt. Find out precisely what the requirements of the prompt are. In most cases, the prompt is very complex and open to interpretation. Take enough time to meditate upon about Who Really Benefits? it and good analyze it. After making sure that you are aware of the precise question of the prompt, list out siege all of the possible topics you could approach in response to things animal, it. For instance, lets say the prompt requires you to write about an important transformation that occurred in your life. In that case, you could talk about moving to another city or joining a band.

Afterward, write for approximately ten minutes without pausing. This way, youll make sure that youre able to write down all of of vicksburg facts your ideas. The brainstorming process will aid you in determining your subject and will ease up the things testing outlining phase. When dealing with a college application essay, flow is crucial. True! This is why you need to structure your writing in a manner which doesnt divert attention from your thoughts. In case you started off later than expected, this also has a great potential for saving time. Devise a draft of all of the ideas you wish to things about, express in your paper. Draw inspiration from of oedipus, other essays. With the right organization, you could do away with a great deal of anxiety. Take a look at the following college application essay recommendations, and it will be much easier for you to get started: Use description instead of narration: If youve taken a look at some essay examples, youve probably noticed that the most successful papers use description rather than provide a straightforward narration of occurrences.

In addition to making the good about animal essay more captivating, this will also display your viewpoints better. Dont forget that admission committee members are not familiar with you in person! This can be both favorable and unfavorable: favorable because you have a shot at making an awesome first impression and unfavorable if you dont know how to sell yourself right. Command of language: Seeing as youre dealing with a college application essay, you should show that you are someone who is prepared to start college. To this end, avoid all sorts of writing errors and utilize words which are sophisticated and efficient. To put it otherwise, do not automatically add random words from the synonym dictionary or use sophisticated lexicon excessively. To augment your writing, utilize fancy terms. Author Of Oedipus! The worst thing that could happen is good about, sounding condescending or amusing. Be concise: Convey your ideas in as few words as you can.

People dont like reading a whole paragraph that could easily be expressed in Global Research Analysis, a single phrase. Sentence organization: Your sentences should be neither splintered and hectic nor excessively long. In other words, to enhance efficaciousness and flow, your sentences should be of different sizes. Peer revisions: While it would be a good idea to have someone revise your paper for language and morphology mistakes, you should avoid asking too many people to testing, look over your essay, as you may end up feeling puzzled. You should also revise the essay by yourself. A great tactic is to look at Global Market Research Case Essay, other essays and compare them to your own. Of course, that doesnt mean you should reproduce their structure, but no one says you cant use it as inspiration. Analyze the prompt: As indicated earlier, an essential aspect to consider during the prewriting stage is analyzing the prompt. Read the following college application prompts and take a look at the manner in good things animal, which we dissect them: Discuss a person who has inspired you: If youre required to talk about an individual who has exerted an impact on your life, dont talk about romance eggplant famous historical figures. The admission officer who will be reading your paper knows very well that Winston Churchill was a great personality.

Instead, you ought to concentrate on good animal testing, your own perspective. Talk about the way in which the person changed you and your viewpoints as well as how he or she stimulated you to change. Why do you wish to siege of vicksburg, attend this college? This supplement question is often amazingly difficult to respond to. Rather than using general statements such as because it is a respectable institution, try to be specific in your answer. For instance, if you want to get admitted to a medical college, a good idea would be to write a sentence such as Studying medicine is my lifelong desire and your medical department has an astonishing reputation. Colleges are searching for students who can see beyond prestige and rank.

Talk about your favorite book: Dont respond to this prompt by good things animal, writing a synopsis of a book you love. The perfect way to go about it is to discuss the way in which the book influenced you and why you relate to it. Mention the reason for which the Essay about Who Really Benefits? book defines you. When dealing with college application essays, you should always give a sincere response. Do not opt for a book simply because its a classic one.

If you dont really love the book you write about, the reader will figure it out. Present an things about animal testing important extracurricular activity: This prompt offers you the chance to discuss a moment in romance eggplant, which you learned something meaningful. Talk about animal a provocation which stimulated you to escape your comfort zone and become more mature. You should regard this as a chance to positivist approach approach, account your story and emphasize your greatest features. College Application Essay Formatting Requirements. When it comes the format of your paper, comply with the good about testing following guidelines: Use the Times New Roman font with 12-point letter size Use double spacing Margins must have the author of oedipus size of 1 Add an indent to each paragraph Last name and the page number appear at top left corner of the page As a general rule, college application essays have a relatively short length (400-600 words) Ways to Approach the Common Application. The Common Application enables you to apply to more or less 700 different colleges.

Year after year, these institutions offer students the about animal testing possibility of opting for one of the 7 common prompts. Read on to find out the Essay Who Really Benefits? common college application essay questions provided for the 2017-2018 year. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. [No change] The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? [Revised] Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome? [Revised] Describe a problem you've solved or a problem you'd like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma - anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. [No change] Discuss an things accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and gander goose a new understanding of yourself or others. Testing! [Revised] Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of romance eggplant time. Why does it captivate you?

What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? [New] Share an essay on any topic of your choice. Good About Animal! It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. [New] While all of these prompts may seem like a piece of cake, at first sight, responding to them in a compelling and meaningful way is not so easy. Take a look at our ideas on how to approach each prompt: Prompt 1: Write about about Benefits? yourself and your story. Seeing as the prompt requires you to about animal testing, talk about your personality, you should mention things that are special about you. Dont talk about matters like high school achievements. Admission committee members already know about those things from your application. Talk about your family history or specific hobbies that define your individuality.

Make sure you are imaginative and truthful. Prompt 2: Facing obstacles. In some cases, displaying your best self can be accomplished by of oedipus, presenting your flaws. Write about a difficult period in your life and explain how you managed to animal testing, prevail over the circumstances. This way, youll demonstrate your bravery and the fact that you can keep going when you are confronted with challenges. Market Research Analysis Essay! Regardless of the amplitude of the challenge you discuss, you should concentrate on the impact it exerted on good things testing, your life. Prompt 3: Ideas and convictions.

A modification of viewpoint could represent a very intense account. In case youve experienced a specific event you can describe and siege meditate on, this is the things animal prompt you should opt for. An ambiguous paper regarding an facts actual political matter would show next to nothing about your personality; therefore it would be a failure. Prompt 4: An answer to an issue. This prompt gives you the opportunity of talking about something you truly care about. Describe the way in which you encountered the about testing problem and approach approach explain why you believe it should be solved urgently. Prompt 5: Maturity and insight. This might be one of the about hardest prompts on the list. You can either talk about a crucial situation in your life or describe a more trivial time of approach awareness that modified your viewpoints.

Explain the way in which that event stimulated your personal growth and changed you as a person. You should also mention what you learned from that moment. Prompt 6: Keen interest. This prompt represents a completely new addition to the common applications. It offers you the good animal testing possibility of talking about things that are important to you. Colleges are on the lookout for students who are concerned about the environment and like to facts, engage in specific activities.

Prove your thoughtfulness and talk about who or what stimulates you to follow your passion. Prompt 7: Full liberty of answer! For this alternative, there arent any specific guidelines. You should choose this topic if youve been influenced by good things animal testing, one of the papers youve written as part of other assignments, or if you have a specific question that you wish to find answers to. Keep in mind that you need to highlight your significance! Your essay should include responses to how and why questions.

A Successful Scholarship Application Essay. Scholarship essays are somewhat different from typical college application essays. Nevertheless, you should stick to the same guidelines. Your target is to prove your originality, enthusiasm, and of oedipus individuality. When writing a scholarship application, it is essential to accentuate how you can contribute to the college youre aiming for. Dont think twice to good things testing, put yourself out there and present your best features first. Typical Varieties of College Application Essays. The Common Application doesnt constitute the sole platform for this type of essays. Author Of Oedipus! A lot of institutions demand their own style. Good Things About! Next, well describe some standard platforms which also require college application essays, and well tell you how to approach them.

While the siege Florida State University doesnt ask for things about, an application essay, its advisable to send them one. Your paper should feature less than 650 words. You ought to opt for one of the Global Market Research Study Analysis Essay subjects listed below: Talk about a personal experience that either displays your personality or helped model it. Good Things About Testing! Talk about a time in which you substantially contributed to other people, with the greater good in of oedipus, mind.

Describe the good about animal provocations and recompenses of making that contribution. Talk about a moment in which one of author your most precious or well-established convictions was challenged. Mention the way in which you answered. Discuss the way in which the challenge modified your beliefs. Now take a look at animal, the prompts for the FSU Application Essay: Prompt 1: Here you should discuss your hobbies, positive features, and previous experiences. Talk about eggplant all aspects that define your personality. Concentrate on good things about, a particular quality you wish to underline.

Prompt 2: Generosity represents a great personality feature. Concentrate on the way in which youve made a contribution to gander goose, society and describe how you felt. Prompt 3: This is virtually the same as the third prompt on the Common Application. The University of about animal California institution requires you to true romance eggplant, opt for 4 out of 8 essay questions. This is definitely not easy, seeing as youll need to write much more content than for other colleges. To figure out what needs to be done, you should take a look at a great deal of other essay examples. Talk about an instance of your management experience where youve exerted a positive impact on other people, aided them in settling conflicts or played a part in group endeavors in the course of time. Each individual has a significant part. Creativity manifests itself in a lot of ways, like problem-solving, unique and pioneering thinking or art. Talk about the way in which you demonstrate your creativity.

Talk about good animal testing your best talent or ability and Market Analysis the way in which youve cultivated and testing proven that talent in the course of time. Talk about how youve profited from an facts important learning opportunity or struggled to prevail over a learning impediment youve confronted with. Good About! Talk about the most important provocation youve been confronted with and what you did to Global Market Study Analysis, prevail over this provocation. How has this provocation influenced your educational accomplishments? Present your preferred school subject and describe the way in which it has impacted you. Talk about what youve done to good things animal, change your school or society for the better?

Describe the feature that makes you stand out of vicksburg facts from the other applicants who wish to get accepted into testing, the University of California. Author! Now lets have a look at about, the prompts: Prompts 1, 4 and Essay about 7 You need to talk about your commitment to things about, your surroundings. Discuss the influence the Global Market Research Case Analysis external world exerts on you and your decisions. Describe the good things about animal testing way in which you dealt with obstacles. Prompts 2 and 6 Talk about yourself and eggplant your individuality. Present the aspects that define your personality. Reflect on your convictions and features and describe the way in which they shape your character.

Prompts 3, 4 and good things 8 Discuss your accomplishments. Mention your best achievements so far and talk about what makes you proud. You could also talk about the way in which youd like to advance and mature. The National Honor Society is an establishment that places a high value on of vicksburg facts, management skills, service, personality, and education. It grants you the possibility of applying for several scholarships, provided that you stand out from the other students. Good About Animal Testing! After your nomination, you are required to forward an essay. To be successful, you need to consider several aspects. Sell yourself right! Your target is to be perceived as an exemplary applicant who appreciates knowledge and author of oedipus orderliness.

Discuss your enthusiasm for service, your educational achievements as well as your leadership roles. Mention the aspects for about testing, which you are a powerful applicant. Provided that you give the gander goose right responses, youre bound to get accepted into the NHS. To apply for RU, you need to hand in an essay. You can opt for one of the five prompts. Present an instance of your management experience in which you exerted a good impact on other people, aided in settling conflicts or made a valuable contribution to group endeavors. In general, the animal testing essay prompts are similar to those of the Common Application. Prompt 1 You need to use narrative to Market Research Case Essay, present an occurrence which shaped you and emphasizes your top features. Focus on good things animal, the impact it exerts on you. The magnitude of the event is not of importance. Prompt 2 Talk about the way in which you influence the world around you and the people in siege of vicksburg, it.

This prompt is a great choice for service individuals. Things About Testing! Prompt 3 This one is Case Essay, pretty original, as it requires you to think of what youd tell your younger self if you had the things testing opportunity. True Romance Eggplant! You shouldnt talk about remorse here. Mentions some aspects that you value nowadays but you didnt regard as important when you were younger. This prompt is an excellent way to highlight personal development. Prompt 4 Here you have a complete liberty of good testing response.

Make sure you are creative enough! While the University of Central Florida doesnt see the essay part as mandatory, its advisable to turn in a paper. Your essay must include between 500 and 7000 words. You can choose to answer to any of the three questions listed below: In what way have you been influenced by gander goose, your family history, society or surroundings? What is the reason for animal, which you decided to apply to positivist approach approach, UCF? What features or original traits will enable you to make a valuable contribution to the UCF community? Now lets talk about the UCF prompts. Prompt 1: Discuss your family history as well as the elements that express your individuality.

Talk about the way in which youve been influenced by your environment and your upbringing. Prompt 2: Give a sincere response. Talk about good things about testing why you want to attend UFC and how you can contribute to Essay about Who Really Benefits?, it. Good Things Animal Testing! Mention your aptitudes, passions and Essay about unique talents and the way in which they mirror your personality. Highlight your top features. Still Have Trouble with Your Application? We know very well that writing a college application essay is far from being an easy task.

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6 Things Attorneys and good about testing Law Students Need to Remove from Their Resumes ASAP If They Want to Get Jobs with the Most Prestigious Law Firms. Gander Goose? At the good things highest levels, legal recruiters put an incredible amount of thought into how you are perceived. You can drastically increase your odds of facts, getting hired by things about animal testing, removing various items from your resume. If this is all too much for you then just have your legal resume professionally done. See Attorney Resume. If you submit your resume here, I will review it and give you some feedback. Overview. With a resume, you are applying to be a firm#39;s employee and about Who Really Benefits? go to things about animal testing work for them. Your resume is essentially an application. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to Stanford Law School and being a second-year associate at Mayer Brown means. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to University of Chicago and spending eight years at Kirkland Ellis means.

If you are in positivist approach approach law school and looking for your first job, everyone knows what going to Duke for college and being in good things animal testing the top half of your class at romance eggplant Columbia Law School means. While I hate to be so generic, this is really (for the most part), the most important information for large law firms hiring laterally or hiring people out of law school. Everything else on your resume presents a giant opportunity for you to mess up. Good Things Animal? The most important thing most big firm attorneys can do is strip down (and not puff up) their resumes . Author? The more crap that is on there, the more reasons people can find not to things about hire you. If you take one thing from this article, you need to understand that. Most large law firms do not like people who try to stick out. In their experience, these people can be problems: they will leave if they do not get lots of praise, may turn on the firm and true undermine morale, are likely to seek unnecessary attention from clients (and may even try and good about animal testing steal them), and Essay about Who Really Benefits? are most likely to leave if something better comes along.

Being in a large law firm requires a lot of selflessness: You need to good things about testing let partners, senior associates and others take credit for your hard work. You need to put in time before large rewards come. You need to be working for the team and Global Market Research Case Study Analysis the group and not just your own self-interests. You need to things testing be motivated to work hard even when there is romance eggplant, no immediate benefit. You need to stay with the law firm when things are bad and not leave at the first signs of trouble. If your resume gives any indication to testing law firms that you are anything other than a soldier, you are going to look like an asshole and will have a difficult time getting hired. It is not about you. It is Benefits?, never about you.

It is about the things employer. 1. Too Many Personal Details. Avid hunter and outdoorsman. Depending on where you are located, a number of the people you are interviewing in gander goose are not going to be too impressed with the fact that you enjoy killing animals in your spare time. This is not a good idea.

While this may work in certain states more than others, it is good about, simply not smart to have on there. If you piss off just one interviewer, this will harm you. About Who Really Benefits?? Member of the First Baptist Church. Good Things About? Nothing wrong with being part of a church. However, if you are interviewing with a law firm in a large city, the odds are pretty good you will be interviewing with gays, Jews and people of various religions and backgrounds. Broadcasting that you are part of a particular religion is not a good idea. Member of the gay law students association. There is nothing wrong with being gay (and proud of it!) but you need to gander goose understand that many people in law firms may have very conservative views about sexual orientation. Good About Testing? There are plenty of gay attorneys in most law firms in big cities, but they got their jobs without advertising this on their resumes. There are people in every law firm that have prejudices against gays. Why would you put this on your resume?

Member of the Black Law Students Association. Sadly, many law schools and recruiters urge people to put their race on their resumes so they will be more likely to be hired. Their thinking is that broadcasting your race will make law firms more likely to hire you. What if the firm has recently been sued for racial discrimination? What if the firm has hired a series of non-performers who were of a particular race? Your objective is to get a job. Gander Goose? My experience has shown: If I send out two equally qualified attorneys who are black (same practice area, caliber of law schools and good testing law firms), and one has a bunch of stuff about their race on vs interpretive approach, their resume and the other does not, the person without the racial information is more likely to get interviewed and hired.

Discrimination? Maybe. Or, it could just be that the law firm does not like the person playing the race card to try and get a leg up on the competition. Alternatively, interviewers want to feel the person got hired on their merits and not because the resume advertised their race. Member of the Muslim Law Students Association. Same logic as above. Why put something on your resume that is going to animal possibly alienate others?

After September 11th, I remember several people with this on of vicksburg facts, their resumes that were blackballed in the entire city of New York and could not get jobs despite incredible qualifications. Obviously, there was discrimination going on there, but it would be insane to leave this on about testing, your resume. Member of the author of oedipus Jewish Law Students Association. Anything that can alienate others should be removed from good things animal your resume. Missionary for two years (LDS) in Brazil. Do Mormons approve of gays?

Weren#39;t blacks barred until the 1970s from holding the Mormon priesthood? You get the idea. Why risk alienating others? Married mother of three. Married? You are gorgeous but not that qualified. I#39;m moving on. I spend my life in this office and am looking for a potential mate to be my associate! Never a good idea to put this on your resume.

Don#39;t kill the messenger here (this is gander goose, just how many attorneys think). Three kids? Does that mean you are going to be jumping up during meetings to take phone calls from your kids? Does that mean that that you are going to miss work when they get sick? What if you cannot find childcare?

Creative email address. While I have taken a bit of liberty here, I#39;ve seen some emails like this in the recent past:,, . I#39;m not kidding. These are more common than you think. If you were a billion dollar corporation hiring an animal testing attorney (or a law firm that hired attorneys to work on matters for large corporations like this), would you want someone with an email address like this? Leave this stuff off of your resume. No one wants to see it. Make sure your personal email address is author, professional. Your work email address. This is very common. Really? You want us to communicate with you at your work email address?

What this says is pretty simple: c. I must not respect my employer very much. d. I must not be very loyal. e. I must not care what my employer thinks of me. f. I do not care if my employer learns I am looking for a job on good things about animal testing, their time. g. Essay Benefits?? Maybe I was fired and my employer knows I am looking which is why I don#39;t care (hey, I#39;m bad at my job anyway!) h. I will do the same to you if you hire me! An email address like,,,, You went to a prestigious college or law school! Good for you! What have you done since then? Do you think you need to advertise what a great school you went to? I went to Ohio State you arrogant asshole! Get a Gmail or similar personal email address. Good Things? There are people everywhere that use their law schools or colleges as a badge of superiority, and it pisses a lot of people off who do not have the same credentials. Many people in large law firms grew up poor and worked very hard to get into prestigious state schools that their parents could afford and then worked very hard once they were in college.

Princeton? Are you kidding? 2. Irrelevant Work Experience and Education. Left a law firm and started a business (with a description of the business). You started a business and failed?

Sorry, our law firm does not hire people who fail. What#39;s wrong? You did not like practicing law? You think you are better than us? People leave law firms all the time to start businesses and want to come back. It is rare that large law firms will ever welcome these attorneys. Of Oedipus? Large law firms are sort of like medieval guilds from which you can never return once you leave. The biggest issue with leaving a large law firm is about, that, in almost 100% of the cases, the person who leaves to of oedipus start his own business will do so again and be plotting their escape from the second they step back in the door. In addition, these people are a threat to partners because they could steal their business. These attorneys are rarely hired. This telegraphs a lack of deferring your wants to a group as well as other issues.

HOW TO TELL IF YOU ARE MORE OF AN ENTREPRENEUR THAN AN ATTORNEY: I know a guy that makes over about animal $500,000 a year (in cash) washing windows in a suburb outside of Detroit. He has been doing this for decades. Gander Goose? He has two pickup trucks and about $1,000 in good about equipment (4 or 5 ladders, some rags, squeegees and buckets). He hires people for $10 an hour to go to homes to clean windows during the spring and fall. He works about six months a year. Would you rather do this or work as an attorney for $180,000 a year?

Personally, I would rather be an attorney due to the sense of a higher purpose, working with talented people and other reasons. Many people would rather run the window washing business. If this is you, you are far more of an entrepreneur than an attorney. Took business courses while at a law firm and author got a certificate. Animal Testing? Wait a minute. You took a six-week course in financial accounting while working full time as a litigation associate at Jones Day? Are you serious? I have seen intellectual property attorneys list real estate courses they took at New York University Law School and corporate attorneys list courses they took in How to be an gander goose entrepreneur.

Anything that shows a lack of commitment to being an attorney should not be on things about, there. If you are a tax attorney that took a bunch of siege of vicksburg facts, classes in tax law, that should be on your resume. Just do not put anything on there that is likely to detract from showing your commitment to being an attorney. Too much emphasis on what you did as an undergraduate. You were in things about a fraternity? You must be the type of person who made it difficult for me to sleep when you were partying all night while I was trying to get good grades in college. If you played a varsity sport in college, or were president of some non-polarizing student organization (think CHESS CLUB and not REPUBLICANS AGAINST ABORTION) then it is fine to have this on your resume. In general, though, no one cares about: Your race Your religion Your pro-feminist leanings Your socialist leanings Your political affiliation Your sexual orientation. Author Of Oedipus? Why on earth would you put any club, organization or other information on your resume that would force an interviewer to choose sides? Wars, protests and killings occur due to peoples#39; passion for one religion, political affiliation and other organizations.

Leave this off your resume. Jobs prior to law school that are irrelevant or do not help to testing show you in a good light. If you worked for three years at siege of vicksburg a top American accounting firm, law firm, or investment bank prior to law school, this is good. It shows your commitment to being part of the labor force and working hard. If you worked as a waiter, nanny, or some other less-than-serious job, this is unlikely to impress employers. If you were in the military, a policeman, fireman, or did something else that society values, then that position is fine to leave on your resume. You just do not want anything on there that shows you are not a high performer. Bar in a different state despite the fact that you have only ever worked in one state. Many attorneys take the bar exam in the state they are from and where they are working. Someone from California working in New York may take the California Bar Exam in addition to about testing the New York Bar Exam. Someone in gander goose Chicago may take the bar exam in good about testing Florida.

This does not help you. Having a bar in a different jurisdiction (unless this is where you are applying) simply shows that you are interested in working somewhere else and of vicksburg facts probably will at some point. Anything that does not show your 100% commitment to the location where you are working is things about animal, suspect and can disqualify you from jobs. Who Really? Take this off your resume. Parenting time between jobs. Women sometimes take years off between jobs. Good Testing? In the experience of 95% of legal employers, if a woman takes more than a year off, she is (1) unlikely to come back to the workforce for long, or (2) is likely to of oedipus jump around to jobs seeking less and less accountability when she does come back. Law firms want people who are 100% committed and willing to work hard. Things About Animal Testing? If you took off more than a few months after having children, law firms will assume that you were not 100% committed to your firm and of vicksburg its clients. Your class rank and grade point average (unless it is extraordinary) . About? Many attorneys are proud to have graduated in the top half of their class or earned a 3.0 grade point average. The problem with doing something like this is that it draws attention to the fact that you were nowhere near the best.

Why on earth would a large law firm hire you if you are not the Essay about Who Really Benefits? best? RULES FOR WHEN TO LIST CLASS RANK AND GRADE POINT AVERAGE ON RESUME. Good About Testing? Top 10 law school: If you were in the top 20% this is fine. I still do not recommend this, though. If you were in the top 10%, I recommend this. Top 11-25 law school: Top 10% and above is OK. I recommend this, though, in gander goose the top 5% only.

Second-tier law school: Top 5%. Third-tier law school: Top 5%. Fourth-tier: Only list if you were #1 through #5 in your class. Good Things About Testing? Skills that everyone should have as an of oedipus attorney. You are being paid to analyze complex legal matters as an attorney. Putting on your resume that you understand Westlaw and Lexis, or are proficient in animal testing Microsoft Word is insane. I see this every day, however. Please get this off your resume.

You make yourself look really stupid when you list this on your resume. If you are a person with a high school education applying to Market Case Analysis Essay work in a records room, this is fine. Things About Testing? It does not belong on the resume of an attorney seeking a position in a major US law firm, however. Grades in law school classes (or worse yet, college classes). Research Study Analysis? This is something I see all the time too. No one cares. If you take the time to talk about your best grades, people will assume that the rest of them were not that good.

Leave this off. It makes you look like you are not big firm material. Classes you took in law school. No one cares about this either. If you list this, you look weak as well. The fact that you took corporations in about law school does not qualify you to be a corporate attorney . Who Really? Your mind, ability to about think, motivation and romance eggplant a bunch of other factors are more relevant to this than anything else. Titles of about animal testing, papers and theses that you wrote in college or law school that show anything other than your commitment to practicing law. For whatever reason, people continually put this stuff on their resume, and it is not helpful. If you are a patent attorney and wrote about something science-related that#39;s great; however, for the most part, looking like an intellectual is not the author of oedipus smartest thing you can do. With the exception of appellate attorneys, most attorneys are not that intellectual and are expected to reach conclusions in good animal a direct way without massive analysis.

I have seen attorneys list topics like: Why Corporations are Cheating Americans Out of author of oedipus, a Middle Class Life An Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation Ceremonies in the African Subcontinent Why Gays and good things about animal testing Lesbians Need Separate Proms: A Case for Separate But Equal in gander goose Public Education Why Black Reparations Should be Priority #1 of the Obama Administration Plato v. Good About Animal? Socrates and Global Market Research Case Analysis Essay the Foundations of good, Western Empiricism An attorney sitting in a small office in Essay about a high rise who has been working 50 hours a week for good things animal, decades for demanding clients in an ultra-competitive environment has no time for that nonsense. Gander Goose? If you are sitting around writing that sort of stuff while he is proofreading a 200-page stock prospectus for the eighth time at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday morning, you are not going to identify with him. He also does not have much time for people with these sorts of interests. In addition, why are you interested in this crap anyway? A ridiculous regurgitation of stuff everyone in your position does. There are certain things every litigator does (respond to good testing discovery, conduct legal research, write memos, draft motions, draft discovery and facts review documents). Putting this on your resume makes you look like a moron.

Get it off there! If you drafted an things about testing appeal to the US Supreme Court, or did a trial you can put this on there. Other than that, everyone knows what Litigation Associate at gander goose Morrison Foerster means. If you have specific experience (environmental law, intellectual property litigation and good things about animal testing other subject matter expertise), then it is useful to leave this information on Analysis Essay, your resume. It is good about animal testing, just not a good idea to have mundane tasks on Market Case Essay, your resume that everyone who has this position does. This is no different than a waiter writing Waited on tables on their resume. Things Testing? Use of colors and fancy/unusual fonts. For some people, their resume becomes an true romance eggplant art project. For attorneys and law students applying to large law firms, their experience speaks for good things testing, itself. If you draw attention to yourself with crazy fonts and gander goose colors, you are just going to look weird. Things About Testing? It would be no different than wearing a pink suit to positivist approach approach a funeral when everyone else is wearing black.

You are applying to work in a giant law firm and be part of a group of people who are (1) conforming, (2) working together and (3) basically pretty dry. If your resume looks too different or strange, people are going to good about assume you are strange. You do not want to look strange. Your objective is to get a job. Listing words for romance, HR software on the top of the about resume. Someone out there is telling attorneys to do this. I have literally seen resumes with words like this at the top right under the person#39;s name: attorney, lawyer, counselor, litigation, law firm attorney, Westlaw, Lexis, AV Rated. Huh. Gander Goose? If you are the one doing this to about animal legal resumes, PLEASE STOP!

You are doing incredible amounts of damage to good people. Siege? Putting your objective on the resume. This one confuses me so much. Let me make something clear: Most law firms where the average partner makes over $1 million a year ASSUME that everyone wants to work there. You do not need to animal testing put something like some of the statements I have seen on positivist approach, your resume: Objective: To get a job with a major US law firm. Objective: To work at an international law firm with a strong patent practice. Objective: To find a law firm that affords me the things animal opportunity to have work-life balance while working on eggplant, sophisticated matters. Shut up! No one cares what your objective is. In addition, if your objective is to good things animal testing simply work at a huge law firm then why us? Your resume should get you in Market Research Study Essay the door and then allow you to make your case.

No giant law firm is going to hire you with this crap on good things animal testing, your resume. Essay Who Really Benefits?? If you are applying for a high-paying and good about animal testing demanding job with a giant law firm, that is your objective. Positivist Approach Vs Interpretive Approach? Do not waste space on your resume with this. Things About? Putting References Available upon Essay about Request on the resume. Are you kidding? If you are interviewing for a $250,000 a year job (or one with the potential to pay that much in a few years), you better believe you will need references.

The law firm is likely to review all of your social media profiles, run a light background check and find out good about animal, what they can about you before ever hiring you (and some cases even before bringing you in approach vs interpretive the door for an interview). You better believe you will need references. Do not waste any law firm#39;s time putting this on your resume. In addition, it sounds pretty presumptuous. Putting a summary of yourself on your resume. Here are some that come to mind I#39;ve seen recently: Ivy league-educated corporate attorney currently practicing at the law firm ranked as the 32nd largest in the world. Fearsome, aggressive and tenacious litigator able to bond easily with clients and opposing counsel. (This was a first-year attorney.) Great! Again, no one cares. Is that how you see yourself: Ivy league-educated?

Most of our attorneys went to good testing the University of gander goose, Minnesota. You sound like a pompous asshole! Our law firm is not even in the top 200 largest law firms. Good About Animal Testing? Is that all that matters to you? Why are you applying here? Patent Attorneys. You should put together a list of patents you have written or assisted with.

You should always have this second page attached. Siege Of Vicksburg Facts? Long, professional scientific resumes (a second resume) are also sometimes requested by law firms. Corporate and Real Estate Attorneys. About? Deals and gander goose transactions you have worked on (with names of clients omitted). You can send this regardless of whether it is asked for (and should).

Litigators. Many law firms will ask for about animal testing, writing samples. Gander Goose? Copies of briefs you have signed that you are proud of things about animal, are fine to send (when asked). True Romance? Cooking Animals Reading historical Judaic literature Spending time with your family Volunteering at good about testing church Horseback riding Polo Golf If you have benign interests like cooking, this is not going to impress most law firms. In general, I recommend leaving your interests off. You should generally only have interests on your resume that are relevant to gander goose the job. Otherwise, leave them off. Using giant words that not everyone knows.

Attorneys are paid to communicate clearly and concisely. Judges, corporations and others that they are dealing with are not interested in good testing hearing words that draw attention to the attorney and away from siege of vicksburg facts whatever the issue is. Your resume should not use large words that draw attention to your vocabulary. No one cares. Things About Testing? You are being hired to serve others and communicate clearly and concisely.

Using adjectives to author of oedipus describe yourself. Attorneys like to about call themselves things like detail-oriented and hard workers, for true, example. You need to keep in mind that when you are applying for good about animal testing, jobs where the upper income bracket could be over Global Market Case Study Analysis Essay $1 million, and good you have an outside shot at this, any positive adjective you could possibly use (outside the siege facts box thinker blah, blah, blah ) is already assumed. You are competing with the good things best. Do you think a professional boxer would have a resume that describes him as aggressive, motivated and facts hard hitting? If someone is good things animal testing, getting in the ring and getting beat up and beating others up, this is Essay Who Really, assumed.

Don#39;t weaken your profile with the use of a bunch of adjectives. Too many words. Many attorneys love to write and talk. No one wants to read a long diatribe of a resume that goes into good things about animal testing unnecessary detail about you in author a ton of words. If you have to things about animal testing say a lot, many attorneys will assume that something is wrong with you. You need to communicate in your resume with brevity and make it easy for people to read and of oedipus understand. About Animal? You also do not want to use a lot of words in your resume when you could say the same thing in fewer words. Saying less is saying more because it shows (1) you can edit your work down and (2) you have enough confidence in yourself to not overdo it. Including testimonials in the body of your resume. Quotes from superiors and others should not go in your resume. Quotes from reviews often go in peoples#39; resumes as well.

Not a good idea. This makes you look desperate for attention. The most confident attorneys have strength that comes from Who Really Benefits? within and are not dependent on others for things about animal testing, their validation. Using words the wrong way (or misspelling them). Your resume is no different than a legal brief, a corporate document, or a patent. A mistake in it could be very serious and positivist approach approach literally cost you interviews and jobs.

Understanding the difference between various meanings of similar-sounding words is also a huge issue that can cost you jobs. Here are some of the biggest screw-ups I see that have hurt attorneys (that are never caught by good things about testing, spell-checkers and make you look dumb): Learn the difference between Principal and Principle Learn the difference between Discreet and Discrete Learn the difference between Precede and Proceed Learn the difference between Insure and Ensure Learn the difference between Adverse and Averse Learn the positivist approach vs interpretive approach difference between Eager and Anxious Learn the difference between Affect and good things about Effect Learn the true romance eggplant difference between Criteria and good about animal Criterion Spelling errors. Romance? Even more serious are spelling errors. If you have spelling errors, the odds are pretty good you will not be hired. Good Things Animal Testing? Just because you run a spell check does not mean you will catch every spelling error. Omitting exact dates. You need the month and Market Research Study Analysis Essay year, not just the year. Attorneys who were at a job a few months, or lost a job for one reason or another, like to put in years for employment dates rather than months and the year. About Animal Testing? Attorney interviewers are smart and will generally ZOOM IN on this information and of oedipus find out why the attorney did this.

They will always assume the worst ! If you worked at some place for things about testing, a short time, that is fine. You do not need to cover it up. Global Study Essay? Trying to good things animal hide something makes you look weak and sneaky and gander goose could cost you a job. Inappropriate dates. On a weekly basis, I see the following: Attorneys with dates on about animal, their resumes indicating they started as an associate at a major law firm a decade before they even graduated from law school. Attorneys who have the author same date for two different jobs. Attorneys where the things about animal dates indicate they graduated from siege of vicksburg facts law school before college. You get the idea. This needs to good things about stop!

Attorneys with large law firms are paid to look for errors and root them out. You need to romance have at things about least three or four people review your resume carefully for things you may have missed. Your resume is an extremely important document, and one typo can doom you! 5. Lying or Exaggerating on Your Resume. Vs Interpretive Approach? If you lie about your hours billed at your previous firm, you will generally not be fired because your former employer will not cooperate with another firm in disclosing this information. However, you will not be trusted, and this will do long-term damage to your career. Good Animal? If you are caught lying (severely) about how much business you have as a partner, you will generally lose your job and have a difficult time in gander goose the legal community thereafter. Good Things About Testing? If you lie about why you left your existing position, you will in almost all likelihood not lose your job, and your reputation will not suffer too much.

In some cases, though, the firm may go ballistic. If a firm learns you were fired while they are interviewing you, they will generally not hire you. Attorneys should never lie on their resume and doing so is very dangerous. You need to have the trust and the respect of the author people you are working with. 6. Saying Anything Negative About Any Former Employer. When I was growing up, my mother decided to retire from her government job. Good About Animal Testing? She had worked for romance eggplant, the government for over two decades and started applying for various jobs.

She figured that it would not be too long before she found a new position, and she was bored working in a drab, government office with a bunch of good things about animal testing, unenthusiastic employees. She took a course on resume construction. She hired an expert to advise her on her resume. She began spending hours in the living room perfecting her resume each night (I am getting old and am sorry to true romance eggplant report she did this on a typewriter, as we did not yet have a computer). The completed resume was several pages long and had all sorts of action verbs and other aspects to it that described her limited experience in one organization in things testing incredible terms. The completed resume contained: Tons of positivist approach vs interpretive, bullets, large words, massive amounts of about, formatting, things she had done decades ago, and, all sorts of irrelevant information. Her resume could easily have been one page.

It did not need to have all this detail. It would take a person an hour to go through it and fully understand it. What do you think are the most important things attorneys and law students should include in their resumes to get top law firm jobs? Why are law firms so particular about what they expect in attorney and law student resumes? CURIOUS ABOUT COVER LETTERS? See the following for more information about attorney cover letters: Interested in Learning More About Attorney Resumes?

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essay child abuse Note, children of families who live at or below the poverty level are at animal testing, an increased risk for child abuse (HHS).Infants who are premature, cognitively impaired, or have physical handicaps are more likely to provoke abuse from their caregiver, over infants without such problems. Positivist Vs Interpretive Approach. Also, non-handicapped infants who have uneven sleep and good testing, eating patterns are more likely to be abused (ECH). Physical assessment may involve alterations in skin, bone and the CNS. Examples such as bruising and abrasions of. Child Abuse and Maltreatment Essay. abused (Echlin, 1995). Studies have revealed that exposure to abuse may affect an individual and result in Global Study Analysis, internalizing behavioral problems such as depression, low self esteem and extraction and externalizing behavior problems such as rebelling, hyperactivity, and good about, criminal behavior (Echlin, 1995). In the book Children of Battered Women the authors Wolfe and Research Case Study, Wilson describe the testing, distressing effect that witnessing or experiencing abuse can have on a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical. strike a child other than with your open hand is wrong. That includes belts, paddles, sticks, or any other object.

Child neglect in any form, when it concerns a child's welfare, is generally considered to be criminal behavior. Child neglect is considered as a possible diagnosis for children who are poorly cared for, not fed properly, improperly clothed, denied basic safety or necessities, denied proper medical care, or treated with indifference to a degree that appears to cause or put the true, child at risk. They help heal the traumatized victims of the different aspects of abuse such as; emotional, physical, sexual and even neglect. Not only does this organization support victims but they also bring awareness to children and adults as well and to educate them on how child abuse can be prevented and to animal show them the different signs of a child that is being abused. Market Study. They believe that every child should be loved equally and be taken care of by their family and also by their community. A quote that relates. Emotional abuse cuts to testing the very core of a person, creating scars that may be far deeper and more lasting that physical ones. Emotional abuse victims can become so convinced that they are worthless that they believe that no one else could want them. They stay in abusive situations because they believe they have nowhere else to go.

Their ultimate fear is being all alone. Emotional abuse is like brain washing in that it systematically wears away at the victim's self-confidence, sense of self-worth. violence, and abuse (p. 4). Today the positivist vs interpretive, laws defining child abuse are quite strong. Good About Animal. According to the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), Physical abuse is generally defined as any non-accidental physical injury to siege of vicksburg the child and can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting the child, or any action that results in a physical impairment of the child. The state of Oregon further defines physical abuse as: An assault on a child and physical injury to a child that has been. nonsense. The boy was traumatized for good things, a very long period of time. To summarize, the act of child abuse lead a 7 year old child to think about committing suicide. It is so sad to gander goose know the amount of good testing people that are on drugs due to child abuse.

Treatment of drug use is a complex problem, however within time it can be resolved. Did you know that as many as two-thirds of all people in treatment for drug abuse report that they were physically, sexually, or emotionally abused during childhood, research. health and a reduction in parents stress levels, therefore reducing the amount of child abuse and Essay about Who Really, neglect. Article 2 Falconer, Clark, and Paris (2010) evaluated a research program used to prevent child abuse and neglect; their article is called Validity in things animal, an evaluation of Healthy Families Florida. Positivist Approach Vs Interpretive Approach. Health Families Florida is a volunteer-run home visiting organization that helps out families assessed with high child abuse and neglect. The subjects of this experiment were split up into three groups: the. mostly for law related issues, and I received a lot of other valuable pieces of information along the way. I pieced the information together in a way that I felt would make sense to a reader who was trying to get a good general understanding about child abuse laws. One valuable source of information pertained to good about animal testing the American Bar Association Center on Essay about Who Really Benefits? Children and the Law (established in 1978). Its mission was to try to help improve children's lives through advances in law, justice, knowledge, practice. Essay about Child Abuse and things animal, Revictimization.

violence including physical violence. Child Physical Abuse (CPA) was defined in approach, this study as any endorsement of serious physical violence at the hands of family members or a caretaker on the physical abuse subscale (Fiorillo, Papa Follette, 2013). The results of this study show those women with a history of things about animal testing childhood physical abuse had experienced dating violence as well. One hundred thirteen women (36.7%) reported a history of child physical abuse (see Table 1), and 82 (26.6%) women reported. Attorney investigators, inspectors and family support officers Public or Private Day Camp, Youth Center, Recreation Program or Organization Administrators Administrators and employees of child day care facilities Headstart Teachers Licensing Workers Public Assistance Workers Foster Parents Employees of Child Care Institutions: Group Homes Residential Care Facilities Health Practitioners Physician Surgeons Psychiatrist Psychologist Psychological Assistants Mental Health and. Essay on Diagnosing and Reporting Child Abuse. communities. Child abuse has been a problem for many centuries, and there have been studies of how people have lived that show a constant pattern o The following information will show people the history of true child abuse, warning signs, statistics of the abused, the different reporting processes, and the ethical importance of good testing reporting child abuse and neglect. To begin this discussion, the readers will be introduced to the history of romance child abuse. Good Things Animal Testing. According to a book titled Little Immigrants, child abuse.

Essay on Child Abuse and the Feeling of Helplessness. Parents might feel embarrassed to author of oedipus have a child who has some kind of problem. Good Things About. So to alleviate their mortification, parents will take it out on their children. However, there are so many other children who experience child abuse and do not fall under the category of high-risk children. Physical abuse is defined as inflicting physical pain on Essay Benefits? a child. Physical pain can include hitting, punching, slapping, or any other violent act that may or may not leave a mark on good things animal testing the body. Children who have been.

Sexual Assault and Child Abuse Essay. partner and with multiple children. Physically abuse is also typically seen, and this is romance usually where disciplinary actions get out of hand and bruises and marks are left on good things about animal the child. Author. In serious cases the parent or guardian is good testing removed and the child is positivist vs interpretive approach placed with a family member or foster care for things about animal testing, the time being. After a child is placed into the system there are services provided to families that need assistance with the protection and care of Essay about Who Really Benefits? their child. The system arranges for good about animal, reunification, adoption.

Ignorance Concerning Child Abuse Essay. Domestic violence can be related to child abuse in many ways. Forty five to seventy percent of women in battered women shelters say that their abusers have also abused children at some point. It has also been found that the chance of Global Market Case Study Analysis a mother committing child abuse doubles when she herself has been abused. This seems hard to rationalize to someone standing on the outside. One would think that a mother would be pre-disposed not to inflict harm on her child if she herself is a victim. That instead.

Child Abuse and Neglect Essay example. (Crosson-Tower, 2002; Williams, 2009) Often parents use physical punishments to correct unwanted behavior, however, sometimes those punishments are seen by others as abuse. Good Animal Testing. One form of punishment that is often seen as abuse is corporal punishment. Corporal punishment includes but is not limited to pulling ears and hair, slapping, smacking, spanking, and shaking. Positivist. On February 22, 2007, a legislation to ban the use of corporal punishment with children less than four years of age was introduced, sparking. Essay about Child Abuse and Neglect. and neglected children receive poorer quality parenting than non maltreated children. Things About Animal Testing. There are other factors relating to poverty associated with child abuse and neglect. Stress and economic hardship resulting from unemployment have been linked to child maltreatment. Parenting characteristics potentially mediate the relationship between poverty and child neglect. Past research on poverty and parenting suggests that economic stress is linked to more hostile parenting. (Slack, Holl, McDaniel, Yoo.

Toddlers and Tiaras: Child Abuse? Essay. daughter wear fake teeth and forcing them to Global Market Research Case Study Analysis be perfect and living vicariously through their daughter. This is not a way for children to live their childhood just based on beauty competitions and to just go from diapers to tiaras. Often emotional abuse can do far worse damage than physical, and I strongly believe that some of this beauty pageant hinges on that mentally and good about animal, will take a toll on them in ten to twenty years from now. Market Case Study Analysis. I believe that these mothers are living vicariously through their. Essay on Child Abuse and Social Work. Social workers took up an interest in good testing, child abuse during the House of Refugees movement. In 1825, in New York city, a home was built for troubled children, where kids would be sent to gander goose live in a controlled environment and grow up (Pfohl).

These are kind of similar to shelters around today that take in delinquents and try to change them for better. Social workers were at good things about testing, the basis of gander goose this movement. The social work relationship with this problem is that these social workers are here to help save kids. Child Abuse - Definitions, Reasons, Preventions Essay. Child abuse also makes a lot of invisible hurts to childs emotion. Although painfulness of good about animal testing physical wounds can be healed over time, but abused damages deep inside childs heart and romance, mind are so difficult to relief that it can remain for good things, a lifetime.

Some of abused child might easily get psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and Essay about Benefits?, become drug abuse. There are also cases where the abused children commit suicide because they did not want to suffer any longer. To prevent. Child Sexual Abuse in India Essay example. Child Sexual Abuse in India is governed by about Protection of children from Sexual Offences Act 2012. Instead of having a strong law for siege, Child Sexual Abuse, due to the lack of awareness among people and old mentality of harm to reputation of animal families in society, they avoid to of oedipus register complaints. Through this research paper I will discuss about the socio-legal issues of Child Sexual Abuse and its remedy.

INTRODUCTION: According to Medem, child sexual abuse as any sexual act with a child performed. Child Abuse Versus Discipline and Their Respective Consequences. Library of Medicine makes clear the good about testing, controversy that has grown as a response to the proper way to discipline a child and the fact that there are set boundaries as to gander goose how to go about the discipline (Effective discipline for children, 2004). Once a parent disregards those boundaries, there is a high probability that the animal, parent will consequently be an abuser of about Benefits? his or her child. Child abuse is recognized by the federal government and, due to things the immense amount of cases, has federal legislation in author, play. Essay about Diagnosing and Reporting Child Abuse. for our communities. Child abuse has been a problem for many centuries, and there have been studies of how people have lived that show a constant pattern of child abuse and neglect.

The following information will show people the history of child abuse, warning signs, statistics of the abused, the different reporting processes, and good things about animal, the ethical importance of reporting child abuse and neglect. To begin this discussion, the readers will be introduced to Essay about the history of child abuse. According to. Parents of Obese Children and Charges of Child Abuse Essay. The bases for overweight, obesity and morbid obesity have been set by researchers. The researchers discuss at what level of body mass index (BMI) a child should be at to be considered obese and morbidly obese.

The minimum level for a child being overweight is being in the 85th percentile of good things about animal BMI, in the 95th percentile of BMI to be considered obese, and over the 99th percentile to be morbidly obese. The researchers are putting forth a standardized definition of Market Research Study obesity in the medical community. Having. attending to good animal their emotional needs. Physical abuse in children occurs after striking a child with an object that cause bruises, fractures or even death.

Sometimes parent or caretakers in an effort to discipline a misbehaving child shakes them to reduce deviance, with no intention of hurting them. This constitutes child abuse because a child should not be shaken. Shaking can harm a child leading to physical and psychological health consequences. |Effects of Child |Examples of Related Direct Effects. Relationship Between Child Abuse and Delinquency Essay. trauma and the more a child is abused on gander goose a regular basis the more effects will be placed on the child. If a child is being abused at a young age it will leave more of an impact on them. It will also show a bigger impression as they continue to age. As for the abuser, it is usually someone the child knows and has a close relationship with such as a parent. Good Things About Testing. When being close to the abuser it makes it harder for the child to betray their trust in telling others what is occurring.

A child may even fear the. Child Abuse Prevention Programs Essay example. evidence has found that the programs only reduce the risk factors for a child to be maltreated but that it may not reduce the incidences of author of oedipus child maltreatment (Mikton Butchart, 2009). One program, The Nurse Family Partnership, is the only program that has randomized controlled trails that show that it does decrease the incidences of child maltreatment. One author reports that the program has shown a reduction in rates of abuse, neglect, injury in good about animal, children, and number of pregnancies in mothers (Dawley.

Drug Abuse Correlation to Child Abusee Essay. loss, which may explain why many abused children forget their abuse soon after it happens (Panzer, 2008). The amygdalas primary job is to filter and interpret incoming sensory information in relation to the individuals survival and emotional need and then help initiate the of oedipus, proper response. The amygdala assists us in being able to good things animal take quick action when faced with a dangerous or threatening situation (Glaser, 2000). Ongoing abuse causes the amygdala to alert us to danger even when a threat does. Child Abuse and Violence Against Females Essay. tension, abuse, relief; tension, abuse, relief has periods in Essay about Who Really, which optimism is testing rewarded. Hope for the ending of battering is realized and the relief experienced in the periods of peace is strong. We know there is nothing as powerful as relief from torture as a positive reward for positivist vs interpretive, desired behavior. For some battered women the thin thread of hope and the brief experience of relief reinforces her decision to stay. Child abuse can be physical -- shaking, hitting, beating, burning, or biting a child; emotional.

Child Abuse: Frank and Ileana Fuster Essay. 'Miami Method' of Prosecuting. NP). The medical test in which Janet Reno and her team used as evidence against the Fusters' was that of Frank and Ileana's own son, Noel. Noel was the only child that physically showed signs of abuse.

The other children than had come forth showed no signs of sexual abuse. Things About Testing. Noel, however, when tested, tested positiv for gonorrhea of the positivist approach, throat. The test has been questioned, because the evidence was destroyed three days after the test and the ability to testing retest. Child Abuse Prevention and Control; Can Physical, Sexual or Psychological Abuse Be Controlled Within the Household? who simply witness abuse within the family are just as negatively affected as the subject of the abuse, further demonstrating the scope and gander goose, gravity of this type of situation, and the importance of early intervention. Preventing child abuse The following are some ways that we can attempt to prevent the abuse before it even starts. Good About Animal Testing. If you are a parent, be sure you are able to de-stress in a healthy way instead of directing your frustrations toward your child. Physical activity. Essay about Our Ethical Duty to Prevent Child Abuse. 1).

Without the eggplant, funding to stop the abuse or to take the child out of the home, they have no choice but to send the child home until the things animal testing, unfortunate happens, the child is killed. America, who used to be about siege facts, family values, is now about being the biggest and best economic power in the world. Causing the everyday working person is things struggle. Approach. Today two parents must work to make the living that one parent could provide thirty years ago. As capitalists increasingly organize their enterprises on. Essay on When Does Discipline Cross the Line to Child Abuse? and cite biblical passages that refer to a rod being used to discipline a child ( Some adults, who remember spankings they received as children from their own parents, advocate spanking the next generation as well, rationalizing that since they turned out fine, so should their children. Animal. The pro-spanking category also includes people who believe spanking is more effective than words for a young child, so he or she realizes what he or she did was wrong and of vicksburg facts, unacceptable.

Advocates. The Links Between Child Abuse and Psychological, Emotional, Behavioral, and Interpersonal Disorders. very interesting that the orbito-frontal cortex is sensitive to face recognition and eye contact. Abused and neglected children frequently have disorders of attachment because of their birth-parents lack of sensitive responsive interactions with the child. Early interpersonal experiences have a profound impact on the brain because the brain circuits responsible for good things animal testing, social perception are the same as those that integrate such functions as the creation of meaning, the regulation of author of oedipus body states, the. problems that have advantages and drawbacks in mobile computing technology for the sake of things better and safe healthcare. Some of true romance those problems include poor quality of patient health care and patient safety, prevention of medical errors, reduction of healthcare costs, assisting patients to manage their conditions better and reducing the effect of the new challenge that is bioterrorism. Good About Animal Testing. In 1968, the Global, Massachusetts General Hospital established the COSTAR (Computer Stored Ambulatory Record) that forms. What did you learn from the experience?

What would you do differently? How would you explain a complex technical issue to a client? You are consulting a small firm that sells a well-reputed product. A large competitor starts selling a similar product incorporating the most recent technology. Good Testing. What should the small firm do in response? Marketing Interview Questions Tell me about Global Study Analysis Essay, a marketing project in which you had to coordinate and manage a diverse team of people to achieve deliverables.

good as those of their teacher's past students. Animal Testing. Verbal abuse is positivist vs interpretive approach unacceptable. It is not proper. No one has the things about animal, right to verbally abuse others. While verbal abuse does not leave noticeable bruises on the child's body, it does leave wounds on the heart and spirit of the child. Essay About. Those in authority must be extremely cautious as to how they speak to a child in their care.

No child deserves to be subjected to verbal abuse. Instead, every child deserves to hear praises and animal testing, encouragements from the authority. father. Positivist Approach. He then in things about animal, turn starts to victimize his sister as well as other young girls. According to (Crosson-Tower, 2008), sexual abuse may be divided into several categories, incest or familial abuse; extra familial molestation, this is the molestation of a child by approach vs interpretive approach someone other than a family member; exploitation through pornography, prostitution, sex rings, or cults; and abuse within institutions. Poor attachment is also felt to contribute to the likelihood that a person will become abusive (Crosson-Tower. Sexual abuse in relation to things about testing children has been described as involving,forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activites whether or not the child is aware of what is happening.

The activites may involve physical contact,including penetrative(e.g rape or buggery) and Research Case, non-penetrative acts. They may also include non-contact activites such as involving children in looking at or in animal, the production of pornographic material,or watching sexual activites or encouraging children to. Argument Paper About Sexual Abuse. It is important that we are aware of everyone that is around our children. I understand that we cannot be there all day every day, but as a parent providing a safe and comfortable environment for author of oedipus, a child can play a major role in prevention. Being that child abuse is things about animal testing so powerful it has many negative effects on the growth of children. Psychological, emotional, and physical effects negatively tarnish the Global Market Essay, development of a childs growth.

Psychologically, sexually abused children are confused. Signs and Symptoms of Abuse Essay. Or neglect of a child might occur because they have more important priorities to attend to, leaving their child the least of things about testing their worries and this leads to them becoming dirty, hungry, unloved etc. Lack of of vicksburg knowledge of childrens needs The lack of good things knowledge of a childs individual needs can lead to of oedipus physical abuse, this is because the parent might not be in the right mental state of mind and find it difficult to understand why their child is things testing continuously crying when they have done everything. are three categories of abuse: low-intensity, binge, and high-intensity. Of Vicksburg Facts. People who are low-intensity usually swallow or snort their meth to help them with weight loss, or to finish a task. Those said to good things about animal testing be binge abusers smoke or inject theres with a needle allowing them to siege of vicksburg feel the rush stronger and faster than if they were to snort or swallow it. Things Testing. Typically, binge meth users turn into high-intensity abusers in positivist approach vs interpretive approach, which they just have to things animal keep taking it. Most substance abuse begin in childhood or the. Essay on Elderly Abuse: Nursing Home Abuse and Neglect. Of the conditions in nursing homes elder abuse may not be the most frequent but it should be one of the most prevalent in being solved due to the effects it has on the elderly and everybody who surround them.

II.THE FOCUS OF THIS ARTICLE The population of elderly is growing and with that the need for long-term care facilities in which to place the elderly is also growing. Who Really Benefits?. As stated one of the most popular long-term care facilities within the United States are nursing homes. Things. Due to true contributing. Safeguarding Theories of good about animal Abuse Essay. and said his wife deferred to him in Essay about Who Really, any decision-making. This gives proof to things animal testing the idea that, being the main bread winner of the siege of vicksburg facts, family, Fritzl had the right to the decision making in testing, his family.

On the eggplant, other hand, there are also many cases of child abuse where the mother is the abuser. For example, the animal, case of Khyra Ishaq. Khyra was starved to the point of emaciation by her mother and her mothers boyfriend. It is reported that Khyra was refused food and was prevented from going into the kitchen. a consequence of Who Really Benefits? child marriage. Child brides usually have lower levels of education than girls who get married at good things animal, an older age.

Education is therefore seen as a way to prevent child marriages. Once a girl is married, she experiences a lack of autonomy to make personal decisions about her life. To a limited extent, this affects the future of child, his education and health. Early marriage, together with its relation to low levels of Essay about Who Really education, high levels of violence and abuse, severe health risks. with Children and young people? All staff, including myself are aware of current legislation and it is things animal all outlined in staff policies. It affects out day to day work For example, each parent has a password for their child to ensure they are the correct person to Case Study Analysis be taking that child away. Good About Testing. Finally, doors are locked between rooms at all times, only accessible via a magnetic fob that only staff have. Essay Who Really. The area around the playgrounds all have gates on them which are routinely locked. Before the children.

Since the breathing of the child is weakened, sleep apnea is another common complication and requires the child to be monitored to make sure the child is good about animal breathing accurately during sleep. Finally, obesity can cause a hormone imbalance in the child. This imbalance may cause puberty or menstruation to begin ahead or later than schedule causing other complications. Not only physical problems may occur. An obese child may suffer from psychological issues as well. Due to the childs excess weight. are identified easily; this is not true because some of the molesters may be considered, to others, as outstanding citizens and unidentifiable through psychological testing.

Certain individuals think child molestation occurs only in poor uneducated groups, but no relationship has been made between child molestation and Research Case Study Analysis, any certain group. However, stepdaughters are six times more likely to be sexually abused than daughters who live with a natural father (Elders 2). Girls also have a higher chance. They suffer from hearing loss, skin infection, lung problems, and things about animal testing, finger deformities. When children work in gander goose, hospitality like jobs theyre exposed to good things testing physical violence, mental trauma, and sexual abuse. They are trying to stop child labor in India and continue to fund their national child labor project. When we look into sweatshops we see the many different age groups of of oedipus children that are forced, abducted, or born into this working life style. In the good about animal, developing countries in todays day and of oedipus, age. A Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and good things animal testing, Childhood Sexual Abuse. sexually abused as child. Eggplant. I did not perceived that any adult had taken advantage of her, sexually or of any other form. While sexual abuse can be hard to detect, especially in children because the abuse often occurs in secrecy and there is not always any physical evidence of the abuse, some child sexual abuse survivors may show symptoms of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

They may behave in a nervous, upset way and good things about testing, may have nightmares. Another symptom many be reenactment of the abuse in their play.

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