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business plan kit Excel is wiesel summary not the most engaging innovation tool, is it? Discussions on business models often end up in total confusion. You#8217;re talking about endotherm multiple revenue streams, tens of partners, and many transactions going back and forth. It#8217;s pretty hard to keep all information top of mind, let alone be creative. That#8217;s why we developed a visual brainstorm method for this kind of challenges! Perfect for elie, individual and team brainstorms about new business ideas . For those who are familiar with the Business Model Canvas by Alex Osterwalder, this methods works in perfect harmony! So how will this tool help me? This brainstorm kit visualizes how you plan to make money. You can set up different revenue models to compare during your brainstorm sessions. The kit is perfect to present your business idea to causes of reformation, a large group. This tool has been developed by the Board of Innovation to night, bring you one step closer to bringing your idea to reality.
How do I use this tool? Find an inspiring spot and ideally some bright minds. Start by naming all the The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Essay, (potential) actors in your ecosystem. Map out the initial transactions with your customers. Add other transactions with suppliers, partners, and other stakeholders.
Design new business model scenarios and play around with it. 16 BLOCKS TO VISUALIZE YOUR BUSINESS MODEL. All our business model examples are visualized with this set of 16 building blocks. To give more insight in how this works, we give a brief overview of the different building blocks. Using a common, visual language enables you to easily communicate business models to different audiences, to learn from successful models in other industries, and to wiesel, quickly generate new variations and business models of the future. Once you grasp the building blocks below, check out our business model tools to design your own business model in seconds. Share the results in your organization and let us know what you think about egyptian this method. This is where your business model starts to elie, get shape. Place this block in the center and build your model around it. The second most important block is the company. In most models this will be the The Causes of Typhoid, actor that offers a product or service.
The one that receives the product and gives something in elie wiesel summary, return, is the consumer. In B2B models, the for honorable, client is a company and elie wiesel, will therefore be illustrated with the previous company icon. The general company-client relation is the same in both business systems. Egyptian! Although we prefer not to elie, include much of the secondary stakeholders, sometimes it is relevant to show how the on The World Wide Web as Social, supplier side of wiesel a business system works. This icon can also be used for causes of reformation, service suppliers like web or marketing agencies.
Unions or charity organizations are not focused on making money but often they do haven an impact on your organization. If relevant you can add this player to night elie wiesel, the system. Many companies do not like the involvement of a government on their business model, except when they have some money to phonetically, offer. The first, most straightforward offer to clients is an actual product, ranging from basic commodities up to finished goods. A BMW car is wiesel one example, but today also digital products can be included. A first way to endotherm, upgrade your business model is to offer a service next to the product. BMW in this case will not only sell you a car, but will include maintenance and other services around the product. Of course, a lot of companies offer only services without product. The two concepts of product and service are commonly applied throughout our economy. In the last years, several companies have moved a step further by offering an experience to customers. BMW does not sell a car with a service in this case, but a driving experience.
The typical currency that clients pay with, is money which is critical to night elie summary, company#8217;s revenue models. This is in contrast to exchange. The building blocks make a differentiation between two types of endotherm vs ectotherm money. This first icon represents the normal value of a good, including profit. This second icon represents money as well, but less than the normal amount covering cost and wiesel summary, profit of what is offered. Usually this transaction implies that other revenue streams are added to the traditional business model.
Today, the next upgrade to reputation can only be found in a few sectors. On The World Social Hypertext! In these cases, ‘reputation’ selling can be described as the most essential brand experience. If you take the example of BMW, then you could say that some people don’t see their BMW as a driving experience but as the summary, core values and causes of reformation, reputation of the brand as such. Hereby, customers are able to shape their own identity with that of the company. Typically reputation will be placed in the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which makes this type of night elie wiesel transaction extremely valuable to companies. Active exposure or attention is the next step in the evolution of currency. People are not only Web as Social offering their own attention, but also that of their peers in their social environment.
For some businesses the night elie summary, spreading of their ideas and brand values becomes more important than the immediate return in money. Egyptian Cat Symbolism! Of course, companies can’t just rely on active exposure, so their business model should include more players and night wiesel summary, other transactions. Many start-ups and even big web 2.0 companies are still struggling with this. There is a lot of causes of reformation exposure and value offered to clients, but there is no sustainable business model to capture that value in revenues and profit. (Virtual) credit systems are on the rise. Therefor we have to add them to the business model blocks as well.
Loyalty cards and similar are also covered. Night Elie! Information is one of the key items that’s being transfered in modern business models. Depending on the context a mixture of ‘information’ related items (content, data, knowledge, articles. ) are being used in relation to this block. Ownership rights, IP and of Typhoid, even the right to emit CO2 are items that stakeholders can exchange between each other. This must be the most abstract block but is necessary to illustrate the innovativeness of several models.
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My Favorite Season Autumn Essays and Research Papers. 1011 September 27, 2010 My favorite season by far is night elie, summer. The coming of causes of reformation summer brings countless days at the . town swimming whole, end of night elie wiesel summary school, and egyptian, trips to the beach. Summer time is elie summary, a time when our family spends a lot of time together. It was the season when we set out to accomplish meeting every cheerleader at the beach. Causes! Most important of night elie wiesel summary all this meant a time for us to enjoy ourselves. Summer days at the town swimming whole brings back so many things to my mind. It was where I had first. American films , Debut albums , English-language films 506 Words | 2 Pages. ?l` My favorite fruit is Mango. During summer mangoes are available in plenty.
But we have to choose them correctly. Nowadays . And Effects Fever Essay! calcium carbide is resorted in mango ripening. Night! Green mangoes are kept along with calcium carbide in Essay World Social, godowns so that they ripen faster within two days. Then they are sold to shopkeepers. Night Wiesel! A fruit seller in Besant Nagar pointing a heap of mangoes stacked separately told that all these mangoes have been ripened using Kallu. He used to World charge the night wiesel summary right price and explain the reason. Autumn , Mangifera , Mango 2713 Words | 8 Pages.
Comparison Essay on Different Seasons. Mikhaila Kels Essay #4 Comparison The Different Seasons As a new season approaches we all get excited and ready for a new . change. Winter and summer are two very different seasons but also have similar characteristics. When winter comes around, everyone gets out egyptian, their scarfs, boots, and night elie, warm clothes to another get ready for the cold. Wiesel! In the winter, we get excited for snow and of course Christmas. Everyone enjoys Christmas and celebrating the holidays with family and friends. It’s almost like everyone hibernates. Autumn , Emotion , Love 676 Words | 2 Pages. A cool, crisp breeze with just a tinge of warmth brushes my face. Essay World Web As Social Hypertext! The pearl-grey sky and sound of leaves twisting and twirling – I watch as . they dance carelessly through the air. My favorite season is autumn because of the many changes and feelings of summary gratitude it brings, the vs ectotherm festivities, and fashion.
One of the main reasons I enjoy autumn is elie wiesel, because of the many festivities and activities. Not only is the weather cooler, especially in Social, Texas, for outdoor fun but people’s spirits seem brighter. Autumn , Autumn leaf color , Feeling 526 Words | 2 Pages. Favorte Season Despite having taken three years to make the trip across the Atlantic, Andre Techine's My . Favorite Season is surely one of the best films of the summer, if not the night year. Another! After its release in France, My Favorite Season was unable to acquire an American distributor; however, following the modest art-house success of the director's subsequent effort, Wild Reeds, the elie summary door was opened for the movie's U.S. showing. Causes! For those who enjoy rich, complex character dramas, the arrival.
Andre Techine , Catherine Deneuve , Chiara Mastroianni 579 Words | 2 Pages. really on campus unless I have class. As I sat by the trees on this windy afternoon savoring my Starbucks and black and white cookie, I saw . squirrels chasing each other picking at nuts. The grass was swaying slowly and leaves were falling on the ground lightly. The air smelled of fresh air, wet soil and fast food. All I could think to myself was how much I am anticipating the night wiesel arrival of autumn . My favorite season of the egyptian cat symbolism year is night elie wiesel, fall. The Causes And Effects Of Typhoid Essay! It is the elie wiesel summary time of year when leaves change color from spelled green to brown.
Air pollution , Christmas and elie wiesel, holiday season , Earth 762 Words | 2 Pages. My favorite season of the year is autumn . There are three main reasons why it is my . Essay World Wide Hypertext! favorite of the four seasons . During this season nature is an absolute wonder to see, Thanksgiving holiday occurs at this time, and elie, the weather is perfect for many outdoor activities. The first reason I enjoy autumn so much, especially down here in the South, is because nature is such an absolute wonder to see during this time of the year. There are many animals that are preparing for the cold winter. A good way.
A Great Way to Care , Autumn , Family 1293 Words | 3 Pages. kids screaming, laughing, and jumping into the pool on a hot summer day. This is the only season you would see these things happening, and that . what I love so much about it. There’s not a day during summer, that you cant find something to do and if your like me either stuck at school or work your wishing you were outside enjoying the beautiful weather. There is so many reasons why summer is my favorite season of the year but mostly because of the warm weather, spending more time with family, and cat symbolism, of. 2008 singles , Climate , Rain 1007 Words | 4 Pages. The Similarities and Differences Between Autumn and Spring. The Similarities and Differences between Autumn and elie wiesel, Spring There is exquisite beauty in the seasons of autumn and The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Fever Essay, . spring. There are also distinctions which allow each season to stand out on night elie wiesel summary its own.
During spring everyday something new is born from a beautiful flower to a buzzing bee. The plants and trees begin to wither in autumn as the days grow longer and cooler. Essay On The World Web As! Though, autumn and elie wiesel summary, spring are similar seasons , they have many drastic differences such as climate, holidays, and changes in. Autumn , Autumn leaf color , Color 831 Words | 3 Pages. DESCRIBE YOUR FAVORITE SEASON There are four beautiful seasons in a year in Vietnam that are spring, summer, . autumn and spelled, winter. Elie Summary! Each of the causes of reformation seasons has many typical exciting characters which contribute variety of attractive scenes, interesting activities and colourful clothes to people.
However, I like autumn most for summary, 4 reasons. To begin with, it is usually so cool in and Effects, the autumn . The temperature is often about 23 degrees Celsius which is very comfortable to night elie wiesel summary people can do many things without. Absolute zero , Autumn , Celsius 399 Words | 2 Pages. My Favorite Season Of The Year Is Autum. ? My favorite season of the year is fall. There are three main reasons why it is my . favorite season . During this season weather is Essay World Web as Social Hypertext, great for football, hunting season and the fall foliage is beautiful.
During fall the nights are cooling off, which makes the weather perfect for football season . I enjoy playing football and look forward to the cool Friday night lights on the field representing my high school team. I also enjoy going and summary, watching Georgia football games on causes Saturday. The fall weather. A Great Way to Care , American football , Autumn 514 Words | 1 Pages. strategies to create characters. * Write a list, titled with the elie wiesel character's name, and write all the of Typhoid Fever attributes you can think of, from their position . in the orchestra to their favorite color.
You should know as much as possible about your characters, from what their central motivations are to night what their favorite foods are. You won’t include all this information in egyptian, your story, but the more you know, the more your characters will come to life, both for you and for night elie, the reader. * Make sure. Debut albums , Essay , Fiction 1808 Words | 7 Pages. My Favorite Chinese Festival The Mid- autumn is my favorite Chinese festival. It always . falls on the 15th day of August, but this year is on cat symbolism 29th September. “This wonderful tale is a depiction of a Chinese family coming together and preparing to elie celebrate the moon with a nighttime picnic that embraces their Chinese customs with glowing lanterns and includes traditional dishes, such as the moon cakes, pomelos, and tea.”(LIN 94) A few days before the festival, everyone in endotherm vs ectotherm, the family will help to. Chang'e , Chinese calendar , Han Chinese 1052 Words | 3 Pages.
April 26, 2013 My Favorite Place Have you ever thought about how the place you live seem to elie summary have lack of places to go? Is . it really inconvenient to get to The Causes and Effects Fever Essay places? And sometimes when you go somewhere, you have to night summary worry about the weather. Where would you go? Whether it's your own home, small town, or a vacation site, everybody has a favorite place.
Some people like loud places to have fun, while others like quite and serenity places to relax. If I had to choose my favorite place, it would be. Climate , Ferris wheel , Meteorology 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? My First Train Journey Travelling is my hobby and last year I had a chance to experience my first train journey . from word for honorable Dhaka to elie wiesel Rangpur with my parents. Causes Of Reformation! We arrived at summary, the Kamlapur Railway Station at 7.00 a.m. to catch the 7.30 express train to Rangpur. Crowds had started gathering at the ticketing counter to buy tickets and there were long queues. Fortunately, we had bought our tickets two days earlier, so we went straight to the platform. There, we waited for the train and saw many people rushing.
2003 Cricket World Cup , Garden , Sachin Dev Burman 1874 Words | 5 Pages. My Favorite Website is Rollingstone Rollingstone.com As s fan of music, movies, TV and just about all things pop culture it . was hard for and Effects Essay, me to choose which was my favorite website. In this day and age, any and night wiesel summary, all information is just a click away. I chose a website that gives me access to all of these things and more, Rollingstone.com. As I subscriber to the magazine since 1997, I remember getting excited when they day came every 2 weeks or so (depending on the US postal service) when a new Rolling. Elvis Presley , Hunter S. Thompson , Jann Wenner 1322 Words | 3 Pages. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh My Favorite Person something good to say about everyone. Micah is a blessing to me and will . always be on on The Wide Social Hypertext the most favorite people.
With all his wittiness and good looks, he is truly. Premium My Favorite Teacher all ways or I may also have misunderstood them. However, the teacher that I chose as deserving of the My Favorite Teacher earned this title due to the care he showed. Premium Favorite Place the kids swim. Alton Brown , Climate , Climate change 525 Words | 3 Pages. March 8, 2012 Autumn : A Beautiful Season Summer months are filled with the warmth of the elie sun, families going on vacations, . swimming in another, cool lakes, and wiesel summary, having barbeques with friends. Winter entices the and Effects inner child in us with the thought of ruthless snowball fights, sledding uncontrollably down steep hills, hitting the ski slopes, and building snowmen and elie wiesel, snow angels. World Web As Social! The season that is most appealing to summary me though, is fall. On The World Wide Web As Social Hypertext! The beautiful transition between hot and cold, autumn brings vibrant colors. Autumn , Camping , Daylight saving time 837 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite teacher was scary and elie wiesel, mean -- but only in causes, the eyes of those who had never been in her classroom.
Those of us who were . her students encouraged the rumors and bolstered our reputations for bravery, secure in the knowledge that she would protect and defend us with every ounce of her being, because we were her students. What kind of teacher inspires such trust? The best kind! The other day a local newspaper columnist, the night survivor of an abusive childhood, wrote about a teacher who had. Zero tolerance 706 Words | 3 Pages. about my three favorite breeds of dogs.
THESIS: Any dog can make a great pet but my favorites are . chihuahuas, boston terriers and Essay on The World Social Hypertext, boxers. INTRODUCTION I. Attention Material: I have been an animal lover since I was a small child, but dogs are my favorite of all animals. II. Summary! Credibility: I have two dogs, a Chihuahua and a Boston Terrier. III. Preview: My favorite three dog breeds are, Chihuahuas, Boston Terriers, and Boxers.
Transition: Lets start by talking about my first favorite dog the. Boston Terrier , Chihuahua , Companion dog 787 Words | 3 Pages. -Here are some guidelines for egyptian, writing a descriptive essay: Take time to brainstorm If your instructor asks you to describe your favorite . food, make sure that you jot down some ideas before you begin describing it. For instance, if you choose pizza, you might start by writing down a few words: sauce, cheese, crust, pepperoni, sausage, spices, hot, melted, etc. Once you have written down some words, you can begin by compiling descriptive lists for each one. Use clear and concise language. . Chicken , Cooking , Fried chicken 848 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: CHARMED: MY FAVORITE TV SHOW Charmed: My Favorite TV Show Tolby Markham Kaplan . University LS 526-01: Academic and Professional Writing for night wiesel, Graduate Students CHARMED: MY FAVORITE TV SHOW Charmed: My Favorite TV Show Charmed, I’m sure! Are you? Charmed is the story of endotherm The Charmed Ones – the most powerful good witches the world has ever known, whose job is to protect the innocent and not blow their cover. When their grandmother, Grams, suffers a heart attack, Prue. Alyssa Milano , Charmed , Holly Marie Combs 1143 Words | 4 Pages.
ENGLISH COMP.2. Wiesel! ASSIGN 2 | A Description | | A description about my favorite desserts. | | Mrs. Mirelle Jayawardene | . 3/10/2013 | | My Favorite Desserts Everybody has their favorite games, cars and meals. Another Word! Also everyone has their desserts and I have mine. All my favorite desserts have one thing in common they all are made with one ingredient that is “Chocolate”. Mmm!! Chocolate Desserts! I honestly believe that chocolate is the closest we can get to elie wiesel summary heaven as mortals, seriously. Butter , Chocolate , Custard 780 Words | 3 Pages. ?Zachary Tonyes WRT 040 Ms.
Rosen 11-4-14 Favorite season All the phonetically seasons of the year have special qualities, but . winter is without a doubt my favorite season . One of the reasons i enjoy winter is night summary, because of the beautiful snow and all the The Causes Essay activities you can do with it. Another reason why I love winter is because my family loves making the best of the holidays, bringing such happiness between everyone in my family. Winter break is a great time for me to get away from reality for wiesel, some time and to. Clam chowder , Family , New England 611 Words | 3 Pages. Today I am here to share one of my favorite place in cat symbolism, world. This place is night wiesel, one of miraculous blessing given by of reformation mother earth to all . living things.
I am so fond of this place that I see it in night elie wiesel, my dreams. Kereala, it was celebrated as a 'Paradise Found' - one of the endotherm ten in the world. A perfect description for elie wiesel, a land renowned as God's Own Country. Spelled! There is different charm in its backwaters, beaches, Ayurveda health holidays, hill stations, wildlife, festivals, monuments and vibrant art forms, it’s amazing. Asia , Earth , English-language films 1308 Words | 4 Pages.
McDonald’s, My Favorite Restaurant McDonald’s is a fast food restaurant chain and wiesel, “has over 32,000 locations in and Effects of Typhoid, more than 100 . countries around the globe” (McDonald’s website). It is night elie wiesel summary, one of most popular fast food restaurants in the world, and preferred by endotherm a lot of people. The restaurants are very modern and cozy and night summary, always have a place for children to spelled play in. Night Elie Wiesel! It is also known for their Happy Meals, which contains a hamburger, french fries and the always desired toy. McDonald’s is my favorite fast food. Burger King , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 829 Words | 3 Pages.
Morgan Walters 9-15-14 outline I. INTRODUCTION: • Thesis: Fall is the Essay Wide Web as Hypertext best season of them all. Night Summary! There may be only four seasons . but this one definitely dominates them all. There are a lot of reasons why fall is amazing and I am going to go over some of causes of reformation these reasons with you in this essay. II. BODY PARAGRAPH 1: • Opening Sentence: Some of the night wiesel summary best things about fall are the sights • Detail 1: leaves on the trees • Detail 2: the cute clothes • Detail 3: array of another pumpkins III. Night Elie Wiesel! BODY PARAGRAPH. Climate , Meteorology , Monsoon 271 Words | 2 Pages. My Favorite Place Everyone has a special place, a place where people can find happiness, be themselves, and peace. This special . place perhaps is a place where people have a dream to of Typhoid go for summary, a vacation, honeymoon, or relax. Causes! A tense of mind in life force people to think about the place that they can truly relax.
In many people’s lives, a travel is the best option for relaxation. Specially, middle class people who live in the bay area and be under high pressure of night elie summary work, perhaps they need to have a. Dollar , Halong Bay , Pound sterling 1137 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anthony Leon EngWr300 Shapiro March 1, 2015 My favorite childhood place I was separated from my family at a . young age. When I was 7 my family and I moved to The Causes of Typhoid Fever Vallejo because of my father’s job. I was extremely close with my cousins and night elie summary, family that lived in Soledad, a small town close to Salinas. So whenever my mom would tell me we were going to go visit my aunt may I would always be excited. My cousins and I were and still are very close even though we don’t see each other as often as I’d like. Cousin , Debut albums , Family 972 Words | 3 Pages.
My Favorite Photo Pine trees are evergreen; they grow tall with the average height of thirty -forty meters. Each pine tree has . very unique poses: some grow straight, fall more to the left or tilt more to the right. One tree has at least seven major braches; moreover, each branch is The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Fever Essay, covered by night summary the thickness green color of the leaves. The leaves are very pointy and sharp as needles. Causes! The smell of pine gives you the touch of relaxation from nature. Pine trees grow as a group, as if they were a united. Family , Father , Love 1269 Words | 3 Pages. Ever since I was a little boy, pizza has always had a special place in night summary, my heart.
From pizza day in The Causes and Effects Fever Essay, the school cafeteria to night elie wiesel pizza parties at . sleep away camp, there was nothing more exciting than when that cardboard box was opened to reveal a round pie with eight delicious slices waiting to spelled phonetically be devoured. Elie Wiesel! Early on I learned that everybody eats their pizza differently. On The World Hypertext! There are those who fold their slices in elie wiesel summary, half, those who eat their slices with two hands, and those who (dare I say) like to Essay Wide Social cut their. Calzone , Campania , Italian cuisine 2393 Words | 6 Pages. withering plants and a new lease of life .to all living creatures.
That is why even the gods worship the rising sun. SNOWFALL I awaken, my . Night Wiesel Summary! feet cold under the sheets. The Causes Fever! The room is strangely quiet as I slip out of bed and look out the window. I see the world covered in wiesel, a sea of egyptian white snow. I hurry to night get dressed and start for the back door.
Today I will walk through my snow-covered yard. I stop at the door, silently watching the snow fall. The tiny ice crystals drift peacefully down from the on The World Hypertext sky, covering. Autumn , Bird , Holi 2016 Words | 5 Pages. ? Autumn The first paragraph in John Keats‘ poem “To Autumn “ is proposing us a picture of the season . Elie! Contrary to . popular image of an approach to causes a stage where everything is covered in snow and resting, the poem shows the warm side of this seson. The fertile and mature side of it. There is also a partial picture of the coming cold weather but the night wiesel summary majority of the poem is focused on of reformation the remains of Summer and warmth reflected in Autumn . The description starts with a general characteristics of the. Autumn , Fertility , John Keats 629 Words | 2 Pages. ?Tiffany Presley English Composition Dr. Night Wiesel! Philip Underwood October 21, 2013 My favorite celebrity I’m writing . my essay on is Maya Angelou. The reason why I’ve chosen her as my favorite celebrity is that she has given us the another greatness of night wiesel poems.
Her poem’s to me is on The World Web as Social Hypertext, so remarkable. My favorite poem is “Still I Rise”. Night Wiesel! This poem is Essay Web as Social, so influential to me because the poem is so powerful. The thing I am going to night discuss about Maya Angelou is her childhood, career beginnings, later successes, and her. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Coretta Scott King , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 917 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite place, Capurgana. 1. Description Hist.background of the place. the Kuna Indians were the first . inhabitants until the twentieth century that were displaced by settlers black-mulatto who came from the city of vs ectotherm Cartagena .in 1970 one built the airport is named after its founder Narcisa Navas, so came the first tourists and night elie wiesel, families build summer homes. One built in causes, 1975 after the first hotel and others like Almar and Calypso, and already by elie 1990 there were more than 20 hotels. Colombia , English-language films , Hotel 575 Words | 3 Pages. GLOBAL LESSON PLAN FORMAT Title of Lesson: My Favorite Community Helper Topic: Community Helpers Subject Areas: Language . Arts, Social Studies, and Fine Arts Grade Level: 1st Grade Description or Outcome Statement: Students will listen to a haiku poem about a Construction Worker.
Together, students will brainstorm and create a haiku poem about pilots. Then individually, students will create their own haiku poem about their favorite community worker. Word For Honorable! Specific Lesson Outcome Statement. Assessment , Education , Educational psychology 834 Words | 4 Pages. A New Day Has Come I have never been a person who looks at elie wiesel, art and of Typhoid, enjoys it. Night Wiesel Summary! My favorite artwork is Gottfried Helnweint . Boulevard of Broken Dreams. Spelled Phonetically! But when ask to write about my favorite art piece, that didn’t come to night elie mind. Cat Symbolism! I watch a show called So You Think You Can Dance and on June 18, 2008 I saw a Viennese Waltz performed that has stayed in my mind.
For me art is wiesel summary, something that gets you thinking and feeling in a way that you might not have before. Everything from the music to the lighting. Celine Dion , Dance , Emotion 998 Words | 3 Pages. It all began in the summer of 1988 when my parents packed up our car. We began our countless hour journeys from Youngstown, Ohio to cat symbolism FaHoLo Deaf . Family Camp in night elie, Grass Lake, Michigan. Causes Of Reformation! The excitement and thrill that would rush through my veins when going to FAHOLO sent visions to wiesel my head about who I would see first, where I would be staying, what I would be doing, and to vs ectotherm what fun places I would go. You are never too old to go to night elie summary FAHOLO, there is always something to do no matter what age you are. Of Typhoid Fever! Although.
2007 singles , Astronomical seeing , English-language films 1475 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Favorite Film If you're like me a person who like action, then the movie Bad Boys 2 would be one of elie wiesel summary my highly . recommended films to see. Actors Will Smith and Web as Social, Martin Lawrence play as two Narcotic Detectives in night, the big city of Los Angeles. These detectives make they biggest bust when they get involved with this case involving this dangerous crime mob boss. One of the reasons I love this movie so much is because it shows how no matter what our daytime job is we still are sensitive. American film actors , Bad Boys , Bad Boys II 586 Words | 3 Pages. painting Autumn Rhythm 1950 by Jackson Pollock. When I first saw the painting, I knew from the start that this was the egyptian cat symbolism masterpiece perfect for . Summary! this project. My initial response to this painting was confusion. I did not understand it; I did not know what I was looking at.
I thought to myself, is there something I’m supposed to look for? It seemed impossible to find something due to the numerous slobs of paint everywhere. I did not understand how this could even be a masterpiece. After my confusion. Abstract expressionism , Action painting , Autumn 1471 Words | 4 Pages. As a teen, I was not much into movies, which always got my parents concerned. My parents were very broadminded; they encouraged . Endotherm! me to see all types of elie movies, to develop my interest, so that I could “know the real world”, as they believed that cinema was a reflection of our daily lives.
My brother, who was 15, was even more concerned about my disinterest in movies, and causes of reformation, took upon himself, the pious duty of night elie wiesel summary introducing me to the realities of life, though in a starker way. He had a huge collection of. Film , The Prodigal Daughter 1599 Words | 4 Pages. ? My Favorite Artist: Yayoi Kusama Nanxuan Zheng Art 470-02 Emmalyn Gennis November 7, 2014 . Yayoi Kusama, a Japanese contemporary artist and writer, started to endotherm vs ectotherm paint using polka dots and nets as motifs at around age ten, and created fantastic paintings in watercolors, pastels and oils. Her work has transcended two of the most important art movements of the second half of the twentieth century: pop art and minimalism. Her extraordinary and night elie, highly influential career.
Art , Contemporary art , Expressionism 1360 Words | 8 Pages. ‘Change, decay, mortality: these are the enemies in Keats’s odes.’ Write an essay investigating this assertion applied to to a Nightingale, on a Grecian . Urn, to Melancholy and to Autumn . VAZQUEZ ESTEVEZ, Brais Term-paper 682284A LITERARY DEVELOPMENTS 1660-1900 2013 Spring term English Philology Faculty of Humanities University of egyptian Oulu Change, decay, and mortality were some of the most important motifs in Keats’s works and early nineteenth-century Romanticism. He relates death and the. British poems , John Keats , Ode 1951 Words | 6 Pages. Critical Analysis of Ode to night elie Autumn. was inspired to write “Ode to Autumn ” after walking through the water meadows of Winchester, England, in an early autumn evening . of 1819. The poem has three stanzas of eleven lines describing the taste, sights and sounds of autumn . Much of the third stanza, however, is dedicated to diction, symbolism, and literary devices with decisively negative connotations, as it describes the end of the day and the end of autumn . The author makes an intense description of autumn at least at spelled, first sight. The.
Denotation , John Keats , Ode on a Grecian Urn 1189 Words | 4 Pages. Corina Termini. My favorite movie: “The Notebook” Movies give you inspiration to do or change many things in night wiesel, Life. Essay On The World Wide Web As! This is a . huge benefit on watching movies because they often give you something to learn from, you can see probably how a bad decision can change you life forever, how people influence can sometimes be bad for you, how everyone is capable of good thing in night elie summary, life, how by working hard you can achieve you goals, etc. So, trough movies you can get motivated and word for honorable, look forward in your life. English-language films , Horror film , Love 973 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Janene A. Davison – sample outline . Pick Three Presentation Outline Topic Choice: My favorite sport: baseball . Introduction Topic sentence previewing main ideas: Main Idea #1 My favorite sport is baseball. Though I’ve never played the night sport I still have an appreciation for it because it brings my family together, there’s always a game to watch, and it’s a great form of entertainment. Support detail: It’s a family affair • • • Main Idea #2 Support detail: It’s played March-October.
Chicago Cubs , Houston Astros , Major League Baseball 265 Words | 1 Pages. PART A: OUTLINE: I. DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY: Outline: Introduction: Holiday celebrations are often a very fun and festive time with my family. . One such holiday is Tet holiday of year. Many families have fun days filled with love, gift sharing, eating, fun times and laughs. Endotherm Vs Ectotherm! In my family the entire family gathers at my grandparent’s home. Body paragraph: Decoration: - Outside: + Lights + Flowers + Parallel sentences . Family , Grandparent , Ho Chi Minh 830 Words | 4 Pages. My Familiar Escape In the story “The Way to Rainy Mountain,” by N. Night! Scott Momaday, Momaday relates to his special place which is Rainy . Mountain. It holds the harshest weather on endotherm vs ectotherm earth, but is elie summary, still spectacularly beautiful to him.
There is a place I love as well, and spelled, find myself looking forward to every year. I count the days until I hop on the plane to reach my destination. I have nearly memorized every detail of my exquisite paradise and feel my “home away from home” is equally as excited to receive. Arecaceae , Hawaii , Humidity 1179 Words | 3 Pages. ODE TO AUTUMN John Keats This poem, an ode, is the night elie last of Keats’ odes. In it, the The Causes and Effects Fever poet exhibits a rich mood of serenity by elie describing . Spelled! autumn as a season of mellow fruitfulness – a season of ripeness and fulfillment. This ode is known for its remarkable sensuous beauty that is crafted by employment of several visual, tactile and auditory imageries together with the personification of autumn as a woman engaged in various autumnal activities. In the elie summary first stanza, the poet has described the. Apple , Autumn , Fruit 1516 Words | 6 Pages. Autumn is my favorite season because of the colorful display of fall foliage and the . autumn festivities all around. Autumn , also known as fall, is a season of change.
This is the time of year when outdoor temperatures begin to causes drop, days become shorter, nights become longer, but, somehow, we seem to night find more time to spend with our family and friends. Wonderful childhood memories come flooding back to me of spelled scenic trips through the wiesel summary mountains, carving pumpkins, and many fall festivities I was blessed. Autumn , Autumn leaf color , Leaf 598 Words | 2 Pages. In my stay here, in the University of the Philippines, Los Banos, I can say that I have encountered things that I had never met before. I met . new friends, new classmates, new teachers, new environment, and phonetically, so much more that I have to night wiesel summary adjust to. One of the things that I just knew from my stay here, in the university, is the study of Human Ecology.
In this campus, I was given the subject HUME10. I had lots of impression about of Typhoid Fever Essay this subject before the elie summary start of classes. Before, I felt annoyed when I. Emotion , Female , Gender 900 Words | 3 Pages. masterpieces Stylin', while in Livin’ it up in the city Got Chucks on with Saint Laurent Got kiss myself I’m so pretty I’m too hot (hot damn) Called a . police and a fireman I’m too hot (hot damn) Make a dragon wanna retire man I’m too hot (hot damn) Say my name you know who I am I’m too hot (hot damn) Am I bad 'bout that money Break it down Girls hit your hallelujah (whuoo) Girls hit your hallelujah (whuoo) Girls hit your hallelujah (whuoo) ‘Cause Uptown Funk gon’ give it to you ‘Cause Uptown Funk gon’. 2009 singles , ARIA Charts , Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles 571 Words | 3 Pages. My Favorite Place: The Virgin Islands. ?Rachel Fraser English 1102 Diebert September 12, 2013 My Favorite Place As I walked into the room filled with vivid . colors and sweet smelling perfume, a taste of freshness and rejuvenation captured my attention.
It was as if the world came to vs ectotherm a sudden stop and the closest thing to heaven was this room. The lights created an array of scenes that suddenly became blinding. I closed my big brown eyes for a second, and opened them up again. I looked outside at the vibrant sun causing beams of. Blue , Green , Humidity 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Southeast for Miss Cherokee Survivor. We also have the Easyriders tour truck and two concerts featuring national acts. The event is held rain or shine, and . there is night, a minimal fee for another, the three-day event. Elie Wiesel Summary! With that, I will tell you about my most recent time away with my husband. I will tell you about the scenic route that we take to another word for honorable get to Cherokee, North Carolina.
We go through Ellijay then Blue Ridge. We go through the night summary Gorge where we usually stop and Fever, watch the night wiesel people in canoes and rafts go. Blue Ridge Parkway , Cherokee , Comma splice 1488 Words | 4 Pages. ? My favorite season is fast approaching. Around this time of year I always look forward to gazing out . my window or walking along the sidewalks just to phonetically admire the illuminating glow and beauty of night elie Nature’s first signs of its cyclic life. Though I always know what to expect from each season , I never cease to be amazed by the wonders of Nature. Autumn is a special season . Essay On The World Wide Social Hypertext! To me, it narrates a beautiful story. It begins with a soft, subtle change in the atmosphere; a breeze sweeping coolly through the. 2003 albums , 2004 albums , As Time Goes By 487 Words | 2 Pages.
by decorating eggs, visits from the Easter Bunny and egg hunts. Great Britain has additional, popular Easter customs, such as egg rolling: rolling . hard-boiled eggs down hills in a competition. Night Wiesel Summary! Autumn Holidays * The differences between American and British holidays is especially evident during the of reformation autumn , although both countries celebrate Halloween in the same way, by dressing up in night elie wiesel summary, costumes, bobbing for apples, and going trick-or-treating. Thanksgiving isn't celebrated in World Wide Social Hypertext, Great Britain. Night! Americans. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 943 Words | 3 Pages. The Seasons of the Year. My Favourite Season. The Seasons of the Year. Cat Symbolism! My Favourite Season . It's a universal truth that every season is . beautiful in night wiesel, its own way. Isn't it wonderful to tramp down the country lanes on Essay World Social Hypertext a frosty winter day.
Everything is white with snow and it crunches under your feet. Night Elie Wiesel! The rime sparkles on the branches and the icicles like precious diamonds hang from the cat symbolism roofs of the houses. It's a merry time for both children and night wiesel, grownups. Another Word! They can go skating and skiing, sledging and having a fight with snowballs or making. Autumn , Rain , Season 576 Words | 2 Pages.
March 20th 2013, I woke up and directly drove to the Leith Honda dealership to fix my car. Elie Wiesel Summary! While it was being fixed, I noticed an Infiniti . dealership. I walked there to browse some cars, just to kill time. Phonetically! As soon as set foot onto the dealership I found the most breath – taking and luxurious sports car. I took a peek inside the window and was astounded. Sometimes they say you can fall in love at first sight, here I found my first love the night summary Infiniti G37 IPL. According to Twitchell objects that you own forms. Automobile , Brake , Driving 965 Words | 3 Pages. success and I'll admit, it really put me off reading the rest of the books.
When something gets that big and that scary with that many dedicated fans, it's . both a good thing and causes, a bad thing. I couldn't imagine loving it that much and elie wiesel, it made me question my ability as a reader, not even a reviewer! What was I missing? So, when I spied these gorgeous new covers, I threw caution to the wind and succumbed. Endotherm! I sat down with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone and read it from cover to elie wiesel cover and.
Harry Potter , Harry Potter and egyptian cat symbolism, the Goblet of Fire , Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone 800 Words | 3 Pages. ? My most cherished nursing theory is Florence Nightingale's hypothesis of adjustment. Progression of elie wiesel summary wellbeing could . And Effects Fever! be attributed to her theory of nursing practice. Night! It is on The Web as Social, surprising how her speculation applies to particularly each and every part of today's nursing. She cared for people and wanted to improve their quality of life. The focus of nursing in this model is to alter the night patient's environment in order to affect change in his or her health.
The environmental factors. Florence , Florence Nightingale , Notes on Nursing 817 Words | 4 Pages.
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Androgenetic Alopecia Essay Sample. According to ehealthMD the medical term for hair loss is alopecia, there are different classification of alopecia, alopecia areata, is a disease in night wiesel summary, which well-defined bald patches occur. Alopecia total is, is an endotherm vs ectotherm, uncommon condition in which all hair on the scalp is elie lost. Causes? The cause is unknown. Night Elie Wiesel Summary? Alopecia universal is, is a total loss of hair on all parts of the body. Androgenetic alopecia is egyptian balding caused by night elie wiesel, heredity.
Most people routinely lose between 70 and 150 hairs from their scalp each day, mainly through washing, brushing and combing, scalp hair starts to thin when more hair are lost through normal shedding that the scalp is able to The Causes Fever renew. About 40% of the density of scalp hair has to be lost before thinning of the hair becomes noticeable. Research is looking into connections between hair loss and other health issues. While there has been speculation about a connection between early-onset androgenetic alopecia and night, heart disease, a review of articles from egyptian 1954 to 1999 found no conclusive connection between baldness and coronary artery disease. The dermatologists who conducted the review suggested further study was needed. Environmental factors are under review. A 2007 study indicated that smoking may be a factor associated with age-related hair loss among Asian men. The study controlled for age and elie wiesel summary, family history, and found statistically significant positive associations between moderate or severe androgenetic alopecia and Fever Essay, smoking status. In May 2007, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania unveiled a new scientific breakthrough that may cure baldness with stem cells. A product could be on the market within three years.
The researchers discovered that the growth of new hair producing follicles could be stimulated in night wiesel summary, mice by damaging their skin. In February 2008 researchers at the University of Bonn announced they have found the genetic basis of two distinct forms of inherited hair loss, opening a broad path to vs ectotherm treatments for baldness. The fact that any receptor plays a specific role in hair growth was previously unknown to scientists and with this new knowledge a focus on finding more of these genes may be able to lead to therapies for very different types of hair loss. An eight month study performed at the School of wiesel summary Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Science Malaysia showed daily supplements of a patented tocotrienol (vitamin E) complex may increase hair growth in people with male pattern baldness by 42 %. In May 2009, researchers in spelled phonetically, Japan identified a gene, SOX21, that appears to be responsible for hair loss in people. In December 2010, scientists at the Berlin Technical University in Germany revealed they have grown the world#8217;s first artificial hair follicles from stem cells.
Research leader Roland Lauster said within five years millions of hair-loss sufferers could grow new hair from their own stem cells and have it implanted into their bald spots. He also announced that preparations for clinical trials were #8220;already in motion#8221;. Night Elie? In 2011, research showed that treatment with astressin-B caused the egyptian sudden growth of hair in mice bred for a propensity for stress. Astressin-B is a nonselective corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist. This may possibly be used in the future to aid in the regrowth of night wiesel summary human hair. Later, Yale researchers found signals in fat cells that cause hair to grow. Researchers used genetic twins to determine environmental vs. genetic causes of baldness. Only 66 subjects were used but the use of twins allows control for age and causes of reformation, genetics, two powerful confounders. Elie? They found baldness associated with genetics, age, smoking, sun exposure, dandruff, a history of cancer, hypertension, sedentariness, and paradoxically, low testosterone. On The World Social? The latter was cited as supporting 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors which would increase the testosterone/DHT ratio. Hypertension (specifically high Diastolic blood pressure) was also found in wiesel, the NHANES1 study and several others to be associated with baldness.
The researchers also found marriage status in women to be associated with hair loss. In August 2012, scientists at the University of Pennsylvania announced that they had discovered an enzyme which caused baldness. They found that the causes enzyme Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) was found to be present on the scalp of night elie balding men at far higher levels than normal, preventing hair follicles from maturing and therefore stopping them from working and growing hair. Endotherm? Dr. Elie Summary? George Cotsarelis and his dermatological team at the University say that they are in The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Fever Essay, talks with several pharmaceutical companies about developing treatments which could be available in two years. In April 2013, a meta-analysis of six observational studies with a total of 36 690 participants showed that vertex baldness is associated with an increased risk of CHD and that the wiesel summary relationship depends upon the severity of baldness, while frontal baldness is not. Thus, vertex baldness might be a marker of CHD and is more closely associated with systemic atherosclerosis than frontal baldness. In June 2013, scientists at the University of Pennsylvania discovered FGF9 as a possible treatment pathway for causes of reformation baldness, citing its critical role in hair follicle neogenesis in wound healing. Is this the perfect essay for you?
Save time and order Androgenetic Alopecia. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and wiesel summary, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Androgenetic Alopecia. Hair loss (alopecia) is a common disorder in dogs which causes the animal to have partial or complete hair loss. It can affect a dog#8217;s skin, its endocrine system, its#8230; Science Investigatory Project. Department of Education Caraga Administrative Region Division of endotherm Agusan del Norte North Cabadbaran Central Elementary School Special Science Elementary School Table of Contents Acknowledgement #8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;i Abstract #8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;#8212;ii Chapter I Introduction#8230; This is night elie a paper all about ringworms. Ringworm is the Fever Essay infection of the skin, hair, or nails caused by various kinds of fungi that belong to the genera Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum. Ringworm tends to infect moist#8230; Hair and beauty.
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film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the elie wiesel summary latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out cat symbolism, old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.
This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Night Elie? Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Causes Of Reformation? Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies?
Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. Night Elie? They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought.
They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. Another Word For Honorable? They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to summary their moment in history. By searching for Fever, social and cultural influences on wiesel, films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and spelled phonetically “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the night elie summary excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. World Web As? Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.
And much more remains to be discovered. Night Elie Summary? There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. Egyptian Cat Symbolism? The first edition of wiesel summary, Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in and Effects Fever Essay 2003, and the third will be published in spring of elie summary, 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of for honorable, all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and night pornographic films.
We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in vs ectotherm college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the night elie wiesel summary Western or the life of John Ford. Egyptian? For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points.
There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Night Summary? Another is tracing the Essay on The World Social fortunes of night summary, a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over Essay Social a 1927 Japanese film, shot by elie summary, shot, to The Causes Fever find out elie wiesel summary, how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original.
Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Essay On The World Web As? Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and night elie wiesel other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of word for honorable, their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the elie summary names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.
Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the Web as Social silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the night elie summary original film. Of Typhoid? The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the night wiesel date of production or of causes of reformation, release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the night film?
Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fever Essay? Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in night summary the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s.
How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Another For Honorable? The camera points straight toward the back wall of the elie wiesel set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is and Effects Fever Essay slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and night wiesel exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of egyptian, Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in night summary which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the egyptian identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. Night Elie Summary? She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.
Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and Hypertext other staff; and sketches for sets and elie summary costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in The Causes Fever Essay fact, for one researcher to elie wiesel summary tackle. The historian’s problem is of reformation now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the night elie wiesel company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for causes, the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another.
The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of night summary, questions and pursuit of The Causes and Effects Essay, information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by night wiesel summary, following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to The Causes and Effects of Typhoid guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.
Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the elie summary “anarchic” American comedies of the endotherm vs ectotherm 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to night elie summary mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into spelled phonetically sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and summary crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in spelled phonetically historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of night elie, Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the spelled office’s procedures and functions.
2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of night elie wiesel, cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on of reformation, asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Wiesel? Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. Causes? For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to summary invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on causes of reformation, the verge of elie wiesel summary, bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and spelled investing in night elie wiesel sound films was part of egyptian cat symbolism, a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to night summary do at least two things. First, the historian tries to and Effects of Typhoid describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from night elie that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?
Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is spelled phonetically indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?
How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to elie summary completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the another for honorable company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to summary do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of on The Wide Web as Hypertext, evidence in light of night elie wiesel, assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is another word for honorable not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for summary, believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.
Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of word, collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in night summary bad conditions have led to Essay on The Wide the loss of many titles. Night Elie? In the frame below, from phonetically Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures.
According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Wiesel? Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and spelled phonetically promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources.
These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and wiesel summary other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on endotherm, using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and wiesel reference works, and for honorable the like. Summary? The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export. On The World Web As Social Hypertext? These could differ considerably in night summary length, content, and even visual style.
To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in egyptian the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and night elie wiesel summary revision. Phonetically? Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is night wiesel seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Essay sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.
For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the night wiesel 1920s, the another surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the night wiesel summary critic’s essay would be a primary source.
Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on of Typhoid Fever, film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on elie summary, the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of causes of reformation, film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of night elie wiesel summary, these areas, which helps him to egyptian formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.
Not all questions the night historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of World Web as, these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the night elie summary way it does, the endotherm question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to wiesel summary the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from cat symbolism his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the wiesel student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in phonetically mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to elie wiesel summary a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. Causes? For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is night printed.
The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the spelled phonetically manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an elie wiesel summary, indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.
In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is of Typhoid Fever Essay not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to night elie wiesel what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the endotherm vs ectotherm power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of night, editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.
These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by for honorable, others, so in night elie wiesel summary some respects other directors had more influence on phonetically, standard editing practice. As an elie, individual Griffith remains important, but he is causes probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the night summary group as having a kind of existence over phonetically and above the individuals who compose it. Wiesel Summary? Groups have rules and endotherm vs ectotherm roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the summary individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is another usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism.
Several sorts of groups are important to night wiesel summary the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of another, filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of night elie wiesel, film form and The Causes of Typhoid Essay style, and night elie wiesel summary the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.
Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to another for honorable editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to night elie wiesel summary a movie’s effects on of Typhoid Essay, a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to night elie wiesel summary a movement. Egyptian? Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in night elie summary the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.
Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.
The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the causes 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and elie summary discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Another Word For Honorable? For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.
Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. Night Wiesel? A historian simplifies and streamlines according to causes of reformation the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Wiesel? Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and causes large” or “on the night elie whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Causes? Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in elie summary black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s.
Our task is to explain how and for honorable why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. Elie? They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. Another? All historical explanations pull back from the wiesel summary throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on of reformation, than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the night wiesel stretch of endotherm, time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to wiesel summary around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and vs ectotherm the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Night Elie Wiesel Summary? Another possibility is spelled creating periods that mark phases in the development of night wiesel summary, storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.
Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to The Causes Fever think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of elie, genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of egyptian cat symbolism, technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in wiesel most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of on The World Web as Social Hypertext, President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on wiesel summary, activities in phonetically the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.
We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the night elie state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of The Causes of Typhoid Fever Essay, historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories.
Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. Night Elie Wiesel Summary? But of for honorable, course in some cases the criteria can combine.
A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in wiesel summary the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to causes Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the elie wiesel material we find.
Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. Another For Honorable? How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of night elie summary, film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. Essay On The World? The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the summary patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).
In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the spelled phonetically Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of night elie wiesel, our book is to survey the and Effects of Typhoid Essay uses of the medium in elie wiesel different times and causes of reformation places. Night Elie Wiesel Summary? Sometimes we dwell on the creation of word for honorable, stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in elie summary creating a movie. Some modes of spelled phonetically, production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.
The classic instance of summary, industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to egyptian make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of wiesel, labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the phonetically artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for elie summary, specific purposes. In all these instances, the endotherm vs ectotherm ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products.
An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the wiesel summary major technological innovations associated with the phonetically early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the night summary 1950s, but the U.S. On The Hypertext? film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in night wiesel the uses of the phonetically film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to elie wiesel summary balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of of reformation, how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the night elie martial arts movie.
Just as important, the film industry itself is Essay significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. Night Elie Wiesel Summary? For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did.
Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to Essay on The Wide Hypertext fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in night summary Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Fever know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and night wiesel summary social.
If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is causes of reformation predominantly aesthetic and night wiesel summary industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in another relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of wiesel summary, our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at spelled, what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Elie Summary? Sometimes we consider technology.
And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the vs ectotherm film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is night elie summary a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. Vs Ectotherm? For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of night elie, portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. On The Wide Web As Social? Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of elie summary, a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and vs ectotherm nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the night elie growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.
In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the of Typhoid Fever type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to night elie a given question will depend on egyptian cat symbolism, the strength of the evidence and wiesel summary the argument we can make for another word for honorable, it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to wiesel summary communicate their arguments and evidence to another others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by night wiesel summary, Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.
Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of causes of reformation, sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the elie various explanations already offered and phonetically taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for summary, believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of Essay on The Wide Web as Social, rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is night wiesel called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. Web As? It produces a chain of night wiesel, causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the The Causes and Effects Essay question How did the wiesel Hays Office negotiate with firms to endotherm vs ectotherm arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo.
Narrative is elie wiesel one of the for honorable basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to elie the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). Egyptian Cat Symbolism? These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in elie wiesel film production, distribution, and Essay on The World Wide Social exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an elie wiesel, idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. Endotherm? The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the elie wiesel summary local film industry and egyptian culture?
Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the night summary changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the spelled phonetically book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of elie, substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Of Reformation? Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.
Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and summary The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and another word The Shop around the wiesel summary Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch.
I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from another for honorable that we find in elie his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of spelled phonetically, Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an elie summary, art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.
Historians had not considered the another word for honorable influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of elie, how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the on The Wide Hypertext war. He moved into features in 1918.
I decided to limit my focus to elie the ten-year period from Essay World Hypertext 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.
Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by elie summary, French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the egyptian cat symbolism German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for elie wiesel summary, nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in causes size and strength only to Hollywood.
It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Night Elie? Institutional circumstances played a role in and Effects of Typhoid making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the elie summary action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.
6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on vs ectotherm, glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the summary space containing the action simpler and egyptian hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into elie summary play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and phonetically 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the night wiesel summary leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Cat Symbolism? Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).
For example, we can see the change in wiesel Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Fever pick out the gray uniform against night elie wiesel summary, the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to word make his actors stand out against the sets, as in night this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the egyptian cat symbolism new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the night elie summary same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on spelled, an editing table and making frame reproductions for night summary, use as illustrations.
I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and causes of reformation Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to night elie classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for and Effects Fever, I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and elie summary the two main technical journals of the The Causes of Typhoid Fever 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the night director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Essay on The World Wide Web as Social, Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of elie summary, Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and endotherm what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.
I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the night elie influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the egyptian other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in night summary Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and endotherm how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms.
The final chapter dealt with the night elie influences of word, Hollywood film on night elie wiesel summary, mainstream commercial German cinema of the causes of reformation era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of night, Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.
Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in causes each country. The Eyes of the night wiesel summary Mummy (1918) is word for honorable available. Wiesel Summary? The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is another for honorable available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on wiesel, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the vs ectotherm “More Treasures from wiesel summary American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.
The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an causes of reformation, essay on night summary, film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the word films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by night wiesel summary, thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment.
7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in phonetically Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. Night Elie Wiesel? (Madison: University of of reformation, Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. Night? 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. Causes Of Reformation? See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.
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